Red Hat Training

A Red Hat training course is available for RHEL 8

Performing an advanced RHEL installation

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8

Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 using Kickstart

Red Hat Customer Content Services

Abstract

This document is aimed at users who want to perform an advanced Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation using Kickstart and configure advanced installation options.

Providing feedback on Red Hat documentation

We appreciate your input on our documentation. Please let us know how we could make it better. To do so:

  • For simple comments on specific passages, make sure you are viewing the documentation in the Multi-page HTML format. Highlight the part of text that you want to comment on. Then, click the Add Feedback pop-up that appears below the highlighted text, and follow the displayed instructions.
  • For submitting more complex feedback, create a Bugzilla ticket:

    1. Go to the Bugzilla website.
    2. As the Component, use Documentation.
    3. Fill in the Description field with your suggestion for improvement. Include a link to the relevant part(s) of documentation.
    4. Click Submit Bug.

Chapter 1. Introduction

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 delivers a stable, secure, consistent foundation across hybrid cloud deployments with the tools needed to deliver workloads faster with less effort. It can be deployed as a guest on supported hypervisors and Cloud provider environments as well as deployed on physical infrastructure, so your applications can take advantage of innovations in the leading hardware architecture platforms.

1.1. Supported architectures

Red Hat Enterprise Linux supports the following architectures:

  • AMD and Intel 64-bit architectures
  • The 64-bit ARM architecture
  • IBM Power Systems, Little Endian
  • IBM Z

1.2. Installation terminology

This section describes Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation terminology. Different terminology can be used for the same concepts, depending on its upstream or downstream origin.

Anaconda: The operating system installer used in Fedora, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and their derivatives. Anaconda is a set of Python modules and scripts with additional files like Gtk widgets (written in C), systemd units, and dracut libraries. Together, they form a tool that allows users to set parameters of the resulting (target) system. In this document, the term installation program refers to the installation aspect of Anaconda.

1.3. Installation methods

You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using one of the following methods:

Quick install
Install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on AMD64, Intel 64, and 64-bit ARM architectures using the graphical user interface. The quick installation assumes that you are familiar with Red Hat Enterprise Linux and your environment, and that you can accept the default settings provided by the installation program.
Graphical install
Install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using the graphical user interface and customize the graphical settings for your specific requirements.
Automated install
Install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using Kickstart. The automated installation allows you to perform unattended operating system installation tasks.

Additional resources

Part I. Performing an automated installation using Kickstart

Chapter 2. Kickstart installation basics

The following provides basic information about Kickstart and how to use it to automate installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

2.1. What are Kickstart installations

Kickstart provides a way to automate the RHEL installation process, either partially or fully.

Kickstart files contain some or all of the RHEL installation options. For example, the time zone, how the drives should be partitioned, or which packages should be installed. Providing a prepared Kickstart file allows an installation without the need for any user intervention. This is especially useful when deploying Red Hat Enterprise Linux on a large number of systems at once.

Kickstart files also provide more options regarding software selection. When installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux manually using the graphical installation interface, the software selection is limited to pre-defined environments and add-ons. A Kickstart file allows you to install or remove individual packages as well.

Kickstart files can be kept on a single server system and read by individual computers during the installation. This installation method supports the use of a single Kickstart file to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on multiple machines, making it ideal for network and system administrators.

All Kickstart scripts and log files of their execution are stored in the /tmp directory of the newly installed system to assist with debugging installation issues.

Note

In previous versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Kickstart could be used for upgrading systems. Starting with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, this functionality has been removed and system upgrades are instead handled by specialized tools. For details on upgrading to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8, see Upgrading to RHEL 8 and Considerations in adopting RHEL 8.

2.2. Automated installation workflow

Kickstart installations can be performed using a local DVD, a local hard drive, or a NFS, FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS server. This section provides a high level overview of Kickstart usage.

  1. Create a Kickstart file. You can write it by hand, copy a Kickstart file saved after a manual installation, or use an online generator tool to create the file, and edit it afterward. See Chapter 3, Creating Kickstart files.
  2. Make the Kickstart file available to the installation program on removable media, a hard drive or a network location using an HTTP(S), FTP, or NFS server. See Chapter 4, Making Kickstart files available to the installation program.
  3. Create the boot medium which will be used to begin the installation. See Creating installation media and Chapter 12, Preparing to install from the network using PXE.
  4. Make the installation source available to the installation program. See Chapter 5, Creating installation sources for Kickstart installations.
  5. Start the installation using the boot medium and the Kickstart file. See Chapter 6, Starting Kickstart installations.

If the Kickstart file contains all mandatory commands and sections, the installation finishes automatically. If one or more of these mandatory parts are missing, or if an error occurs, the installation requires manual intervention to finish.

Chapter 3. Creating Kickstart files

You can create a Kickstart file using the following methods:

  • Use the online Kickstart configuration tool.
  • Copy the Kickstart file created as a result of a manual installation.
  • Write the entire Kickstart file manually. Note that editing an already existing file from the other methods is faster, so this method is not recommended.

Note that some highly specific installation options can be configured only by manual editing of the Kickstart file.

3.1. Creating a Kickstart file by performing a manual installation

The recommended approach to creating Kickstart files is to use the file created by a manual installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. After an installation completes, all choices made during the installation are saved into a Kickstart file named anaconda-ks.cfg, located in the /root/ directory on the installed system. You can use this file to reproduce the installation in the same way as before. Alternatively, copy this file, make any changes you need, and use the resulting configuration file for further installations.

Procedure

  1. Install RHEL. For more details, see Performing a standard RHEL installation.

    During the installation, create a user with administrator privileges.

  2. Finish the installation and reboot into the installed system.
  3. Log into the system with the administrator account.
  4. Copy the file /root/anaconda-ks.cfg to a location of your choice.

    • To display the file contents in terminal:

      # cat /root/anaconda-ks.cfg

      You can copy the output and save to another file of your choice.

    • To copy the file to another location, use the file manager. Remember to change permissions on the copy, so that the file can be read by non-root users.
    Caution

    The file contains information about users and passwords.

3.2. Creating a Kickstart file with the Kickstart configuration tool

Users with a Red Hat Customer Portal account can use the Kickstart Generator tool in the Customer Portal Labs to generate Kickstart files online. This tool will walk you through the basic configuration and enables you to download the resulting Kickstart file.

Note

The tool currently does not support any advanced partitioning.

Prerequisites

  • You must have a Red Hat Customer Portal account.

Procedure

  1. Open the Kickstart generator lab information page at https://access.redhat.com/labsinfo/kickstartconfig
  2. Click the Go to Application button to the left of heading and wait for the next page to load.
  3. Select Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 in the drop-down menu and wait for the page to update.
  4. Describe the system to be installed using the fields in the form.

    You can use the links on the left side of the form to quickly navigate between sections of the form.

  5. To download the generated Kickstart file, click the red Download button at the top of the page.

    Your web browser will save the file.

Chapter 4. Making Kickstart files available to the installation program

The following provides information about making the Kickstart file available to the installation program on the target system.

4.1. Ports for network-based installation

The following table lists the ports that must be open on the server providing the files for each type of network-based installation.

Table 4.1. Ports for network-based installation

Protocol usedPorts to open

HTTP

80

HTTPS

443

FTP

21

NFS

2049, 111, 20048

TFTP

69

Additional resources

4.2. Making a Kickstart file available on an NFS server

This procedure describes how to store the Kickstart script file on an NFS server. This method enables you to install multiple systems from a single source without having to use physical media for the Kickstart file.

Prerequisites

  • You must have administrator level access to a server with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 on the local network.
  • The system to be installed must be able to connect to the server.
  • Firewall on the server must allow connections from the system you are installing to. See Section 4.1, “Ports for network-based installation” for more information.

Procedure

  1. Install the nfs-utils package by running the following command as root:

    # yum install nfs-utils
  2. Copy the Kickstart file to a directory on the NFS server.
  3. Open the /etc/exports file using a text editor and add a line with the following syntax:

    /exported_directory/ clients
  4. Replace /exported_directory/ with the full path to the directory holding the Kickstart file. Instead of clients, use the host name or IP address of the computer that is to be installed from this NFS server, the subnetwork from which all computers are to have access the ISO image, or the asterisk sign (*) if you want to allow any computer with network access to the NFS server to use the ISO image. See the exports(5) man page for detailed information about the format of this field.

    A basic configuration that makes the /rhel8-install/ directory available as read-only to all clients is:

    /rhel8-install *
  5. Save the /etc/exports file and exit the text editor.
  6. Start the nfs service:

    # systemctl start nfs-server.service

    If the service was running before you changed the /etc/exports file, enter the following command, in order for the running NFS server to reload its configuration:

    # systemctl reload nfs-server.service

    The Kickstart file is now accessible over NFS and ready to be used for installation.

Note

When specifying the Kickstart source, use nfs: as the protocol, the server’s host name or IP address, the colon sign (:), and the path inside directory holding the file. For example, if the server’s host name is myserver.example.com and you have saved the file in /rhel8-install/my-ks.cfg, specify inst.ks=nfs:myserver.example.com:/rhel8-install/my-ks.cfg as the installation source boot option.

Additional resources

4.3. Making a Kickstart file available on an HTTP or HTTPS server

This procedure describes how to store the Kickstart script file on an HTTP or HTTPS server. This method enables you to install multiple systems from a single source without having to use physical media for the Kickstart file.

Prerequisites

  • You must have administrator level access to a server with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 on the local network.
  • The system to be installed must be able to connect to the server.
  • Firewall on the server must allow connections from the system you are installing to. See Section 4.1, “Ports for network-based installation” for more information.

Procedure

  1. Install the httpd package by running the following command as root:

    # yum install httpd
    Warning

    If your Apache web server configuration enables SSL security, verify that you only enable the TLSv1 protocol, and disable SSLv2 and SSLv3. This is due to the POODLE SSL vulnerability (CVE-2014-3566). See https://access.redhat.com/solutions/1232413 for details.

    Important

    If you use an HTTPS server with a self-signed certificate, you must boot the installation program with the inst.noverifyssl option.

  2. Copy the Kickstart file to the HTTP(S) server into a subdirectory of the /var/www/html/ directory.
  3. Start the httpd service:

    # systemctl start httpd.service

    The Kickstart file is now accessible and ready to be used for installation.

    Note

    When specifying the location of the Kickstart file, use http:// or https:// as the protocol, the server’s host name or IP address, and the path of the Kickstart file, relative to the HTTP server root. For example, if you are using HTTP, the server’s host name is myserver.example.com, and you have copied the Kickstart file as /var/www/html/rhel8-install/my-ks.cfg, specify http://myserver.example.com/rhel8-install/my-ks.cfg as the file location.

Additional resources

4.4. Making a Kickstart file available on an FTP server

This procedure describes how to store the Kickstart script file on an FTP server. This method enables you to install multiple systems from a single source without having to use physical media for the Kickstart file.

Prerequisites

  • You must have administrator level access to a server with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 on the local network.
  • The system to be installed must be able to connect to the server.
  • Firewall on the server must allow connections from the system you are installing to. See Section 4.1, “Ports for network-based installation” for more information.

Procedure

  1. Install the vsftpd package by running the following command as root:

    # yum install vsftpd
  2. Open and edit the /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf configuration file in a text editor.

    1. Change the line anonymous_enable=NO to anonymous_enable=YES
    2. Change the line write_enable=YES to write_enable=NO.
    3. Add lines pasv_min_port=min_port and pasv_max_port=max_port. Replace min_port and max_port with the port number range used by FTP server in passive mode, e. g. 10021 and 10031.

      This step can be necessary in network environments featuring various firewall/NAT setups.

    4. Optionally, add custom changes to your configuration. For available options, see the vsftpd.conf(5) man page. This procedure assumes that default options are used.

      Warning

      If you configured SSL/TLS security in your vsftpd.conf file, ensure that you enable only the TLSv1 protocol, and disable SSLv2 and SSLv3. This is due to the POODLE SSL vulnerability (CVE-2014-3566). See https://access.redhat.com/solutions/1234773 for details.

  3. Configure the server firewall.

    1. Enable the firewall:

      # systemctl enable firewalld
      # systemctl start firewalld
    2. Enable in your firewall the FTP port and port range from previous step:

      # firewall-cmd --add-port min_port-max_port/tcp --permanent
      # firewall-cmd --add-service ftp --permanent
      # firewall-cmd --reload

      Replace min_port-max_port with the port numbers you entered into the /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf configuration file.

  4. Copy the Kickstart file to the FTP server into the /var/ftp/ directory or its subdirectory.
  5. Make sure that the correct SELinux context and access mode is set on the file:

    # restorecon -r /var/ftp/your-kickstart-file.ks
    # chmod 444 /var/ftp/your-kickstart-file.ks
  6. Start the vsftpd service:

    # systemctl start vsftpd.service

    If the service was running before you changed the /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf file, restart the service to load the edited file:

    # systemctl restart vsftpd.service

    Enable the vsftpd service to start during the boot process:

    # systemctl enable vsftpd

    The Kickstart file is now accessible and ready to be used for installations by systems on the same network.

    Note

    When configuring the installation source, use ftp:// as the protocol, the server’s host name or IP address, and the path of the Kickstart file, relative to the FTP server root. For example, if the server’s host name is myserver.example.com and you have copied the file to /var/ftp/my-ks.cfg, specify ftp://myserver.example.com/my-ks.cfg as the installation source.

4.5. Making a Kickstart file available on a local volume

This procedure describes how to store the Kickstart script file on a volume on the system to be installed. This method enables you to bypass the need for another system.

Prerequisites

  • You must have a drive that can be moved to the machine to be installed, such as a USB stick.
  • The drive must contain a partition that can be read by the installation program. The supported types are ext2, ext3, ext4, xfs, and fat.
  • The drive must be already connected to the system and its volumes mounted.

Procedure

  1. List volume information and note the UUID of the volume to which you want to copy the Kickstart file.

    # lsblk -l -p -o name,rm,ro,hotplug,size,type,mountpoint,uuid
  2. Navigate to the file system on the volume.
  3. Copy the Kickstart file to this file system.
  4. Make a note of the string to use later with the inst.ks= option. This string is in the form hd:UUID=volume-UUID:path/to/kickstart-file.cfg. Note that the path is relative to the file system root, not to the / root of file system hierarchy. Replace volume-UUID with the UUID you noted earlier.
  5. Unmount all drive volumes:

    # umount /dev/xyz ...

    Add all the volumes to the command, separated by spaces.

4.6. Making a Kickstart file available on a local volume for automatic loading

A specially named Kickstart file can be present in the root of a specially named volume on the system to be installed. This lets you bypass the need for another system, and makes the installation program load the file automatically.

Prerequisites

  • You must have a drive that can be moved to the machine to be installed, such as a USB stick.
  • The drive must contain a partition that can be read by the installation program. The supported types are ext2, ext3, ext4, xfs, and fat.
  • The drive must be already connected to the system and its volumes mounted.

Procedure

  1. List volume information and note the UUID of the volume to which you want to copy the Kickstart file.

    # lsblk -l -p
  2. Navigate to the file system on the volume.
  3. Copy the Kickstart file into the root of this file system.
  4. Rename the Kickstart file to ks.cfg.
  5. Rename the volume as OEMDRV:

    • For ext2, ext3, and ext4 file systems:

      # e2label /dev/xyz OEMDRV
    • For the XFS file system:

      # xfs_admin -L OEMDRV /dev/xyz

    Replace /dev/xyz with the path to the volume’s block device.

  6. Unmount all drive volumes:

    # umount /dev/xyz ...

    Add all the volumes to the command, separated by spaces.

Chapter 5. Creating installation sources for Kickstart installations

This section describes how to create an installation source for the Boot ISO image using the Binary DVD ISO image that contains the required repositories and software packages.

5.1. Types of installation source

You can use one of the following installation sources for minimal boot images:

  • DVD: Burn the Binary DVD ISO image to a DVD. The installation program will automatically install the software packages from the DVD.
  • Hard drive or USB drive: Copy the Binary DVD ISO image to the drive and configure the installation program to install the software packages from the drive. If you use a USB drive, verify that it is connected to the system before the installation begins. The installation program cannot detect media after the installation begins.

    • Hard drive limitation: The Binary DVD ISO image on the hard drive must be on a partition with a file system that the installation program can mount. The supported file systems are xfs, ext2, ext3, ext4, and vfat (FAT32).
    Warning

    On Microsoft Windows systems, the default file system used when formatting hard drives is NTFS. The exFAT file system is also available. However, neither of these file systems can be mounted during the installation. If you are creating a hard drive or a USB drive as an installation source on Microsoft Windows, verify that you formatted the drive as FAT32. Note that the FAT32 file system cannot store files larger than 4 GiB.

    In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8, you can enable installation from a directory on a local hard drive. To do so, you need to copy the contents of the DVD ISO image to a directory on a hard drive and then specify the directory as the installation source instead of the ISO image. For example: inst.repo=hd:<device>:<path to the directory>

  • Network location: Copy the Binary DVD ISO image or the installation tree (extracted contents of the Binary DVD ISO image) to a network location and perform the installation over the network using the following protocols:

    • NFS: The Binary DVD ISO image is in a Network File System (NFS) share.
    • HTTPS, HTTP or FTP: The installation tree is on a network location that is accessible over HTTP, HTTPS or FTP.

5.2. Ports for network-based installation

The following table lists the ports that must be open on the server providing the files for each type of network-based installation.

Table 5.1. Ports for network-based installation

Protocol usedPorts to open

HTTP

80

HTTPS

443

FTP

21

NFS

2049, 111, 20048

TFTP

69

Additional resources

5.3. Creating an installation source on an NFS server

Follow the steps in this procedure to place the installation source on an NFS server. Use this installation method to install multiple systems from a single source, without having to connect to physical media.

Prerequisites

  • You have administor level access to a server with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8, and this server is on the same network as the system to be installed.
  • You have downloaded a Binary DVD image. See Downloading the installation ISO image from the Performing a standard RHEL installation document for more information.
  • You have created a bootable CD, DVD, or USB device from the image file. See Creating installation media from the Performing a standard RHEL installation document for more information.
  • You have verified that your firewall allows the system you are installing to access the remote installation source. See Ports for network-based installation from the Performing a standard RHEL installation document for more information.

Procedure

  1. Install the nfs-utils package:

    # yum install nfs-utils
  2. Copy the Binary DVD ISO image to a directory on the NFS server.
  3. Open the /etc/exports file using a text editor and add a line with the following syntax:

    /exported_directory/ clients
  4. Replace /exported_directory/ with the full path to the directory with the ISO image. Replace clients with the host name or IP address of the target system, the subnetwork that all target systems can use to access the ISO image, or the asterisk sign (*) if you want to allow any system with network access to the NFS server to use the ISO image. See the exports(5) man page for detailed information about the format of this field.

    A basic configuration that makes the /rhel8-install/ directory available as read-only to all clients is:

    /rhel8-install *
  5. Save the /etc/exports file and exit the text editor.
  6. Start the nfs service:

    # systemctl start nfs-server.service

    If the service was running before you changed the /etc/exports file, run the following command for the running NFS server to reload its configuration:

    # systemctl reload nfs-server.service

    The ISO image is now accessible over NFS and ready to be used as an installation source.

Note

When configuring the installation source, use nfs: as the protocol, the server host name or IP address, the colon sign (:), and the directory holding the ISO image. For example, if the server host name is myserver.example.com and you have saved the ISO image in /rhel8-install/, specify nfs:myserver.example.com:/rhel8-install/ as the installation source.

5.4. Creating an installation source using HTTP or HTTPS

Follow the steps in this procedure to create an installation source for a network-based installation using an installation tree, which is a directory containing extracted contents of the Binary DVD ISO image and a valid .treeinfo file. The installation source is accessed over HTTP or HTTPS.

Prerequisites

  • You have administor level access to a server with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8, and this server is on the same network as the system to be installed.
  • You have downloaded a Binary DVD image. See Downloading the installation ISO image from the Performing a standard RHEL installation document for more information.
  • You have created a bootable CD, DVD, or USB device from the image file. See Creating installation media from the Performing a standard RHEL installation document for more information.
  • You have verified that your firewall allows the system you are installing to access the remote installation source. See Ports for network-based installation from the Performing a standard RHEL installation document for more information.

Procedure

  1. Install the httpd package:

    # yum install httpd
    Warning

    If your Apache web server configuration enables SSL security, verify that you enable only the TLSv1 protocol, and disable SSLv2 and SSLv3. This is due to the POODLE SSL vulnerability (CVE-2014-3566). See https://access.redhat.com/solutions/1232413 for details.

    Important

    If you use an HTTPS server with a self-signed certificate, you must boot the installation program with the noverifyssl option.

  2. Copy the Binary DVD ISO image to the HTTP(S) server.
  3. Mount the Binary DVD ISO image, using the mount command, to a suitable directory:

    # mkdir /mnt/rhel8-install/
    # mount -o loop,ro -t iso9660 /image_directory/image.iso /mnt/rhel8-install/

    Replace /image_directory/image.iso with the path to the Binary DVD ISO image.

  4. Copy the files from the mounted image to the HTTP(S) server root. This command creates the /var/www/html/rhel8-install/ directory with the contents of the image.

    # cp -r /mnt/rhel8-install/ /var/www/html/

    This command creates the /var/www/html/rhel8-install/ directory with the content of the image. Note that some copying methods can skip the .treeinfo file which is required for a valid installation source. Running the cp command for whole directories as shown in this procedure will copy .treeinfo correctly.

  5. Start the httpd service:

    # systemctl start httpd.service

    The installation tree is now accessible and ready to be used as the installation source.

    Note

    When configuring the installation source, use http:// or https:// as the protocol, the server host name or IP address, and the directory that contains the files from the ISO image, relative to the HTTP server root. For example, if you are using HTTP, the server host name is myserver.example.com, and you have copied the files from the image to /var/www/html/rhel8-install/, specify http://myserver.example.com/rhel8-install/ as the installation source.

Additional resources

5.5. Creating an installation source using FTP

Follow the steps in this procedure to create an installation source for a network-based installation using an installation tree, which is a directory containing extracted contents of the Binary DVD ISO image and a valid .treeinfo file. The installation source is accessed over FTP.

Prerequisites

  • You have administor level access to a server with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8, and this server is on the same network as the system to be installed.
  • You have downloaded a Binary DVD image. See Downloading the installation ISO image from the Performing a standard RHEL installation document for more information.
  • You have created a bootable CD, DVD, or USB device from the image file. See Creating installation media from the Performing a standard RHEL installation document for more information.
  • You have verified that your firewall allows the system you are installing to access the remote installation source. See Ports for network-based installation from the Performing a standard RHEL installation document for more information.

Procedure

  1. Install the vsftpd package by running the following command as root:

    # yum install vsftpd
  2. Open and edit the /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf configuration file in a text editor.

    1. Change the line anonymous_enable=NO to anonymous_enable=YES
    2. Change the line write_enable=YES to write_enable=NO.
    3. Add lines pasv_min_port=min_port and pasv_max_port=max_port. Replace min_port and max_port with the port number range used by FTP server in passive mode, e. g. 10021 and 10031.

      This step can be necessary in network environments featuring various firewall/NAT setups.

    4. Optionally, add custom changes to your configuration. For available options, see the vsftpd.conf(5) man page. This procedure assumes that default options are used.

      Warning

      If you configured SSL/TLS security in your vsftpd.conf file, ensure that you enable only the TLSv1 protocol, and disable SSLv2 and SSLv3. This is due to the POODLE SSL vulnerability (CVE-2014-3566). See https://access.redhat.com/solutions/1234773 for details.

  3. Configure the server firewall.

    1. Enable the firewall:

      # systemctl enable firewalld
      # systemctl start firewalld
    2. Enable in your firewall the FTP port and port range from previous step:

      # firewall-cmd --add-port min_port-max_port/tcp --permanent
      # firewall-cmd --add-service ftp --permanent
      # firewall-cmd --reload

      Replace min_port-max_port with the port numbers you entered into the /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf configuration file.

  4. Copy the Binary DVD ISO image to the FTP server.
  5. Mount the Binary DVD ISO image, using the mount command, to a suitable directory:

    # mkdir /mnt/rhel8-install
    # mount -o loop,ro -t iso9660 /image-directory/image.iso /mnt/rhel8-install

    Replace /image-directory/image.iso with the path to the Binary DVD ISO image.

  6. Copy the files from the mounted image to the FTP server root:

    # mkdir /var/ftp/rhel8-install
    # cp -r /mnt/rhel8-install/ /var/ftp/

    This command creates the /var/ftp/rhel8-install/ directory with the content of the image. Note that some copying methods can skip the .treeinfo file which is required for a valid installation source. Running the cp command for whole directories as shown in this procedure will copy .treeinfo correctly.

  7. Make sure that the correct SELinux context and access mode is set on the copied content:

    # restorecon -r /var/ftp/rhel8-install
    # find /var/ftp/rhel8-install -type f -exec chmod 444 {} \;
    # find /var/ftp/rhel8-install -type d -exec chmod 755 {} \;
  8. Start the vsftpd service:

    # systemctl start vsftpd.service

    If the service was running before you changed the /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf file, restart the service to load the edited file:

    # systemctl restart vsftpd.service

    Enable the vsftpd service to start during the boot process:

    # systemctl enable vsftpd

    The installation tree is now accessible and ready to be used as the installation source.

    Note

    When configuring the installation source, use ftp:// as the protocol, the server host name or IP address, and the directory in which you have stored the files from the ISO image, relative to the FTP server root. For example, if the server host name is myserver.example.com and you have copied the files from the image to /var/ftp/rhel8-install/, specify ftp://myserver.example.com/rhel8-install/ as the installation source.

Chapter 6. Starting Kickstart installations

You can start Kickstart installations in multiple ways:

  • Manually by entering the installation program boot menu and specifying the options including Kickstart file there.
  • Automatically by editing the boot options in PXE boot.
  • Automatically by providing the file on a volume with specific name.

Learn how to perform each of these methods in the following sections.

6.1. Starting a Kickstart installation manually

This section explains how to start a Kickstart installation manually, which means some user interaction is required (adding boot options at the boot: prompt). Use the boot option inst.ks=location when booting the installation system, replacing location with the location of your Kickstart file. The exact way to specify the boot option depends on your system’s architecture.

Prerequisites

  • You have a Kickstart file ready in a location accessible from the system to be installated

Procedure

  1. Boot the system using a local media (a CD, DVD, or a USB flash drive).
  2. At the boot prompt, specify the required boot options.

    1. If the Kickstart file or a required repository is in a network location, you may need to configure the network using the ip= option. The installer tries to configure all network devices using the DHCP protocol by default without this option.
    2. Add the inst.ks= boot option and the location of the Kickstart file.
    3. In order to access a software source from which necessary packages will be installed, you may need to add the inst.repo= option. If you do not specify this option, you must specify the installation source in the Kickstart file.
  3. Start the installation by confirming your added boot options.

    The installation begins now, using the options specified in the Kickstart file. If the Kickstart file is valid and contains all required commands, the installation is completely automated from this point forward.

6.2. Starting a Kickstart installation automatically using PXE

AMD64, Intel 64, and 64-bit ARM systems and IBM Power Systems servers have the ability to boot using a PXE server. When you configure the PXE server, you can add the boot option into the boot loader configuration file, which in turn lets you start the installation automatically. Using this approach, it is possible to automate the installation completely, including the boot process.

This procedure is intended as a general reference; detailed steps differ based on your system’s architecture, and not all options are available on all architectures (for example, you cannot use PXE boot on IBM Z).

Prerequisites

  • You must have a Kickstart file ready in a location accessible from the system to be installated.
  • You must have a PXE server which can be used to boot the system and begin the installation.

Procedure

  1. Open the boot loader configuration file on your PXE server, and add the inst.ks= boot option to the appropriate line. The name of the file and its syntax depends on your system’s architecture and hardware:

    • On AMD64 and Intel 64 systems with BIOS, the file name can be either default or based on your system’s IP address. In this case, add the inst.ks= option to the append line in the installation entry. A sample append line in the configuration file looks similar to the following:

      append initrd=initrd.img inst.ks=http://10.32.5.1/mnt/archive/RHEL-8/8.x/x86_64/kickstarts/ks.cfg
    • On systems using the GRUB2 boot loader (AMD64, Intel 64, and 64-bit ARM systems with UEFI firmware and IBM Power Systems servers), the file name will be grub.cfg. In this file, append the inst.ks= option to the kernel line in the installation entry. A sample kernel line in the configuration file will look similar to the following:

      kernel vmlinuz inst.ks=http://10.32.5.1/mnt/archive/RHEL-8/8.x/x86_64/kickstarts/ks.cfg
  2. Boot the installation from the network server.

    The installation begins now, using the installation options specified in the Kickstart file. If the Kickstart file is valid and contains all required commands, the installation is completely automated.

Additional resources

6.3. Starting a Kickstart installation automatically using a local volume

You can start a Kickstart installation by putting a Kickstart file with a specific name on a specifically labelled storage volume.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Boot the system using a local media (a CD, DVD, or a USB flash drive).
  2. At the boot prompt, specify the required boot options.

    1. If a required repository is in a network location, you may need to configure the network using the ip= option. The installer tries to configure all network devices using the DHCP protocol by default without this option.
    2. In order to access a software source from which necessary packages will be installed, you may need to add the inst.repo= option. If you do not specify this option, you must specify the installation source in the Kickstart file.
  3. Start the installation by confirming your added boot options.

    The installation begins now, and the Kickstart file is automatically detected and used to start an automated Kickstart installation.

Chapter 7. Consoles and logging during installation

The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installer uses the tmux terminal multiplexer to display and control several windows in addition to the main interface. Each of these windows serve a different purpose; they display several different logs, which can be used to troubleshoot issues during the installation process. One of the windows provides an interactive shell prompt with root privileges, unless this prompt was specifically disabled using a boot option or a Kickstart command.

Note

In general, there is no reason to leave the default graphical installation environment unless you need to diagnose an installation problem.

The terminal multiplexer is running in virtual console 1. To switch from the actual installation environment to tmux, press Ctrl+Alt+F1. To go back to the main installation interface which runs in virtual console 6, press Ctrl+Alt+F6.

Note

If you choose text mode installation, you will start in virtual console 1 (tmux), and switching to console 6 will open a shell prompt instead of a graphical interface.

The console running tmux has five available windows; their contents are described in the following table, along with keyboard shortcuts. Note that the keyboard shortcuts are two-part: first press Ctrl+b, then release both keys, and press the number key for the window you want to use.

You can also use Ctrl+b n, Alt+ Tab, and Ctrl+b p to switch to the next or previous tmux window, respectively.

Table 7.1. Available tmux windows

ShortcutContents

Ctrl+b 1

Main installation program window. Contains text-based prompts (during text mode installation or if you use VNC direct mode), and also some debugging information.

Ctrl+b 2

Interactive shell prompt with root privileges.

Ctrl+b 3

Installation log; displays messages stored in /tmp/anaconda.log.

Ctrl+b 4

Storage log; displays messages related to storage devices and configuration, stored in /tmp/storage.log.

Ctrl+b 5

Program log; displays messages from utilities executed during the installation process, stored in /tmp/program.log.

Chapter 8. Maintaining Kickstart files

You can run automated checks on Kickstart files. Typically, you will want to verify that a new or problematic Kickstart file is valid.

8.1. Installing Kickstart maintenance tools

To use the Kickstart maintenance tools, you must install the package that contains them.

Procedure

  • Install the pykickstart package:

    # yum install pykickstart

8.2. Verifying a Kickstart file

Use the ksvalidator command line utility to verify that your Kickstart file is valid. This is useful when you make extensive changes to a Kickstart file.

Procedure

  • Run ksvalidator on your Kickstart file:

    $ ksvalidator /path/to/kickstart.ks

    Replace /path/to/kickstart.ks with the path to the Kickstart file you want to verify.

Important

The validation tool cannot guarantee the installation will be successful. It ensures only that the syntax is correct and that the file does not include deprecated options. It does not attempt to validate the %pre, %post and %packages sections of the Kickstart file.

Additional resources

  • The ksvalidator(1) manual page.

Part II. Performing a remote RHEL installation using VNC

Chapter 9. Performing a remote RHEL installation using VNC

This section describes how to perform a remote RHEL installation using Virtual Network Computing (VNC).

9.1. Overview

The graphical user interface is the recommended method of installing RHEL when you boot the system from a CD, DVD, or USB flash drive, or from a network using PXE. However, many enterprise systems, for example, IBM Power Systems and IBM Z, are located in remote data center environments that are run autonomously and are not connected to a display, keyboard, and mouse. These systems are often referred to as headless systems and they are typically controlled over a network connection. The RHEL installation program includes a Virtual Network Computing (VNC) installation that runs the graphical installation on the target machine, but control of the graphical installation is handled by another system on the network. The RHEL installation program offers two VNC installation modes: Direct and Connect. Once a connection is established, the two modes do not differ. The mode you select depends on your environment.

Direct mode
In Direct mode, the RHEL installation program is configured to start on the target system and wait for a VNC viewer that is installed on another system before proceeding. As part of the Direct mode installation, the IP address and port are displayed on the target system. You can use the VNC viewer to connect to the target system remotely using the IP address and port, and complete the graphical installation.
Connect mode
In Connect mode, the VNC viewer is started on a remote system in listening mode. The VNC viewer waits for an incoming connection from the target system on a specified port. When the RHEL installation program starts on the target system, the system host name and port number are provided by using a boot option or a Kickstart command. The installation program then establishes a connection with the listening VNC viewer using the specified system host name and port number. To use Connect mode, the system with the listening VNC viewer must be able to accept incoming network connections.

9.2. Considerations

Consider the following items when performing a remote RHEL installation using VNC:

  • VNC client application: A VNC client application is required to perform both a VNC Direct and Connect installation. VNC client applications are available in the repositories of most Linux distributions, and free VNC client applications are also available for other operating systems such as Windows. The following VNC client applications are available in RHEL:

    • tigervnc is independent of your desktop environment and is installed as part of the tigervnc package.
    • vinagre is part of the GNOME desktop environment and is installed as part of the vinagre package.
Note

A VNC server is included in the installation program and doesn’t need to be installed.

  • Network and firewall:

    • If the target system is not allowed inbound connections by a firewall, then you must use Connect mode or disable the firewall. Disabling a firewall can have security implications.
    • If the system that is running the VNC viewer is not allowed incoming connections by a firewall, then you must use Direct mode, or disable the firewall. Disabling a firewall can have security implications. See the Security hardening document for more information on configuring the firewall.
  • Custom Boot Options: You must specify custom boot options to start a VNC installation and the installation instructions might differ depending on your system architecture.
  • VNC in Kickstart installations: You can use VNC-specific commands in Kickstart installations. Using only the vnc command runs a RHEL installation in Direct mode. Additional options are available to set up an installation using Connect mode. For more information about Kickstart installations, see Section 2.1, “What are Kickstart installations”.

9.3. Performing a remote RHEL installation in VNC Direct mode

Use this procedure to perform a remote RHEL installation in VNC Direct mode. Direct mode expects the VNC viewer to initiate a connection to the target system that is being installed with RHEL. In this procedure, the system with the VNC viewer is called the remote system. You are prompted by the RHEL installation program to initiate the connection from the VNC viewer on the remote system to the target system.

Note

This procedure uses TigerVNC as the VNC viewer. Specific instructions for other viewers might differ, but the general principles apply.

Prerequisites

  • As root, you have installed a VNC viewer on a remote system, for example:

    # yum install tigervnc
  • You have set up a network boot server and booted the installation on the target system. For more information, see Section 12.1, “Network install overview”.

Procedure

  1. From the RHEL boot menu on the target system, press the Tab key on your keyboard to edit the boot options.
  2. Append the inst.vnc option to the end of the command line.

    1. If you want to restrict VNC access to the system that is being installed, add the inst.vncpassword=PASSWORD boot option to the end of the command line. Replace PASSWORD with the password you want to use for the installation. The VNC password must be between 6 and 8 characters long.

      Important

      Use a temporary password for the inst.vncpassword= option. It should not be an existing or root password.

  3. Press Enter to start the installation. The target system initializes the installation program and starts the necessary services. When the system is ready, a message is displayed providing the IP address and port number of the system.
  4. Open the VNC viewer on the remote system.
  5. Enter the IP address and the port number into the VNC server field.
  6. Click Connect.
  7. Enter the VNC password and click OK. A new window opens with the VNC connection established, displaying the RHEL installation menu. From this window, you can install RHEL on the target system using the graphical user interface.

Additional resources

  • For more information on how to perform a RHEL installation using the graphical user interface, see the Installing RHEL using the Graphical User Interface section in the Performing a standard RHEL installation document.

9.4. Performing a remote RHEL installation in VNC Connect mode

Use this procedure to perform a remote RHEL installation in VNC Connect mode. In Connect mode, the target system that is being installed with RHEL initiates a connect to the VNC viewer that is installed on another system. In this procedure, the system with the VNC viewer is called the remote system.

Note

This procedure uses TigerVNC as the VNC viewer. Specific instructions for other viewers might differ, but the general principles apply.

Prerequisites

  • As root, you have installed a VNC viewer on a remote system, for example:

    # yum install tigervnc
  • You have set up a network boot server to start the installation on the target system. For more information, see Section 12.1, “Network install overview”.
  • You have configured the target system to use the boot options for a VNC Connect installation.
  • You have verified that the remote system with the VNC viewer is configured to accept an incoming connection on the required port. Verification is dependent on your network and system configuration. For more information, see the Security hardening and Securing networks documents.

Procedure

  1. Start the VNC viewer on the remote system in listening mode by running the following command:

    $ vncviewer -listen PORT
  2. Replace PORT with the port number used for the connection.
  3. The terminal displays a message indicating that it is waiting for an incoming connection from the target system.

    TigerVNC Viewer 64-bit v1.8.0
    Built on: 2017-10-12 09:20
    Copyright (C) 1999-2017 TigerVNC Team and many others (see README.txt)
    See http://www.tigervnc.org for information on TigerVNC.
    
    Thu Jun 27 11:30:57 2019
     main:        Listening on port 5500
  4. Boot the target system from the network.
  5. From the RHEL boot menu on the target system, press the Tab key on your keyboard to edit the boot options.
  6. Append the inst.vnc inst.vncconnect=HOST:PORT option to the end of the command line.
  7. Replace HOST with the IP address of the remote system that is running the listening VNC viewer, and PORT with the port number that the VNC viewer is listening on.
  8. Press Enter to start the installation. The system initializes the installation program and starts the necessary services. When the initialization process is finished, the installation program attempts to connect to the IP address and port provided.
  9. When the connection is successful, a new window opens with the VNC connection established, displaying the RHEL installation menu. From this window, you can install RHEL on the target system using the graphical user interface.

Additional resources

  • For more information on how to perform a RHEL installation using the graphical user interface, see the Installing RHEL using the Graphical User Interface section in the Performing a standard RHEL installation document.

Part III. Advanced configuration options

Chapter 10. Configuring System Purpose

System administrators use System Purpose to record the intended use of a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 system by the organization. When you set a system’s purpose, the entitlement server receives information that helps auto-attach a subscription that satisfies the intended use of the system. This section describes how to configure System Purpose using Kickstart.

Benefits include:

  • In-depth system-level information for system administrators and business operations.
  • Reduced overhead when determining why a system was procured and its intended purpose.
  • Improved customer experience of Subscription Manager auto-attach as well as automated discovery and reconciliation of system usage.

10.1. Overview

You can enter System Purpose data in the following ways:

  • During image creation.
  • During installation using the graphical user interface.
  • Using Kickstart automation scripts.
  • Using the syspurpose command-line tool.

You can configure the following components:

  • Role:

    • Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server
    • Red Hat Enterprise Linux Workstation
    • Red Hat Enterprise Linux Client/Desktop
    • Red Hat Enterprise Linux Compute Node
  • Service Level Agreement:

    • Premium
    • Standard
    • Self-Support
  • Usage:

    • Production
    • Disaster Recovery
    • Development/Test

Additional resources

10.2. Configuring System Purpose in a Kickstart file

Follow the steps in this procedure to use the syspurpose command to configure System Purpose in a Kickstart configuration file.

Note

While it is strongly recommended that you configure System Purpose, it is an optional feature of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program. If you want to enable System Purpose after the installation completes, you can do so using the syspurpose command-line tool.

The following actions are available:

role

Set the intended role of the system. This action uses the following format:

syspurpose --role=

The assigned role can be:

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux Workstation
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux Client/Desktop
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux Compute Node
SLA

Set the intended SLA of the system. This action uses the following format:

syspurpose --sla=

The assigned sla can be:

  • Premium
  • Standard
  • Self-Support
usage

Set the intended usage of the system. This action uses the following format:

syspurpose --usage=

The assigned usage can be:

  • Production
  • Disaster Recovery
  • Development/Test

Chapter 11. Updating drivers during installation

This section describes how to complete a driver update during the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation process.

Note

This is an optional step of the installation process. Red Hat recommends that you do not perform a driver update unless it is necessary.

11.1. Prerequisite

You have been notified by Red Hat, your hardware vendor, or a trusted third-party vendor that a driver update is required during Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.

11.2. Overview

Red Hat Enterprise Linux supports drivers for many hardware devices but some newly-released drivers may not be supported. A driver update should only be performed if an unsupported driver prevents the installation from completing. Updating drivers during installation is typically only required to support a particular configuration. For example, installing drivers for a storage adapter card that provides access to your system’s storage devices.

Warning

Driver update disks may disable conflicting kernel drivers. In rare cases, unloading a kernel module may cause installation errors.

11.3. Types of driver update

Red Hat, your hardware vendor, or a trusted third party provides the driver update as an ISO image file. Once you receive the ISO image file, choose the type of driver update.

Types of driver update

Automatic
The recommended driver update method; a storage device (including a CD, DVD, or USB flash drive) labeled OEMDRV is physically connected to the system. If the OEMDRV storage device is present when the installation starts, it is treated as a driver update disk, and the installation program automatically loads its drivers.
Assisted
The installation program prompts you to locate a driver update. You can use any local storage device with a label other than OEMDRV. The inst.dd boot option is specified when starting the installation. If you use this option without any parameters, the installation program displays all of the storage devices connected to the system, and prompts you to select a device that contains a driver update.
Manual
Manually specify a path to a driver update image or an RPM package. You can use any local storage device with a label other than OEMDRV, or a network location accessible from the installation system. The inst.dd=location boot option is specified when starting the installation, where location is the path to a driver update disk or ISO image. When you specify this option, the installation program attempts to load any driver updates found at the specified location. With manual driver updates, you can specify local storage devices, or a network location (HTTP, HTTPS or FTP server).
Note
  • You can use both inst.dd=location and inst.dd simultaneously, where location is the path to a driver update disk or ISO image. In this scenario, the installation program attempts to load any available driver updates from the location and also prompts you to select a device that contains the driver update.
  • Initialize the network using the ip= option when loading a driver update from a network location.

Limitations

On UEFI systems with the Secure Boot technology enabled, all drivers must be signed with a valid certificate. Red Hat drivers are signed by one of Red Hat’s private keys and authenticated by its corresponding public key in the kernel. If you load additional, separate drivers, verify that they are signed.

11.4. Preparing a driver update

This procedure describes how to prepare a driver update on a CD and DVD.

Prerequisites

  • You received the driver update ISO image from Red Hat, your hardware vendor, or a trusted third-party vendor.
  • You burned the driver update ISO image to a CD or DVD.
Warning

If only a single ISO image file ending in .iso is available on the CD or DVD, the burn process has not been successful. See your system’s burning software documentation for instructions on how to burn ISO images to a CD or DVD.

Procedure

  1. Insert the driver update CD or DVD into your system’s CD/DVD drive, and browse it using the system’s file manager tool.
  2. Verify that a single file rhdd3 is available. rhdd3 is a signature file that contains the driver description and a directory named rpms, which contains the RPM packages with the actual drivers for various architectures.

11.5. Performing an automatic driver update

This procedure describes how to perform an automatic driver update during installation.

Prerequisites

  • You have placed the driver update image on a standard disk partition with an OEMDRV label or burnt the OEMDRV driver update image to a CD or DVD. Advanced storage, such as RAID or LVM volumes, may not be accessible during the driver update process.
  • You have connected a block device with an OEMDRV volume label to your system, or inserted the prepared CD or DVD into your system’s CD/DVD drive before starting the installation process.

Procedure

  1. Once you have completed the prerequisite steps, the drivers are automatically loaded when the installation program starts, and installed on the system during the installation process.

11.6. Performing an assisted driver update

This procedure describes how to perform an assisted driver update during installation.

Prerequisites

You have connected a block device without an OEMDRV volume label to your system and copied the driver disk image to this device, or you have prepared a driver update CD or DVD and inserted it into your system’s CD/DVD drive before starting the installation process.

Note

If you burned an ISO image file to a CD or DVD but it does not have the OEMDRV volume label, you can use the inst.dd option with no arguments. The installation program provides an option to scan and select drivers from the CD or DVD. In this scenario, the installation program does not prompt you to select a driver update ISO image. Another scenario is to use the CD or DVD with the inst.dd=location boot option; this allows the installation program to automatically scan the CD or DVD for driver updates. For more information, see Section 11.7, “Performing a manual driver update”.

Procedure

  1. From the boot menu window, press the Tab key on your keyboard to display the boot command line.
  2. Append the inst.dd boot option to the command line and press Enter to execute the boot process.
  3. From the menu, select a local disk partition or a CD or DVD device. The installation program scans for ISO files, or driver update RPM packages.
  4. Optional: Select the driver update ISO file.

    Note

    This step is not required if the selected device or partition contains driver update RPM packages rather than an ISO image file, for example, an optical drive containing a driver update CD or DVD.

  5. Select the required drivers.

    1. Use the number keys on your keyboard to toggle the driver selection.
    2. Press c to install the selected driver. The selected driver is loaded and the installation process starts.

11.7. Performing a manual driver update

This procedure describes how to perform a manual driver update during installation.

Prerequisites

  • Place the driver update ISO image file on a USB flash drive or a web server, and connect it to your computer.

Procedure

  1. From the boot menu window, press the Tab key on your keyboard to display the boot command line.
  2. Append the inst.dd=location boot option to the command line, where location is a path to the driver update. Typically, the image file is located on a web server, for example, http://server.example.com/dd.iso, or on a USB flash drive, for example, /dev/sdb1. It is also possible to specify an RPM package containing the driver update, for example http://server.example.com/dd.rpm.
  3. Press Enter to execute the boot process. The drivers available at the specified location are automatically loaded and the installation process starts.

Additional resources

  • For more information about the inst.dd boot option, see the upstream inst.dd boot option content.
  • For more information about all boot options, see the upstream Boot Options content.

11.8. Disabling a driver

This procedure describes how to disable a malfunctioning driver.

Prerequisites

  • You have booted the installation program boot menu.

Procedure

  1. From the boot menu, press the Tab key on your keyboard to display the boot command line.
  2. Append the modprobe.blacklist=driver_name boot option to the command line.
  3. Replace driver_name with the name of the driver or drivers you want to disable, for example:

    modprobe.blacklist=ahci

    Drivers disabled using the modprobe.blacklist= boot option remain disabled on the installed system and appear in the /etc/modprobe.d/anaconda-blacklist.conf file.

  4. Press Enter to execute the boot process.

Chapter 12. Preparing to install from the network using PXE

This section describes how to configure TFTP and DHCP on a PXE server to enable PXE boot and network installation.

12.1. Network install overview

A network installation allows you to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux to a system that has access to an installation server. At a minimum, two systems are required for a network installation:

PXE Server: A system running a DHCP server, a TFTP server, and an HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, or NFS server. While each server can run on a different physical system, the procedures in this section assume a single system is running all servers.

Client: The system to which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Once installation starts, the client queries the DHCP server, receives the boot files from the TFTP server, and downloads the installation image from the HTTP, HTTPS, FTP or NFS server. Unlike other installation methods, the client does not require any physical boot media for the installation to start.

Note

To boot a client from the network, configure it in BIOS/UEFI or a quick boot menu. On some hardware, the option to boot from a network might be disabled, or not available.

The workflow steps to prepare to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a network using PXE are as follows:

Steps

  1. Export the installation ISO image (or the installation tree) to an NFS, HTTPS, HTTP, or FTP server.
  2. Configure the TFTP server and DHCP server, and start the TFTP service on the PXE server.
  3. Boot the client, and start the installation.
Important

The GRUB2 boot loader supports a network boot from HTTP in addition to a TFTP server. Sending the boot files (the kernel and initial RAM disk - vmlinuz and initrd) over this protocol might be slow and result in timeout failures. An HTTP server does not carry this risk, but it is recommended that you use a TFTP server when sending the boot files.

Additional resources

12.2. Configuring a TFTP server for BIOS-based clients

This procedure describes how to configure a TFTP server and DHCP server, and start the TFTP service on the PXE server for BIOS-based AMD and Intel 64-bit systems.

Procedure

  1. As root, install the following packages:

    # yum install tftp-server dhcp-server xinetd
  2. Allow incoming connections to the tftp service in the firewall:

    # firewall-cmd --add-service=tftp
    Note
    • This command enables temporary access until the next server reboot. To enable permanent access, add the --permanent option to the command.
    • Depending on the location of the installation ISO file, you might have to allow incoming connections for HTTP or other services.
  3. Configure your DHCP server to use the boot images packaged with SYSLINUX. A sample configuration in the /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf file might look like:

    option space pxelinux;
    option pxelinux.magic code 208 = string;
    option pxelinux.configfile code 209 = text;
    option pxelinux.pathprefix code 210 = text;
    option pxelinux.reboottime code 211 = unsigned integer 32;
    option architecture-type code 93 = unsigned integer 16;
    
    subnet 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
    	option routers 10.0.0.254;
    	range 10.0.0.2 10.0.0.253;
    
    	class "pxeclients" {
    	  match if substring (option vendor-class-identifier, 0, 9) = "PXEClient";
    	  next-server 10.0.0.1;
    
    	  if option architecture-type = 00:07 {
    	    filename "uefi/shim.efi";
    	    } else {
    	    filename "pxelinux/pxelinux.0";
    	  }
    	}
    }
  4. Access the pxelinux.0 file from the SYSLINUX package in the Binary DVD ISO image file:

    # mount -t iso9660 /path_to_image/name_of_image.iso /mount_point -o loop,ro
    # cp -pr /mount_point/BaseOS/Packages/syslinux-tftpboot-version-architecture.rpm /publicly_available_directory
    # umount /mount_point
  5. Extract the package:

    # rpm2cpio syslinux-tftpboot-version-architecture.rpm | cpio -dimv
  6. Create a pxelinux/ directory within tftpboot/ and copy the required files, for example: pxelinux.0 libcom.c32, ldlinux.c32, vesamenu.c32 into it:

    # mkdir /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux
    # cp publicly_available_directory/tftpboot/pxelinux.0 /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux
  7. Create the directory pxelinux.cfg/ in the pxelinux/ directory:

    # mkdir /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/pxelinux.cfg
  8. Add a default configuration file to the pxelinux.cfg/ directory. A sample configuration file at /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/pxelinux.cfg/default might look like:

    default vesamenu.c32
    prompt 1
    timeout 600
    
    display boot.msg
    
    label linux
      menu label ^Install system
      menu default
      kernel images/RHEL-8.1/vmlinuz
      append initrd=images/RHEL-8.1/initrd.img ip=dhcp inst.repo=http://10.32.5.1/RHEL-8.1/x86_64/iso-contents-root/
    label vesa
      menu label Install system with ^basic video driver
      kernel images/RHEL-8.1/vmlinuz
      append initrd=images/RHEL-8.1/initrd.img ip=dhcp inst.xdriver=vesa nomodeset inst.repo=http://10.32.5.1/RHEL-8.1/x86_64/iso-contents-root/
    label rescue
      menu label ^Rescue installed system
      kernel images/RHEL-8.1/vmlinuz
      append initrd=images/RHEL-8.1/initrd.img rescue
    label local
      menu label Boot from ^local drive
      localboot 0xffff
    Note
    • The installation program cannot boot without its runtime image. Use the inst.stage2 boot option to specify location of the image. Alternatively, you can use the inst.repo= option to specify the image as well as the installation source.
    • The installation source location used with inst.repo must contain a valid .treeinfo file.
    • When you select the RHEL8 installation DVD as the installation source, the .treeinfo file points to the BaseOS and the AppStream repositories. You can use a single inst.repo option to load both repositories.
  9. Create a subdirectory to store the boot image files in the /var/lib/tftpboot/ directory, and copy the boot image files to the directory. In this example, we use the directory /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/images/RHEL-8.1/:

    # mkdir -p /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/images/RHEL-8.1/
    # cp /path_to_x86_64_images/pxeboot/{vmlinuz,initrd.img} /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux/images/RHEL-8.1/
  10. Start and enable the dhcpd service:

    # systemctl start dhcpd
    # systemctl enable dhcpd
  11. Start and enable the xinetd service that manages the tftp service:

    # systemctl start xinetd
    # systemctl enable xinetd

    The PXE boot server is now ready to serve PXE clients. You can start the client (the system to which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux), select PXE Boot when prompted to specify a boot source, and start the network installation.

12.3. Configuring a TFTP server for UEFI-based clients

This procedure describes how to configure a TFTP server and DHCP server, and start the TFTP service on the PXE server for UEFI-based AMD64, Intel 64, and 64-bit ARM systems.

Procedure

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 UEFI PXE boot supports a lowercase file format for a MAC-based grub menu file. For example, the MAC address file format for grub2 is grub.cfg-01-aa-bb-cc-dd-ee-ff

  1. As root, install the following packages:

    # yum install tftp-server dhcp-server xinetd
  2. Allow incoming connections to the tftp service in the firewall:

    # firewall-cmd --add-service=tftp
    Note
    • This command enables temporary access until the next server reboot. To enable permanent access, add the --permanent option to the command.
    • Depending on the location of the installation ISO file, you might have to allow incoming connections for HTTP or other services.
  3. Configure your DHCP server to use the boot images packaged with shim. A sample configuration in the /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf file might look like:

    option space pxelinux;
    option pxelinux.magic code 208 = string;
    option pxelinux.configfile code 209 = text;
    option pxelinux.pathprefix code 210 = text;
    option pxelinux.reboottime code 211 = unsigned integer 32;
    option architecture-type code 93 = unsigned integer 16;
    
    subnet 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
    	option routers 10.0.0.254;
    	range 10.0.0.2 10.0.0.253;
    
    	class "pxeclients" {
    	  match if substring (option vendor-class-identifier, 0, 9) = "PXEClient";
    	  next-server 10.0.0.1;
    
    	  if option architecture-type = 00:07 {
    	    filename "BOOTX64.efi";
    	  } else {
    	    filename "pxelinux/pxelinux.0";
    		}
      }
    }
  4. Access the BOOTX64.efi file from the shim package, and the grubx64.efi file from the grub2-efi package in the Binary DVD ISO image file:

    # mount -t iso9660 /path_to_image/name_of_image.iso /mount_point -o loop,ro
    # cp -pr /mount_point/BaseOS/Packages/shim-version-architecture.rpm /publicly_available_directory
    # cp -pr /mount_point/BaseOS/Packages/grub2-efi-version-architecture.rpm /publicly_available_directory
    # umount /mount_point
  5. Extract the packages:

    # rpm2cpio shim-version-architecture.rpm | cpio -dimv
    # rpm2cpio grub2-efi-version-architecture.rpm | cpio -dimv
  6. Copy the EFI boot images from your boot directory.

    # cp publicly_available_directory/boot/efi/EFI/redhat/BOOTX64.efi /var/lib/tftpboot/uefi/
    # cp publicly_available_directory/boot/efi/EFI/redhat/grubx64.efi /var/lib/tftpboot/uefi
  7. Add a configuration file named grub.cfg to the tftpboot/ directory. A sample configuration file at /var/lib/tftpboot/uefi/grub.cfg may look like:

    set timeout=60
    menuentry 'RHEL 8' {
      linuxefi images/RHEL-8.1/vmlinuz ip=dhcp inst.repo=http://10.32.5.1/RHEL-8.1/x86_64/iso-contents-root/
      initrdefi images/RHEL-8.1/initrd.img
    }
    Note
    • The installation program cannot boot without its runtime image. Use the inst.stage2 boot option to specify location of the image. Alternatively, you can use the inst.repo= option to specify the image as well as the installation source.
    • The installation source location used with inst.repo must contain a valid .treeinfo file.
    • When you select the RHEL8 installation DVD as the installation source, the .treeinfo file points to the BaseOS and the AppStream repositories. You can use a single inst.repo option to load both repositories.
  8. Create a subdirectory to store the boot image files in the /var/lib/tftpboot/ directory, and copy the boot image files to the directory. In this example, we use the directory /var/lib/tftpboot/images/RHEL-8.1/:

    # mkdir -p /var/lib/tftpboot/images/RHEL-8.1/
    # cp /path_to_x86_64_images/pxeboot/{vmlinuz,initrd.img} /var/lib/tftpboot/images/RHEL-8.1/
  9. Start and enable the dhcpd service:

    # systemctl start dhcpd
    # systemctl enable dhcpd
  10. Start and enable the xinetd service that manages the tftp service:

    # systemctl start xinetd
    # systemctl enable xinetd

    The PXE boot server is now ready to serve PXE clients. You can start the client (the system to which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux), select PXE Boot when prompted to specify a boot source, and start the network installation.

Additional resources

12.4. Configuring a network server for IBM Power systems

This procedure describes how to configure a network boot server for IBM Power systems using GRUB2.

Procedure

  1. As root, install the following packages:

    # yum install tftp-server dhcp-server xinetd
  2. Allow incoming connections to the tftp service in the firewall:

    # firewall-cmd --add-service=tftp
    Note
    • This command enables temporary access until the next server reboot. To enable permanent access, add the --permanent option to the command.
    • Depending on the location of the installation ISO file, you might have to allow incoming connections for HTTP or other services.
  3. Create a GRUB2 network boot directory inside the tftp root:

    # grub2-mknetdir --net-directory=/var/lib/tftpboot
    Netboot directory for powerpc-ieee1275 created. Configure your DHCP server to point to /boot/grub2/powerpc-ieee1275/core.elf
    Note

    The command’s output informs you of the file name that needs to be configured in your DHCP configuration, described in this procedure.

    1. If the PXE server runs on an x86 machine, the grub2-ppc64-modules must be installed before creating a GRUB2 network boot directory inside the tftp root:

      # yum install grub2-ppc64-modules
  4. Create a GRUB2 configuration file: /var/lib/tftpboot/boot/grub2/grub.cfg. Below is an example configuration file:

    set default=0
    set timeout=5
    
    echo -e "\nWelcome to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 installer!\n\n"
    
    menuentry 'Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8' {
      linux grub2-ppc64/vmlinuz ro ip=dhcp inst.repo=http://10.32.5.1/RHEL-8.1/x86_64/iso-contents-root/
      initrd grub2-ppc64/initrd.img
    }
    Note
    • The installation program cannot boot without its runtime image. Use the inst.stage2 boot option to specify location of the image. Alternatively, you can use the inst.repo= option to specify the image as well as the installation source.
    • The installation source location used with inst.repo must contain a valid .treeinfo file.
    • When you select the RHEL8 installation DVD as the installation source, the .treeinfo file points to the BaseOS and the AppStream repositories. You can use a single inst.repo option to load both repositories.
  5. Mount the Binary DVD ISO image using the command:

    # mount -t iso9660 /path_to_image/name_of_iso/ /mount_point -o loop,ro
  6. Create a directory and copy the initrd.img and vmlinuz files from Binary DVD ISO image into it, for example:

    # cp /mount_point/ppc/ppc64/{initrd.img,vmlinuz} /var/lib/tftpboot/grub2-ppc64/
  7. Configure your DHCP server to use the boot images packaged with GRUB2. A sample configuration in the /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf file might look like:

    subnet 192.168.0.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
      allow bootp;
      option routers 192.168.0.5;
      group { #BOOTP POWER clients
        filename "boot/grub2/powerpc-ieee1275/core.elf";
        host client1 {
        hardware ethernet 01:23:45:67:89:ab;
        fixed-address 192.168.0.112;
        }
      }
    }
  8. Adjust the sample parameters (subnet, netmask, routers, fixed-address and hardware ethernet) to fit your network configuration. Note the file name parameter; this is the file name that was outputted by the grub2-mknetdir command earlier in this procedure.
  9. Start and enable the dhcpd service:

    # systemctl start dhcpd
    # systemctl enable dhcpd
  10. Start and enable xinetd service that manages the tftp service:

    # systemctl start xinetd
    # systemctl enable xinetd

    The PXE boot server is now ready to serve PXE clients. You can start the client (the system to which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux), select PXE Boot when prompted to specify a boot source, and start the network installation.

Chapter 13. Creating a remote repository

Follow the steps in this procedure to create an installation source for a network-based installation using a remote repository containing extracted contents of the Binary DVD ISO image. The installation source is accessed over HTTP or HTTPS.

Prerequisites

  • A Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 installation DVD/ISO image
  • Several servers running Red Hat Enterprise Linux

13.1. Installing Apache on RHEL

This procedure will help you install Apache on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.

Prerequisites

  • Access to a repo with Apache webserver

Procedure

  1. Install the httpd package

    # yum install httpd
  2. Run, then enable the Apache webserver. These commands will also start the webserver after reboot.

    # systemctl enable httpd
    # systemctl start httpd
  3. Insert any website files you may have.

    # echo Apache on RHEL 8 > /var/www/html/index.html
  4. Update the firewall.

    # firewall-cmd --add-service=http --permanent
    # firewall-cmd --add-service=http
  5. Access the website.

    http://<the-apache-ip-address>
    
    http://<the-apache-hostname>

13.2. Creating a remote repository

Multiple Red Hat Enterprise Linux servers may access a single Red Hat Enterprise Linux repository on the network. This requires a running web server, most likely this will be Apache.

Prerequisites

  • A Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 installation DVD
  • Several servers running Red Hat Enterprise Linux

Procedure

  1. Mount and copy the content of downloaded DVD.

    mkdir /mnt/rhel8
    mount -o loop,ro rhel-8.1-x86_64-dvd.iso /mnt/rhel8/
    cp -r /mnt/rhel8/ /var/www/html/
    umount  /mnt/rhel8

    The next step is performed on the client side, not on the server where Apache is installed.

  2. Create a repo file for both BaseOS and AppStream repositories.

    vi /etc/yum.repos.d/rhel_http_repo.repo
    
    [BaseOS_repo_http]
    name=RHEL_8.0_x86_64_HTTP BaseOS
    baseurl="http://myhost/rhel8/BaseOS"
    gpgcheck=1
    gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-redhat-release
    
    [AppStream_repo_http]
    name=RHEL_8.0_x86_64_HTTP AppStream
    baseurl="http://myhost/rhel8/AppStream"
    gpgcheck=1
    gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-redhat-release
    
    [root@localhost ~]# yum repolist
    Updating Subscription Management repositories.
    Unable to read consumer identity
    This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.
    Last metadata expiration check: 0:08:33 ago on Út 23. července 2019, 16:48:09 CEST.
    repo id                                                              repo name                                                                        status
    AppStream_repo_http                                                  RHEL_8.0_x86_64_HTTP AppStream                                                   4,672
    BaseOS_repo_http                                                     RHEL_8.0_x86_64_HTTP BaseOS                                                      1,658
    [root@localhost ~]#

Chapter 14. Boot options

This section contains information about some of the boot options that you can use to modify the default behavior of the installation program. For a full list of boot options, see the upstream boot option content.

14.1. Types of boot options

There are two types of boot options; those with an equals "=" sign, and those without an equals "=" sign. Boot options are appended to the boot command line and multiple options must be separated by a single space. Boot options that are specific to the installation program always start with inst.

Options with an equals "=" sign
You must specify a value for boot options that use the = symbol. For example, the inst.vncpassword= option must contain a value, in this case, a password. The correct syntax for this example is inst.vncpassword=password.
Options without an equals "=" sign
This boot option does not accept any values or parameters. For example, the rd.live.check option forces the installation program to verify the installation media before starting the installation. If this boot option is present, the verification is performed; if the boot option is not present, the verification is skipped.

14.2. Editing boot options

This section contains information about the different ways that you can edit boot options from the boot menu. The boot menu opens after you boot the installation media.

Editing the boot: prompt in BIOS

When using the boot: prompt, the first option must always specify the installation program image file that you want to load. In most cases, you can specify the image using the keyword. You can specify additional options according to your requirements.

Prerequisites

  • You have created bootable installation media (USB, CD or DVD).
  • You have booted the installation from the media, and the installation boot menu is open.

Procedure

  1. With the boot menu open, press the Esc key on your keyboard.
  2. The boot: prompt is now accessible.
  3. Press the Tab key on your keyboard to display the help commands.
  4. Press the Enter key on your keyboard to start the installation with your options. To return from the boot: prompt to the boot menu, restart the system and boot from the installation media again.
Note

The boot: prompt also accepts dracut kernel options. A list of options is available in the dracut.cmdline(7) man page.

Editing the > prompt

You can use the > prompt to edit predefined boot options. For example, select Test this media and install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.1 from the boot menu to display a full set of options.

Note

This procedure is for BIOS-based AMD64 and Intel 64 systems.

Prerequisites

  • You have created bootable installation media (USB, CD or DVD).
  • You have booted the installation from the media, and the installation boot menu is open.

Procedure

  1. From the boot menu, select an option and press the Tab key on your keyboard. The > prompt is accessible and displays the available options.
  2. Append the options that you require to the > prompt.
  3. Press the Enter key on your keyboard to start the installation.
  4. Press the Esc key on your keyboard to cancel editing and return to the boot menu.

Editing the GRUB2 menu

The GRUB2 menu is available on UEFI-based AMD64, Intel 64, and 64-bit ARM systems.

Prerequisites

  • You have created bootable installation media (USB, CD or DVD).
  • You have booted the installation from the media, and the installation boot menu is open.

Procedure

  1. From the boot menu window, select an option and press the e key on your keyboard.
  2. When you finish editing, press F10 or Ctrl+X on your keyboard to start the installation using the specified options.

14.3. Installation source boot options

This section contains information about the various installation source boot options.

inst.repo=

The inst.repo= boot option specifies the installation source, that is, the location providing the package repositories and a valid .treeinfo file that describes them. For example: inst.repo=cdrom. The target of the inst.repo= option must be one of the following installation media:

  • an installable tree, which is a directory structure containing the installation program images, packages, and repository data as well as a valid .treeinfo file
  • a DVD (a physical disk present in the system DVD drive)
  • an ISO image of the full Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD, placed on a hard drive or a network location accessible to the system.

    You can use the inst.repo= boot option to configure different installation methods using different formats. The following table contains details of the inst.repo= boot option syntax:

    Table 14.1. inst.repo= installation source boot options

    Source typeBoot option formatSource format

    CD/DVD drive

    inst.repo=cdrom[:device]

    Installation DVD as a physical disk. [a]

    Installable tree

    inst.repo=hd:device:/path

    Image file of the installation DVD, or an installation tree, which is a complete copy of the directories and files on the installation DVD.

    NFS Server

    inst.repo=nfs:[options:]server:/path

    Image file of the installation DVD. [b]

    HTTP Server

    inst.repo=http://host/path

    Installation tree, which is a complete copy of the directories and files on the installation DVD.

    HTTPS Server

    inst.repo=https://host/path

    FTP Server

    inst.repo=ftp://username:password@host/path

    HMC

    inst.repo=hmc

     
    [a] If device is left out, installation program automatically searches for a drive containing the installation DVD.
    [b] The NFS Server option uses NFS protocol version 3 by default. To use a different version X, add +nfsvers=X to options.
    Note

    The NFS Server option uses NFS protocol version 3 by default. To use a different version, add +nfsvers=X to the option.

    You can set disk device names with the following formats:

  • Kernel device name, for example /dev/sda1 or sdb2
  • File system label, for example LABEL=Flash or LABEL=RHEL8
  • File system UUID, for example UUID=8176c7bf-04ff-403a-a832-9557f94e61db

    Non-alphanumeric characters must be represented as \xNN, where NN is the hexadecimal representation of the character. For example, \x20 is a white space (" ").

inst.addrepo=

Use the inst.addrepo= boot option to add an additional repository that can be used as another installation source along with the main repository (inst.repo=). You can use the inst.addrepo= boot option multip le times during one boot. The following table contains details of the inst.addrepo= boot option syntax.

Note

The REPO_NAME is the name of the repository and is required in the installation process. These repositories are only used during the installation process; they are not installed on the installed system.

Table 14.2. inst.addrepo installation source boot options

Installation sourceBoot option formatAdditional information

Installable tree at a URL

inst.addrepo=REPO_NAME,[http,https,ftp]://<host>/<path>

Looks for the installable tree at a given URL.

Installable tree at an NFS path

inst.addrepo=REPO_NAME,nfs://<server>:/<path>

Looks for the installable tree at a given NFS path. A colon is required after the host. The installation program passes every thing after nfs:// directly to the mount command instead of parsing URLs according to RFC 2224.

Installable tree in the installation environment

inst.addrepo=REPO_NAME,file://<path>

Looks for the installable tree at the given location in the installation environment. To use this option, the repositor y must be mounted before the installation program attempts to load the available software groups. The benefit of this option is that you can have multiple repositories on one bootable ISO, and you can install both the main repository and additional repositories from the ISO. The path to the additional repositories is /run/install/source/REPO_ISO_PATH. Additional, you can mount the repository directory in the %pre secti on in the Kickstart file. The path must be absolute and start with /, for example inst.addrepo=REPO_NAME,file:///<path>

Hard Drive

inst.addrepo=REPO_NAME,hd:<device>:<path>

Mounts the given <device> partition and installs from the ISO that is specified by the <path>. If the <path> is not specified, the installation p rogram looks for a valid installation ISO on the <device>. This installation method requires an ISO with a valid installable tree.

inst.noverifyssl=
The noverifyssl= boot option prevents the installation program from verifying the SSL certificate for all HTTPS connections with the exception of the additional Kickstart repositories, where --noverifyssl can be set per repository.
inst.stage2=

Use the inst.stage2= boot option to specify the location of the installation program runtime image. This option expects a path to a directory containing a valid .treeinfo file. The location of the runtime image is read from the .treeinfo file. If the .treeinfo file is not available, the installation program attempts to load the image from LiveOS/squashfs.img.

When the inst.stage2 option is not specified, the installation program attempts to use the location specified with inst.repo option.

You should specify this option only for PXE boot. The installation DVD and Boot ISO already contain a correct inst.stage2 option to boot the installation program from themselves.

Note

By default, the inst.stage2= boot option is used on the installation media and is set to a specific label, for example, inst.stage2=hd:LABEL=RHEL-8-0-0-BaseOS-x86_64. If you modify the default label of the file system containing the runtime image, or if you use a customized procedure to boot the installation system, you must verify that the inst.stage2= boot option is set to the correct value.

inst.stage2.all

The inst.stage2.all boot option is used to specify several HTTP, HTTPS, or FTP sources. You can use the inst.stage2= boot option multiple times with the inst.stage2.all option to fetch the image from the sources sequentially until one succeeds. For example:

inst.stage2.all
inst.stage2=http://hostname1/path_to_install_tree/
inst.stage2=http://hostname2/path_to_install_tree/
inst.stage2=http://hostname3/path_to_install_tree/
inst.dd=
The inst.dd= boot option is used to perform a driver update during the installation. See the Performing an advanced RHEL installation document for information on how to update drivers during installation.
inst.repo=hmc
When booting from a Binary DVD, the installation program prompts you to enter additional kernel parameters. To set the DVD as an installation source, append inst.repo=hmc to the kernel parameters. The installation program then enables SE and HMC file access, fetches the images for stage2 from the DVD, and provides access to the packages on the DVD for software selection. This option eliminates the requirement of an external network setup and expands the installation options.
inst.proxy

The inst.proxy boot option is used when performing an installation from a HTTP, HTTPS, FTP source. For example:

[PROTOCOL://][USERNAME[:PASSWORD]@]HOST[:PORT]
inst.nosave

Use the inst.nosave boot option to control which installation logs and related files are not saved to the installed system, for example input_ks, output_ks, all_ks, logs and all. Multiple values can be combined as a comma-separated list, for example: input_ks,logs.

Note

The inst.nosave boot option is used for excluding files from the installed system that can’t be removed by a Kickstart %post script, such as logs and input/output Kickstart results.

Table 14.3. inst.nosave boot options

OptionDescription

input_ks

Disables the ability to save the input Kickstart results.

output_ks

Disables the ability to save the output Kickstart results generated by the installation program.

all_ks

Disables the ability to save the input and output Kickstart results.

logs

Disables the ability to save all installation logs.

all

Disables the ability to save all Kickstart results, and all logs.

inst.multilib
Use the inst.multilib boot option to set DNF’s multilib_policy to all, instead of best.
memcheck
The memcheck boot option performs a check to verify that the system has enough RAM to complete the installation. If there isn’t enough RAM, the installation process is stopped. The system check is approximate and memory usage during installation depends on the package selection, user interface, for example graphical or text, and other parameters.
nomemcheck
The nomemcheck boot option does not perform a check to verify if the system has enough RAM to complete the installation. Any attempt to perform the installation with less than the recommended minimum amount of memory is unsupported, and might result in the installation process failing.

14.4. Network boot options

This section contains information about commonly used network boot options.

Note

Initial network initialization is handled by dracut. For a complete list, see the dracut.cmdline(7) man page.

ip=

Use the ip= boot option to configure one or more network interfaces. To configure multiple interfaces, you can use the ip option multiple times, once for each interface; to do so, you must use the rd.neednet=1 option, and you must specify a primary boot interface using the bootdev option. Alternatively, you can use the ip option once, and then use Kickstart to set up further interfaces. This option accepts several different formats. The following tables contain information about the most common options.

Note

In the following tables:

  • The ip parameter specifies the client IP address. You can specify IPv6 addresses in square brackets, for example, [2001:DB8::1].
  • The gateway parameter is the default gateway. IPv6 addresses are also accepted.
  • The netmask parameter is the netmask to be used. This can be either a full netmask (for example, 255.255.255.0) or a prefix (for example, 64).
  • The hostname parameter is the host name of the client system. This parameter is optional.

Table 14.4. Network interface configuration boot option formats

Configuration methodBoot option format

Automatic configuration of any interface

ip=method

Automatic configuration of a specific interface

ip=interface:method

Static configuration

ip=ip::gateway:netmask:hostname:interface:none

Automatic configuration of a specific interface with an override

ip=ip::gateway:netmask:hostname:interface:method:mtu

Note

The method automatic configuration of a specific interface with an override brings up the interface using the specified method of automatic configuration, such as dhcp, but overrides the automatically-obtained IP address, gateway, netmask, host name or other specified parameters. All parameters are optional, so specify only the parameters that you want to override.

The method parameter can be any of the following:

Table 14.5. Automatic interface configuration methods

Automatic configuration methodValue

DHCP

dhcp

IPv6 DHCP

dhcp6

IPv6 automatic configuration

auto6

iSCSI Boot Firmware Table (iBFT)

ibft

Note
  • If you use a boot option that requires network access, such as inst.ks=http://host:/path, without specifying the ip option, the installation program uses ip=dhcp.
  • To connect to an iSCSI target automatically, you must activate a network device for accessing the target. The recommended way to activate a network is to use the ip=ibft boot option.
nameserver=
The nameserver= option specifies the address of the name server. You can use this option multiple times.
bootdev=
The bootdev= option specifies the boot interface. This option is mandatory if you use more than one ip option.
ifname=

The ifname= options assigns an interface name to a network device with a given MAC address. You can use this option multiple times. The syntax is ifname=interface:MAC. For example:

ifname=eth0:01:23:45:67:89:ab
Note

The ifname= option is the only supported way to set custom network interface names during installation.

inst.dhcpclass=
The inst.dhcpclass= option specifies the DHCP vendor class identifier. The dhcpd service sees this value as vendor-class-identifier. The default value is anaconda-$(uname -srm).
inst.waitfornet=
Using the inst.waitfornet=SECONDS boot option causes the installation system to wait for network connectivity before installation. The value given in the SECONDS argument specifies the maximum amount of time to wait for network connectivity before timing out and continuing the installation process even if network connectivity is not present.

Additional resources

14.5. Console boot options

This section contains information about configuring boot options for your console, monitor display, and keyboard.

console=
Use the console= option to specify a device that you want to use as the primary console. For example, to use a console on the first serial port, use console=ttyS0. Use this option in conjunction with the inst.text option. You can use the console= option multiple times. If you do, the boot message is displayed on all specified consoles, but only the last one is used by the installation program. For example, if you specify console=ttyS0 console=ttyS1, the installation program uses ttyS1.
inst.lang=
Use the inst.lang= option to set the language that you want to use during the installation. The locale -a | grep _ or localectl list-locales | grep _ options return a list of locales.
inst.singlelang
Use the inst.singlelang option to install in single language mode, which results in no available interactive options for the installation language and language support configuration. If a language is specified using the inst.lang boot option or the lang Kickstart command, then it is used. If no language is specified, the installation program defaults to en_US.UTF-8.
inst.geoloc=

Use the inst.geoloc= option to configure geolocation usage in the installation program. Geolocation is used to preset the language and time zone, and uses the following syntax: inst.geoloc=value. The value can be any of the following parameters:

Table 14.6. Values for the inst.geoloc boot option

ValueBoot option format

Disable geolocation

inst.geoloc=0

Use the Fedora GeoIP API

inst.geoloc=provider_fedora_geoip

Use the Hostip.info GeoIP API

inst.geoloc=provider_hostip

If you do not specify the inst.geoloc= option, the installation program uses provider_fedora_geoip.

inst.keymap=
Use the inst.keymap= option to specify the keyboard layout that you want to use for the installation.
inst.cmdline
Use the inst.cmdline option to force the installation program to run in command-line mode. This mode does not allow any interaction, and you must specify all options in a Kickstart file or on the command line.
inst.graphical
Use the inst.graphical option to force the installation program to run in graphical mode. This mode is the default.
inst.text
Use the inst.text option to force the installation program to run in text mode instead of graphical mode.
inst.noninteractive
Use the inst.noninteractive boot option to run the installation program in a non-interactive mode. User interaction is not permitted in the non-interactive mode, and inst.noninteractive can be used with a graphical or text installation. When the inst.noninteractive option is used in text mode it behaves the same as the inst.cmdline option.
inst.resolution=
Use the inst.resolution= option to specify the screen resolution in graphical mode. The format is NxM, where N is the screen width and M is the screen height (in pixels). The lowest supported resolution is 1024x768.
inst.vnc=
Use the inst.vnc= option to run the graphical installation using VNC. You must use a VNC client application to interact with the installation program. When VNC sharing is enabled, multiple clients can connect. A system installed using VNC starts in text mode.
inst.vncpassword=
Use the inst.vncpassword= option to set a password on the VNC server that is used by the installation program.
inst.vncconnect=
Use the inst.vncconnect= option to connect to a listening VNC client at the given host location. For example inst.vncconnect=<host>[:<port>] The default port is 5900. This option can be used with vncviewer -listen.
inst.xdriver=
Use the inst.xdriver= option to specify the name of the X driver that you want to use both during installation and on the installed system.
inst.usefbx=
Use the inst.usefbx option to prompt the installation program to use the frame buffer X driver instead of a hardware-specific driver. This option is equivalent to inst.xdriver=fbdev.
modprobe.blacklist=

Use the modprobe.blacklist= option to blacklist or completely disable one or more drivers. Drivers (mods) that you disable using this option cannot load when the installation starts, and after the installation finishes, the installed system retains these settings. You can find a list of the blacklisted drivers in the /etc/modprobe.d/ directory. Use a comma-separated list to disable multiple drivers. For example:

modprobe.blacklist=ahci,firewire_ohci
inst.xtimeout=
Use the inst.xtimeout= option to specify the timeout in seconds for starting X server.
inst.sshd

Use the inst.sshd option to start the sshd service during installation, so that you can connect to the system during the installation using SSH, and monitor the installation progress. For more information about SSH, see the ssh(1) man page. By default, the sshd option is automatically started only on the IBM Z architecture. On other architectures, sshd is not started unless you use the inst.sshd option.

Note

During installation, the root account has no password by default. You can set a root password during installation with the sshpw Kickstart command.

inst.kdump_addon=
Use the inst.kdump_addon= option to enable or disable the Kdump configuration screen (add-on) in the installation program. This screen is enabled by default; use inst.kdump_addon=off to disable it. Disabling the add-on disables the Kdump screens in both the graphical and text-based interface as well as the %addon com_redhat_kdump Kickstart command.

14.6. Debug boot options

This section contains information about the options that you can use when debugging issues.

inst.rescue=
Use the inst.rescue= option to run the rescue environment. The option is useful for trying to diagnose and fix systems.
inst.updates=

Use the inst.updates= option to specify the location of the updates.img file that you want to apply during installation. There are a number of sources for the updates.

Table 14.7. inst.updates= source updates

SourceDescriptionExample

Updates from a network

The easiest way to use inst.updates= is to specify the network location of updates.img. This does not require any modification to the installation tree. To use this method, edit the kernel command line to include inst.updates.

inst.updates=http://some.website.com/path/to/updates.img.

Updates from a disk image

You can save an updates.img on a floppy drive or a USB key. This can be done only with an ext2 filesystem type of updates.img. To save the contents of the image on your floppy drive, insert the floppy disc and run the command.

dd if=updates.img of=/dev/fd0 bs=72k count=20. To use a USB key or flash media, replace /dev/fd0 with the device name of your USB key.

Updates from an installation tree

If you are using a CD, hard drive, HTTP, or FTP install, you can save the updates.img in the installation tree so that all installations can detect the .img file. Save the file in the images/ directory. The file name must be updates.img.

For NFS installs, there are two options: You can either save the image in the images/ directory, or in the RHupdates/ directory in the installation tree.

inst.loglevel=
Use the inst.loglevel= option to specify the minimum level of messages logged on a terminal. This concerns only terminal logging; log files always contain messages of all levels. Possible values for this option from the lowest to highest level are: debug, info, warning, error and critical. The default value is info, which means that by default, the logging terminal displays messages ranging from info to critical.
inst.syslog=
When installation starts, the inst.syslog= option sends log messages to the syslog process on the specified host. The remote syslog process must be configured to accept incoming connections.
inst.virtiolog=
Use the inst.virtiolog= option to specify the virtio port (a character device at /dev/virtio-ports/name) that you want to use for forwarding logs. The default value is org.fedoraproject.anaconda.log.0; if this port is present, it is used.
inst.zram
The inst.zram option controls the usage of zRAM swap during installation. The option creates a compressed block device inside the system RAM and uses it for swap space instead of the hard drive. This allows the installation program to run with less available memory than is possible without compression, and it might also make the installation faster. By default, swap on zRAM is enabled on systems with 2 GiB or less RAM, and disabled on systems with more than 2 GiB of memory. You can use this option to change this behavior; on a system with more than 2 GiB RAM, use inst.zram=1 to enable the feature, and on systems with 2 GiB or less memory, use inst.zram=0 to disable the feature.
rd.live.ram
If the rd.live.ram option is specified, the stage 2 image is copied into RAM. Using this option when the stage 2 image is on an NFS server increases the minimum required memory by the size of the image by roughly 500 MiB.
inst.nokill
The inst.nokill option is a debugging option that prevents the installation program from rebooting when a fatal error occurs, or at the end of the installation process. Use the inst.nokill option to capture installation logs which would be lost upon reboot.
inst.noshell
Use inst.noshell option if you do not want a shell on terminal session 2 (tty2) during installation.
inst.notmux
Use inst.notmux option if you do not want to use tmux during installation. The output is generated without terminal control characters and is meant for non-interactive uses.
remotelog
You can use the remotelog option to send all of the logs to a remote host:port using a TCP connection. The connection is retired if there is no listener and the installation proceeds as normal.

14.7. Storage boot options

inst.nodmraid=
Use the inst.nodmraid= option to disable dmraid support.
Warning

Use this option with caution. If you have a disk that is incorrectly identified as part of a firmware RAID array, it might have some stale RAID metadata on it that must be removed using the appropriate tool, for example, dmraid or wipefs.

inst.nompath=
Use the inst.nompath= option to disable support for multipath devices. This option can be used for systems on which a false-positive is encountered which incorrectly identifies a normal block device as a multipath device. There is no other reason to use this option.
Warning

Use this option with caution. You should not use this option with multipath hardware. Using this option to attempt to install to a single path of a multipath is not supported.

inst.gpt
The inst.gpt boot option forces the installation program to install partition information to a GUID Partition Table (GPT) instead of a Master Boot Record (MBR). This option is not valid on UEFI-based systems, unless they are in BIOS compatibility mode. Normally, BIOS-based systems and UEFI-based systems in BIOS compatibility mode attempt to use the MBR schema for storing partitioning information, unless the disk is 232 sectors in size or larger. Disk sectors are typically 512 bytes in size, meaning that this is usually equivalent to 2 TiB. Using the inst.gpt boot option changes this behavior, allowing a GPT to be written to smaller disks.

14.8. Kickstart boot options

This section contains information about the Kickstart boot options.

inst.ks=

Use the inst.ks= boot option to define the location of a Kickstart file that you want to use to automate the installation. You can then specify locations using any of the inst.repo formats. If you specify a device and not a path, the installation program looks for the Kickstart file in /ks.cfg on the device that you specify. If you use this option without specifying a device, the installation program uses the following option:

inst.ks=nfs:next-server:/filename

In the previous example, next-server is the DHCP next-server option or the IP address of the DHCP server itself, and filename is the DHCP filename option, or /kickstart/. If the given file name ends with the / character, ip-kickstart is appended. The following table contains an example.

Table 14.8. Default Kickstart file location

DHCP server addressClient addressKickstart file location

192.168.122.1

192.168.122.100

192.168.122.1:/kickstart/192.168.122.100-kickstart

If a volume with a label of OEMDRV is present, the installation program attempts to load a Kickstart file named ks.cfg. If your Kickstart file is in this location, you do not need to use the inst.ks= boot option.

inst.ks.all
Specify this option to sequentially try multiple Kickstart file locations provided by multiple inst.ks options. The first successful location is used. This applies only to locations of type http, https or ftp, other locations are ignored.
inst.ks.sendmac

Use the inst.ks.sendmac option to add headers to outgoing HTTP requests that contain the MAC addresses of all network interfaces. For example:

X-RHN-Provisioning-MAC-0: eth0 01:23:45:67:89:ab

This can be useful when using inst.ks=http to provision systems.

inst.ks.sendsn

Use the inst.ks.sendsn option to add a header to outgoing HTTP requests. This header contains the system serial number, read from /sys/class/dmi/id/product_serial. The header has the following syntax:

X-System-Serial-Number: R8VA23D

Additional resources

14.9. Advanced installation boot options

This section contains information about advanced installation boot options.

inst.kexec

The inst.kexec option allows the installation program to use the kexec system call at the end of the installation, instead of performing a reboot. The inst.kexec option loads the new system immediately, and bypasses the hardware initialization normally performed by the BIOS or firmware.

Important

This option is deprecated and available as a Technology Preview only. For information on Red Hat scope of support for Technology Preview features, see the Technology Preview Features Support Scope document.

When kexec is used, device registers which would normally be cleared during a full system reboot, might stay filled with data, which could potentially create issues for some device drivers.

inst.multilib

Use the inst.multilib boot option to configure the system for multilib packages, that is, to allow installing 32-bit packages on a 64-bit AMD64 or Intel 64 system. Normally, on an AMD64 or Intel 64 system, only packages for this architecture (marked as x86_64) and packages for all architectures (marked as noarch) are installed. When you use the inst.multilib boot option, packages for 32-bit AMD or Intel systems (marked as i686) are automatically installed.

This applies only to packages directly specified in the %packages section. If a package is installed as a dependency, only the exact specified dependency is installed. For example, if you are installing the bash package which depends on the glibc package, the former is installed in multiple variants, while the latter is installed only in variants that the bash package requires.

selinux=0

By default, the selinux=0 boot option operates in permissive mode in the installation program, and in enforcing mode in the installed system. The selinux=0 boot option disables the use of SELinux in the installation program and the installed system.

Note

The selinux=0 and inst.selinux=0 options are not the same. The selinux=0 option disables the use of SELinux in the installation program and the installed system. The inst.selinux=0 option disables SELinux only in the installation program. By default, SELinux operates in permissive mode in the installation program, so disabling SELinux has little effect.

inst.nonibftiscsiboot=
Use the inst.nonibftiscsiboot= boot option to place the boot loader on iSCSI devices that were not configured in the iSCSI Boot Firmware Table (iBFT).

14.10. Deprecated boot options

This section contains information about deprecated boot options. These options are still accepted by the installation program but they are deprecated and are scheduled to be removed in a future release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

method
The method option is an alias for inst.repo.
repo=nfsiso
The repo=nfsiso: option is the same as inst.repo=nfs:.
dns
Use nameserver instead of dns. Note that nameserver does not accept comma-separated lists; use multiple nameserver options instead.
netmask, gateway, hostname
The netmask, gateway, and hostname options are provided as part of the ip option.
ip=bootif
A PXE-supplied BOOTIF option is used automatically, so there is no requirement to use ip=bootif.
ksdevice

Table 14.9. Values for the ksdevice boot option

ValueInformation

Not present

N/A

ksdevice=link

Ignored as this option is the same as the default behavior

ksdevice=bootif

Ignored as this option is the default if BOOTIF= is present

ksdevice=ibft

Replaced with ip=ibft. See ip for details

ksdevice=<MAC>

Replaced with BOOTIF=${MAC/:/-}

ksdevice=<DEV>

Replaced with bootdev

14.11. Removed boot options

This section contains the boot options that have been removed from Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

Note

dracut provides advanced boot options. For more information about dracut, see the dracut.cmdline(7) man page.

askmethod, asknetwork
initramfs is completely non-interactive, so the askmethod and asknetwork options have been removed. Instead, use inst.repo or specify the appropriate network options.
blacklist, nofirewire
The modprobe option handles blacklisting kernel modules; use modprobe.blacklist=<mod1>,<mod2>. You can blacklist the firewire module by using modprobe.blacklist=firewire_ohci.
inst.headless=
The headless= option specified that the system that is being installed to does not have any display hardware, and that the installation program is not required to look for any display hardware.
inst.decorated
The inst.decorated option was used to specify the graphical installation in a decorated window. By default, the window is not decorated, so it doesn’t have a title bar, resize controls, and so on. This option was no longer required.
serial
Use the console=ttyS0 option.
updates
Use the inst.updates option.
essid, wepkey, wpakey
Dracut does not support wireless networking.
ethtool
This option was no longer required.
gdb
This option was removed as there are many options available for debugging dracut-based initramfs.
inst.mediacheck
Use the dracut option rd.live.check option.
ks=floppy
Use the inst.ks=hd:<device> option.
display
For a remote display of the UI, use the inst.vnc option.
utf8
This option was no longer required as the default TERM setting behaves as expected.
noipv6
ipv6 is built into the kernel and cannot be removed by the installation program. You can disable ipv6 using ipv6.disable=1. This setting is used by the installed system.
upgradeany
This option was no longer required as the installation program no longer handles upgrades.

Part IV. Kickstart references

Appendix A. Kickstart script file format reference

This reference describes in detail the kickstart file format.

A.1. Kickstart file format

Kickstart scripts are plain text files that contain keywords recognized by the installation program, which serve as directions for the installation. Any text editor able to save files as ASCII text, such as Gedit or vim on Linux systems or Notepad on Windows systems, can be used to create and edit Kickstart files. The file name of your Kickstart configuration does not matter; however, it is recommended to use a simple name as you will need to specify this name later in other configuration files or dialogs.

Commands
Commands are keywords that serve as directions for installation. Each command must be on a single line. Commands can take options. Specifying commands and options is similar to using Linux commands in shell.
Sections
Certain special commands that begin with the percent % character start a section. Interpretation of commands in sections is different from commands placed outside sections. Every section must be finished with %end command.
Section types

The available sections are:

  • Add-on sections. These sections use the %addon addon_name command.
  • Package selection sections. Starts with %packages. Use it to list packages for installation, including indirect means such as package groups or modules.
  • Script sections. These start with %pre, %pre-install, %post, and %onerror. These sections are not required.
Command section
The command section is a term used for the commands in the Kickstart file that are not part of any script section or `%packages ` section.
Script section count and ordering
All sections except the command section are optional and can be present multiple times. When a particular type of script section is to be evaluated, all sections of that type present in the Kickstart are evaluated in order of appearance: two %post sections are evaluated one after another, in the order as they appear. However, you do not have to specify the various types of script sections in any order: it does not matter if there are %post sections before %pre sections.
Comments
Kickstart comments are lines starting with the hash # character. These lines are ignored by the installation program.

Items that are not required can be omitted. Omitting any required item results in the installation program changing to the interactive mode so that the the user can provide an answer to the related item, just as during a regular interactive installation. It is also possible to declare the kickstart script as non-interactive with the cmdline command. In non-interactive mode, any missing answer aborts the installation process.

A.2. Package selection in Kickstart

Kickstart uses sections started by the %packages command for selecting packages to install. You can install packages, groups, environments, module streams, and module profiles this way.

A.2.1. Package selection section

Use the %packages command to begin a Kickstart section which describes the software packages to be installed. The %packages section must end with the %end command.

You can specify packages by environment, group, module stream, module profile, or by their package names. Several environments and groups that contain related packages are defined. See the repository/repodata/*-comps-repository.architecture.xml file on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 Installation DVD for a list of environments and groups.

The *-comps-repository.architecture.xml file contains a structure describing available environments (marked by the <environment> tag) and groups (the <group> tag). Each entry has an ID, user visibility value, name, description, and package list. If the group is selected for installation, the packages marked mandatory in the package list are always installed, the packages marked default are installed if they are not specifically excluded elsewhere, and the packages marked optional must be specifically included elsewhere even when the group is selected.

You can specify a package group or environment using either its ID (the <id> tag) or name (the <name> tag).

If you are not sure what package should be installed, Red Hat recommends you to select the Minimal Install environment. Minimal Install provides only the packages which are essential for running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8. This will substantially reduce the chance of the system being affected by a vulnerability. If necessary, additional packages can be added later after the installation. For more details on Minimal Install, see the Installing the Minimum Amount of Packages Required section of the Security Hardening document. Note that Initial Setup can not run after a system is installed from a Kickstart file unless a desktop environment and the X Window System were included in the installation and graphical login was enabled.

Important

To install a 32-bit package on a 64-bit system:

  • specify the --multilib option for the %packages section
  • append the package name with the 32-bit architecture for which the package was built; for example, glibc.i686

A.2.2. Package selection commands

These commands can be used within the %packages section of a Kickstart file.

Specifying an environment

Specify an entire environment to be installed as a line starting with the @^ symbols:

%packages
@^Infrastructure Server
%end

This installs all packages which are part of the Infrastructure Server environment. All available environments are described in the repository/repodata/*-comps-repository.architecture.xml file on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 Installation DVD.

Only a single environment should be specified in the Kickstart file. If more environments are specified, only the last specified environment is used.

Specifying groups

Specify groups, one entry to a line, starting with an @ symbol, and then the full group name or group id as given in the *-comps-repository.architecture.xml file. For example:

%packages
@X Window System
@Desktop
@Sound and Video
%end

The Core group is always selected - it is not necessary to specify it in the %packages section.

Specifying individual packages

Specify individual packages by name, one entry to a line. You can use the asterisk character (*) as a wildcard in package names. For example:

%packages
sqlite
curl
aspell
docbook*
%end

The docbook* entry includes the packages docbook-dtds and docbook-style that match the pattern represented with the wildcard.

Specifying profiles of module streams

Specify profiles for module streams, one entry to a line, using the syntax for profiles:

%packages
@module:stream/profile
%end

This installs all packages listed in the specified profile of the module stream.

  • When a module has a default stream specified, you can leave it out. When the default stream is not specified, you must specify it.
  • When a module stream has a default profile specified, you can leave it out. When the default profile is not specified, you must specify it.
  • Installing a module multiple times with different streams is not possible.
  • Installing multiple profiles of the same module and stream is possible.

Modules and groups use the same syntax starting with the @ symbol. When a module and a package group exist with the same name, the module takes precedence.

In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8, modules are present only in the AppStream repository. To list available modules, use the yum module list command on an installed Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 system.

It is also possible to enable module streams using the module Kickstart command and then install packages contained in the module stream by naming them directly.

Excluding environments, groups, or packages

Use a leading dash (-) to specify packages or groups to exclude from the installation. For example:

%packages
-@Graphical Administration Tools
-autofs
-ipa*compat
%end
Important

Installing all available packages using only * in a Kickstart file is not supported.

You can change the default behavior of the %packages section by using several options. Some options work for the entire package selection, others are used with only specific groups.

Additional resources

A.2.3. Common package selection options

The following options are available for the %packages sections. To use an option, append it to the start of the package selection section. For example:

%packages --multilib --ignoremissing
--default
Install the default set of packages. This corresponds to the package set which would be installed if no other selections were made in the Package Selection screen during an interactive installation.
--excludedocs
Do not install any documentation contained within packages. In most cases, this excludes any files normally installed in the /usr/share/doc directory, but the specific files to be excluded depend on individual packages.
--ignoremissing
Ignore any packages, groups, module streams, module profiles, and environments missing in the installation source, instead of halting the installation to ask if the installation should be aborted or continued.
--instLangs=
Specify a list of languages to install. Note that this is different from package group level selections. This option does not describe which package groups should be installed; instead, it sets RPM macros controlling which translation files from individual packages should be installed.
--multilib

Configure the installed system for multilib packages (that is, to allow installing 32-bit packages on a 64-bit system) and install packages specified in this section as such.

Normally, on an AMD64 and Intel 64 system, only packages for this architecture (marked as x86_64) and packages for all architectures (marked as noarch) would be installed. When you use this option, packages for 32-bit AMD and Intel systems (marked as i686) are automatically installed as well, if available.

This only applies to packages explicitly specified in the %packages section. Packages which are only being installed as dependencies without being specified in the Kickstart file are only installed in architecture versions in which they are needed, even if they are available for more architectures.

--nocore

Disables installation of the @Core package group which is otherwise always installed by default. Disabling the @Core package group with --nocore should be only used for creating lightweight containers; installing a desktop or server system with --nocore will result in an unusable system.

Notes
  • Using -@Core to exclude packages in the @Core package group does not work. The only way to exclude the @Core package group is with the --nocore option.
  • The @Core package group is defined as a minimal set of packages needed for installing a working system. It is not related in any way to core packages as defined in the Package Manifest and Scope of Coverage Details.
--excludeWeakdeps
Disables installation of packages from weak dependencies. These are packages linked to the selected package set by Recommends and Supplements flags. By default weak dependencies will be installed.
--retries=
Sets the number of times Yum will attempt to download packages (retries). The default value is 10. This option only applies during the installation, and will not affect Yum configuration on the installed system.
--timeout=
Sets the Yum timeout in seconds. The default value is 30. This option only applies during the installation, and will not affect Yum configuration on the installed system.

A.2.4. Options for specific package groups

The options in this list only apply to a single package group. Instead of using them at the %packages command in the Kickstart file, append them to the group name. For example:

%packages
@Graphical Administration Tools --optional
%end
--nodefaults
Only install the group’s mandatory packages, not the default selections.
--optional

Install packages marked as optional in the group definition in the *-comps-repository.architecture.xml file, in addition to installing the default selections.

Note that some package groups, such as Scientific Support, do not have any mandatory or default packages specified - only optional packages. In this case the --optional option must always be used, otherwise no packages from this group will be installed.

A.3. Pre-installation scripts in Kickstart

Pre-installation scripts are run immediately before installation begins.

A.3.1. Pre-installation script section

The %pre scripts are run on the system immediately after the Kickstart file has been loaded, but before it is completely parsed and installation begins. Each of these sections must start with %pre and end with %end.

The %pre script can be used for activation and configuration of networking and storage devices. It is also possible to run scripts, using interpreters available in the installation environment. Adding a %pre script can be useful if you have networking and storage that needs special configuration before proceeding with the installation, or have a script that, for example, sets up additional logging parameters or environment variables.

Debugging problems with %pre scripts can be difficult, so it is recommended only to use a %pre script when necessary.

Commands related to networking, storage, and file systems are available to use in the %pre script, in addition to most of the utilities in the installation environment /sbin and /bin directories.

You can access the network in the %pre section. However, the name service has not been configured at this point, so only IP addresses work, not URLs.

The %pre scripts ignore missing files for the %include commands. This is useful for generating the included files in the %pre section, and having them loaded later.

Note

Unlike the post-installation script, the pre-installation script is not run in the chroot environment.

A.3.2. Pre-installation Kickstart section options

The following options can be used to change the behavior of pre-installation scripts. To use an option, append it to the %pre line at the beginning of the script. For example:

%pre --interpreter=/usr/libexec/platform-python
-- Python script omitted --
%end
--interpreter=

Allows you to specify a different scripting language, such as Python. Any scripting language available on the system can be used; in most cases, these are /usr/bin/sh, /usr/bin/bash, and /usr/libexec/platform-python.

Note that the platform-python interpreter uses Python version 3.6. You must change your Python scripts from previous RHEL versions for the new path and version. Additionally, platform-python is meant for system tools: Use the python36 package outside the installation environment. For more details about Python in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8, see Introduction to Python in Configuring basic system settings.

--erroronfail
Display an error and halt the installation if the script fails. The error message will direct you to where the cause of the failure is logged.
--log=

Logs the script’s output into the specified log file. For example:

%pre --log=/mnt/sysimage/root/ks-pre.log

A.4. Post-installation scripts in Kickstart

Post-installation scripts are run after the installation is complete, but before the system is rebooted for the first time. You can use this section to run tasks such as system subscription.

A.4.1. Post-installation script section

You have the option of adding commands to run on the system once the installation is complete, but before the system is rebooted for the first time. This section must start with %post and end with %end.

The %post section is useful for functions such as installing additional software or configuring an additional name server. The post-install script is run in a chroot environment, therefore, performing tasks such as copying scripts or RPM packages from the installation media do not work by default. You can change this behavior using the --nochroot option as described below. Then the %post script will run in the installation environment, not in chroot on the installed target system.

Because post-install script runs in a chroot environment, most systemctl commands will refuse to perform any action. For more information, see the Behavior of systemctl in a chroot Environment section of the Configuring and managing system administration document.

Note that during execution of the %post section, the installation media must be still inserted.

Important

If you configured the network with static IP information, including a name server, you can access the network and resolve IP addresses in the %post section. If you configured the network for DHCP, the /etc/resolv.conf file has not been completed when the installation executes the %post section. You can access the network, but you cannot resolve IP addresses. Thus, if you are using DHCP, you must specify IP addresses in the %post section.

A.4.2. Post-installation Kickstart section options

The following options can be used to change the behavior of post-installation scripts. To use an option, append it to the %post line at the beginning of the script. For example:

%post --interpreter=/usr/libexec/platform-python
-- Python script omitted --
%end
--interpreter=

Allows you to specify a different scripting language, such as Python. For example:

%post --interpreter=/usr/libexec/platform-python

Any scripting language available on the system can be used; in most cases, these are /usr/bin/sh, /usr/bin/bash, and /usr/libexec/platform-python.

Note that the platform-python interpreter uses Python version 3.6. You must change your Python scripts from previous RHEL versions for the new path and version. Additionally, platform-python is meant for system tools: Use the python36 package outside the installation environment. For more details about Python in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8, see Introduction to Python in Configuring basic system settings.

--nochroot

Allows you to specify commands that you would like to run outside of the chroot environment.

The following example copies the file /etc/resolv.conf to the file system that was just installed.

%post --nochroot
cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/sysimage/etc/resolv.conf
%end
--erroronfail
Display an error and halt the installation if the script fails. The error message will direct you to where the cause of the failure is logged.
--log=

Logs the script’s output into the specified log file. Note that the path of the log file must take into account whether or not you use the --nochroot option. For example, without --nochroot:

%post --log=/root/ks-post.log

and with --nochroot:

%post --nochroot --log=/mnt/sysimage/root/ks-post.log

A.4.3. Example: Mounting NFS in a post-install script

This example of a %post section mounts an NFS share and executes a script named runme located at /usr/new-machines/ on the share. Note that NFS file locking is not supported while in Kickstart mode, therefore the -o nolock option is required.

# Start of the %post section with logging into /root/ks-post.log
%post --log=/root/ks-post.log

# Mount an NFS share
mkdir /mnt/temp
mount -o nolock 10.10.0.2:/usr/new-machines /mnt/temp
openvt -s -w -- /mnt/temp/runme
umount /mnt/temp

# End of the %post section
%end

A.4.4. Example: Running subscription-manager as a post-install script

One of the most common uses of post-installation scripts in Kickstart installations is automatic registration of the installed system using Red Hat Subscription Manager. The following is an example of automatic subscription in a %post script:

%post --log=/root/ks-post.log
subscription-manager register --username=admin@example.com --password=secret --auto-attach
%end

The subscription-manager command-line script registers a system to a Red Hat Subscription Management server (Customer Portal Subscription Management, Satellite 6, or CloudForms System Engine). This script can also be used to assign or attach subscriptions automatically to the system that best-match that system. When registering to the Customer Portal, use the Red Hat Network login credentials. When registering to Satellite 6 or CloudForms System Engine, you may also need to specify more subscription-manager options like --serverurl, --org, --environment as well as credentials provided by your local administrator. Note that credentials in the form of an --org --activationkey combination is a good way to avoid exposing --username --password values in shared kickstart files.

Additional options can be used with the registration command to set a preferred service level for the system and to restrict updates and errata to a specific minor release version of RHEL for customers with Extended Update Support subscriptions that need to stay fixed on an older stream.

See also the How do I use subscription-manager in a kickstart file? article on the Red Hat Customer Portal for additional information about using subscription-manager in a Kickstart %post section.

A.5. Anaconda configuration section

Additional installation options can be configured in the %anaconda section of your Kickstart file. This section controls the behavior of the user interface of the installation system.

This section must be placed towards the end of the Kickstart file, after Kickstart commands, and must start with %anaconda and end with %end.

Currently, the only command that can be used in the %anaconda section is pwpolicy.

Example A.1. Sample %anaconda script

The following is an example %anaconda section:

%anaconda
pwpolicy root --minlen=10 --strict
%end

This example %anaconda section sets a password policy which requires that the root password be at least 10 characters long, and strictly forbids passwords which do not match this requirement.

A.6. Kickstart error handling section

Starting with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, Kickstart installations can contain custom scripts which are run when the installation program encounters a fatal error. For example, an error in a package that has been requested for installation, failure to start VNC when specified, or an error when scanning storage devices. Installation cannot continue after such an error has occured. The installation program will run all %onerror scripts in the order they are provided in the Kickstart file. In addition, %onerror scripts will be run in the event of a traceback.

Each %onerror script is required to end with %end.

Error handling sections accept the following options:

--erroronfail
Display an error and halt the installation if the script fails. The error message will direct you to where the cause of the failure is logged.
--interpreter=

Allows you to specify a different scripting language, such as Python. For example:

%onerror --interpreter=/usr/libexec/platform-python

Any scripting language available on the system can be used; in most cases, these are /usr/bin/sh, /usr/bin/bash, and /usr/libexec/platform-python.

Note that the platform-python interpreter uses Python version 3.6. You must change your Python scripts from previous RHEL versions for the new path and version. Additionally, platform-python is meant for system tools: Use the python36 package outside the installation environment. For more details about Python in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8, see Introduction to Python in Configuring basic system settings.

--log=
Logs the script’s output into the specified log file.

A.7. Kickstart add-on sections

Starting with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, Kickstart installations support add-ons. These add-ons can expand the basic Kickstart (and Anaconda) functionality in many ways.

To use an add-on in your Kickstart file, use the %addon addon_name options command, and finish the command with an %end statement, similar to pre-installation and post-installation script sections. For example, if you want to use the Kdump add-on, which is distributed with Anaconda by default, use the following commands:

%addon com_redhat_kdump --enable --reserve-mb=auto
%end

The %addon command does not include any options of its own - all options are dependent on the actual add-on.

Appendix B. Kickstart commands and options reference

This reference is a complete list of all Kickstart commands supported by the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program program. The commands are sorted alphabetically in a few broad categories. If a command can fall under multiple categories, it is listed in all of them.

B.1. Kickstart changes

The folowing sections describe the changes in Kickstart commands and options in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.

B.1.1. auth or authconfig is deprecated in RHEL 8

The auth or authconfig Kickstart command is deprecated in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 because the authconfig tool and package have been removed.

Similarly to authconfig commands issued on command line, authconfig commands in Kickstart scripts now use the authselect-compat tool to run the new authselect tool. For a description of this compatibility layer and its known issues, see the manual page authselect-migration(7). The installation program will automatically detect use of the deprecated commands and install on the system the authselect-compat package to provide the compatibility layer.

B.1.2. Kickstart no longer supports Btrfs

The Btrfs file system is not supported in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8. As a result, the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the Kickstart commands no longer support Btrfs.

B.1.3. Using Kickstart files from previous RHEL releases

If you are using Kickstart files from previous RHEL releases, see the Repositories section of the Considerations in adopting RHEL 8 document for more information about the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 BaseOS and AppStream repositories.

B.1.4. Deprecated Kickstart comands and options

The following Kickstart commands and options have been deprecated in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8. Using them in Kickstart files will print a warning in the logs.

  • auth or authconfig - use authselect instead
  • device
  • deviceprobe
  • dmraid
  • install - use the subcommands or methods directly as commands
  • lilo
  • lilocheck
  • mouse
  • multipath
  • bootloader --upgrade
  • ignoredisk --interactive
  • partition --active
  • reboot --kexec

Where only specific options are listed, the base command and its other options are still available and not deprecated.

Note also you can turn the deprecated command warnings into errors with the inst.ksstrict boot option.

B.1.5. Removed Kickstart comands and options

The following Kickstart commands and options have been completely removed in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8. Using them in Kickstart files will cause an error.

  • upgrade (This command had already previously been deprecated.)
  • btrfs
  • part/partition btrfs
  • part --fstype btrfs or partition --fstype btrfs
  • logvol --fstype btrfs
  • raid --fstype btrfs
  • unsupported_hardware

Where only specific options and values are listed, the base command and its other options are still available and not removed.

B.1.6. New Kickstart comands and options

The following commands and options have been added in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.

RHEL 8.0

  • authselect
  • module

B.2. Kickstart commands for installation program configuration and flow control

The Kickstart commands in this list control the mode and course of installation, and what happens at its end.

B.2.1. autostep

The autostep Kickstart command is optional. This option makes the installation program step through every screen, displaying each briefly. Normally, Kickstart installations skip unnecessary screens.

Options

  • --autoscreenshot - Take a screenshot at every step during installation. These screenshots are stored in /tmp/anaconda-screenshots/ during the installation, and after the installation finishes you can find them in /root/anaconda-screenshots.

    Each screen is only captured right before the installation program switches to the next one. This is important, because if you do not use all required Kickstart options and the installation therefore does not begin automatically, you can go to the screens which were not automatically configured, perform any configuration you want. Then, when you click Done to continue, the screen is captured including the configuration you just provided.

Notes

  • This option should not be used when deploying a system because it can disrupt package installation.

B.2.2. cdrom

The cdrom Kickstart command is optional. It performs the installation from the first optical drive on the system.

Syntax

cdrom

Notes

  • Previously, the cdrom command had to be used together with the install command. The install command has been deprecated and cdrom can be used on its own, because it implies install.
  • This command has no options.
  • To actually run the installation, one of cdrom, harddrive, hmc, nfs, liveimg, or url must be specified.

B.2.3. cmdline

The cmdline Kickstart command is optional. It performs the installation in a completely non-interactive command line mode. Any prompt for interaction halts the installation.

Notes

  • For a fully automatic installation, you must either specify one of the available modes (graphical, text, or cmdline) in the Kickstart file, or you must use the console= boot option. If no mode is specified, the system will use graphical mode if possible, or prompt you to choose from VNC and text mode.
  • This mode is useful on IBM Z systems with the x3270 terminal.

B.2.4. driverdisk

The driverdisk Kickstart command is optional. Use it to provide additional drivers to the installation program.

Driver disks can be used during Kickstart installations to provide additional drivers not included by default. You must copy the driver disks’s contents to the root directory of a partition on the system’s hard drive. Then, you must use the driverdisk command to specify that the installation program should look for a driver disk and its location.

Syntax

driverdisk [partition|--source=url|--biospart=biospart]

Options

You must specify the location of driver disk in one way out of these:

  • partition - Partition containing the driver disk. Note that the partition must be specified as a full path (for example, /dev/sdb1), not just the partition name (for example, sdb1).
  • --source= - URL for the driver disk. Examples include:

    driverdisk --source=ftp://path/to/dd.img
    driverdisk --source=http://path/to/dd.img
    driverdisk --source=nfs:host:/path/to/dd.img
  • --biospart= - BIOS partition containing the driver disk (for example, 82p2).

Notes

Driver disks can also be loaded from a hard disk drive or a similar device instead of being loaded over the network or from initrd. Follow this procedure:

  1. Load the driver disk on a hard disk drive, a USB or any similar device.
  2. Set the label, for example, DD, to this device.
  3. Add the following line to your Kickstart file:

    driverdisk LABEL=DD:/e1000.rpm

Replace DD with a specific label and replace dd.rpm with a specific name. Use anything supported by the inst.repo command instead of LABEL to specify your hard disk drive.

B.2.5. eula

The eula Kickstart command is optional. Use this option to accept the End User License Agreement (EULA) without user interaction. Specifying this option prevents Initial Setup from prompting you to accept the license agreement after you finish the installation and reboot the system for the first time. See the Completing initial setup section of the Performing a standard RHEL installation document for more information.

Options

  • --agreed (required) - Accept the EULA. This option must always be used, otherwise the eula command is meaningless.

B.2.6. firstboot

The firstboot Kickstart command is optional. It determines whether the Initial Setup application starts the first time the system is booted. If enabled, the initial-setup package must be installed. If not specified, this option is disabled by default.

Options

  • --enable or --enabled - Initial Setup is started the first time the system boots.
  • --disable or --disabled - Initial Setup is not started the first time the system boots.
  • --reconfig - Enable the Initial Setup to start at boot time in reconfiguration mode. This mode enables the language, mouse, keyboard, root password, security level, time zone and networking configuration options in addition to the default ones.

B.2.7. graphical

The graphical Kickstart command is optional. It performs the installation in graphical mode. This is the default.

Syntax

graphical options

Options

  • --non-interactive - Performs the installation in a completely non-interactive mode. This mode will terminate the installation when user interaction is required.

Notes

  • For a fully automatic installation, you must either specify one of the available modes (graphical, text, or cmdline) in the Kickstart file, or you must use the console= boot option. If no mode is specified, the system will use graphical mode if possible, or prompt you to choose from VNC and text mode.

B.2.8. halt

The halt Kickstart command is optional.

Halt the system after the installation has successfully completed. This is similar to a manual installation, where Anaconda displays a message and waits for the user to press a key before rebooting. During a Kickstart installation, if no completion method is specified, this option is used as the default.

Notes

  • The halt command is equivalent to the shutdown -H command. For more details, see the shutdown(8) man page.
  • For other completion methods, see the poweroff, reboot, and shutdown commands.

B.2.9. harddrive

The harddrive Kickstart command is optional. It performs the installation from a Red Hat installation tree or full installation ISO image on a local drive. The drive must contain a file system the installation program can mount: ext2, ext3, ext4, vfat, or xfs.

Syntax

harddrive

Options

  • --biospart= - BIOS partition to install from (such as 82).
  • --partition= - Partition to install from (such as sdb2).
  • --dir= - Directory containing the variant directory of the installation tree, or the ISO image of the full installation DVD.

Example

harddrive --partition=hdb2 --dir=/tmp/install-tree

Notes

  • Previously, the harddrive command had to be used together with the install command. The install command has been deprecated and harddrive can be used on its own, because it implies install.
  • To actually run the installation, one of cdrom, harddrive, hmc, nfs, liveimg, or url must be specified.

B.2.10. install (deprecated)

Important

The install Kickstart command is deprecated in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8. Use its methods as separate commands.

The install Kickstart command is optional. It specifies the default installation mode.

Syntax

install
installation_method

Notes

  • The install command must be followed by an installation method command. The installation method command must be on a separate line.
  • The methods include:

    • cdrom
    • harddrive
    • hmc
    • nfs
    • liveimg
    • url

    For details about the methods, see their separate reference pages.

B.2.11. liveimg

The liveimg Kickstart command is optional. It performs the installation from a disk image instead of packages.

Syntax

liveimg --url=SOURCE [OPTIONS]

Mandatory options

  • --url= - The location to install from. Supported protocols are HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, and file.

Optional options

  • --url= - The location to install from. Supported protocols are HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, and file.
  • --proxy= - Specify an HTTP, HTTPS or FTP proxy to use while performing the installation.
  • --checksum= - An optional argument with the SHA256 checksum of the image file, used for verification.
  • --noverifyssl - Disable SSL verification when connecting to an HTTPS server.

Example

liveimg --url=file:///images/install/squashfs.img --checksum=03825f567f17705100de3308a20354b4d81ac9d8bed4bb4692b2381045e56197 --noverifyssl

Notes

  • The image can be the squashfs.img file from a live ISO image, a compressed tar file (.tar, .tbz, .tgz, .txz, .tar.bz2, .tar.gz, or .tar.xz.), or any file system that the installation media can mount. Supported file systems are ext2, ext3, ext4, vfat, and xfs.
  • When using the liveimg installation mode with a driver disk, drivers on the disk will not automatically be included in the installed system. If necessary, these drivers should be installed manually, or in the %post section of a kickstart script.
  • Previously, the liveimg command had to be used together with the install command. The install command has been deprecated and liveimg can be used on its own, because it implies install.
  • To actually run the installation, one of cdrom, harddrive, hmc, nfs, liveimg, or url must be specified.

B.2.12. logging

The logging Kickstart command is optional. It controls the error logging of Anaconda during installation. It has no effect on the installed system.

Syntax

logging [--host=host] [--port=port] [--level=debug|info|error|critical]

Optional options

  • --host= - Send logging information to the given remote host, which must be running a syslogd process configured to accept remote logging.
  • --port= - If the remote syslogd process uses a port other than the default, set it using this option.
  • --level= - Specify the minimum level of messages that appear on tty3. All messages are still sent to the log file regardless of this level, however. Possible values are debug, info, warning, error, or critical.

B.2.13. mediacheck

The mediacheck Kickstart command is optional. This command forces the installation program to perform a media check (rd.live.check) before starting the installation. This command requires that installations be attended, so it is disabled by default.

B.2.14. nfs

The nfs Kickstart command is optional. It performs the installation from a specified NFS server.

Syntax

nfs

Options

  • --server= - Server from which to install (host name or IP).
  • --dir= - Directory containing the variant directory of the installation tree.
  • --opts= - Mount options to use for mounting the NFS export. (optional)

Example

nfs --server=nfsserver.example.com --dir=/tmp/install-tree

Notes

  • Previously, the nfs command had to be used together with the install command. The install command has been deprecated and nfs can be used on its own, because it implies install.
  • To actually run the installation, one of cdrom, harddrive, hmc, nfs, liveimg, or url must be specified.

B.2.15. ostreesetup

The ostreesetup Kickstart command is optional. It is used to set up OStree-based installations.

Syntax

ostreesetup --osname OSNAME [--remote REMOTE] --url URL --ref REF [--nogpg]

Mandatory options:

  • --osname OSNAME - Management root for OS installation.
  • --url URL - URL of the repository to install from.
  • --ref REF - Name of the branch from the repository to be used for installation.

Optional options:

  • --remote REMOTE - Management root for OS installation.
  • --nogpg - Disable GPG key verification.

Notes

B.2.16. poweroff

The poweroff Kickstart command is optional. It shuts down and powers off the system after the installation has successfully completed. Normally during a manual installation, Anaconda displays a message and waits for the user to press a key before rebooting.

Notes

  • The poweroff option is equivalent to the shutdown -P command. For more details, see the shutdown(8) man page.
  • For other completion methods, see the halt, reboot, and shutdown Kickstart commands. The halt option is the default completion method if no other methods are explicitly specified in the Kickstart file.
  • The poweroff command is highly dependent on the system hardware in use. Specifically, certain hardware components such as the BIOS, APM (advanced power management), and ACPI (advanced configuration and power interface) must be able to interact with the system kernel. Consult your hardware documentation for more information on you system’s APM/ACPI abilities.

B.2.17. reboot

The reboot Kickstart command is optional. It instructs the installation program to reboot after the installation is successfully completed (no arguments). Normally, Kickstart displays a message and waits for the user to press a key before rebooting.

Options

  • --eject - Attempt to eject the bootable media (DVD, USB, or other media) before rebooting.
  • --kexec - Uses the kexec system call instead of performing a full reboot, which immediately loads the installed system into memory, bypassing the hardware initialization normally performed by the BIOS or firmware.

    Important

    This option is deprecated and available as a Technology Preview only. For information on Red Hat scope of support for Technology Preview features, see the Technology Preview Features Support Scope document.

    When kexec is used, device registers (which would normally be cleared during a full system reboot) might stay filled with data, which could potentially create issues for some device drivers.

Notes

  • Use of the reboot option might result in an endless installation loop, depending on the installation media and method.
  • The reboot option is equivalent to the shutdown -r command. For more details, see the shutdown(8) man page.
  • Specify reboot to automate installation fully when installing in command line mode on IBM Z.
  • For other completion methods, see the halt, poweroff, and shutdown Kickstart options. The halt option is the default completion method if no other methods are explicitly specified in the Kickstart file.

B.2.18. rescue

The rescue Kickstart command is optional. It automatically enters the installation program’s rescue mode. This gives you a chance to repair the system in case of any problems.

Syntax

rescue [--nomount|--romount]

Options

  • --nomount or --romount - Controls how the installed system is mounted in the rescue environment. By default, the installation program finds your system and mount it in read-write mode, telling you where it has performed this mount. You can optionally select to not mount anything (the --nomount option) or mount in read-only mode (the --romount option). Only one of these two options can be used.

B.2.19. shutdown

The shutdown Kickstart command is optional. It shuts down the system after the installation has successfully completed.

Notes

  • The shutdown Kickstart option is equivalent to the shutdown command. For more details, see the shutdown(8) man page.
  • For other completion methods, see the halt, poweroff, and reboot Kickstart options. The halt option is the default completion method if no other methods are explicitly specified in the Kickstart file.

B.2.20. sshpw

The sshpw Kickstart command is optional.

During the installation, you can interact with the installation program and monitor its progress over an SSH connection. Use the sshpw command to create temporary accounts through which to log on. Each instance of the command creates a separate account that exists only in the installation environment. These accounts are not transferred to the installed system.

Syntax

sshpw --username=name [options] password

Mandatory options

  • --username - Provides the name of the user. This option is required.
  • password - The password to use for the user. This option is required.

Optional options

  • --iscrypted - If this option is present, the password argument is assumed to already be encrypted. This option is mutually exclusive with --plaintext. To create an encrypted password, you can use Python:

    $ python3 -c 'import crypt,getpass;pw=getpass.getpass();print(crypt.crypt(pw) if (pw==getpass.getpass("Confirm: ")) else exit())'

    This generates a sha512 crypt-compatible hash of your password using a random salt.

  • --plaintext - If this option is present, the password argument is assumed to be in plain text. This option is mutually exclusive with --iscrypted
  • --lock - If this option is present, this account is locked by default. This means that the user will not be able to log in from the console.
  • --sshkey - If this is option is present, then the <password> string is interpreted as an ssh key value.

Notes

  • By default, the ssh server is not started during the installation. To make ssh available during the installation, boot the system with the kernel boot option inst.sshd.
  • If you want to disable root ssh access, while allowing another user ssh access, use the following:

    sshpw --username=example_username example_password --plaintext
    sshpw --username=root example_password --lock
  • To simply disable root ssh access, use the following:

    sshpw --username=root --lock

B.2.21. text

The text Kickstart command is optional. It performs the Kickstart installation in text mode. Kickstart installations are performed in graphical mode by default.

Syntax

text options

Options

  • --non-interactive - Performs the installation in a completely non-interactive mode. This mode will terminate the installation when user interaction is required.

Notes

  • Note that for a fully automatic installation, you must either specify one of the available modes (graphical, text, or cmdline) in the Kickstart file, or you must use the console= boot option. If no mode is specified, the system will use graphical mode if possible, or prompt you to choose from VNC and text mode.

B.2.22. url

The url Kickstart command is optional. It performs the installation from an installation tree image on a remote server using FTP, HTTP, or HTTPS.

Syntax

url --url=FROM [OPTIONS]

Mandatory options

  • --url= - The location to install from. Supported protocols are HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, and file.

Optional options

  • --mirrorlist= - The mirror URL to install from.
  • --proxy= - Specify an HTTP, HTTPS or FTP proxy to use while performing the installation.
  • --noverifyssl - Disable SSL verification when connecting to an HTTPS server.
  • --metalink=URL - Specify the metalink URL to install from. Variable substitution is done for $releasever and $basearch in the URL.

Examples

  • To install from a HTTP server:

    url --url http://server/path
  • To install from a FTP server:

    url --url ftp://username:password@server/path
  • To install from a local file:

    liveimg --url=file:///images/install/squashfs.img --noverifyssl

Notes

  • Previously, the url command had to be used together with the install command. The install command has been deprecated and url can be used on its own, because it implies install.
  • To actually run the installation, one of cdrom, harddrive, hmc, nfs, liveimg, or url must be specified.

B.2.23. vnc

The vnc Kickstart command is optional. It allows the graphical installation to be viewed remotely through VNC.

This method is usually preferred over text mode, as there are some size and language limitations in text installations. With no additional options, this command starts a VNC server on the installation system with no password and displays the details required to connect to it.

Syntax

vnc [--host=host_name] [--port=port] [--password=password]

Options

  • --host= - Connect to the VNC viewer process listening on the given host name.
  • --port= - Provide a port that the remote VNC viewer process is listening on. If not provided, Anaconda uses the VNC default port of 5900.
  • --password= - Set a password which must be provided to connect to the VNC session. This is optional, but recommended.

B.2.24. %include

The %include Kickstart command is optional.

Use the %include /path/to/file command to include the contents of another file in the Kickstart file as though the contents were at the location of the %include command in the Kickstart file.

This inclusion is evaluated only after the %pre script sections and can thus be used for files generated by scripts in the %pre sections. To include files before evaluation of %pre sections, use the %ksappend command.

B.2.25. %ksappend

The %ksappend Kickstart command is optional.

Use the %ksappend /path/to/file command to include the contents of another file in the Kickstart file as though the contents were at the location of the %ksappend command in the Kickstart file.

This inclusion is evaluated before the %pre script sections, unlike inclusion with the %include command.

B.3. Kickstart commands for system configuration

The Kickstart commands in this list configure further details on the resulting system such as users, repositories, or services.

B.3.1. auth or authconfig (deprecated)

Important

Use the new authselect command instead of the deprecated auth or authconfig Kickstart command. auth and authconfig are available only for limited backwards compatibility.

The auth or authconfig Kickstart command is optional. It sets up the authentication options for the system using the authconfig tool, which can also be run on the command line after the installation finishes.

Syntax

authconfig [options]

Notes

  • Previously, the auth or authconfig Kickstart commands called the authconfig tool. This tool has been deprecated in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8. These Kickstart commands now use the authselect-compat tool to call the new authselect tool. For a description of the compatibility layer and its known issues, see the manual page authselect-migration(7). The installation program will automatically detect use of the deprecated commands and install on the system the authselect-compat package to provide the compatibility layer.
  • Passwords are shadowed by default.
  • When using OpenLDAP with the SSL protocol for security, make sure that the SSLv2 and SSLv3 protocols are disabled in the server configuration. This is due to the POODLE SSL vulnerability (CVE-2014-3566). See https://access.redhat.com/solutions/1234843 for details.

B.3.2. authselect

The authselect Kickstart command is optional. It sets up the authentication options for the system using the authselect command, which can also be run on the command line after the installation finishes.

Syntax

authselect [options]

Notes

  • This command passes all options to the authselect command. Refer to the authselect(8) manual page and the authselect --help command for more details.
  • This command replaces the deprecated auth or authconfig commands deprecated in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 together with the authconfig tool.
  • Passwords are shadowed by default.
  • When using OpenLDAP with the SSL protocol for security, make sure that the SSLv2 and SSLv3 protocols are disabled in the server configuration. This is due to the POODLE SSL vulnerability (CVE-2014-3566). See https://access.redhat.com/solutions/1234843 for details.

B.3.3. firewall

The firewall Kickstart command is optional. It specifies the firewall configuration for the installed system.

Syntax

firewall --enabled|--disabled [incoming] [options]

Mandatory options

  • --enabled or --enable - Reject incoming connections that are not in response to outbound requests, such as DNS replies or DHCP requests. If access to services running on this machine is needed, you can choose to allow specific services through the firewall.
  • --disabled or --disable - Do not configure any iptables rules.

Optional options

  • --trust - Listing a device here, such as em1, allows all traffic coming to and from that device to go through the firewall. To list more than one device, use the option more times, such as --trust em1 --trust em2. Do not use a comma-separated format such as --trust em1, em2.
  • incoming - Replace with one or more of the following to allow the specified services through the firewall.

    • --ssh
    • --smtp
    • --http
    • --ftp
  • --port= - You can specify that ports be allowed through the firewall using the port:protocol format. For example, to allow IMAP access through your firewall, specify imap:tcp. Numeric ports can also be specified explicitly; for example, to allow UDP packets on port 1234 through, specify 1234:udp. To specify multiple ports, separate them by commas.
  • --service= - This option provides a higher-level way to allow services through the firewall. Some services (like cups, avahi, and so on.) require multiple ports to be open or other special configuration in order for the service to work. You can specify each individual port with the --port option, or specify --service= and open them all at once.

    Valid options are anything recognized by the firewall-offline-cmd program in the firewalld package. If firewalld is running, firewall-cmd --get-services provides a list of known service names.

  • --use-system-defaults - Do not configure the firewall at all. This option instructs anaconda to do nothing and allows the system to rely on the defaults that were provided with the package or ostree. If this option is used with other options then all other options will be ignored.

B.3.4. group

The group Kickstart command is optional. It creates a new user group on the system.

group --name=name [--gid=gid]

Mandatory options

  • --name= - Provides the name of the group.

Optional options

  • --gid= - The group’s GID. If not provided, defaults to the next available non-system GID.

Notes

  • If a group with the given name or GID already exists, this command fails.
  • The user command can be used to create a new group for the newly created user.

B.3.5. keyboard (required)

The keyboard Kickstart command is required. It sets one or more available keyboard layouts for the system.

Options

  • --vckeymap= - Specify a VConsole keymap which should be used. Valid names correspond to the list of files in the /usr/lib/kbd/keymaps/xkb/ directory, without the .map.gz extension.
  • --xlayouts= - Specify a list of X layouts that should be used as a comma-separated list without spaces. Accepts values in the same format as setxkbmap(1), either in the layout format (such as cz), or in the layout (variant) format (such as cz (qwerty)).

    All available layouts can be viewed on the xkeyboard-config(7) man page under Layouts.

  • --switch= - Specify a list of layout-switching options (shortcuts for switching between multiple keyboard layouts). Multiple options must be separated by commas without spaces. Accepts values in the same format as setxkbmap(1).

    Available switching options can be viewed on the xkeyboard-config(7) man page under Options.

Notes

  • Either the --vckeymap= or the --xlayouts= option must be used.

Example

The following example sets up two keyboard layouts (English (US) and Czech (qwerty)) using the --xlayouts= option, and allows to switch between them using Alt+Shift:

keyboard --xlayouts=us,'cz (qwerty)' --switch=grp:alt_shift_toggle

B.3.6. lang (required)

The lang Kickstart command is required. It sets the language to use during installation and the default language to use on the installed system.

Options

  • --addsupport= - Add support for additional languages. Takes the form of comma-separated list without spaces. For example:

    lang en_US --addsupport=cs_CZ,de_DE,en_UK

Notes

+

  • Certain languages (for example, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Indic languages) are not supported during text-mode installation. If you specify one of these languages with the lang command, the installation process continues in English, but the installed system uses your selection as its default language.

Example

To set the language to English, the Kickstart file should contain the following line:

lang en_US

B.3.7. module

The module Kickstart command is optional. Use this command to enable a package module stream within kickstart script.

Syntax

module --name=NAME [--stream=STREAM]

Mandatory options

  • --name= - Specifies the name of the module to enable. Replace NAME with the actual name.

Optional options

  • --stream= - Specifies the name of the module stream to enable. Replace STREAM with the actual name.

    You do not need to specify this option for modules with a default stream defined. For modules without a default stream, this option is mandatory and leaving it out results in an error. Enabling a module multiple times with different streams is not possible.

Notes

  • Using a combination of this command and the %packages section allows you to install packages provided by the enabled module and stream combination, without specifying the module and stream explicitly. Modules must be enabled before package installation. After enabling a module with the module command, you can install the packages enabled by this module by listing them in the %packages section.
  • A single module command can enable only a single module and stream combination. To enable multiple modules, use multiple module commands. Enabling a module multiple times with different streams is not possible.
  • In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8, modules are present only in the AppStream repository. To list available modules, use the yum module list command on an installed Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 system with a valid subscription.

Additional resources

B.3.8. pwpolicy

The pwpolicy Kickstart command is optional. This command can be used to enforce a custom password policy, which specifies requirements for passwords created during installation, based on factors such as password length and strength.

Syntax

pwpolicy name [--minlen=length] [--minquality=quality] [--strict|--nostrict] [--emptyok|--noempty] [--changesok|--nochanges]

Mandatory options

  • name - Replace with either root, user or luks to enforce the policy for the root password, user passwords, or LUKS passphrase, respectively.

Optional options

  • --minlen= - Sets the minimum allowed password length, in characters. The default is 6.
  • --minquality= - Sets the minimum allowed password quality as defined by the libpwquality library. The default value is 1.
  • --strict - Enables strict password enforcement. Passwords which do not meet the requirements specified in --minquality= and --minlen= will not be accepted. This option is disabled by default.
  • --notstrict - Passwords which do not meet the minimum quality requirements specified by the --minquality= and -minlen= options will be allowed, after Done is clicked twice in the GUI. For text mode interface, a similar mechanism is used.
  • --emptyok - Allows the use of empty passwords. Enabled by default for user passwords.
  • --notempty - Disallows the use of empty passwords. Enabled by default for the root password and the LUKS passphrase.
  • --changesok - Allows changing the password in the user interface, even if the Kickstart file already specifies a password. Disabled by default.
  • --nochanges - Disallows changing passwords which are already set in the Kickstart file. Enabled by default.

Notes

  • This command can only be used inside the %anaconda section.
  • The libpwquality library is used to check minimum password requirements (length and quality). You can use the pwscore and pwmake commands provided by the libpwquality package to check the quality score of a password, or to create a random password with a given score. See the pwscore(1) and pwmake(1) man page for details about these commands.

B.3.9. repo

The repo Kickstart command is optional. It configures additional yum repositories that can be used as sources for package installation. You can add multiple repo lines.

Syntax

repo --name=repoid [--baseurl=url|--mirrorlist=url|--metalink=url] [options]

Mandatory options

  • --name= - The repository id. This option is required. If a repository has a name which conflicts with another previously added repository, it is ignored. Because the installation program uses a list of preset repositories, this means that you cannot add repositories with the same names as the preset ones.

URL options

These options are mutually exclusive and optional. The variables that can be used in yum repository configuration files are not supported here. You can use the strings $releasever and $basearch which are replaced by the respective values in the URL.

  • --baseurl= - The URL to the repository.
  • --mirrorlist= - The URL pointing at a list of mirrors for the repository.
  • --metalink= - The URL with metalink for the repository.

Optional options

  • --install - Save the provided repository configuration on the installed system in the /etc/yum.repos.d/ directory. Without using this option, a repository configured in a Kickstart file will only be available during the installation process, not on the installed system.
  • --cost= - An integer value to assign a cost to this repository. If multiple repositories provide the same packages, this number is used to prioritize which repository will be used before another. Repositories with a lower cost take priority over repositories with higher cost.
  • --excludepkgs= - A comma-separated list of package names that must not be pulled from this repository. This is useful if multiple repositories provide the same package and you want to make sure it comes from a particular repository. Both full package names (such as publican) and globs (such as gnome-*) are accepted.
  • --includepkgs= - A comma-separated list of package names and globs that are allowed to be pulled from this repository. Any other packages provided by the repository will be ignored. This is useful if you want to install just a single package or set of packages from a repository while excluding all other packages the repository provides.
  • --proxy=[protocol://][username[:password]@]host[:port] - Specify an HTTP/HTTPS/FTP proxy to use just for this repository. This setting does not affect any other repositories, nor how the install.img is fetched on HTTP installations.
  • --noverifyssl - Disable SSL verification when connecting to an HTTPS server.

Notes

  • Repositories used for installation must be stable. The installation can fail if a repository is modified before the installation concludes.

B.3.10. rootpw (required)

The rootpw Kickstart command is required. It sets the system’s root password to the password argument.

Syntax

rootpw [--iscrypted|--plaintext] [--lock] password

Options

  • --iscrypted - If this option is present, the password argument is assumed to already be encrypted. This option is mutually exclusive with --plaintext. To create an encrypted password, you can use python:

    $ python -c 'import crypt,getpass;pw=getpass.getpass();print(crypt.crypt(pw) if (pw==getpass.getpass("Confirm: ")) else exit())'

    This generates a sha512 crypt-compatible hash of your password using a random salt.

  • --plaintext - If this option is present, the password argument is assumed to be in plain text. This option is mutually exclusive with --iscrypted.
  • --lock - If this option is present, the root account is locked by default. This means that the root user will not be able to log in from the console. This option will also disable the Root Password screens in both the graphical and text-based manual installation.

B.3.11. selinux

The selinux Kickstart command is optional. It sets the state of SELinux on the installed system. The default SELinux policy is enforcing.

Syntax

selinux [--disabled|--enforcing|--permissive]

Options

  • --enforcing - Enables SELinux with the default targeted policy being enforcing.
  • --permissive - Outputs warnings based on the SELinux policy, but does not actually enforce the policy.
  • --disabled - Disables SELinux completely on the system.

Additional resources

For more information regarding SELinux, see the Using SElinux document.

B.3.12. services

The services Kickstart command is optional. It modifies the default set of services that will run under the default systemd target. The list of disabled services is processed before the list of enabled services. Therefore, if a service appears on both lists, it will be enabled.

Syntax

services [--disabled=list] [--enabled=list]

Options

  • --disabled= - Disable the services given in the comma separated list.
  • --enabled= - Enable the services given in the comma separated list.

Notes

*Do not include spaces in the list of services. If you do, Kickstart will enable or disable only the services up to the first space. For example:

+

services --disabled=auditd, cups,smartd, nfslock

+ That disables only the auditd service. To disable all four services, this entry must include no spaces:

+

services --disabled=auditd,cups,smartd,nfslock

B.3.13. skipx

The skipx Kickstart command is optional. If present, X is not configured on the installed system.

If you install a display manager among your package selection options, this package creates an X configuration, and the installed system defaults to graphical.target. That overrides the effect of the skipx option.

B.3.14. sshkey

The sshkey Kickstart command is optional. It adds a SSH key to the authorized_keys file of the specified user on the installed system.

Syntax

sshkey --username=user KEY

Mandatory options

  • --username= - The user for which the key will be installed.
  • KEY - The SSH key.

B.3.15. syspurpose

The syspurpose Kickstart command is optional. Use it to set the system purpose which describes how the system will be used after installation. This information helps apply the correct subscription entitlement to the system.

Syntax

syspurpose [options]

Options

  • --role= - Set the intended system role. Available values are:

    • Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server
    • Red Hat Enterprise Linux Workstation
    • Red Hat Enterprise Linux Compute Node
  • --sla= - Set the Service Level Agreement. Available values are:

    • Premium
    • Standard
    • Self-Support
  • --usage= - The intended usage of the system. Available values are:

    • Production
    • Disaster Recovery
    • Development/Test
  • --addon= - Specifies additional layered products or features. You can use this option multiple times.

Notes

  • Enter the values with spaces and enclose them in double quotes:

    syspurpose --role="Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server"
  • While it is strongly recommended that you configure System Purpose, it is an optional feature of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program. If you want to enable System Purpose after the installation completes, you can do so using the syspurpose command-line tool.

B.3.16. timezone (required)

The timezone Kickstart command is required. It sets the system time zone.

Syntax

timezone timezone [options]

Mandatory options

  • timezone - the time zone to set for the system.

Optional options

  • --utc - If present, the system assumes the hardware clock is set to UTC (Greenwich Mean) time.
  • --nontp - Disable the NTP service automatic starting.
  • --ntpservers= - Specify a list of NTP servers to be used as a comma-separated list without spaces.

Notes

In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8, time zone names are validated using the pytz.all_timezones list, provided by the pytz package. In previous releases, the names were validated against pytz.common_timezones, which is a subset of the currently used list. Note that the graphical and text mode interfaces still use the more restricted pytz.common_timezones list; you must use a Kickstart file to use additional time zone definitions.

B.3.17. user

The user Kickstart command is optional. It creates a new user on the system.

Syntax

user --name=username [options]

Mandatory options

  • --name= - Provides the name of the user. This option is required.

Optional options

  • --gecos= - Provides the GECOS information for the user. This is a string of various system-specific fields separated by a comma. It is frequently used to specify the user’s full name, office number, and so on. See the passwd(5) man page for more details.
  • --groups= - In addition to the default group, a comma separated list of group names the user should belong to. The groups must exist before the user account is created. See the group command.
  • --homedir= - The home directory for the user. If not provided, this defaults to /home/username.
  • --lock - If this option is present, this account is locked by default. This means that the user will not be able to log in from the console. This option will also disable the Create User screens in both the graphical and text-based manual installation.
  • --password= - The new user’s password. If not provided, the account will be locked by default.
  • --iscrypted - If this option is present, the password argument is assumed to already be encrypted. This option is mutually exclusive with --plaintext. To create an encrypted password, you can use python:

    $ python -c 'import crypt,getpass;pw=getpass.getpass();print(crypt.crypt(pw) if (pw==getpass.getpass("Confirm: ")) else exit())'

    This generates a sha512 crypt-compatible hash of your password using a random salt.

  • --plaintext - If this option is present, the password argument is assumed to be in plain text. This option is mutually exclusive with --iscrypted
  • --shell= - The user’s login shell. If not provided, the system default is used.
  • --uid= - The user’s UID (User ID). If not provided, this defaults to the next available non-system UID.
  • --gid= - The GID (Group ID) to be used for the user’s group. If not provided, this defaults to the next available non-system group ID.

Notes

  • Consider using the --uid and --gid options to set IDs of regular users and their default groups at range starting at 5000 instead of 1000. That is because the range reserved for system users and groups, 0-999, might increase in the future and thus overlap with IDs of regular users.

    For changing the minimum UID and GID limits after the installation, which ensures that your chosen UID and GID ranges are applied automatically on user creation, see the Setting default permissions for new files using umask section of the Configuring basic system settings document.

  • Files and directories are created with various permissions, dictated by the application used to create the file or directory. For example, the mkdir command creates directories with all permissions enabled. However, applications are prevented from granting certain permissions to newly created files, as specified by the user file-creation mask setting.

    The user file-creation mask can be controlled with the umask command. The default setting of the user file-creation mask for new users is defined by the UMASK variable in the /etc/login.defs configuration file on the installed system. If unset, it defaults to 022. This means that by default when an application creates a file, it is prevented from granting write permission to users other than the owner of the file. However, this can be overridden by other settings or scripts. More information can be found in the Setting default permissions for new files using umask section of the Configuring basic system settings document.

B.3.18. xconfig

The xconfig Kickstart command is optional. It configures the X Window System.

Options

  • --startxonboot - Use a graphical login on the installed system.

Notes

  • Because Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 does not include the KDE Desktop Environment, do not use the --defaultdesktop= documented in upstream.

B.4. Kickstart commands for network configuration

The Kickstart commands in this list let you configure networking on the system.

B.4.1. network

The network Kickstart command is optional. It configures network information for the target system and activates network devices in the installation environment.

The device specified in the first network command is activated automatically. Activation of the device can be also explicitly required by the --activate option.

Options

  • --activate - activate this device in the installation environment.

    If you use the --activate option on a device that has already been activated (for example, an interface you configured with boot options so that the system could retrieve the Kickstart file) the device is reactivated to use the details specified in the Kickstart file.

    Use the --nodefroute option to prevent the device from using the default route.

  • --no-activate - do not activate this device in the installation environment.

    By default, Anaconda activates the first network device in the Kickstart file regardless of the --activate option. You can disable the default setting by using the --no-activate option.

  • --bootproto= - One of dhcp, bootp, ibft, or static. The default option is dhcp; the dhcp and bootp options are treated the same. To disable ipv4 configuration of the device, use --noipv4 option.

    Note

    This option configures ipv4 configuration of the device. For ipv6 configuration use --ipv6 and --ipv6gateway options.

    The DHCP method uses a DHCP server system to obtain its networking configuration. The BOOTP method is similar, requiring a BOOTP server to supply the networking configuration. To direct a system to use DHCP:

    network --bootproto=dhcp

    To direct a machine to use BOOTP to obtain its networking configuration, use the following line in the Kickstart file:

    network --bootproto=bootp

    To direct a machine to use the configuration specified in iBFT, use:

    network --bootproto=ibft

    The static method requires that you specify at least the IP address and netmask in the Kickstart file. This information is static and is used during and after the installation.

    All static networking configuration information must be specified on one line; you cannot wrap lines using a backslash (\) as you can on a command line.

    network --bootproto=static --ip=10.0.2.15 --netmask=255.255.255.0 --gateway=10.0.2.254 --nameserver=10.0.2.1

    You can also configure multiple nameservers at the same time. To do so, use the --nameserver= option once, and specify each of their IP addresses, separated by commas:

    network --bootproto=static --ip=10.0.2.15 --netmask=255.255.255.0 --gateway=10.0.2.254 --nameserver=192.168.2.1,192.168.3.1
  • --device= - specifies the device to be configured (and eventually activated in Anaconda) with the network command.

    If the --device= option is missing on the first use of the network command, the value of the ksdevice= Anaconda boot option is used, if available. Note that this is considered deprecated behavior; in most cases, you should always specify a --device= for every network command.

    The behavior of any subsequent network command in the same Kickstart file is unspecified if its --device= option is missing. Make sure you specify this option for any network command beyond the first.

    You can specify a device to be activated in any of the following ways:

    • the device name of the interface, for example, em1
    • the MAC address of the interface, for example, 01:23:45:67:89:ab
    • the keyword link, which specifies the first interface with its link in the up state
    • the keyword bootif, which uses the MAC address that pxelinux set in the BOOTIF variable. Set IPAPPEND 2 in your pxelinux.cfg file to have pxelinux set the BOOTIF variable.

    For example:

    network --bootproto=dhcp --device=em1
  • --ip= - IP address of the device.
  • --ipv6= - IPv6 address of the device, in the form of address[/prefix length] - for example, 3ffe:ffff:0:1::1/128 `. If prefix is omitted, `64 is used. You can also use auto for automatic configuration, or dhcp for DHCPv6-only configuration (no router advertisements).
  • --gateway= - Default gateway as a single IPv4 address.
  • --ipv6gateway= - Default gateway as a single IPv6 address.
  • --nodefroute - Prevents the interface being set as the default route. Use this option when you activate additional devices with the --activate= option, for example, a NIC on a separate subnet for an iSCSI target.
  • --nameserver= - DNS name server, as an IP address. To specify more than one name server, use this option once, and separate each IP address with a comma.
  • --netmask= - Network mask for the installed system.
  • --hostname= - The host name for the installed system. The host name can either be a fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) in the format host_name.domainname, or a short host name with no domain. Many networks have a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service which automatically supplies connected systems with a domain name; to allow DHCP to assign the domain name, only specify a short host name.

    Important

    If your network does not provide a DHCP service, always use the FQDN as the system’s host name.

  • --ethtool= - Specifies additional low-level settings for the network device which will be passed to the ethtool program.
  • --onboot= - Whether or not to enable the device at boot time.
  • --dhcpclass= - The DHCP class.
  • --mtu= - The MTU of the device.
  • --noipv4 - Disable IPv4 on this device.
  • --noipv6 - Disable IPv6 on this device.
  • --bondslaves= - When this option is used, the bond device specified by the --device= option is created using slaves defined in the --bondslaves= option. For example:

    network --device=bond0 --bondslaves=em1,em2

    The above command creates a bond device named bond0 using the em1 and em2 interfaces as its slaves.

  • --bondopts= - a list of optional parameters for a bonded interface, which is specified using the --bondslaves= and --device= options. Options in this list must be separated by commas (“,”) or semicolons (“;”). If an option itself contains a comma, use a semicolon to separate the options. For example:

    network --bondopts=mode=active-backup,balance-rr;primary=eth1
    Important

    The --bondopts=mode= parameter only supports full mode names such as balance-rr or broadcast, not their numerical representations such as 0 or 3.

  • --vlanid= - Specifies virtual LAN (VLAN) ID number (802.1q tag) for the device created using the device specified in --device= as a parent. For example, network --device=em1 --vlanid=171 creates a virtual LAN device em1.171.
  • --interfacename= - Specify a custom interface name for a virtual LAN device. This option should be used when the default name generated by the --vlanid= option is not desirable. This option must be used along with --vlanid=. For example:

    network --device=em1 --vlanid=171 --interfacename=vlan171

    The above command creates a virtual LAN interface named vlan171 on the em1 device with an ID of 171.

    The interface name can be arbitrary (for example, my-vlan), but in specific cases, the following conventions must be followed:

    • If the name contains a dot (.), it must take the form of NAME.ID. The NAME is arbitrary, but the ID must be the VLAN ID. For example: em1.171 or my-vlan.171.
    • Names starting with vlan must take the form of vlanID - for example, vlan171.
  • --teamslaves= - Team device specified by the --device= option will be created using slaves specified in this option. Slaves are separated by commas. A slave can be followed by its configuration, which is a single-quoted JSON string with double quotes escaped by the \ character. For example:

    network --teamslaves="p3p1'{\"prio\": -10, \"sticky\": true}',p3p2'{\"prio\": 100}'"

    See also the --teamconfig= option.

  • --teamconfig= - Double-quoted team device configuration which is a JSON string with double quotes escaped by the \ character. The device name is specified by --device= option and its slaves and their configuration by --teamslaves= option. For example:

    network --device team0 --activate --bootproto static --ip=10.34.102.222 --netmask=255.255.255.0 --gateway=10.34.102.254 --nameserver=10.34.39.2 --teamslaves="p3p1'{\"prio\": -10, \"sticky\": true}',p3p2'{\"prio\": 100}'" --teamconfig="{\"runner\": {\"name\": \"activebackup\"}}"
  • --bridgeslaves= - When this option is used, the network bridge with device name specified using the --device= option will be created and devices defined in the --bridgeslaves= option will be added to the bridge. For example:

    network --device=bridge0 --bridgeslaves=em1
  • --bridgeopts= - An optional comma-separated list of parameters for the bridged interface. Available values are stp, priority, forward-delay, hello-time, max-age, and ageing-time. For information about these parameters, see the bridge setting table in the nm-settings(5) man page or at https://developer.gnome.org/NetworkManager/0.9/ref-settings.html.

    Also see the Configuring and managing networking document for general information about network bridging.

  • --bindto=mac - Bind the device configuration (ifcfg) file on the installed system to the device MAC address (HWADDR) instead of the default binding to the interface name (DEVICE). Note that this option is independent of the --device= option - --bindto=mac will be applied even if the same network command also specifies a device name, link, or bootif.

Notes

  • The ethN device names such as eth0 are no longer available in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 due to changes in the naming scheme. For more information about the device naming scheme, see the upstream document Predictable Network Interface Names.
  • If you used a Kickstart option or a boot option to specify an installation repository on a network, but no network is available at the start of the installation, the installation program displays the Network Configuration window to set up a network connection prior to displaying the Installation Summary window. For more details, see the Configuring network and host name options section of the Performing a standard RHEL installation document.

B.4.2. realm

The realm Kickstart command is optional. Use it to join an Active Directory or IPA domain. For more information about this command, see the join section of the realm(8) man page.

Syntax

realm join [options] domain

Options

  • --computer-ou=OU= - Provide the distinguished name of an organizational unit in order to create the computer account. The exact format of the distinguished name depends on the client software and membership software. The root DSE portion of the distinguished name can usually be left out.
  • --no-password - Join automatically without a password.
  • --one-time-password= - Join using a one-time password. This is not possible with all types of realm.
  • --client-software= - Only join realms which can run this client software. Valid values include sssd and winbind. Not all realms support all values. By default, the client software is chosen automatically.
  • --server-software= - Only join realms which can run this server software. Possible values include active-directory or freeipa.
  • --membership-software= - Use this software when joining the realm. Valid values include samba and adcli. Not all realms support all values. By default, the membership software is chosen automatically.

B.5. Kickstart commands for handling storage

The Kickstart commands in this section configure aspects of storage such as devices, disks, partitions, LVM, and filesystems.

B.5.1. device (deprecated)

The device Kickstart command is optional. Use it to load additional kernel modules.

On most PCI systems, the installation program automatically detects Ethernet and SCSI cards. However, on older systems and some PCI systems, Kickstart requires a hint to find the proper devices. The device command, which tells the installation program to install extra modules, uses the following format:

Syntax

device moduleName --opts=options

Options

  • moduleName - Replace with the name of the kernel module which should be installed.
  • --opts= - Options to pass to the kernel module. For example:

    device --opts="aic152x=0x340 io=11"

B.5.2. autopart

The autopart Kickstart command is optional. It automatically creates partitions.

The automatically created partitions are: a root (/) partition (1 GB or larger), a swap partition, and an appropriate /boot partition for the architecture. On large enough drives (50 GB and larger), this also creates a /home partition.

Options

  • --type= - Selects one of the predefined automatic partitioning schemes you want to use. Accepts the following values:

    • lvm: The LVM partitioning scheme.
    • plain: Regular partitions with no LVM.
    • thinp: The LVM Thin Provisioning partitioning scheme.

    For a description of the available partition schemes, see Section C.1, “Supported device types”.

  • --fstype= - Selects one of the available file system types. The available values are ext2, ext3, ext4, xfs, and vfat. The default file system is xfs. For information about these file systems, see Section C.2, “Supported file systems”.
  • --nohome - Disables automatic creation of the /home partition.
  • --nolvm - Do not use LVM for automatic partitioning. This option is equal to --type=plain.
  • --noboot - Do not create a /boot partition.
  • --noswap - Do not create a swap partition.
  • --encrypted - Encrypts all partitions with Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS). This is equivalent to checking the Encrypt partitions check box on the initial partitioning screen during a manual graphical installation.

    Note

    When encrypting one or more partitions, Anaconda attempts to gather 256 bits of entropy to ensure the partitions are encrypted securely. Gathering entropy can take some time - the process will stop after a maximum of 10 minutes, regardless of whether sufficient entropy has been gathered.

    The process can be sped up by interacting with the installation system (typing on the keyboard or moving the mouse). If you are installing in a virtual machine, you can also attach a virtio-rng device (a virtual random number generator) to the guest.

  • --luks-version=LUKS_VERSION - Specifies which version of LUKS format should be used to encrypt the filesystem. This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified.
  • --passphrase= - Provides a default system-wide passphrase for all encrypted devices.
  • --escrowcert=URL_of_X.509_certificate - Stores data encryption keys of all encrypted volumes as files in /root, encrypted using the X.509 certificate from the URL specified with URL_of_X.509_certificate. The keys are stored as a separate file for each encrypted volume. This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified.
  • --backuppassphrase - Adds a randomly-generated passphrase to each encrypted volume. Store these passphrases in separate files in /root, encrypted using the X.509 certificate specified with --escrowcert. This option is only meaningful if --escrowcert is specified.
  • --cipher= - Specifies the type of encryption to use if the Anaconda default aes-xts-plain64 is not satisfactory. You must use this option together with the --encrypted option; by itself it has no effect. Available types of encryption are listed in the Security hardening document, but Red Hat strongly recommends using either aes-xts-plain64 or aes-cbc-essiv:sha256.
  • --pbkdf=PBKDF - Sets Password-Based Key Derivation Function (PBKDF) algorithm for LUKS keyslot. See also the man page cryptsetup(8). This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified.
  • --pbkdf-memory=PBKDF_MEMORY - Sets the memory cost for PBKDF. See also the man page cryptsetup(8). This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified.
  • --pbkdf-time=PBKDF_TIME - Sets the number of milliseconds to spend with PBKDF passphrase processing. See also --iter-time in the man page cryptsetup(8). This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified, and is mutually exclusive with --pbkdf-iterations.
  • --pbkdf-iterations=PBKDF_ITERATIONS - Sets the number of iterations directly and avoids PBKDF benchmark. See also --pbkdf-force-iterations in the man page cryptsetup(8). This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified, and is mutually exclusive with --pbkdf-time.

Notes

  • The autopart option cannot be used together with the part/partition, raid, logvol, or volgroup options in the same Kickstart file.
  • The autopart command is not mandatory, but you must include it if there are no part of mount commands in your Kickstart script.
  • It is recommended to use the autopart --nohome Kickstart option when installing on a single FBA DASD of the CMS type. This ensures that the installation program does not create a separate /home partition. The installation then proceeds successfully.
  • If you lose the LUKS passphrase, any encrypted partitions and their data is completely inaccessible. There is no way to recover a lost passphrase. However, you can save encryption passphrases with the --escrowcert and create backup encryption passphrases with the --backuppassphrase options.

B.5.3. bootloader (required)

The bootloader Kickstart command is required. It specifies how the boot loader should be installed.

Syntax

bootloader [OPTIONS]

Options

  • --append= - Specifies additional kernel parameters. To specify multiple parameters, separate them with spaces. For example:

    bootloader --location=mbr --append="hdd=ide-scsi ide=nodma"

    The rhgb and quiet parameters are automatically added when the plymouth package is installed, even if you do not specify them here or do not use the --append= command at all. To disable this behavior, explicitly disallow installation of plymouth:

    %packages
    -plymouth
    %end

    This option is useful for disabling mechanisms which were implemented to mitigate the Meltdown and Spectre speculative execution vulnerabilities found in most modern processors (CVE-2017-5754, CVE-2017-5753, and CVE-2017-5715). In some cases, these mechanisms may be unnecessary, and keeping them enabled causes decreased performance with no improvement in security. To disable these mechanisms, add the options to do so into your Kickstart file - for example, bootloader --append="nopti noibrs noibpb" on AMD64/Intel 64 systems.

    Warning

    Ensure your system is not at risk of attack before disabling any of the vulnerability mitigation mechanisms. See the Red Hat vulnerability response article for information about the Meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities.

  • --boot-drive= - Specifies which drive the boot loader should be written to, and therefore which drive the computer will boot from. If you use a multipath device as the boot drive, specify only one member of the device.

    Important

    The --boot-drive= option is currently being ignored in Red Hat Enterprise Linux installations on IBM Z systems using the zipl boot loader. When zipl is installed, it determines the boot drive on its own.

  • --leavebootorder - The installation program will add Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 to the top of the list of installed systems in the boot loader, and preserve all existing entries as well as their order.
  • --driveorder= - Specifies which drive is first in the BIOS boot order. For example:

    bootloader --driveorder=sda,hda
  • --location= - Specifies where the boot record is written. Valid values are the following:

    • mbr - The default option. Depends on whether the drive uses the Master Boot Record (MBR) or GUID Partition Table (GPT) scheme:

      On a GPT-formatted disk, this option installs stage 1.5 of the boot loader into the BIOS boot partition.

      On an MBR-formatted disk, stage 1.5 is installed into the empty space between the MBR and the first partition.

    • partition - Install the boot loader on the first sector of the partition containing the kernel.
    • none - Do not install the boot loader.

    In most cases, this option does not need to be specified.

  • --nombr - Do not install the boot loader to the MBR.
  • --password= - If using GRUB2, sets the boot loader password to the one specified with this option. This should be used to restrict access to the GRUB2 shell, where arbitrary kernel options can be passed.

    If a password is specified, GRUB2 also asks for a user name. The user name is always root.

  • --iscrypted - Normally, when you specify a boot loader password using the --password= option, it is stored in the Kickstart file in plain text. If you want to encrypt the password, use this option and an encrypted password.

    To generate an encrypted password, use the grub2-mkpasswd-pbkdf2 command, enter the password you want to use, and copy the command’s output (the hash starting with grub.pbkdf2) into the Kickstart file. An example bootloader Kickstart entry with an encrypted password looks similar to the following:

    bootloader --iscrypted --password=grub.pbkdf2.sha512.10000.5520C6C9832F3AC3D149AC0B24BE69E2D4FB0DBEEDBD29CA1D30A044DE2645C4C7A291E585D4DC43F8A4D82479F8B95CA4BA4381F8550510B75E8E0BB2938990.C688B6F0EF935701FF9BD1A8EC7FE5BD2333799C98F28420C5CC8F1A2A233DE22C83705BB614EA17F3FDFDF4AC2161CEA3384E56EB38A2E39102F5334C47405E
  • --timeout= - Specifies the amount of time the boot loader waits before booting the default option (in seconds).
  • --default= - Sets the default boot image in the boot loader configuration.
  • --extlinux - Use the extlinux boot loader instead of GRUB2. This option only works on systems supported by extlinux.
  • --disabled — This option is a stronger version of --location=none. While --location=none simply disables boot loader installation, --disabled disables boot loader installation and also disables installation of the package containing the boot loader, thus saving space.

Notes

  • Red Hat recommends setting up a boot loader password on every system. An unprotected boot loader can allow a potential attacker to modify the system’s boot options and gain unauthorized access to the system.
  • In some cases, a special partition is required to install the boot loader on AMD64, Intel 64, and 64-bit ARM systems. The type and size of this partition depends on whether the disk you are installing the boot loader to uses the Master Boot Record (MBR) or a GUID Partition Table (GPT) schema. For more information, see the Configuring boot loader section of the Performing a standard RHEL installation document.
  • Device names in the sdX (or /dev/sdX) format are not guaranteed to be consistent across reboots, which can complicate usage of some Kickstart commands. When a command calls for a device node name, you can instead use any item from /dev/disk. For example, instead of:

    part / --fstype=xfs --onpart=sda1

    You can use an entry similar to one of the following:

    part / --fstype=xfs --onpart=/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:00:05.0-scsi-0:0:0:0-part1
    part / --fstype=xfs --onpart=/dev/disk/by-id/ata-ST3160815AS_6RA0C882-part1

    This way the command will always target the same storage device. This is especially useful in large storage environments. See the chapter Overview of persistent naming attributes in the Managing storage devices document for more in-depth information about different ways to consistently refer to storage devices.

  • The --upgrade option is deprecated in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.

B.5.4. clearpart

The clearpart Kickstart command is optional. It removes partitions from the system, prior to creation of new partitions. By default, no partitions are removed.

Options

  • --all - Erases all partitions from the system.

    This option will erase all disks which can be reached by the installation program, including any attached network storage. Use this option with caution.

    You can prevent clearpart from wiping storage you want to preserve by using the --drives= option and specifying only the drives you want to clear, by attaching network storage later (for example, in the %post section of the Kickstart file), or by blacklisting the kernel modules used to access network storage.

  • --drives= - Specifies which drives to clear partitions from. For example, the following clears all the partitions on the first two drives on the primary IDE controller:

    clearpart --drives=hda,hdb --all

    To clear a multipath device, use the format disk/by-id/scsi-WWID, where WWID is the world-wide identifier for the device. For example, to clear a disk with WWID 58095BEC5510947BE8C0360F604351918, use:

    clearpart --drives=disk/by-id/scsi-58095BEC5510947BE8C0360F604351918

    This format is preferable for all multipath devices, but if errors arise, multipath devices that do not use logical volume management (LVM) can also be cleared using the format disk/by-id/dm-uuid-mpath-WWID, where WWID is the world-wide identifier for the device. For example, to clear a disk with WWID 2416CD96995134CA5D787F00A5AA11017, use:

    clearpart --drives=disk/by-id/dm-uuid-mpath-2416CD96995134CA5D787F00A5AA11017

    Never specify multipath devices by device names like mpatha. Device names such as this are not specific to a particular disk. The disk named /dev/mpatha during installation might not be the one that you expect it to be. Therefore, the clearpart command could target the wrong disk.

  • --initlabel - Initializes a disk (or disks) by creating a default disk label for all disks in their respective architecture that have been designated for formatting (for example, msdos for x86). Because --initlabel can see all disks, it is important to ensure only those drives that are to be formatted are connected.

    clearpart --initlabel --drives=names_of_disks

    For example:

    clearpart --initlabel --drives=dasda,dasdb,dasdc
  • --list= - Specifies which partitions to clear. This option overrides the --all and --linux options if used. Can be used across different drives. For example:

    clearpart --list=sda2,sda3,sdb1
  • --disklabel=LABEL - Set the default disklabel to use. Only disklabels supported for the platform will be accepted. For example, on the 64-bit Intel and AMD architectures, the msdos and gpt disklabels are accepted, but dasd is not accepted.
  • --linux - Erases all Linux partitions.
  • --none (default) - Do not remove any partitions.
  • --cdl - Reformat any LDL DASDs to CDL format.

Notes

  • Device names in the sdX (or /dev/sdX) format are not guaranteed to be consistent across reboots, which can complicate usage of some Kickstart commands. When a command calls for a device node name, you can instead use any item from /dev/disk. For example, instead of:

    part / --fstype=xfs --onpart=sda1

    You could use an entry similar to one of the following:

    part / --fstype=xfs --onpart=/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:00:05.0-scsi-0:0:0:0-part1
    part / --fstype=xfs --onpart=/dev/disk/by-id/ata-ST3160815AS_6RA0C882-part1

    This way the command will always target the same storage device. This is especially useful in large storage environments. See the chapter Overview of persistent naming attributes in the Managing storage devices document for more in-depth information about different ways to consistently refer to storage devices.

  • If the clearpart command is used, then the part --onpart command cannot be used on a logical partition.

B.5.5. fcoe

The fcoe Kickstart command is optional. It specifies which FCoE devices should be activated automatically in addition to those discovered by Enhanced Disk Drive Services (EDD).

Syntax

fcoe --nic=name [options]

Options

  • --nic= (required) - The name of the device to be activated.
  • --dcb= - Establish Data Center Bridging (DCB) settings.
  • --autovlan - Discover VLANs automatically. This option is enabled by default.

B.5.6. ignoredisk

The ignoredisk Kickstart command is optional. It causes the installation program to ignore the specified disks.

This is useful if you use automatic partitioning and want to be sure that some disks are ignored. For example, without ignoredisk, attempting to deploy on a SAN-cluster the Kickstart would fail, as the installation program detects passive paths to the SAN that return no partition table.

Syntax

ignoredisk --drives=drive1,drive2,... | --only-use=drive

Options

  • --drives=driveN,…​ - Replace driveN with one of sda, sdb,…​, hda,…​ and so on.
  • --only-use - Specifies a list of disks for the installation program to use. All other disks are ignored. For example, to use disk sda during installation and ignore all other disks:

    ignoredisk --only-use=sda

    To include a multipath device that does not use LVM:

    ignoredisk --only-use=disk/by-id/dm-uuid-mpath-2416CD96995134CA5D787F00A5AA11017

    To include a multipath device that uses LVM:

    ignoredisk --only-use=disk/by-id/scsi-58095BEC5510947BE8C0360F604351918

You must specify one of the --drives and --only-use.

Notes

  • The --interactive option is deprecated in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8. This option allowed users to manually navigate the advanced storage screen.
  • To ignore a multipath device that does not use logical volume management (LVM), use the format disk/by-id/dm-uuid-mpath-WWID, where WWID is the world-wide identifier for the device. For example, to ignore a disk with WWID 2416CD96995134CA5D787F00A5AA11017, use:

    ignoredisk --drives=disk/by-id/dm-uuid-mpath-2416CD96995134CA5D787F00A5AA11017
  • Multipath devices that use LVM are not assembled until after Anaconda has parsed the Kickstart file. Therefore, you cannot specify these devices in the format dm-uuid-mpath. Instead, to ignore a multipath device that uses LVM, use the format disk/by-id/scsi-WWID, where WWID is the world-wide identifier for the device. For example, to ignore a disk with WWID 58095BEC5510947BE8C0360F604351918, use:

    ignoredisk --drives=disk/by-id/scsi-58095BEC5510947BE8C0360F604351918
  • Never specify multipath devices by device names like mpatha. Device names such as this are not specific to a particular disk. The disk named /dev/mpatha during installation might not be the one that you expect it to be. Therefore, the clearpart command could target the wrong disk.
  • Device names in the sdX (or /dev/sdX) format are not guaranteed to be consistent across reboots, which can complicate usage of some Kickstart commands. When a command calls for a device node name, you can instead use any item from /dev/disk. For example, instead of:

    part / --fstype=xfs --onpart=sda1

    You can use an entry similar to one of the following:

    part / --fstype=xfs --onpart=/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:00:05.0-scsi-0:0:0:0-part1
    part / --fstype=xfs --onpart=/dev/disk/by-id/ata-ST3160815AS_6RA0C882-part1

    This way the command will always target the same storage device. This is especially useful in large storage environments. See the chapter Overview of persistent naming attributes in the Managing storage devices document for more in-depth information about different ways to consistently refer to storage devices.

B.5.7. iscsi

The iscsi Kickstart command is optional. It specifies additional iSCSI storage to be attached during installation.

Syntax

iscsi --ipaddr=address [options]

Mandatory options

  • --ipaddr= (required) - the IP address of the target to connect to.

Optional options

  • --port= (required) - the port number. If not present, --port=3260 is used automatically by default.
  • --target= - the target IQN (iSCSI Qualified Name).
  • --iface= - bind the connection to a specific network interface instead of using the default one determined by the network layer. Once used, it must be specified in all instances of the iscsi command in the entire Kickstart file.
  • --user= - the user name required to authenticate with the target
  • --password= - the password that corresponds with the user name specified for the target
  • --reverse-user= - the user name required to authenticate with the initiator from a target that uses reverse CHAP authentication
  • --reverse-password= - the password that corresponds with the user name specified for the initiator

Notes

  • If you use the iscsi command, you must also assign a name to the iSCSI node, using the iscsiname command. The iscsiname command must appear before the iscsi command in the Kickstart file.
  • Wherever possible, configure iSCSI storage in the system BIOS or firmware (iBFT for Intel systems) rather than use the iscsi command. Anaconda automatically detects and uses disks configured in BIOS or firmware and no special configuration is necessary in the Kickstart file.
  • If you must use the iscsi command, ensure that networking is activated at the beginning of the installation, and that the iscsi command appears in the Kickstart file before you refer to iSCSI disks with commands such as clearpart or ignoredisk.

B.5.8. iscsiname

The iscsiname Kickstart command is optional. It assigns a name to an iSCSI node specified by the iscsi parameter. .Syntax

iscsiname iqn

Notes

  • If you use the iscsi parameter in your Kickstart file, you must specify iscsiname earlier in the Kickstart file.

B.5.9. logvol

The logvol Kickstart command is optional. It creates a logical volume for Logical Volume Management (LVM).

Syntax

logvol mntpoint --vgname=name --name=name [options]

Mandatory options

  • The mntpoint is where the partition is mounted and must be of one of the following forms:

    • /path

      For example, / or /home

    • swap

      The partition is used as swap space.

      To determine the size of the swap partition automatically, use the --recommended option:

      swap --recommended

      To determine the size of the swap partition automatically and also allow extra space for your system to hibernate, use the --hibernation option:

      swap --hibernation

      The size assigned will be equivalent to the swap space assigned by --recommended plus the amount of RAM on your system.

      For the swap sizes assigned by these commands, see Section C.4, “Recommended partitioning scheme” for AMD64, Intel 64, and 64-bit ARM systems.

  • --vgname=name - name of the volume group.
  • --name=name - name of the logical volume.

Optional options

  • --noformat - Use an existing logical volume and do not format it.
  • --useexisting - Use an existing logical volume and reformat it.
  • --fstype= - Sets the file system type for the logical volume. Valid values are xfs, ext2, ext3, ext4, swap, and vfat.
  • --fsoptions= - Specifies a free form string of options to be used when mounting the filesystem. This string will be copied into the /etc/fstab file of the installed system and should be enclosed in quotes.
  • --mkfsoptions= - Specifies additional parameters to be passed to the program that makes a filesystem on this partition. No processing is done on the list of arguments, so they must be supplied in a format that can be passed directly to the mkfs program. This means multiple options should be comma-separated or surrounded by double quotes, depending on the filesystem.
  • --fsprofile= - Specifies a usage type to be passed to the program that makes a filesystem on this partition. A usage type defines a variety of tuning parameters to be used when making a filesystem. For this option to work, the filesystem must support the concept of usage types and there must be a configuration file that lists valid types. For ext2, ext3, and ext4, this configuration file is /etc/mke2fs.conf.
  • --label= - Sets a label for the logical volume.
  • --grow - Tells the logical volume to grow to fill available space (if any), or up to the maximum size setting, if one is specified. A minimum size must be given, using either the --percent= option or the --size= option.
  • --size= - The size of the logical volume in MiB. This option cannot be used together with the --percent= option.
  • --percent= - The size of the logical volume, as a percentage of the free space in the volume group after any statically-sized logical volumes are taken into account. This option cannot be used together with the --size= option.

    Important

    When creating a new logical volume, you must either specify its size statically using the --size= option, or as a percentage of remaining free space using the --percent= option. You cannot use both of these options on the same logical volume.

  • --maxsize= - The maximum size in MiB when the logical volume is set to grow. Specify an integer value here such as 500 (do not include the unit).
  • --recommended - Use this option when creating a logical volume to determine the size of this volume automatically, based on your system’s hardware. For details about the recommended scheme, see Section C.4, “Recommended partitioning scheme” for AMD64, Intel 64, and 64-bit ARM systems.
  • --resize - Resize a logical volume. If you use this option, you must also specify --useexisting and --size.
  • --encrypted - Specifies that this logical volume should be encrypted with Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS), using the passphrase provided in the --passphrase= option. If you do not specify a passphrase, the installation program uses the default, system-wide passphrase set with the autopart --passphrase command, or stops the installation and prompts you to provide a passphrase if no default is set.

    Note

    When encrypting one or more partitions, Anaconda attempts to gather 256 bits of entropy to ensure the partitions are encrypted securely. Gathering entropy can take some time - the process will stop after a maximum of 10 minutes, regardless of whether sufficient entropy has been gathered.

    The process can be sped up by interacting with the installation system (typing on the keyboard or moving the mouse). If you are installing in a virtual machine, you can also attach a virtio-rng device (a virtual random number generator) to the guest.

  • --passphrase= - Specifies the passphrase to use when encrypting this logical volume. You must use this option together with the --encrypted option; it has no effect by itself.
  • --cipher= - Specifies the type of encryption to use if the Anaconda default aes-xts-plain64 is not satisfactory. You must use this option together with the --encrypted option; by itself it has no effect. Available types of encryption are listed in the Security hardening document, but Red Hat strongly recommends using either aes-xts-plain64 or aes-cbc-essiv:sha256.
  • --escrowcert=URL_of_X.509_certificate - Store data encryption keys of all encrypted volumes as files in /root, encrypted using the X.509 certificate from the URL specified with URL_of_X.509_certificate. The keys are stored as a separate file for each encrypted volume. This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified.
  • --luks-version=LUKS_VERSION - Specifies which version of LUKS format should be used to encrypt the filesystem. This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified.
  • --backuppassphrase - Add a randomly-generated passphrase to each encrypted volume. Store these passphrases in separate files in /root, encrypted using the X.509 certificate specified with --escrowcert. This option is only meaningful if --escrowcert is specified.
  • --pbkdf=PBKDF - Sets Password-Based Key Derivation Function (PBKDF) algorithm for LUKS keyslot. See also the man page cryptsetup(8). This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified.
  • --pbkdf-memory=PBKDF_MEMORY - Sets the memory cost for PBKDF. See also the man page cryptsetup(8). This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified.
  • --pbkdf-time=PBKDF_TIME - Sets the number of milliseconds to spend with PBKDF passphrase processing. See also --iter-time in the man page cryptsetup(8). This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified, and is mutually exclusive with --pbkdf-iterations.
  • --pbkdf-iterations=PBKDF_ITERATIONS - Sets the number of iterations directly and avoids PBKDF benchmark. See also --pbkdf-force-iterations in the man page cryptsetup(8). This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified, and is mutually exclusive with --pbkdf-time.
  • --thinpool - Creates a thin pool logical volume. (Use a mount point of none)
  • --metadatasize=size - Specify the metadata area size (in MiB) for a new thin pool device.
  • --chunksize=size - Specify the chunk size (in KiB) for a new thin pool device.
  • --thin - Create a thin logical volume. (Requires use of --poolname)
  • --poolname=name - Specify the name of the thin pool in which to create a thin logical volume. Requires the --thin option.
  • --profile=name - Specify the configuration profile name to use with thin logical volumes. If used, the name will also be included in the metadata for the given logical volume. By default, the available profiles are default and thin-performance and are defined in the /etc/lvm/profile/ directory. See the lvm(8) man page for additional information.
  • --cachepvs= - A comma-separated list of physical volumes which should be used as a cache for this volume.
  • --cachemode= - Specify which mode should be used to cache this logical volume - either writeback or writethrough.

    Note

    For more information about cached logical volumes and their modes, see the lvmcache(7) man page.

  • --cachesize= - Size of cache attached to the logical volume, specified in MiB. This option requires the --cachepvs= option.

Notes

  • Do not use the dash (-) character in logical volume and volume group names when installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux using Kickstart. If this character is used, the installation finishes normally, but the /dev/mapper/ directory will list these volumes and volume groups with every dash doubled. For example, a volume group named volgrp-01 containing a logical volume named logvol-01 will be listed as /dev/mapper/volgrp—​01-logvol—​01.

    This limitation only applies to newly created logical volume and volume group names. If you are reusing existing ones using the --noformat option, their names will not be changed.

Examples

  • Create the partition first, create the logical volume group, and then create the logical volume:

    part pv.01 --size 3000
    volgroup myvg pv.01
    logvol / --vgname=myvg --size=2000 --name=rootvol
  • Create the partition first, create the logical volume group, and then create the logical volume to occupy 90% of the remaining space in the volume group:
part pv.01 --size 1 --grow
volgroup myvg pv.01
logvol / --vgname=myvg --name=rootvol --percent=90

Additional resources

  • For more information regarding LVM, see the Configuring and managing logical volumes document.
  • If you lose the LUKS passphrase, any encrypted partitions and their data is completely inaccessible. There is no way to recover a lost passphrase. However, you can save encryption passphrases with the --escrowcert and create backup encryption passphrases with the --backuppassphrase options.

B.5.10. mount

The mount Kickstart command is optional. It assigns a mount point to an existing block device, and optionally reformats it to a given format.

Syntax

mount [--reformat [REFORMAT]] [--mkfsoptions MKFS_OPTS] [--mountoptions MOUNT_OPTS] device mntpoint

Mandatory options:

  • device - The block device to mount.
  • mntpoint - Where to mount the device. It must be a valid mount point, such as / or /usr, or none if the device is unmountable (for example swap).

Optional options:

  • --reformat= - Specifies a new format (such as ext4) to which the device should be reformatted.
  • --mkfsoptions= - Specifies additional options to be passed to the command which creates the new file system specified in --reformat=. The list of options provided here is not processed, so they must be specified in a format that can be passed directly to the mkfs program. The list of options should be either comma-separated or surrounded by double quotes, depending on the file system. See the mkfs man page for the file system you want to create (for example mkfs.ext4(8) or mkfs.xfs(8)) for specific details.
  • --mountoptions= - Specifies a free form string that contains options to be used when mounting the file system. The string will be copied to the /etc/fstab file on the installed system and should be enclosed in double quotes. See the mount(8) man page for a full list of mount options, and fstab(5) for basics.

Notes

  • Unlike most other storage configuration commands in Kickstart, mount does not require you to describe the entire storage configuration in the Kickstart file. You only need to ensure that the described block device exists on the system. However, if you want to create the storage stack with all the devices mounted, you must use other commands such as part to do so.
  • You can not use mount together with other storage-related commands such as part, logvol, or autopart in the same Kickstart file.

B.5.11. nvdimm

The nvdimm Kickstart command is optional. It performs an action on Non-Volatile Dual In-line Memory Module (NVDIMM) devices.

Syntax

nvdimm action [options]

Actions

  • reconfigure - Reconfigure a specific NVDIMM device into a given mode. Additionally, the specified device is implicitly marked as to be used, so a subsequent nvdimm use command for the same device is redundant. This action uses the following format:

    nvdimm reconfigure [--namespace=NAMESPACE] [--mode=MODE] [--sectorsize=SECTORSIZE]
    • --namespace= - The device specification by namespace. For example:

      nvdimm reconfigure --namespace=namespace0.0 --mode=sector --sectorsize=512
    • --mode= - The mode specification. Currently, only the value sector is available.
    • --sectorsize= - Size of a sector for sector mode. For example:

      nvdimm reconfigure --namespace=namespace0.0 --mode=sector --sectorsize=512

      The supported sector sizes are 512 and 4096 bytes.

  • use - Specify a NVDIMM device as a target for installation. The device must be already configured to the sector mode by the nvdimm reconfigure command. This action uses the following format:

    nvdimm use [--namespace=NAMESPACE|--blockdevs=DEVICES]
    • --namespace= - Specifies the device by namespace. For example:

      nvdimm use --namespace=namespace0.0
    • --blockdevs= - Specifies a comma-separated list of block devices corresponding to the NVDIMM devices to be used. The asterisk * wildcard is supported. For example:

      nvdimm use --blockdevs=pmem0s,pmem1s
      nvdimm use --blockdevs=pmem*

Notes

  • By default, all NVDIMM devices are ignored by the installation program. You must use the nvdimm command to enable installation on these devices.

B.5.12. part or partition

The part or partition Kickstart command is required. It creates a partition on the system.

Syntax

part|partition mntpoint --name=name --device=device --rule=rule [options]

Options

  • mntpoint - Where the partition is mounted. The value must be of one of the following forms:

    • /path

      For example, /, /usr, /home

    • swap

      The partition is used as swap space.

      To determine the size of the swap partition automatically, use the --recommended option:

      swap --recommended

      The size assigned will be effective but not precisely calibrated for your system.

      To determine the size of the swap partition automatically but also allow extra space for your system to hibernate, use the --hibernation option:

      swap --hibernation

      The size assigned will be equivalent to the swap space assigned by --recommended plus the amount of RAM on your system.

      For the swap sizes assigned by these commands, see Section C.4, “Recommended partitioning scheme” for AMD64, Intel 64, and 64-bit ARM systems.

    • raid.id

      The partition is used for software RAID (see raid).

    • pv.id

      The partition is used for LVM (see logvol).

    • biosboot

      The partition will be used for a BIOS Boot partition. A 1 MiB BIOS boot partition is necessary on BIOS-based AMD64 and Intel 64 systems using a GUID Partition Table (GPT); the boot loader will be installed into it. It is not necessary on UEFI systems. See also the bootloader command.

    • /boot/efi

      An EFI System Partition. A 50 MiB EFI partition is necessary on UEFI-based AMD64, Intel 64, and 64-bit ARM; the recommended size is 200 MiB. It is not necessary on BIOS systems. See also the bootloader command.

  • --size= - The minimum partition size in MiB. Specify an integer value here such as 500 (do not include the unit).

    Important

    If the --size value is too small, the installation fails. Set the --size value as the minimum amount of space you require. For size recommendations, see Section C.4, “Recommended partitioning scheme”.

  • --grow - Tells the logical volume to grow to fill available space (if any), or up to the maximum size setting, if one is specified.

    Note

    If you use --grow= without setting --maxsize= on a swap partition, Anaconda limits the maximum size of the swap partition. For systems that have less than 2 GB of physical memory, the imposed limit is twice the amount of physical memory. For systems with more than 2 GB, the imposed limit is the size of physical memory plus 2GB.

  • --maxsize= - The maximum partition size in MiB when the partition is set to grow. Specify an integer value here such as 500 (do not include the unit).
  • --noformat - Specifies that the partition should not be formatted, for use with the --onpart command.
  • --onpart= or --usepart= - Specifies the device on which to place the partition. For example:

    partition /home --onpart=hda1

    puts /home on /dev/hda1.

    These options can also add a partition to a logical volume. For example:

    partition pv.1 --onpart=hda2

    The device must already exist on the system; the --onpart option will not create it.

    It is also possible to specify an entire drive, rather than a partition, in which case Anaconda will format and use the drive without creating a partition table. Note, however, that installation of GRUB2 is not supported on a device formatted in this way, and must be placed on a drive with a partition table.

  • --ondisk= or --ondrive= - Forces the partition to be created on a particular disk. For example, --ondisk=sdb puts the partition on the second SCSI disk on the system.

    To specify a multipath device that does not use logical volume management (LVM), use the format disk/by-id/dm-uuid-mpath-WWID, where WWID is the world-wide identifier for the device. For example, to specify a disk with WWID 2416CD96995134CA5D787F00A5AA11017, use:

    part / --fstype=xfs --grow --asprimary --size=8192 --ondisk=disk/by-id/dm-uuid-mpath-2416CD96995134CA5D787F00A5AA11017

    Multipath devices that use LVM are not assembled until after Anaconda has parsed the Kickstart file. Therefore, you cannot specify these devices in the format dm-uuid-mpath. Instead, to specify a multipath device that uses LVM, use the format disk/by-id/scsi-WWID, where WWID is the world-wide identifier for the device. For example, to specify a disk with WWID 58095BEC5510947BE8C0360F604351918, use:

    part / --fstype=xfs --grow --asprimary --size=8192 --ondisk=disk/by-id/scsi-58095BEC5510947BE8C0360F604351918
    Warning

    Never specify multipath devices by device names like mpatha. Device names such as this are not specific to a particular disk. The disk named /dev/mpatha during installation might not be the one that you expect it to be. Therefore, the clearpart command could target the wrong disk.

  • --asprimary - Forces the partition to be allocated as a primary partition. If the partition cannot be allocated as primary (usually due to too many primary partitions being already allocated), the partitioning process fails. This option only makes sense when the disk uses a Master Boot Record (MBR); for GUID Partition Table (GPT)-labeled disks this option has no meaning.
  • --fsprofile= - Specifies a usage type to be passed to the program that makes a filesystem on this partition. A usage type defines a variety of tuning parameters to be used when making a filesystem. For this option to work, the filesystem must support the concept of usage types and there must be a configuration file that lists valid types. For ext2, ext3, ext4, this configuration file is /etc/mke2fs.conf.
  • --mkfsoptions= - Specifies additional parameters to be passed to the program that makes a filesystem on this partition. This is similar to --fsprofile but works for all filesystems, not just the ones that support the profile concept. No processing is done on the list of arguments, so they must be supplied in a format that can be passed directly to the mkfs program. This means multiple options should be comma-separated or surrounded by double quotes, depending on the filesystem.
  • --fstype= - Sets the file system type for the partition. Valid values are xfs, ext2, ext3, ext4, swap, vfat, efi and biosboot.
  • --fsoptions - Specifies a free form string of options to be used when mounting the filesystem. This string will be copied into the /etc/fstab file of the installed system and should be enclosed in quotes.
  • --label= - assign a label to an individual partition.
  • --recommended - Determine the size of the partition automatically. For details about the recommended scheme, see Section C.4, “Recommended partitioning scheme” for AMD64, Intel 64, and 64-bit ARM.

    Important

    This option can only be used for partitions which result in a file system such as the /boot partition and swap space. It cannot be used to create LVM physical volumes or RAID members.

  • --onbiosdisk - Forces the partition to be created on a particular disk as discovered by the BIOS.
  • --encrypted - Specifies that this partition should be encrypted with Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS), using the passphrase provided in the --passphrase option. If you do not specify a passphrase, Anaconda uses the default, system-wide passphrase set with the autopart --passphrase command, or stops the installation and prompts you to provide a passphrase if no default is set.

    Note

    When encrypting one or more partitions, Anaconda attempts to gather 256 bits of entropy to ensure the partitions are encrypted securely. Gathering entropy can take some time - the process will stop after a maximum of 10 minutes, regardless of whether sufficient entropy has been gathered.

    The process can be sped up by interacting with the installation system (typing on the keyboard or moving the mouse). If you are installing in a virtual machine, you can also attach a virtio-rng device (a virtual random number generator) to the guest.

  • --luks-version=LUKS_VERSION - Specifies which version of LUKS format should be used to encrypt the filesystem. This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified.
  • --passphrase= - Specifies the passphrase to use when encrypting this partition. You must use this option together with the --encrypted option; by itself it has no effect.
  • --cipher= - Specifies the type of encryption to use if the Anaconda default aes-xts-plain64 is not satisfactory. You must use this option together with the --encrypted option; by itself it has no effect. Available types of encryption are listed in the Security hardening document, but Red Hat strongly recommends using either aes-xts-plain64 or aes-cbc-essiv:sha256.
  • --escrowcert=URL_of_X.509_certificate - Store data encryption keys of all encrypted partitions as files in /root, encrypted using the X.509 certificate from the URL specified with URL_of_X.509_certificate. The keys are stored as a separate file for each encrypted partition. This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified.
  • --backuppassphrase - Add a randomly-generated passphrase to each encrypted partition. Store these passphrases in separate files in /root, encrypted using the X.509 certificate specified with --escrowcert. This option is only meaningful if --escrowcert is specified.
  • --pbkdf=PBKDF - Sets Password-Based Key Derivation Function (PBKDF) algorithm for LUKS keyslot. See also the man page cryptsetup(8). This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified.
  • --pbkdf-memory=PBKDF_MEMORY - Sets the memory cost for PBKDF. See also the man page cryptsetup(8). This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified.
  • --pbkdf-time=PBKDF_TIME - Sets the number of milliseconds to spend with PBKDF passphrase processing. See also --iter-time in the man page cryptsetup(8). This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified, and is mutually exclusive with --pbkdf-iterations.
  • --pbkdf-iterations=PBKDF_ITERATIONS - Sets the number of iterations directly and avoids PBKDF benchmark. See also --pbkdf-force-iterations in the man page cryptsetup(8). This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified, and is mutually exclusive with --pbkdf-time.
  • --resize= - Resize an existing partition. When using this option, specify the target size (in MiB) using the --size= option and the target partition using the --onpart= option.

Notes

  • The part command is not mandatory, but you must include either part, autopart or mount in your Kickstart script.
  • The --active option is deprecated in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.
  • If partitioning fails for any reason, diagnostic messages appear on virtual console 3.
  • All partitions created are formatted as part of the installation process unless --noformat and --onpart are used.
  • Device names in the sdX (or /dev/sdX) format are not guaranteed to be consistent across reboots, which can complicate usage of some Kickstart commands. When a command calls for a device node name, you can instead use any item from /dev/disk. For example, instead of:

    part / --fstype=xfs --onpart=sda1

    You could use an entry similar to one of the following:

    part / --fstype=xfs --onpart=/dev/disk/by-path/pci-0000:00:05.0-scsi-0:0:0:0-part1
    part / --fstype=xfs --onpart=/dev/disk/by-id/ata-ST3160815AS_6RA0C882-part1

    This way the command will always target the same storage device. This is especially useful in large storage environments. See the chapter Overview of persistent naming attributes in the Managing storage devices document for more in-depth information about different ways to consistently refer to storage devices.

  • If you lose the LUKS passphrase, any encrypted partitions and their data is completely inaccessible. There is no way to recover a lost passphrase. However, you can save encryption passphrases with the --escrowcert and create backup encryption passphrases with the --backuppassphrase options.

B.5.13. raid

The raid Kickstart command is optional. It assembles a software RAID device.

Syntax

raid mntpoint --level=level --device=device-name partitions*

Options

  • mntpoint - Location where the RAID file system is mounted. If it is /, the RAID level must be 1 unless a boot partition (/boot) is present. If a boot partition is present, the /boot partition must be level 1 and the root (/) partition can be any of the available types. The partitions* (which denotes that multiple partitions can be listed) lists the RAID identifiers to add to the RAID array.

    Important

    On IBM Power Systems, if a RAID device has been prepared and has not been reformatted during the installation, ensure that the RAID metadata version is 0.90 if you intend to put the /boot and PReP partitions on the RAID device.

    The default Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 mdadm metadata version is not supported for the boot device.

  • --level= - RAID level to use (0, 1, 4, 5, 6, or 10). See Section C.3, “Supported RAID types” for information about various available RAID levels.
  • --device= - Name of the RAID device to use - for example, --device=root.

    Important

    Do not use mdraid names in the form of md0 - these names are not guaranteed to be persistent. Instead, use meaningful names such as root or swap. Using meaningful names creates a symbolic link from /dev/md/name to whichever /dev/mdX node is assigned to the array.

    If you have an old (v0.90 metadata) array that you cannot assign a name to, you can specify the array by a filesystem label or UUID (for example, --device=rhel7-root --label=rhel7-root).

  • --chunksize= - Sets the chunk size of a RAID storage in KiB. In certain situations, using a different chunk size than the default (512 Kib) can improve the performance of the RAID.
  • --spares= - Specifies the number of spare drives allocated for the RAID array. Spare drives are used to rebuild the array in case of drive failure.
  • --fsprofile= - Specifies a usage type to be passed to the program that makes a filesystem on this partition. A usage type defines a variety of tuning parameters to be used when making a filesystem. For this option to work, the filesystem must support the concept of usage types and there must be a configuration file that lists valid types. For ext2, ext3, and ext4, this configuration file is /etc/mke2fs.conf.
  • --fstype= - Sets the file system type for the RAID array. Valid values are xfs, ext2, ext3, ext4, swap, and vfat.
  • --fsoptions= - Specifies a free form string of options to be used when mounting the filesystem. This string will be copied into the /etc/fstab file of the installed system and should be enclosed in quotes.
  • --mkfsoptions= - Specifies additional parameters to be passed to the program that makes a filesystem on this partition. No processing is done on the list of arguments, so they must be supplied in a format that can be passed directly to the mkfs program. This means multiple options should be comma-separated or surrounded by double quotes, depending on the filesystem.
  • --label= - Specify the label to give to the filesystem to be made. If the given label is already in use by another filesystem, a new label will be created.
  • --noformat - Use an existing RAID device and do not format the RAID array.
  • --useexisting - Use an existing RAID device and reformat it.
  • --encrypted - Specifies that this RAID device should be encrypted with Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS), using the passphrase provided in the --passphrase option. If you do not specify a passphrase, Anaconda uses the default, system-wide passphrase set with the autopart --passphrase command, or stops the installation and prompts you to provide a passphrase if no default is set.

    Note

    When encrypting one or more partitions, Anaconda attempts to gather 256 bits of entropy to ensure the partitions are encrypted securely. Gathering entropy can take some time - the process will stop after a maximum of 10 minutes, regardless of whether sufficient entropy has been gathered.

    The process can be sped up by interacting with the installation system (typing on the keyboard or moving the mouse). If you are installing in a virtual machine, you can also attach a virtio-rng device (a virtual random number generator) to the guest.

  • --luks-version=LUKS_VERSION - Specifies which version of LUKS format should be used to encrypt the filesystem. This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified.
  • --cipher= - Specifies the type of encryption to use if the Anaconda default aes-xts-plain64 is not satisfactory. You must use this option together with the --encrypted option; by itself it has no effect. Available types of encryption are listed in the Security hardening document, but Red Hat strongly recommends using either aes-xts-plain64 or aes-cbc-essiv:sha256.
  • --passphrase= - Specifies the passphrase to use when encrypting this RAID device. You must use this option together with the --encrypted option; by itself it has no effect.
  • --escrowcert=URL_of_X.509_certificate - Store the data encryption key for this device in a file in /root, encrypted using the X.509 certificate from the URL specified with URL_of_X.509_certificate. This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified.
  • --backuppassphrase - Add a randomly-generated passphrase to this device. Store the passphrase in a file in /root, encrypted using the X.509 certificate specified with --escrowcert. This option is only meaningful if --escrowcert is specified.
  • --pbkdf=PBKDF - Sets Password-Based Key Derivation Function (PBKDF) algorithm for LUKS keyslot. See also the man page cryptsetup(8). This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified.
  • --pbkdf-memory=PBKDF_MEMORY - Sets the memory cost for PBKDF. See also the man page cryptsetup(8). This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified.
  • --pbkdf-time=PBKDF_TIME - Sets the number of milliseconds to spend with PBKDF passphrase processing. See also --iter-time in the man page cryptsetup(8). This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified, and is mutually exclusive with --pbkdf-iterations.
  • --pbkdf-iterations=PBKDF_ITERATIONS - Sets the number of iterations directly and avoids PBKDF benchmark. See also --pbkdf-force-iterations in the man page cryptsetup(8). This option is only meaningful if --encrypted is specified, and is mutually exclusive with --pbkdf-time.

Example

The following example shows how to create a RAID level 1 partition for /, and a RAID level 5 for /home, assuming there are three SCSI disks on the system. It also creates three swap partitions, one on each drive.

part raid.01 --size=6000 --ondisk=sda
part raid.02 --size=6000 --ondisk=sdb
part raid.03 --size=6000 --ondisk=sdc
part swap --size=512 --ondisk=sda
part swap --size=512 --ondisk=sdb
part swap --size=512 --ondisk=sdc
part raid.11 --size=1 --grow --ondisk=sda
part raid.12 --size=1 --grow --ondisk=sdb
part raid.13 --size=1 --grow --ondisk=sdc
raid / --level=1 --device=rhel7-root --label=rhel7-root raid.01 raid.02 raid.03
raid /home --level=5 --device=rhel7-home --label=rhel7-home raid.11 raid.12 raid.13

Notes

  • If you lose the LUKS passphrase, any encrypted partitions and their data is completely inaccessible. There is no way to recover a lost passphrase. However, you can save encryption passphrases with the --escrowcert and create backup encryption passphrases with the --backuppassphrase options.

B.5.14. reqpart

The reqpart Kickstart command is optional. It automatically creates partitions required by your hardware platform. These include a /boot/efi partition for systems with UEFI firmware, a biosboot partition for systems with BIOS firmware and GPT, and a PRePBoot partition for IBM Power Systems.

Syntax

reqpart [--add-boot]

Options

  • --add-boot - Creates a separate /boot partition in addition to the platform-specific partition created by the base command.

Notes

  • This command cannot be used toegether with autopart, because autopart does everything the reqpart command does and, in addition, creates other partitions or logical volumes such as / and swap. In contrast with autopart, this command only creates platform-specific partitions and leaves the rest of the drive empty, allowing you to create a custom layout.

B.5.15. snapshot

The snapshot Kickstart command is optional. Use it to create LVM thin volume snapshots during the installation process. This enables you to back up a logical volume before or after the installation.

To create multiple snapshots, add the snaphost Kickstart command multiple times.

Syntax

snapshots vg_name/lv_name --name=snapshot_name --when=pre-install|post-install

Options

  • vg_name/lv_name - Sets the name of the volume group and logical volume to create the snapshot from.
  • --name=snapshot_name - Sets the name of the snapshot. This name must be unique within the volume group.
  • --when=pre-install|post-install - Sets if the snapshot is created before the installation begins or after the installation is completed.

B.5.16. volgroup

The volgroup Kickstart command is optional. It creates a Logical Volume Management (LVM) group.

Syntax

volgroup name partition [options]

Options

  • --noformat - Use an existing volume group and do not format it.
  • --useexisting - Use an existing volume group and reformat it. If you use this option, do not specify a partition. For example:

    volgroup rhel00 --useexisting --noformat
  • --pesize= - Set the size of the volume group’s physical extents in KiB. The default value is 4096 (4 MiB), and the minimum value is 1024 (1 MiB).
  • --reserved-space= - Specify an amount of space to leave unused in a volume group in MiB. Applicable only to newly created volume groups.
  • --reserved-percent= - Specify a percentage of total volume group space to leave unused. Applicable only to newly created volume groups.

Notes

  • Create the partition first, then create the logical volume group, and then create the logical volume. For example:

    part pv.01 --size 10000
    volgroup volgrp pv.01 ` [command]`logvol / --vgname=volgrp --size=2000 --name=root
  • Do not use the dash (-) character in logical volume and volume group names when installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux using Kickstart. If this character is used, the installation finishes normally, but the /dev/mapper/ directory will list these volumes and volume groups with every dash doubled. For example, a volume group named volgrp-01 containing a logical volume named logvol-01 will be listed as /dev/mapper/volgrp—​01-logvol—​01.

    This limitation only applies to newly created logical volume and volume group names. If you are reusing existing ones using the --noformat option, their names will not be changed.

B.5.17. zerombr

The zerombr Kickstart command is optional. If zerombr is specified, any invalid partition tables found on disks are initialized. This destroys all of the contents of disks with invalid partition tables.

Syntax

zerombr

Notes

  • On IBM Z, if zerombr is specified, any Direct Access Storage Device (DASD) visible to the installation program which is not already low-level formatted is automatically low-level formatted with dasdfmt. The command also prevents user choice during interactive installations.
  • If zerombr is not specified and there is at least one unformatted DASD visible to the installation program, a non-interactive Kickstart installation exits unsuccessfully.
  • If zerombr is not specified and there is at least one unformatted DASD visible to the installation program, an interactive installation exits if the user does not agree to format all visible and unformatted DASDs. To circumvent this, only activate those DASDs that you will use during installation. You can always add more DASDs after installation is complete.

B.5.18. zfcp

The zfcp Kickstart command is optional. It defines a Fibre channel device.

This option only applies on IBM Z. All of the options described below must be specified.

Syntax

zfcp --devnum=devnum --wwpn=wwpn --fcplun=lun

Options

  • --devnum - The device number (zFCP adapter device bus ID).
  • --wwpn - The device’s World Wide Port Name (WWPN). Takes the form of a 16-digit number, preceded by 0x.
  • --fcplun - The device’s Logical Unit Number (LUN). Takes the form of a 16-digit number, preceded by 0x.

Example

zfcp --devnum=0.0.4000 --wwpn=0x5005076300C213e9 --fcplun=0x5022000000000000

B.6. Kickstart commands for addons supplied with the RHEL installation program

The Kickstart commands in this section are related to add-ons supplied by default with the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program: Kdump and OpenSCAP.

B.6.1. %addon com_redhat_kdump

The %addon com_redhat_kdump Kickstart command is optional. This command configures the kdump kernel crash dumping mechanism.

Syntax

%addon com_redhat_kdump [OPTIONS]
%end

Note

The syntax for this command is unusual because it is an add-on rather than a built-in Kickstart command.

Notes

Kdump is a kernel crash dumping mechanism that allows you to save the contents of the system’s memory for later analysis. It relies on kexec, which can be used to boot a Linux kernel from the context of another kernel without rebooting the system, and preserve the contents of the first kernel’s memory that would otherwise be lost.

In case of a system crash, kexec boots into a second kernel (a capture kernel). This capture kernel resides in a reserved part of the system memory. Kdump then captures the contents of the crashed kernel’s memory (a crash dump) and saves it to a specified location. The location cannot be configured using this Kickstart command; it must be configured after the installation by editing the /etc/kdump.conf configuration file.

For more information about Kdump, see the Installing and configuring kdump chapter of the Managing, monitoring and updating the kernel document.

Options

  • --enable - Enable kdump on the installed system.
  • --disable - Disable kdump on the installed system.
  • --reserve-mb= - The amount of memory you want to reserve for kdump, in MiB. For example:

    %addon com_redhat_kdump --enable --reserve-mb=128
    %end

    You can also specify auto instead of a numeric value. In that case, the installation program will determine the amount of memory automatically based on the criteria described in the Memory requirements for kdump section of the Managing, monitoring and updating the kernel document.

    If you enable kdump and do not specify a --reserve-mb= option, the value auto will be used.

  • --enablefadump - Enable firmware-assisted dumping on systems which allow it (notably, IBM Power Systems servers).

B.6.2. %addon org_fedora_oscap

The %addon org_fedora_oscap Kickstart command is optional.

The OpenSCAP installation program add-on is used to apply SCAP (Security Content Automation Protocol) content - security policies - on the installed system. This add-on has been enabled by default since Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.2. When enabled, the packages necessary to provide this functionality will automatically be installed. However, by default, no policies are enforced, meaning that no checks are performed during or after installation unless specifically configured.

Important

Applying a security policy is not necessary on all systems. This screen should only be used when a specific policy is mandated by your organization rules or government regulations.

Unlike most other commands, this add-on does not accept regular options, but uses key-value pairs in the body of the %addon definition instead. These pairs are whitespace-agnostic. Values can be optionally enclosed in single quotes (') or double quotes (").

Keys

The following keys are recognized by the add-on:

  • content-type - Type of the security content. Possible values are datastream, archive, rpm, and scap-security-guide.

    If the content-type is scap-security-guide, the add-on will use content provided by the scap-security-guide package, which is present on the boot media. This means that all other keys except profile will have no effect.

  • content-url - Location of the security content. The content must be accessible using HTTP, HTTPS, or FTP; local storage is currently not supported. A network connection must be available to reach content definitions in a remote location.
  • datastream-id - ID of the data stream referenced in the content-url value. Used only if content-type is datastream.
  • xccdf-id - ID of the benchmark you want to use.
  • content-path - Path to the datastream or the XCCDF file which should be used, given as a relative path in the archive.
  • profile - ID of the profile to be applied. Use default to apply the default profile.
  • fingerprint - A MD5, SHA1 or SHA2 checksum of the content referenced by content-url.
  • tailoring-path - Path to a tailoring file which should be used, given as a relative path in the archive.

Examples

  • The following is an example %addon org_fedora_oscap section which uses content from the scap-security-guide on the installation media:

    Example B.1. Sample OpenSCAP Add-on Definition Using SCAP Security Guide

    %addon org_fedora_oscap
    content-type = scap-security-guide
    profile = pci-dss
    %end
  • The following is a more complex example which loads a custom profile from a web server:

    Example B.2. Sample OpenSCAP Add-on Definition Using a Datastream

    %addon org_fedora_oscap
    content-type = datastream
    content-url = http://www.example.com/scap/testing_ds.xml
    datastream-id = scap_example.com_datastream_testing
    xccdf-id = scap_example.com_cref_xccdf.xml
    profile =  xccdf_example.com_profile_my_profile
    fingerprint = 240f2f18222faa98856c3b4fc50c4195
    %end

Additional resources

Appendix C. Partitioning reference

C.1. Supported device types

Standard partition
A standard partition can contain a file system or swap space. Standard partitions are most commonly used for /boot and the BIOS Boot and EFI System partitions. LVM logical volumes are recommended for most other uses.
LVM
Choosing LVM (or Logical Volume Management) as the device type creates an LVM logical volume. If no LVM volume group currently exists, one is automatically created to contain the new volume; if an LVM volume group already exists, the volume is assigned. LVM can improve performance when using physical disks, and it allows for advanced setups such as using multiple physical disks for one mount point, and setting up software RAID for increased performance, reliability, or both.
LVM thin provisioning
Using thin provisioning, you can manage a storage pool of free space, known as a thin pool, which can be allocated to an arbitrary number of devices when needed by applications. You can dynamically expand the pool when needed for cost-effective allocation of storage space.
Warning

The installation program does not support overprovisioned LVM thin pools.

C.2. Supported file systems

This section describes the file systems available in Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

xfs
XFS is a highly scalable, high-performance file system that supports file systems up to 16 exabytes (approximately 16 million terabytes), files up to 8 exabytes (approximately 8 million terabytes), and directory structures containing tens of millions of entries. XFS also supports metadata journaling, which facilitates quicker crash recovery. The maximum supported size of a single XFS file system is 500 TB. XFS is the default and recommended file system on Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
ext4
The ext4 file system is based on the ext3 file system and features a number of improvements. These include support for larger file systems and larger files, faster and more efficient allocation of disk space, no limit on the number of subdirectories within a directory, faster file system checking, and more robust journaling. The maximum supported size of a single ext4 file system is 50 TB.
ext3
The ext3 file system is based on the ext2 file system and has one main advantage - journaling. Using a journaling file system reduces the time spent recovering a file system after it terminates unexpectedly, as there is no need to check the file system for metadata consistency by running the fsck utility every time.
ext2
An ext2 file system supports standard Unix file types, including regular files, directories, or symbolic links. It provides the ability to assign long file names, up to 255 characters.
swap
Swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system is processing.
vfat
The VFAT file system is a Linux file system that is compatible with Microsoft Windows long file names on the FAT file system.
BIOS Boot
A very small partition required for booting from a device with a GUID partition table (GPT) on BIOS systems and UEFI systems in BIOS compatibility mode.
EFI System Partition
A small partition required for booting a device with a GUID partition table (GPT) on a UEFI system.
PReP
This small boot partition is located on the first partition of the hard drive. The PReP boot partition contains the GRUB2 boot loader, which allows other IBM Power Systems servers to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

C.3. Supported RAID types

RAID stands for Redundant Array of Independent Disks, a technology which allows you to combine multiple physical disks into logical units. Some setups are designed to enhance performance at the cost of reliability, while others will improve reliability at the cost of requiring more disks for the same amount of available space.

This section describes supported software RAID types which you can use with LVM and LVM Thin Provisioning to set up storage on the installed system.

None
No RAID array will be set up.
RAID0
Performance: Distributes data across multiple disks. RAID 0 offers increased performance over standard partitions and can be used to pool the storage of multiple disks into one large virtual device. Note that RAID 0 offers no redundancy and that the failure of one device in the array destroys data in the entire array. RAID 0 requires at least two disks.
RAID1
Redundancy: Mirrors all data from one partition onto one or more other disks. Additional devices in the array provide increasing levels of redundancy. RAID 1 requires at least two disks.
RAID4
Error checking: Distributes data across multiple disks and uses one disk in the array to store parity information which safeguards the array in case any disk in the array fails. As all parity information is stored on one disk, access to this disk creates a "bottleneck" in the array’s performance. RAID 4 requires at least three disks.
RAID5
Distributed error checking: Distributes data and parity information across multiple disks. RAID 5 offers the performance advantages of distributing data across multiple disks, but does not share the performance bottleneck of RAID 4 as the parity information is also distributed through the array. RAID 5 requires at least three disks.
RAID6
Redundant error checking: RAID 6 is similar to RAID 5, but instead of storing only one set of parity data, it stores two sets. RAID 6 requires at least four disks.
RAID10
Performance and redundancy: RAID 10 is nested or hybrid RAID. It is constructed by distributing data over mirrored sets of disks. For example, a RAID 10 array constructed from four RAID partitions consists of two mirrored pairs of striped partitions. RAID 10 requires at least four disks.

C.5. Advice on partitions

There is no best way to partition every system; the optimal setup depends on how you plan to use the system being installed. However, the following tips may help you find the optimal layout for your needs:

  • Create partitions that have specific requirements first, for example, if a particular partition must be on a specific disk.
  • Consider encrypting any partitions and volumes which might contain sensitive data. Encryption prevents unauthorized people from accessing the data on the partitions, even if they have access to the physical storage device. In most cases, you should at least encrypt the /home partition, which contains user data.
  • In some cases, creating separate mount points for directories other than /, /boot and /home may be useful; for example, on a server running a MySQL database, having a separate mount point for /var/lib/mysql will allow you to preserve the database during a reinstallation without having to restore it from backup afterwards. However, having unnecessary separate mount points will make storage administration more difficult.
  • Some special restrictions apply to certain directories with regards on which partitioning layouts can they be placed. Notably, the /boot directory must always be on a physical partition (not on an LVM volume).
  • If you are new to Linux, consider reviewing the Linux Filesystem Hierarchy Standard at http://refspecs.linuxfoundation.org/FHS_2.3/fhs-2.3.html for information about various system directories and their contents.
  • Each kernel installed on your system requires approximately 56 MB on the /boot partition:

    • 32 MB initramfs
    • 14 MB kdump initramfs
    • 3.5 MB system map
    • 6.6 MB vmlinuz

      Note

      For rescue mode, initramfs and vmlinuz require 80 MB.

      The default partition size of 1 GB for /boot should suffice for most common use cases. However, it is recommended that you increase the size of this partition if you are planning on retaining multiple kernel releases or errata kernels.

  • The /var directory holds content for a number of applications, including the Apache web server, and is used by the DNF package manager to temporarily store downloaded package updates. Make sure that the partition or volume containing /var has at least 3 GB.
  • The contents of the /var directory usually change very often. This may cause problems with older solid state drives (SSDs), as they can handle a lower number of read/write cycles before becoming unusable. If your system root is on an SSD, consider creating a separate mount point for /var on a classic (platter) HDD.
  • The /usr directory holds the majority of software on a typical Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. The partition or volume containing this directory should therefore be at least 5 GB for minimal installations, and at least 10 GB for installations with a graphical environment.
  • If /usr or /var is partitioned separately from the rest of the root volume, the boot process becomes much more complex because these directories contain boot-critical components. In some situations, such as when these directories are placed on an iSCSI drive or an FCoE location, the system may either be unable to boot, or it may hang with a Device is busy error when powering off or rebooting.

    This limitation only applies to /usr or /var, not to directories below them. For example, a separate partition for /var/www will work without issues.

  • Consider leaving a portion of the space in an LVM volume group unallocated. This unallocated space gives you flexibility if your space requirements change but you do not wish to remove data from other volumes. You can also select the LVM Thin Provisioning device type for the partition to have the unused space handled automatically by the volume.
  • The size of an XFS file system can not be reduced - if you need to make a partition or volume with this file system smaller, you must back up your data, destroy the file system, and create a new, smaller one in its place. Therefore, if you expect needing to manipulate your partitioning layout later, you should use the ext4 file system instead.
  • Use Logical Volume Management (LVM) if you anticipate expanding your storage by adding more hard drives or expanding virtual machine hard drives after the installation. With LVM, you can create physical volumes on the new drives, and then assign them to any volume group and logical volume as you see fit - for example, you can easily expand your system’s /home (or any other directory residing on a logical volume).
  • Creating a BIOS Boot partition or an EFI System Partition may be necessary, depending on your system’s firmware, boot drive size, and boot drive disk label. See Section C.4, “Recommended partitioning scheme” for information about these partitions. Note that graphical installation will not let you create a BIOS Boot or EFI System Partition if your system does not require one - in that case, they will be hidden from the menu.
  • If you need to make any changes to your storage configuration after the installation, Red Hat Enterprise Linux repositories offer several different tools which can help you do this. If you prefer a command line tool, try system-storage-manager.

Legal Notice

Copyright © 2019 Red Hat, Inc.
The text of and illustrations in this document are licensed by Red Hat under a Creative Commons Attribution–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license ("CC-BY-SA"). An explanation of CC-BY-SA is available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/. In accordance with CC-BY-SA, if you distribute this document or an adaptation of it, you must provide the URL for the original version.
Red Hat, as the licensor of this document, waives the right to enforce, and agrees not to assert, Section 4d of CC-BY-SA to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law.
Red Hat, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the Shadowman logo, the Red Hat logo, JBoss, OpenShift, Fedora, the Infinity logo, and RHCE are trademarks of Red Hat, Inc., registered in the United States and other countries.
Linux® is the registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States and other countries.
Java® is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates.
XFS® is a trademark of Silicon Graphics International Corp. or its subsidiaries in the United States and/or other countries.
MySQL® is a registered trademark of MySQL AB in the United States, the European Union and other countries.
Node.js® is an official trademark of Joyent. Red Hat is not formally related to or endorsed by the official Joyent Node.js open source or commercial project.
The OpenStack® Word Mark and OpenStack logo are either registered trademarks/service marks or trademarks/service marks of the OpenStack Foundation, in the United States and other countries and are used with the OpenStack Foundation's permission. We are not affiliated with, endorsed or sponsored by the OpenStack Foundation, or the OpenStack community.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.