Working with vaults in Identity Management

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8

Storing and managing sensitive data in Identity Management in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8

Red Hat Customer Content Services

Abstract

This documentation collection provides instructions on how to store, retrieve, and share secrets in Identity Management on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.

Making open source more inclusive

Red Hat is committed to replacing problematic language in our code, documentation, and web properties. We are beginning with these four terms: master, slave, blacklist, and whitelist. Because of the enormity of this endeavor, these changes will be implemented gradually over several upcoming releases. For more details, see our CTO Chris Wright’s message.

In Identity Management, planned terminology replacements include:

  • block list replaces blacklist
  • allow list replaces whitelist
  • secondary replaces slave
  • The word master is being replaced with more precise language, depending on the context:

    • IdM server replaces IdM master
    • CA renewal server replaces CA renewal master
    • CRL publisher server replaces CRL master
    • multi-supplier replaces multi-master

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Chapter 1. Vaults in IdM

This chapter describes vaults in Identity Management (IdM). It introduces the following topics:

1.1. Vaults and their benefits

A vault is a useful feature for those Identity Management (IdM) users who want to keep all their sensitive data stored securely but conveniently in one place. This section explains the various types of vaults and their uses, and which vault you should choose based on your requirements.

A vault is a secure location in (IdM) for storing, retrieving, sharing, and recovering a secret. A secret is security-sensitive data, usually authentication credentials, that only a limited group of people or entities can access. For example, secrets include:

  • passwords
  • PINs
  • private SSH keys

A vault is comparable to a password manager. Just like a password manager, a vault typically requires a user to generate and remember one primary password to unlock and access any information stored in the vault. However, a user can also decide to have a standard vault. A standard vault does not require the user to enter any password to access the secrets stored in the vault.

Note

The purpose of vaults in IdM is to store authentication credentials that allow you to authenticate to external, non-IdM-related services.

Other important characteristics of the IdM vaults are:

  • Vaults are only accessible to the vault owner and those IdM users that the vault owner selects to be the vault members. In addition, the IdM administrator has access to the vault.
  • If a user does not have sufficient privileges to create a vault, an IdM administrator can create the vault and set the user as its owner.
  • Users and services can access the secrets stored in a vault from any machine enrolled in the IdM domain.
  • One vault can only contain one secret, for example, one file. However, the file itself can contain multiple secrets such as passwords, keytabs or certificates.
Note

Vault is only available from the IdM command line (CLI), not from the IdM Web UI.

1.2. Vault owners, members, and administrators

Identity Management (IdM) distinguishes the following vault user types:

Vault owner

A vault owner is a user or service with basic management privileges on the vault. For example, a vault owner can modify the properties of the vault or add new vault members.

Each vault must have at least one owner. A vault can also have multiple owners.

Vault member
A vault member is a user or service that can access a vault created by another user or service.
Vault administrator

Vault administrators have unrestricted access to all vaults and are allowed to perform all vault operations.

Note

Symmetric and asymmetric vaults are protected with a password or key and apply special access control rules (see Vault types). The administrator must meet these rules to:

  • Access secrets in symmetric and asymmetric vaults.
  • Change or reset the vault password or key.

A vault administrator is any user with the Vault Administrators privilege. In the context of the role-based access control (RBAC) in IdM, a privilege is a group of permissions that you can apply to a role.

Vault User

The vault user represents the user in whose container the vault is located. The Vault user information is displayed in the output of specific commands, such as ipa vault-show:

$ ipa vault-show my_vault
  Vault name: my_vault
  Type: standard
  Owner users: user
  Vault user: user

For details on vault containers and user vaults, see Vault containers.

Additional resources

1.3. Standard, symmetric, and asymmetric vaults

Based on the level of security and access control, IdM classifies vaults into the following types:

Standard vaults
Vault owners and vault members can archive and retrieve the secrets without having to use a password or key.
Symmetric vaults
Secrets in the vault are protected with a symmetric key. Vault owners and members can archive and retrieve the secrets, but they must provide the vault password.
Asymmetric vaults
Secrets in the vault are protected with an asymmetric key. Users archive the secret using a public key and retrieve it using a private key. Vault members can only archive secrets, while vault owners can do both, archive and retrieve secrets.

1.4. User, service, and shared vaults

Based on ownership, IdM classifies vaults into several types. The table below contains information about each type, its owner and use.

Table 1.1. IdM vaults based on ownership

TypeDescriptionOwnerNote

User vault

A private vault for a user

A single user

Any user can own one or more user vaults if allowed by IdM administrator

Service vault

A private vault for a service

A single service

Any service can own one or more user vaults if allowed by IdM administrator

Shared vault

A vault shared by multiple users and services

The vault administrator who created the vault

Users and services can own one or more user vaults if allowed by IdM administrator. The vault administrators other than the one that created the vault also have full access to the vault.

1.5. Vault containers

A vault container is a collection of vaults. The table below lists the default vault containers that Identity Management (IdM) provides.

Table 1.2. Default vault containers in IdM

TypeDescriptionPurpose

User container

A private container for a user

Stores user vaults for a particular user

Service container

A private container for a service

Stores service vaults for a particular service

Shared container

A container for multiple users and services

Stores vaults that can be shared by multiple users or services

IdM creates user and service containers for each user or service automatically when the first private vault for the user or service is created. After the user or service is deleted, IdM removes the container and its contents.

1.6. Basic IdM vault commands

This section describes basic commands you can use to manage Identity Management (IdM) vaults. The table below contains a list of ipa vault-* commands with the explanation of their purpose.

Note

Before running any ipa vault-* command, install the Key Recovery Authority (KRA) certificate system component on one or more of the servers in your IdM domain. For details, see Installing the Key Recovery Authority in IdM.

Table 1.3. Basic IdM vault commands with explanations

CommandPurpose

ipa help vault

Displays conceptual information about IdM vaults and sample vault commands.

ipa vault-add --help, ipa vault-find --help

Adding the --help option to a specific ipa vault-* command displays the options and detailed help available for that command.

ipa vault-show user_vault --user idm_user

When accessing a vault as a vault member, you must specify the vault owner. If you do not specify the vault owner, IdM informs you that it did not find the vault:

[admin@server ~]$ ipa vault-show user_vault
ipa: ERROR: user_vault: vault not found

ipa vault-show shared_vault --shared

When accessing a shared vault, you must specify that the vault you want to access is a shared vault. Otherwise, IdM informs you it did not find the vault:

[admin@server ~]$ ipa vault-show shared_vault
ipa: ERROR: shared_vault: vault not found

1.7. Installing the Key Recovery Authority in IdM

This section describes how you can enable vaults in Identity Management (IdM) by installing the Key Recovery Authority (KRA) Certificate System (CS) component.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in as IdM administrator.
  • You are logged in as root on an IdM client.

Procedure

  • Install the KRA:

    # ipa-kra-install
Important

You can install the first KRA of an IdM cluster on a hidden replica. However, installing additional KRAs requires temporarily activating the hidden replica before you install the KRA clone on a non-hidden replica. Then you can hide the originally hidden replica again.

Note

To make the vault service highly available, install the KRA on two IdM servers or more.

Additional resources

Chapter 2. Using IdM user vaults: storing and retrieving secrets

This chapter describes how to use user vaults in Identity Management. Specifically, it describes how a user can store a secret in an IdM vault, and how the user can retrieve it. The user can do the storing and the retrieving from two different IdM clients.

Prerequisites

2.1. Storing a secret in a user vault

This section shows how a user can create a vault container with one or more private vaults to securely store files with sensitive information. In the example used in the procedure below, the idm_user user creates a vault of the standard type. The standard vault type ensures that idm_user will not be required to authenticate when accessing the file. idm_user will be able to retrieve the file from any IdM client to which the user is logged in.

In the procedure:

  • idm_user is the user who wants to create the vault.
  • my_vault is the vault used to store the user’s certificate.
  • The vault type is standard, so that accessing the archived certificate does not require the user to provide a vault password.
  • secret.txt is the file containing the certificate that the user wants to store in the vault.

Prerequisites

  • You know the password of idm_user.
  • You are logged in to a host that is an IdM client.

Procedure

  1. Obtain the Kerberos ticket granting ticket (TGT) for idm_user:

    $ kinit idm_user
  2. Use the ipa vault-add command with the --type standard option to create a standard vault:

    $ ipa vault-add my_vault --type standard
    ----------------------
    Added vault "my_vault"
    ----------------------
      Vault name: my_vault
      Type: standard
      Owner users: idm_user
      Vault user: idm_user
    Important

    Make sure the first user vault for a user is created by the same user. Creating the first vault for a user also creates the user’s vault container. The agent of the creation becomes the owner of the vault container.

    For example, if another user, such as admin, creates the first user vault for user1, the owner of the user’s vault container will also be admin, and user1 will be unable to access the user vault or create new user vaults.

  3. Use the ipa vault-archive command with the --in option to archive the secret.txt file into the vault:

    $ ipa vault-archive my_vault --in secret.txt
    -----------------------------------
    Archived data into vault "my_vault"
    -----------------------------------

2.2. Retrieving a secret from a user vault

As an Identity Management (IdM), you can retrieve a secret from your user private vault onto any IdM client to which you are logged in.

This section shows how to retrieve, as an IdM user named idm_user, a secret from the user private vault named my_vault onto idm_client.idm.example.com.

Prerequisites

  • idm_user is the owner of my_vault.
  • idm_user has archived a secret in the vault.
  • my_vault is a standard vault, which means that idm_user does not have to enter any password to access the contents of the vault.

Procedure

  1. SSH to idm_client as idm_user:

    $ ssh idm_user@idm_client.idm.example.com
  2. Log in as idm_user:

    $ kinit user
  3. Use the ipa vault-retrieve --out command with the --out option to retrieve the contents of the vault and save them into the secret_exported.txt file.

    $ ipa vault-retrieve my_vault --out secret_exported.txt
    --------------------------------------
    Retrieved data from vault "my_vault"
    --------------------------------------

Additional resources

Chapter 3. Using Ansible to manage IdM user vaults: storing and retrieving secrets

This chapter describes how to manage user vaults in Identity Management using the Ansible vault module. Specifically, it describes how a user can use Ansible playbooks to perform the following three consecutive actions:

The user can do the storing and the retrieving from two different IdM clients.

Prerequisites

3.1. Ensuring the presence of a standard user vault in IdM using Ansible

This section shows how an Identity Management (IdM) user can use an Ansible playbook to create a vault container with one or more private vaults to securely store sensitive information. In the example used in the procedure below, the idm_user user creates a vault of the standard type named my_vault. The standard vault type ensures that idm_user will not be required to authenticate when accessing the file. idm_user will be able to retrieve the file from any IdM client to which the user is logged in.

Prerequisites

  • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller, that is the host on which you execute the steps in the procedure.
  • You know the password of idm_user.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/vault directory:

    $ cd /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/vault
  2. Create an inventory file, for example inventory.file:

    $ touch inventory.file
  3. Open inventory.file and define the IdM server that you want to configure in the [ipaserver] section. For example, to instruct Ansible to configure server.idm.example.com, enter:

    [ipaserver]
    server.idm.example.com
  4. Make a copy of the ensure-standard-vault-is-present.yml Ansible playbook file. For example:

    $ cp ensure-standard-vault-is-present.yml ensure-standard-vault-is-present-copy.yml
  5. Open the ensure-standard-vault-is-present-copy.yml file for editing.
  6. Adapt the file by setting the following variables in the ipavault task section:

    • Set the ipaadmin_principal variable to idm_user.
    • Set the ipaadmin_password variable to the password of idm_user.
    • Set the user variable to idm_user.
    • Set the name variable to my_vault.
    • Set the vault_type variable to standard.

      This the modified Ansible playbook file for the current example:

    ---
    - name: Tests
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
      gather_facts: false
    
      tasks:
      - ipavault:
          ipaadmin_principal: idm_user
          ipaadmin_password: idm_user_password
          user: idm_user
          name: my_vault
          vault_type: standard
  7. Save the file.
  8. Run the playbook:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i inventory.file ensure-standard-vault-is-present-copy.yml

3.2. Archiving a secret in a standard user vault in IdM using Ansible

This section shows how an Identity Management (IdM) user can use an Ansible playbook to store sensitive information in a personal vault. In the example used, the idm_user user archives a file with sensitive information named password.txt in a vault named my_vault.

Prerequisites

  • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller, that is the host on which you execute the steps in the procedure.
  • You know the password of idm_user.
  • idm_user is the owner, or at least a member user of my_vault.
  • You have access to password.txt, the secret that you want to archive in my_vault.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/vault directory:

    $ cd /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/vault
  2. Open your inventory file and make sure that the IdM server that you want to configure is listed in the [ipaserver] section. For example, to instruct Ansible to configure server.idm.example.com, enter:

    [ipaserver]
    server.idm.example.com
  3. Make a copy of the data-archive-in-symmetric-vault.yml Ansible playbook file but replace "symmetric" by "standard". For example:

    $ cp data-archive-in-symmetric-vault.yml data-archive-in-standard-vault-copy.yml
  4. Open the data-archive-in-standard-vault-copy.yml file for editing.
  5. Adapt the file by setting the following variables in the ipavault task section:

    • Set the ipaadmin_principal variable to idm_user.
    • Set the ipaadmin_password variable to the password of idm_user.
    • Set the user variable to idm_user.
    • Set the name variable to my_vault.
    • Set the in variable to the full path to the file with sensitive information.
    • Set the action variable to member.

      This the modified Ansible playbook file for the current example:

    ---
    - name: Tests
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
      gather_facts: false
    
      tasks:
      - ipavault:
          ipaadmin_principal: idm_user
          ipaadmin_password: idm_user_password
          user: idm_user
          name: my_vault
          in: /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/vault/password.txt
          action: member
  6. Save the file.
  7. Run the playbook:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i inventory.file data-archive-in-standard-vault-copy.yml

3.3. Retrieving a secret from a standard user vault in IdM using Ansible

This section shows how an Identity Management (IdM) user can use an Ansible playbook to retrieve a secret from the user personal vault. In the example used in the procedure below, the idm_user user retrieves a file with sensitive data from a vault of the standard type named my_vault onto an IdM client named host01. idm_user does not have to authenticate when accessing the file. idm_user can use Ansible to retrieve the file from any IdM client on which Ansible is installed.

Prerequisites

  • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller. This is the host on which you execute the steps in the procedure.
  • You know the password of idm_user.
  • idm_user is the owner of my_vault.
  • idm_user has stored a secret in my_vault.
  • Ansible can write into the directory on the IdM host into which you want to retrieve the secret.
  • idm_user can read from the directory on the IdM host into which you want to retrieve the secret.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/vault directory:

    $ cd /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/vault
  2. Open your inventory file and mention, in a clearly defined section, the IdM client onto which you want to retrieve the secret. For example, to instruct Ansible to retrieve the secret onto host01.idm.example.com, enter:

    [ipahost]
    host01.idm.example.com
  3. Make a copy of the retrive-data-symmetric-vault.yml Ansible playbook file. Replace "symmetric" with "standard". For example:

    $ cp retrive-data-symmetric-vault.yml retrieve-data-standard-vault.yml-copy.yml
  4. Open the retrieve-data-standard-vault.yml-copy.yml file for editing.
  5. Adapt the file by setting the hosts variable to ipahost.
  6. Adapt the file by setting the following variables in the ipavault task section:

    • Set the ipaadmin_principal variable to idm_user.
    • Set the ipaadmin_password variable to the password of idm_user.
    • Set the user variable to idm_user.
    • Set the name variable to my_vault.
    • Set the out variable to the full path of the file into which you want to export the secret.
    • Set the state variable to retrieved.

      This the modified Ansible playbook file for the current example:

    ---
    - name: Tests
      hosts: ipahost
      become: true
      gather_facts: false
    
      tasks:
      - ipavault:
          ipaadmin_principal: idm_user
          ipaadmin_password: idm_user_password
          user: idm_user
          name: my_vault
          out: /tmp/password_exported.txt
          state: retrieved
  7. Save the file.
  8. Run the playbook:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i inventory.file retrieve-data-standard-vault.yml-copy.yml

Verification steps

  1. SSH to host01 as user01:

    $ ssh user01@host01.idm.example.com
  2. View the file specified by the out variable in the Ansible playbook file:

    $ vim /tmp/password_exported.txt

You can now see the exported secret.

  • For more information about using Ansible to manage IdM vaults and user secrets and about playbook variables, see the README-vault.md Markdown file available in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/ directory and the sample playbooks available in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/vault/ directory.

Chapter 4. Managing IdM service secrets: storing and retrieving secrets

This section shows how an administrator can use the ansible-freeipa vault module to securely store a service secret in a centralized location. The vault used in the example is asymmetric, which means that in order to use it, the administrator needs to perform the following steps:

  1. Generate a private key using, for example, the openssl utility.
  2. Generate a public key based on the private key.

The service secret is encrypted with the public key when an administrator archives it into the vault. Afterwards, a service instance hosted on a specific machine in the domain retrieves the secret using the private key. Only the service and the administrator are allowed to access the secret.

If the secret is compromised, the administrator can replace it in the service vault and then redistribute it to those individual service instances that have not been compromised.

Prerequisites

This section includes these procedure

Terminology used

In the procedures:

  • admin is the administrator who manages the service password.
  • private-key-to-an-externally-signed-certificate.pem is the file containing the service secret, in this case a private key to an externally signed certificate. Do not confuse this private key with the private key used to retrieve the secret from the vault.
  • secret_vault is the vault created for the service.
  • HTTP/webserver.idm.example.com is the service whose secret is being archived.
  • service-public.pem is the service public key used to encrypt the password stored in password_vault.
  • service-private.pem is the service private key used to decrypt the password stored in secret_vault.

4.1. Storing an IdM service secret in an asymmetric vault

This section describes how to create an asymmetric vault and use it to archive a service secret.

Prerequisites

  • You know the IdM administrator password.

Procedure

  1. Log in as the administrator:

    $ kinit admin
  2. Obtain the public key of the service instance. For example, using the openssl utility:

    1. Generate the service-private.pem private key.

      $ openssl genrsa -out service-private.pem 2048
      Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus
      .+++
      ...........................................+++
      e is 65537 (0x10001)
    2. Generate the service-public.pem public key based on the private key.

      $ openssl rsa -in service-private.pem -out service-public.pem -pubout
      writing RSA key
  3. Create an asymmetric vault as the service instance vault, and provide the public key:

    $ ipa vault-add secret_vault --service HTTP/webserver.idm.example.com --type asymmetric --public-key-file service-public.pem
    ----------------------------
    Added vault "secret_vault"
    ----------------------------
    Vault name: secret_vault
    Type: asymmetric
    Public key: LS0tLS1C...S0tLS0tCg==
    Owner users: admin
    Vault service: HTTP/webserver.idm.example.com@IDM.EXAMPLE.COM

    The password archived into the vault will be protected with the key.

  4. Archive the service secret into the service vault:

    $ ipa vault-archive secret_vault --service HTTP/webserver.idm.example.com --in private-key-to-an-externally-signed-certificate.pem
    -----------------------------------
    Archived data into vault "secret_vault"
    -----------------------------------

    This encrypts the secret with the service instance public key.

Repeat these steps for every service instance that requires the secret. Create a new asymmetric vault for each service instance.

4.2. Retrieving a service secret for an IdM service instance

This section describes how a service instance can retrieve the service vault secret using a locally-stored service private key.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Log in as the administrator:

    $ kinit admin
  2. Obtain a Kerberos ticket for the service:

    # kinit HTTP/webserver.idm.example.com -k -t /etc/httpd/conf/ipa.keytab
  3. Retrieve the service vault password:

    $ ipa vault-retrieve secret_vault --service HTTP/webserver.idm.example.com --private-key-file service-private.pem --out secret.txt
    ------------------------------------
    Retrieved data from vault "secret_vault"
    ------------------------------------

4.3. Changing an IdM service vault secret when compromised

This section describes how to isolate a compromised service instance by changing the service vault secret.

Prerequisites

  • You know the IdM administrator password.
  • You have created an asymmetric vault to store the service secret.
  • You have generated the new secret and have access to it, for example in the new-private-key-to-an-externally-signed-certificate.pem file.

Procedure

  1. Archive the new secret into the service instance vault:

    $ ipa vault-archive secret_vault --service HTTP/webserver.idm.example.com --in new-private-key-to-an-externally-signed-certificate.pem
    -----------------------------------
    Archived data into vault "secret_vault"
    -----------------------------------

    This overwrites the current secret stored in the vault.

  2. Retrieve the new secret on non-compromised service instances only. For details, see Retrieving a service secret for an IdM service instance.

Additional resources

Chapter 5. Using Ansible to manage IdM service vaults: storing and retrieving secrets

This section shows how an administrator can use the ansible-freeipa vault module to securely store a service secret in a centralized location. The vault used in the example is asymmetric, which means that in order to use it, the administrator needs to perform the following steps:

  1. Generate a private key using, for example, the openssl utility.
  2. Generate a public key based on the private key.

The service secret is encrypted with the public key when an administrator archives it into the vault. Afterwards, a service instance hosted on a specific machine in the domain retrieves the secret using the private key. Only the service and the administrator are allowed to access the secret.

If the secret is compromised, the administrator can replace it in the service vault and then redistribute it to those individual service instances that have not been compromised.

Prerequisites

This section includes these procedures:

In the procedures:

  • admin is the administrator who manages the service password.
  • private-key-to-an-externally-signed-certificate.pem is the file containing the service secret, in this case a private key to an externally signed certificate. Do not confuse this private key with the private key used to retrieve the secret from the vault.
  • secret_vault is the vault created to store the service secret.
  • HTTP/webserver1.idm.example.com is the service that is the owner of the vault.
  • HTTP/webserver2.idm.example.com and HTTP/webserver3.idm.example.com are the vault member services.
  • service-public.pem is the service public key used to encrypt the password stored in password_vault.
  • service-private.pem is the service private key used to decrypt the password stored in secret_vault.

5.1. Ensuring the presence of an asymmetric service vault in IdM using Ansible

This section shows how an Identity Management (IdM) administrator can use an Ansible playbook to create a service vault container with one or more private vaults to securely store sensitive information. In the example used in the procedure below, the administrator creates an asymmetric vault named secret_vault. This ensures that the vault members have to authenticate using a private key in order to retrieve the secret in the vault. The vault members will be able to retrieve the file from any IdM client.

Prerequisites

  • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller. This is the host on which you execute the steps in the procedure.
  • You know the IdM administrator password.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/vault directory:

    $ cd /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/vault
  2. Obtain the public key of the service instance. For example, using the openssl utility:

    1. Generate the service-private.pem private key.

      $ openssl genrsa -out service-private.pem 2048
      Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus
      .+++
      ...........................................+++
      e is 65537 (0x10001)
    2. Generate the service-public.pem public key based on the private key.

      $ openssl rsa -in service-private.pem -out service-public.pem -pubout
      writing RSA key
  3. Optional: Create an inventory file if it does not exist, for example inventory.file:

    $ touch inventory.file
  4. Open your inventory file and define the IdM server that you want to configure in the [ipaserver] section. For example, to instruct Ansible to configure server.idm.example.com, enter:

    [ipaserver]
    server.idm.example.com
  5. Make a copy of the ensure-asymmetric-vault-is-present.yml Ansible playbook file. For example:

    $ cp ensure-asymmetric-vault-is-present.yml ensure-asymmetric-service-vault-is-present-copy.yml
  6. Open the ensure-asymmetric-vault-is-present-copy.yml file for editing.
  7. Add a task that copies the service-public.pem public key from the Ansible controller to the server.idm.example.com server.
  8. Modify the rest of the file by setting the following variables in the ipavault task section:

    • Set the ipaadmin_password variable to the IdM administrator password.
    • Define the name of the vault using the name variable, for example secret_vault.
    • Set the vault_type variable to asymmetric.
    • Set the service variable to the principal of the service that owns the vault, for example HTTP/webserver1.idm.example.com.
    • Set the public_key_file to the location of your public key.

      This is the modified Ansible playbook file for the current example:

    ---
    - name: Tests
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
      gather_facts: false
      tasks:
      - name: Copy public key to ipaserver.
        copy:
          src: /path/to/service-public.pem
          dest: /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/vault/service-public.pem
          mode: 0600
      - name: Add data to vault, from a LOCAL file.
        ipavault:
          ipaadmin_password: Secret123
          name: secret_vault
          vault_type: asymmetric
          service: HTTP/webserver1.idm.example.com
          public_key_file: /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/vault/service-public.pem
  9. Save the file.
  10. Run the playbook:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i inventory.file ensure-asymmetric-service-vault-is-present-copy.yml

5.2. Adding member services to an asymmetric vault using Ansible

This section shows how an Identity Management (IdM) administrator can use an Ansible playbook to add member services to a service vault so that they can all retrieve the secret stored in the vault. In the example used in the procedure below, the IdM administrator adds the HTTP/webserver2.idm.example.com and HTTP/webserver3.idm.example.com service principals to the secret_vault vault that is owned by HTTP/webserver1.idm.example.com.

Prerequisites

  • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller. This is the host on which you execute the steps in the procedure.
  • You know the IdM administrator password.
  • You have created an asymmetric vault to store the service secret.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/vault directory:

    $ cd /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/vault
  2. Optional: Create an inventory file if it does not exist, for example inventory.file:

    $ touch inventory.file
  3. Open your inventory file and define the IdM server that you want to configure in the [ipaserver] section. For example, to instruct Ansible to configure server.idm.example.com, enter:

    [ipaserver]
    server.idm.example.com
  4. Make a copy of the data-archive-in-asymmetric-vault.yml Ansible playbook file. For example:

    $ cp data-archive-in-asymmetric-vault.yml add-services-to-an-asymmetric-vault.yml
  5. Open the data-archive-in-asymmetric-vault-copy.yml file for editing.
  6. Modify the file by setting the following variables in the ipavault task section:

    • Set the ipaadmin_password variable to the IdM administrator password.
    • Set the name variable to the name of the vault, for example secret_vault.
    • Set the service variable to the service owner of the vault, for example HTTP/webserver1.idm.example.com.
    • Define the services that you want to have access to the vault secret using the services variable.
    • Set the action variable to member.

      This the modified Ansible playbook file for the current example:

    ---
    - name: Tests
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
      gather_facts: false
    
      tasks:
      - ipavault:
          ipaadmin_password: Secret123
          name: secret_vault
          service: HTTP/webserver1.idm.example.com
          services:
          - HTTP/webserver2.idm.example.com
          - HTTP/webserver3.idm.example.com
          action: member
  7. Save the file.
  8. Run the playbook:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i inventory.file add-services-to-an-asymmetric-vault.yml

5.3. Storing an IdM service secret in an asymmetric vault using Ansible

This section shows how an Identity Management (IdM) administrator can use an Ansible playbook to store a secret in a service vault so that it can be later retrieved by the service. In the example used in the procedure below, the administrator stores a PEM file with the secret in an asymmetric vault named secret_vault. This ensures that the service will have to authenticate using a private key in order to retrieve the secret from the vault. The vault members will be able to retrieve the file from any IdM client.

Prerequisites

  • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller. This is the host on which you execute the steps in the procedure.
  • You know the IdM administrator password.
  • You have created an asymmetric vault to store the service secret.
  • The secret is stored locally on the Ansible controller, for example in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/vault/private-key-to-an-externally-signed-certificate.pem file.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/vault directory:

    $ cd /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/vault
  2. Optional: Create an inventory file if it does not exist, for example inventory.file:

    $ touch inventory.file
  3. Open your inventory file and define the IdM server that you want to configure in the [ipaserver] section. For example, to instruct Ansible to configure server.idm.example.com, enter:

    [ipaserver]
    server.idm.example.com
  4. Make a copy of the data-archive-in-asymmetric-vault.yml Ansible playbook file. For example:

    $ cp data-archive-in-asymmetric-vault.yml data-archive-in-asymmetric-vault-copy.yml
  5. Open the data-archive-in-asymmetric-vault-copy.yml file for editing.
  6. Modify the file by setting the following variables in the ipavault task section:

    • Set the ipaadmin_password variable to the IdM administrator password.
    • Set the name variable to the name of the vault, for example secret_vault.
    • Set the service variable to the service owner of the vault, for example HTTP/webserver1.idm.example.com.
    • Set the in variable to "{{ lookup('file', 'private-key-to-an-externally-signed-certificate.pem') | b64encode }}". This ensures that Ansible retrieves the file with the private key from the working directory on the Ansible controller rather than from the IdM server.
    • Set the action variable to member.

      This the modified Ansible playbook file for the current example:

    ---
    - name: Tests
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
      gather_facts: false
    
      tasks:
      - ipavault:
          ipaadmin_password: Secret123
          name: secret_vault
          service: HTTP/webserver1.idm.example.com
          in: "{{ lookup('file', 'private-key-to-an-externally-signed-certificate.pem') | b64encode }}"
          action: member
  7. Save the file.
  8. Run the playbook:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i inventory.file data-archive-in-asymmetric-vault-copy.yml

5.4. Retrieving a service secret for an IdM service using Ansible

This section shows how an Identity Management (IdM) user can use an Ansible playbook to retrieve a secret from a service vault on behalf of the service. In the example used in the procedure below, running the playbook retrieves a PEM file with the secret from an asymmetric vault named secret_vault, and stores it in the specified location on all the hosts listed in the Ansible inventory file as ipaservers.

The services authenticate to IdM using keytabs, and they authenticate to the vault using a private key. You can retrieve the file on behalf of the service from any IdM client on which ansible-freeipa is installed.

Prerequisites

  • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller. This is the host on which you execute the steps in the procedure.
  • You know the IdM administrator password.
  • You have created an asymmetric vault to store the service secret.
  • You have archived the secret in the vault.
  • You have stored the private key used to retrieve the service vault secret in the location specified by the private_key_file variable on the Ansible controller.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/vault directory:

    $ cd /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/vault
  2. Optional: Create an inventory file if it does not exist, for example inventory.file:

    $ touch inventory.file
  3. Open your inventory file and define the following hosts:

    • Define your IdM server in the [ipaserver] section.
    • Define the hosts onto which you want to retrieve the secret in the [webservers] section. For example, to instruct Ansible to retrieve the secret to webserver1.idm.example.com, webserver2.idm.example.com, and webserver3.idm.example.com, enter:
    [ipaserver]
    server.idm.example.com
    
    [webservers]
    webserver1.idm.example.com
    webserver2.idm.example.com
    webserver3.idm.example.com
  4. Make a copy of the retrieve-data-asymmetric-vault.yml Ansible playbook file. For example:

    $ cp retrieve-data-asymmetric-vault.yml retrieve-data-asymmetric-vault-copy.yml
  5. Open the retrieve-data-asymmetric-vault-copy.yml file for editing.
  6. Modify the file by setting the following variables in the ipavault task section:

    • Set the ipaadmin_password variable to your IdM administrator password.
    • Set the name variable to the name of the vault, for example secret_vault.
    • Set the service variable to the service owner of the vault, for example HTTP/webserver1.idm.example.com.
    • Set the private_key_file variable to the location of the private key used to retrieve the service vault secret.
    • Set the out variable to the location on the IdM server where you want to retrieve the private-key-to-an-externally-signed-certificate.pem secret, for example the current working directory.
    • Set the action variable to member.

      This the modified Ansible playbook file for the current example:

    ---
    - name: Retrieve data from vault
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: no
      gather_facts: false
    
      tasks:
      - name: Retrieve data from the service vault
        ipavault:
          ipaadmin_password: Secret123
          name: secret_vault
          service: HTTP/webserver1.idm.example.com
          vault_type: asymmetric
          private_key: "{{ lookup('file', 'service-private.pem') | b64encode }}"
          out: private-key-to-an-externally-signed-certificate.pem
          state: retrieved
  7. Add a section to the playbook that retrieves the data file from the IdM server to the Ansible controller:

    ---
    - name: Retrieve data from vault
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: no
      gather_facts: false
      tasks:
    [...]
      - name: Retrieve data file
        fetch:
          src: private-key-to-an-externally-signed-certificate.pem
          dest: ./
          flat: yes
          mode: 0600
  8. Add a section to the playbook that transfers the retrieved private-key-to-an-externally-signed-certificate.pem file from the Ansible controller on to the webservers listed in the webservers section of the inventory file:

    ---
    - name: Send data file to webservers
      become: no
      gather_facts: no
      hosts: webservers
      tasks:
      - name: Send data to webservers
        copy:
          src: private-key-to-an-externally-signed-certificate.pem
          dest: /etc/pki/tls/private/httpd.key
          mode: 0444
  9. Save the file.
  10. Run the playbook:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i inventory.file retrieve-data-asymmetric-vault-copy.yml

5.5. Changing an IdM service vault secret when compromised using Ansible

This section shows how an Identity Management (IdM) administrator can reuse an Ansible playbook to change the secret stored in a service vault when a service instance has been compromised. The scenario in the following example assumes that on webserver3.idm.example.com, the retrieved secret has been compromised, but not the key to the asymmetric vault storing the secret. In the example, the administrator reuses the Ansible playbooks used when storing a secret in an asymmetric vault and retrieving a secret from the asymmetric vault onto IdM hosts. At the start of the procedure, the IdM administrator stores a new PEM file with a new secret in the asymmetric vault, adapts the inventory file so as not to retrieve the new secret on to the compromised web server, webserver3.idm.example.com, and then re-runs the two procedures.

Prerequisites

  • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller. This is the host on which you execute the steps in the procedure.
  • You know the IdM administrator password.
  • You have created an asymmetric vault to store the service secret.
  • You have generated a new httpd key for the web services running on IdM hosts to replace the compromised old key.
  • The new httpd key is stored locally on the Ansible controller, for example in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/vault/private-key-to-an-externally-signed-certificate.pem file.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/vault directory:

    $ cd /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/vault
  2. Open your inventory file and make sure that the following hosts are defined correctly:

    • The IdM server in the [ipaserver] section.
    • The hosts onto which you want to retrieve the secret in the [webservers] section. For example, to instruct Ansible to retrieve the secret to webserver1.idm.example.com and webserver2.idm.example.com, enter:

      [ipaserver]
      server.idm.example.com
      
      [webservers]
      webserver1.idm.example.com
      webserver2.idm.example.com
    Important

    Make sure that the list does not contain the compromised webserver, in the current example webserver3.idm.example.com.

  3. Open the data-archive-in-asymmetric-vault-copy.yml file for editing.
  4. Modify the file by setting the following variables in the ipavault task section:

    • Set the ipaadmin_password variable to the IdM administrator password.
    • Set the name variable to the name of the vault, for example secret_vault.
    • Set the service variable to the service owner of the vault, for example HTTP/webserver.idm.example.com.
    • Set the in variable to "{{ lookup('file', 'new-private-key-to-an-externally-signed-certificate.pem') | b64encode }}". This ensures that Ansible retrieves the file with the private key from the working directory on the Ansible controller rather than from the IdM server.
    • Set the action variable to member.

      This the modified Ansible playbook file for the current example:

    ---
    - name: Tests
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
      gather_facts: false
    
      tasks:
      - ipavault:
          ipaadmin_password: Secret123
          name: secret_vault
          service: HTTP/webserver.idm.example.com
          in: "{{ lookup('file', 'new-private-key-to-an-externally-signed-certificate.pem') | b64encode }}"
          action: member
  5. Save the file.
  6. Run the playbook:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i inventory.file data-archive-in-asymmetric-vault-copy.yml
  7. Open the retrieve-data-asymmetric-vault-copy.yml file for editing.
  8. Modify the file by setting the following variables in the ipavault task section:

    • Set the ipaadmin_password variable to your IdM administrator password.
    • Set the name variable to the name of the vault, for example secret_vault.
    • Set the service variable to the service owner of the vault, for example HTTP/webserver1.idm.example.com.
    • Set the private_key_file variable to the location of the private key used to retrieve the service vault secret.
    • Set the out variable to the location on the IdM server where you want to retrieve the new-private-key-to-an-externally-signed-certificate.pem secret, for example the current working directory.
    • Set the action variable to member.

      This the modified Ansible playbook file for the current example:

    ---
    - name: Retrieve data from vault
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: no
      gather_facts: false
    
      tasks:
      - name: Retrieve data from the service vault
        ipavault:
          ipaadmin_password: Secret123
          name: secret_vault
          service: HTTP/webserver1.idm.example.com
          vault_type: asymmetric
          private_key: "{{ lookup('file', 'service-private.pem') | b64encode }}"
          out: new-private-key-to-an-externally-signed-certificate.pem
          state: retrieved
  9. Add a section to the playbook that retrieves the data file from the IdM server to the Ansible controller:

    ---
    - name: Retrieve data from vault
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: yes
      gather_facts: false
      tasks:
    [...]
      - name: Retrieve data file
        fetch:
          src: new-private-key-to-an-externally-signed-certificate.pem
          dest: ./
          flat: yes
          mode: 0600
  10. Add a section to the playbook that transfers the retrieved new-private-key-to-an-externally-signed-certificate.pem file from the Ansible controller on to the webservers listed in the webservers section of the inventory file:

    ---
    - name: Send data file to webservers
      become: yes
      gather_facts: no
      hosts: webservers
      tasks:
      - name: Send data to webservers
        copy:
          src: new-private-key-to-an-externally-signed-certificate.pem
          dest: /etc/pki/tls/private/httpd.key
          mode: 0444
  11. Save the file.
  12. Run the playbook:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i inventory.file retrieve-data-asymmetric-vault-copy.yml

Additional resources

  • For more information about using Ansible to manage IdM vaults and service secrets and about playbook variables, see the README-vault.md Markdown file available in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/ directory and the sample playbooks available in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/vault/ directory.

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