Chapter 54. Vaults in IdM

This chapter describes vaults in Identity Management (IdM). It introduces the following topics:

54.1. Vaults and their benefits

A vault is a useful feature for those Identity Management (IdM) users who want to keep all their sensitive data stored securely but conveniently in one place. This section explains the various types of vaults and their uses, and which vault you should choose based on your requirements.

A vault is a secure location in (IdM) for storing, retrieving, sharing, and recovering a secret. A secret is security-sensitive data, usually authentication credentials, that only a limited group of people or entities can access. For example, secrets include:

  • passwords
  • PINs
  • private SSH keys

A vault is comparable to a password manager. Just like a password manager, a vault typically requires a user to generate and remember one master password to unlock and access any information stored in the vault. However, a user can also decide to have a standard vault. A standard vault does not require the user to enter any password to access the secrets stored in the vault.

Note

The purpose of vaults in IdM is to store authentication credentials that allow you to authenticate to external, non-IdM-related services.

Other important characteristics of the IdM vaults are:

  • Vaults are only accessible to the vault owner and those IdM users that the vault owner selects to be the vault members. In addition, the IdM administrator has access to the vault.
  • If a user does not have sufficient privileges to create a vault, an IdM administrator can create the vault and set the user as its owner.
  • Users and services can access the secrets stored in a vault from any machine enrolled in the IdM domain.
  • One vault can only contain one secret, for example, one file. However, the file itself can contain multiple secrets such as passwords, keytabs or certificates.
Note

Vault is only available from the IdM command line (CLI), not from the IdM Web UI.

54.2. Vault owners, members, and administrators

Identity Management (IdM) distinguishes the following vault user types:

Vault owner

A vault owner is a user or service with basic management privileges on the vault. For example, a vault owner can modify the properties of the vault or add new vault members.

Each vault must have at least one owner. A vault can also have multiple owners.

Vault member
A vault member is a user or service that can access a vault created by another user or service.
Vault administrator

Vault administrators have unrestricted access to all vaults and are allowed to perform all vault operations.

Note

Symmetric and asymmetric vaults are protected with a password or key and apply special access control rules (see Vault types). The administrator must meet these rules to:

  • Access secrets in symmetric and asymmetric vaults.
  • Change or reset the vault password or key.

A vault administrator is any user with the Vault Administrators privilege. In the context of the role-based access control (RBAC) in IdM, a privilege is a group of permissions that you can apply to a role.

Vault User

The vault user represents the user in whose container the vault is located. The Vault user information is displayed in the output of specific commands, such as ipa vault-show:

$ ipa vault-show my_vault
  Vault name: my_vault
  Type: standard
  Owner users: user
  Vault user: user

For details on vault containers and user vaults, see Vault containers.

Additional resources

54.3. Standard, symmetric, and asymmetric vaults

Based on the level of security and access control, IdM classifies vaults into the following types:

Standard vaults
Vault owners and vault members can archive and retrieve the secrets without having to use a password or key.
Symmetric vaults
Secrets in the vault are protected with a symmetric key. Vault owners and members can archive and retrieve the secrets, but they must provide the vault password.
Asymmetric vaults
Secrets in the vault are protected with an asymmetric key. Users archive the secret using a public key and retrieve it using a private key. Vault members can only archive secrets, while vault owners can do both, archive and retrieve secrets.

54.4. User, service, and shared vaults

Based on ownership, IdM classifies vaults into several types. The table below contains information about each type, its owner and use.

Table 54.1. IdM vaults based on ownership

TypeDescriptionOwnerNote

User vault

A private vault for a user

A single user

Any user can own one or more user vaults if allowed by IdM administrator

Service vault

A private vault for a service

A single service

Any service can own one or more user vaults if allowed by IdM administrator

Shared vault

A vault shared by multiple users and services

The vault administrator who created the vault

Users and services can own one or more user vaults if allowed by IdM administrator. The vault administrators other than the one that created the vault also have full access to the vault.

54.5. Vault containers

A vault container is a collection of vaults. The table below lists the default vault containers that Identity Management (IdM) provides.

Table 54.2. Default vault containers in IdM

TypeDescriptionPurpose

User container

A private container for a user

Stores user vaults for a particular user

Service container

A private container for a service

Stores service vaults for a particular service

Shared container

A container for multiple users and services

Stores vaults that can be shared by multiple users or services

IdM creates user and service containers for each user or service automatically when the first private vault for the user or service is created. After the user or service is deleted, IdM removes the container and its contents.

54.6. Basic IdM vault commands

This section describes basic commands you can use to manage Identity Management (IdM) vaults. The table below contains a list of ipa vault-* commands with the explanation of their purpose.

Note

Before running any ipa vault-* command, install the Key Recovery Authority (KRA) certificate system component on one or more of the servers in your IdM domain. For details, see Installing the Key Recovery Authority in IdM.

Table 54.3. Basic IdM vault commands with explanations

CommandPurpose

ipa help vault

Displays conceptual information about IdM vaults and sample vault commands.

ipa vault-add --help, ipa vault-find --help

Adding the --help option to a specific ipa vault-* command displays the options and detailed help available for that command.

ipa vault-show user_vault --user idm_user

When accessing a vault as a vault member, you must specify the vault owner. If you do not specify the vault owner, IdM informs you that it did not find the vault:

[admin@server ~]$ ipa vault-show user_vault
ipa: ERROR: user_vault: vault not found

ipa vault-show shared_vault --shared

When accessing a shared vault, you must specify that the vault you want to access is a shared vault. Otherwise, IdM informs you it did not find the vault:

[admin@server ~]$ ipa vault-show shared_vault
ipa: ERROR: shared_vault: vault not found

54.7. Installing the Key Recovery Authority in IdM

This section describes how you can enable vaults in Identity Management (IdM) by installing the Key Recovery Authority (KRA) Certificate System (CS) component.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in as IdM administrator.
  • You are logged in as root on an IdM client.

Procedure

  • Install the KRA:

    # ipa-kra-install
Note

To make the vault service highly available, install the KRA on two IdM servers or more.