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Managing IdM users, groups, hosts, and access control rules

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8

Configuring users and hosts, managing them in groups, and controlling access with host-based (HBAC) and role-based access control (RBAC) rules

Red Hat Customer Content Services

Abstract

This documentation collection provides instructions on creating users, groups, and hosts in Identity Management on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8, and managing access to those hosts via HBAC and RBAC rules.

Making open source more inclusive

Red Hat is committed to replacing problematic language in our code, documentation, and web properties. We are beginning with these four terms: master, slave, blacklist, and whitelist. Because of the enormity of this endeavor, these changes will be implemented gradually over several upcoming releases. For more details, see our CTO Chris Wright’s message.

In Identity Management, planned terminology replacements include:

  • block list replaces blacklist
  • allow list replaces whitelist
  • secondary replaces slave
  • The word master is being replaced with more precise language, depending on the context:

    • IdM server replaces IdM master
    • CA renewal server replaces CA renewal master
    • CRL publisher server replaces CRL master
    • multi-supplier replaces multi-master

Providing feedback on Red Hat documentation

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Chapter 1. Introduction to the IdM command-line utilities

The following sections describe the basics of using the Identity Management (IdM) command-line utilities.

Prerequisites

1.1. What is the IPA command line interface

The IPA command-line interface (CLI) is the basic command-line interface for Identity Management (IdM) administration.

It supports a lot of subcommands for managing IdM, such as the ipa user-add command to add a new user.

IPA CLI allows you to:

  • Add, manage, or remove users, groups, hosts and other objects in the network.
  • Manage certificates.
  • Search entries.
  • Display and list objects.
  • Set access rights.
  • Get help with the correct command syntax.

1.2. What is the IPA help

The IPA help is a built-in documentation system for the IdM server.

The IPA command-line interface (CLI) generates available help topics from loaded IdM plugin modules. To use the IPA help utility, you must:

  • Have an IdM server installed and running.
  • Be authenticated with a valid Kerberos ticket.

Entering the ipa help command without options displays information about basic help usage and the most common command examples.

You can use the following options for different ipa help use cases:

$ ipa help [TOPIC | COMMAND | topics | commands]
  • [] — Brackets mean that all parameters are optional and you can write just ipa help and the command will be executed.
  • | — The pipe character means or. Therefore, you can specify a TOPIC, a COMMAND, or topics, or commands, with the basic ipa help command:

    • topics — You can run the command ipa help topics to display a list of topics that are covered by the IPA help, such as user, cert, server and many others.
    • TOPIC — The TOPIC with capital letters is a variable. Therefore, you can specify a particular topic, for example, ipa help user.
    • commands — You can enter the command ipa help commands to display a list of commands which are covered by the IPA help, for example, user-add, ca-enable, server-show and many others.
    • COMMAND — The COMMAND with capital letters is a variable. Therefore, you can specify a particular command, for example, ipa help user-add.

1.3. Using IPA help topics

The following procedure describes how to use the IPA help in the command-line interface.

Procedure

  1. Open a terminal and connect to the IdM server.
  2. Enter ipa help topics to display a list of topics covered by help.

    $ ipa help topics
  3. Select one of the topics and create a command according to the following pattern: ipa help [topic_name]. Instead of the topic_name string, add one of the topics you listed in the previous step.

    In the example, we use the following topic: user

    $ ipa help user
  4. If the IPA help output is too long and you cannot see the whole text, use the following syntax:

    $ ipa help user | less

    You can then scroll down and read the whole help.

The IPA CLI displays a help page for the user topic. After reading the overview, you can see many examples with patterns for working with topic commands.

1.4. Using IPA help commands

The following procedure describes how to create IPA help commands in the command-line interface.

Procedure

  1. Open a terminal and connect to the IdM server.
  2. Enter ipa help commands to display a list of commands covered by help.

    $ ipa help commands
  3. Select one of the commands and create a help command according to the following pattern: ipa help <COMMAND>. Instead of the <COMMAND> string, add one of the commands you listed in the previous step.

    $ ipa help user-add

Additional resources

  • The ipa man page.

1.5. Structure of IPA commands

The IPA CLI distinguishes the following types of commands:

  • Built-in commands — Built-in commands are all available in the IdM server.
  • Plug-in provided commands

The structure of IPA commands allows you to manage various types of objects. For example:

  • Users,
  • Hosts,
  • DNS records,
  • Certificates,

and many others.

For most of these objects, the IPA CLI includes commands to:

  • Add (add)
  • Modify (mod)
  • Delete (del)
  • Search (find)
  • Display (show)

Commands have the following structure:

ipa user-add, ipa user-mod, ipa user-del, ipa user-find, ipa user-show

ipa host-add, ipa host-mod, ipa host-del, ipa host-find, ipa host-show

ipa dnsrecord-add, ipa dnsrecord-mod, ipa dnsrecord-del, ipa dnsrecord-find, ipa dnrecord-show

You can create a user with the ipa user-add [options], where [options] are optional. If you use just the ipa user-add command, the script asks you for details one by one.

To change an existing object, you need to define the object, therefore the command also includes an object: ipa user-mod USER_NAME [options].

1.6. Using an IPA command to add a user account to IdM

The following procedure describes how to add a new user to the Identity Management (IdM) database using the command line.

Prerequisites

  • You need to have administrator privileges to add user accounts to the IdM server.

Procedure

  1. Open a terminal and connect to the IdM server.
  2. Enter the command for adding a new user:

    $ ipa user-add

    The command runs a script that prompts you to provide basic data necessary for creating a user account.

  3. In the First name: field, enter the first name of the new user and press the Enter key.
  4. In the Last name: field, enter the last name of the new user and press the Enter key.
  5. In the User login [suggested user name]: enter the user name, or just press the Enter key to accept the suggested user name.

    The user name must be unique for the whole IdM database. If an error occurs because that user name already exists, repeat the process with the ipa user-add command and use a different, unique user name.

After you add the user name, the user account is added to the IdM database and the IPA command line interface (CLI) prints the following output:

----------------------
Added user "euser"
----------------------
User login: euser
First name: Example
Last name: User
Full name: Example User
Display name: Example User
Initials: EU
Home directory: /home/euser
GECOS: Example User
Login shell: /bin/sh
Principal name: euser@IDM.EXAMPLE.COM
Principal alias: euser@IDM.EXAMPLE.COM
Email address: euser@idm.example.com
UID: 427200006
GID: 427200006
Password: False
Member of groups: ipausers
Kerberos keys available: False
Note

By default, a user password is not set for the user account. To add a password while creating a user account, use the ipa user-add command with the following syntax:

$ ipa user-add --first=Example --last=User --password

The IPA CLI then prompts you to add or confirm a user name and password.

If the user has been created already, you can add the password with the ipa user-mod command.

Additional resources

  • Run the ipa help user-add command for more information about parameters.

1.7. Using an IPA command to modify a user account in IdM

You can change many parameters for each user account. For example, you can add a new password to the user.

Basic command syntax is different from the user-add syntax because you need to define the existing user account for which you want to perform changes, for example, add a password.

Prerequisites

  • You need to have administrator privileges to modify user accounts.

Procedure

  1. Open a terminal and connect to the IdM server.
  2. Enter the ipa user-mod command, specify the user to modify, and any options, such as --password for adding a password:

    $ ipa user-mod euser --password

    The command runs a script where you can add the new password.

  3. Enter the new password and press the Enter key.

The IPA CLI prints the following output:

----------------------
Modified user "euser"
----------------------
User login: euser
First name: Example
Last name: User
Home directory: /home/euser
Principal name: euser@IDM.EXAMPLE.COM
Principal alias: euser@IDM.EXAMPLE.COM
Email address: euser@idm.example.com
UID: 427200006
GID: 427200006
Password: True
Member of groups: ipausers
Kerberos keys available: True

The user password is now set for the account and the user can log into IdM.

Additional resources

  • Run the ipa help user-mod command for more information about parameters.

1.8. How to supply a list of values to the IdM utilities

Identity Management (IdM) stores values for multi-valued attributes in lists.

IdM supports the following methods of supplying multi-valued lists:

  • Using the same command-line argument multiple times within the same command invocation:

    $ ipa permission-add --right=read --permissions=write --permissions=delete ...
  • Alternatively, you can enclose the list in curly braces, in which case the shell performs the expansion:

    $ ipa permission-add --right={read,write,delete} ...

The examples above show a command permission-add which adds permissions to an object. The object is not mentioned in the example. Instead of …​ you need to add the object for which you want to add permissions.

When you update such multi-valued attributes from the command line, IdM completely overwrites the previous list of values with a new list. Therefore, when updating a multi-valued attribute, you must specify the whole new list, not just a single value you want to add.

For example, in the command above, the list of permissions includes reading, writing and deleting. When you decide to update the list with the permission-mod command, you must add all values, otherwise those not mentioned will be deleted.

Example 1: — The ipa permission-mod command updates all previously added permissions.

$ ipa permission-mod --right=read --right=write --right=delete ...

or

$ ipa permission-mod --right={read,write,delete} ...

Example 2 — The ipa permission-mod command deletes the --right=delete argument because it is not included in the command:

$ ipa permission-mod --right=read --right=write ...

or

$ ipa permission-mod --right={read,write} ...

1.9. How to use special characters with the IdM utilities

When passing command-line arguments that include special characters to the ipa commands, escape these characters with a backslash (\). For example, common special characters include angle brackets (< and >), ampersand (&), asterisk (*), or vertical bar (|).

For example, to escape an asterisk (*):

$ ipa certprofile-show certificate_profile --out=exported\*profile.cfg

Commands containing unescaped special characters do not work as expected because the shell cannot properly parse such characters.

Chapter 2. Managing user accounts using the command line

This chapter includes basic description of user life cycle in IdM (Identity Management). The following sections show you how to:

  • Create user accounts
  • Activate stage user accounts
  • Preserve user accounts
  • Delete active, stage, or preserved user accounts
  • Restore preserved user accounts

2.1. User life cycle

Identity Management (IdM) supports three user account states:

  • Stage users are not allowed to authenticate. This is an initial state. Some of the user account properties required for active users cannot be set, for example, group membership.
  • Active users are allowed to authenticate. All required user account properties must be set in this state.
  • Preserved users are former active users that are considered inactive and cannot authenticate to IdM. Preserved users retain most of the account properties they had as active users, but they are not part of any user groups.

A flow chart displaying 4 items: Active users - Stage users - Preserved users - Deleted users. Arrows communicate the relationships between each kind of user: Active users can be "preserved" as Preserved users. Preserved users can be "restored" as Active users. Preserved users can be "staged" as Stage users and Stage users can be "activated" into Active users. All users can be deleted to become "Deleted users".

You can delete user entries permanently from the IdM database.

Important

Deleted user accounts cannot be restored. When you delete a user account, all the information associated with the account is permanently lost.

A new administrator can only be created by a user with administrator rights, such as the default admin user. If you accidentally delete all administrator accounts, the Directory Manager must create a new administrator manually in the Directory Server.

Warning

Do not delete the admin user. As admin is a pre-defined user required by IdM, this operation causes problems with certain commands. If you want to define and use an alternative admin user, disable the pre-defined admin user with ipa user-disable admin after you granted admin permissions to at least one different user.

Warning

Do not add local users to IdM. The Name Service Switch (NSS) always resolves IdM users and groups before resolving local users and groups. This means that, for example, IdM group membership does not work for local users.

2.2. Adding users using the command line

You can add user as:

  • Active — user accounts which can be actively used by their users.
  • Stage — users cannot use these accounts. Use it if you want to prepare new user accounts. When users are ready to use their accounts, then you can activate them.

The following procedure describes adding active users to the IdM server with the ipa user-add command.

Similarly, you can create stage user accounts with the ipa stageuser-add command.

Note

IdM automatically assigns a unique user ID (UID) to the new user accounts. You can also do this manually, however, the server does not validate whether the UID number is unique. Due to this, multiple user entries might have the same ID number assigned. Red Hat recommends to prevent having multiple entries with the same UID.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Open terminal and connect to the IdM server.
  2. Add user login, user’s first name, last name and optionally, you can also add their email address.

    $ ipa user-add user_login --first=first_name --last=last_name --email=email_address

    IdM supports user names that can be described by the following regular expression:

    [a-zA-Z0-9_.][a-zA-Z0-9_.-]{0,252}[a-zA-Z0-9_.$-]?
    Note

    User names ending with the trailing dollar sign ($) are supported to enable Samba 3.x machine support.

    If you add a user name containing uppercase characters, IdM automatically converts the name to lowercase when saving it. Therefore, IdM always requires to enter user names in lowercase when logging in. Additionally, it is not possible to add user names which differ only in letter casing, such as user and User.

    The default maximum length for user names is 32 characters. To change it, use the ipa config-mod --maxusername command. For example, to increase the maximum user name length to 64 characters:

    $ ipa config-mod --maxusername=64
     Maximum username length: 64
     ...

    The ipa user-add command includes a lot of parameters. To list them all, use the ipa help command:

    $ ipa help user-add

    For details about ipa help command, see What is the IPA help.

You can verify if the new user account is successfully created by listing all IdM user accounts:

$ ipa user-find

This command lists all user accounts with details.

2.3. Activating users using the command line

To activate a user account by moving it from stage to active, use the ipa stageuser-activate command.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Open terminal and connect to the IdM server.
  2. Activate the user account with the following command:

    $ ipa stageuser-activate user_login
    -------------------------
    Stage user user_login activated
    -------------------------
    ...

You can verify if the new user account is successfully created by listing all IdM user accounts:

$ ipa user-find

This command lists all user accounts with details.

2.4. Preserving users using the command line

You can preserve a user account if you want to remove it, but keep the option to restore it later. To preserve a user account, use the --preserve option with the ipa user-del or ipa stageuser-del commands.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Open terminal and connect to the IdM server.
  2. Preserve the user account with the following command:

    $ ipa user-del --preserve user_login
    --------------------
    Deleted user "user_login"
    --------------------
    Note

    Despite the output saying the user account was deleted, it has been preserved.

2.5. Deleting users using the command line

IdM (Identity Management) enables you to delete users permanently. You can delete:

  • Active users with the following command: ipa user-del
  • Stage users with the following command: ipa stageuser-del
  • Preserved users with the following command: ipa user-del

When deleting multiple users, use the --continue option to force the command to continue regardless of errors. A summary of the successful and failed operations is printed to the stdout standard output stream when the command completes.

$ ipa user-del --continue user1 user2 user3

If you do not use --continue, the command proceeds with deleting users until it encounters an error, after which it stops and exits.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Open terminal and connect to the IdM server.
  2. Delete the user account with the following command:

    $ ipa user-del user_login
    --------------------
    Deleted user "user_login"
    --------------------

The user account has been permanently deleted from IdM.

2.6. Restoring users using the command line

You can restore a preserved users to:

  • Active users: ipa user-undel
  • Stage users: ipa user-stage

Restoring a user account does not restore all of the account’s previous attributes. For example, the user’s password is not restored and must be set again.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Open terminal and connect to the IdM server.
  2. Activate the user account with the following command:

    $ ipa user-undel user_login
    ------------------------------
    Undeleted user account "user_login"
    ------------------------------

    Alternatively, you can restore user accounts as staged:

    $ ipa user-stage user_login
    ------------------------------
    Staged user account "user_login"
    ------------------------------

Verification steps

  • You can verify if the new user account is successfully created by listing all IdM user accounts:

    $ ipa user-find

    This command lists all user accounts with details.

Chapter 3. Managing user accounts using the IdM Web UI

Identity Management (IdM) provides several stages that can help you to manage various user work life situations:

Creating a user account

Creating a stage user account before an employee starts their career in your company and be prepared in advance for the day when the employee appears in the office and want to activate the account.

You can omit this step and create the active user account directly. The procedure is similar to creating a stage user account.

Activating a user account
Activating the account the first working day of the employee.
Disabling a user account
If the user go to a parental leave for couple of months, you will need to disable the account temporarily.
Enabling a user account
When the user returns, you will need to re-enable the account.
Preserving a user account
If the user wants to leave the company, you will need to delete the account with a possibility to restore it because people can return to the company after some time.
Restoring a user account
Two years later, the user is back and you need to restore the preserved account.
Deleting a user account
If the employee is dismissed, delete the account without a backup.

3.1. User life cycle

Identity Management (IdM) supports three user account states:

  • Stage users are not allowed to authenticate. This is an initial state. Some of the user account properties required for active users cannot be set, for example, group membership.
  • Active users are allowed to authenticate. All required user account properties must be set in this state.
  • Preserved users are former active users that are considered inactive and cannot authenticate to IdM. Preserved users retain most of the account properties they had as active users, but they are not part of any user groups.

A flow chart displaying 4 items: Active users - Stage users - Preserved users - Deleted users. Arrows communicate the relationships between each kind of user: Active users can be "preserved" as Preserved users. Preserved users can be "restored" as Active users. Preserved users can be "staged" as Stage users and Stage users can be "activated" into Active users. All users can be deleted to become "Deleted users".

You can delete user entries permanently from the IdM database.

Important

Deleted user accounts cannot be restored. When you delete a user account, all the information associated with the account is permanently lost.

A new administrator can only be created by a user with administrator rights, such as the default admin user. If you accidentally delete all administrator accounts, the Directory Manager must create a new administrator manually in the Directory Server.

Warning

Do not delete the admin user. As admin is a pre-defined user required by IdM, this operation causes problems with certain commands. If you want to define and use an alternative admin user, disable the pre-defined admin user with ipa user-disable admin after you granted admin permissions to at least one different user.

Warning

Do not add local users to IdM. The Name Service Switch (NSS) always resolves IdM users and groups before resolving local users and groups. This means that, for example, IdM group membership does not work for local users.

3.2. Adding users in the Web UI

Usually, you need to create a new user account before a new employee starts to work. Such a stage account is not accessible and you need to activate it later.

Note

Alternatively, you can create an active user account directly. For adding active user, follow the procedure below and add the user account in the Active users tab.

Prerequisites

  • Administrator privileges for managing IdM or User Administrator role.

Procedure

  1. Log in to the IdM Web UI.

    For details, see Accessing the IdM Web UI in a web browser.

  2. Go to Users → Stage Users tab.

    Alternatively, you can add the user account in the Users → Active users, however, you cannot add user groups to the account.

  3. Click the + Add icon.
  4. In the Add stage user dialog box, enter First name and Last name of the new user.
  5. [Optional] In the User login field, add a login name.

    If you leave it empty, the IdM server creates the login name in the following pattern: The first letter of the first name and the surname. The whole login name can have up to 32 characters.

  6. [Optional] In the GID drop down menu, select groups in which the user should be included.
  7. [Optional] In the Password and Verify password fields, enter your password and confirm it, ensuring they both match.
  8. Click on the Add button.

    Screenshot of the "Add stage user" pop-up window with the "New Password" the "Verify Password" fields filled in. The "Add" button is at the bottom left.

At this point, you can see the user account in the Stage Users table.

Screenshot of the IdM Web UI showing user entries in the Stage Users table. This is selected from the Identity tab - the Users sub-tab - and the Stage users category listed on the left.

Note

If you click on the user name, you can edit advanced settings, such as adding a phone number, address, or occupation.

3.3. Activating stage users in the IdM Web UI

A stage user account must be activated before the user can log in to IdM and before the user can be added to an IdM group. This section describes how to activate stage user accounts.

Prerequisites

  • Administrator privileges for managing the IdM Web UI or User Administrator role.
  • At least one staged user account in IdM.

Procedure

  1. Log in to the IdM Web UI.

    For details, see Accessing the IdM Web UI in a web browser.

  2. Go to Users → Stage users tab.
  3. Click the check-box of the user account you want to activate.
  4. Click on the Activate button.

    Screenshot of the IdM Web UI showing user entries in the "Stage Users" table. This is selected from the Identity tab - the Users sub-tab - and the Stage users category listed on the left.

  5. In the Confirmation dialog box, click on the OK button.

If the activation is successful, the IdM Web UI displays a green confirmation that the user has been activated and the user account has been moved to Active users. The account is active and the user can authenticate to the IdM domain and IdM Web UI. The user is prompted to change their password on the first login.

Screenshot of the IdM Web UI showing the "staged.user" user entry in the "Active Users" table. Its status is "enabled."

Note

At this stage, you can add the active user account to user groups.

3.4. Disabling user accounts in the Web UI

You can disable active user accounts. Disabling a user account deactivates the account, therefore, user accounts cannot be used to authenticate and using IdM services, such as Kerberos, or perform any tasks.

Disabled user accounts still exist within IdM and all of the associated information remains unchanged. Unlike preserved user accounts, disabled user accounts remain in the active state and can be a member of user groups.

Note

After disabling a user account, any existing connections remain valid until the user’s Kerberos TGT and other tickets expire. After the ticket expires, the user will not be able to renew it.

Prerequisites

  • Administrator privileges for managing the IdM Web UI or User Administrator role.

Procedure

  1. Log in to the IdM Web UI.

    For details, see Accessing the IdM Web UI in a web browser.

  2. Go to Users → Active users tab.
  3. Click the check-box of the user accounts you want to disable.
  4. Click on the Disable button.

    Screenshot of the "Active Users" page with a table displaying attributes for several users such as User login - First name - Last name - Status - UID - Email address - Telephone Number - Job Title. The entry for the "euser" account has been highlighted and so have the "Enable" and "Disable" buttons at the top right.

  5. In the Confirmation dialog box, click on the OK button.

If the disabling procedure has been successful, you can verify in the Status column in the Active users table.

Screenshot of the same "Active Users" page with the table displaying attributes for several users. The "euser" account is now greyed-out and shows "Disabled" in its "Status" column.

3.5. Enabling user accounts in the Web UI

With IdM you can enable disabled active user accounts. Enabling a user account activates the disabled account.

Prerequisites

  • Administrator privileges for managing the IdM Web UI or User Administrator role.

Procedure

  1. Log in to the IdM Web UI.
  2. Go to Users → Active users tab.
  3. Click the check-box of the user accounts you want to enable.
  4. Click on the Enable button.

    Screenshot of the "Active Users" page with a table displaying attributes for several users such as User login - First name - Last name - Status - UID - Email address - Telephone Number - Job Title. The entry for the "euser" account has been highlighted and so have the "Enable" and "Disable" buttons at the top right.

  5. In the Confirmation dialog box, click on the OK button.

If the change has been successful, you can verify in the Status column in the Active users table.

3.6. Preserving active users in the IdM Web UI

Preserving user accounts enables you to remove accounts from the Active users tab, yet keeping these accounts in IdM.

Preserve the user account if the employee leaves the company. If you want to disable user accounts for a couple of weeks or months (parental leave, for example), disable the account. For details, see Disabling user accounts in the Web UI. The preserved accounts are not active and users cannot use them to access your internal network, however, the account stays in the database with all the data.

You can move the restored accounts back to the active mode.

Note

The list of users in the preserved state can provide a history of past user accounts.

Prerequisites

  • Administrator privileges for managing the IdM (Identity Management) Web UI or User Administrator role.

Procedure

  1. Log in to the IdM Web UI.

    For details, see Accessing the IdM Web UI in a web browser.

  2. Go to Users → Active users tab.
  3. Click the check-box of the user accounts you want to preserve.
  4. Click on the Delete button.

    A screenshot of the "Active Users" page displaying a table of users. The checkbox for the entry for the "preserved.user" account has been checked and the "Delete" button at the top is highlighted.

  5. In the Remove users dialog box, switch the Delete mode radio button to preserve.
  6. Click on the Delete button.

    A screenshot of a pop-up window titled "Remove users." The contents say "Are you sure you want to delete selected entries?" and specifies "preserved.user" below. There is a label "Delete mode" with two radial options: "delete" and "preserve" (which is selected). There are "Delete" and "Cancel" buttons at the bottom right corner of the window.

As a result, the user account is moved to Preserved users.

If you need to restore preserved users, see the Restoring users in the IdM Web UI.

3.7. Restoring users in the IdM Web UI

IdM (Identity Management) enables you to restore preserved user accounts back in the active state.

Prerequisites

  • Administrator privileges for managing the IdM Web UI or User Administrator role.

Procedure

  1. Log in to the IdM Web UI.

    For details, see Accessing the IdM Web UI in a web browser.

  2. Go to Users → Preserved users tab.
  3. Click the check-box at the user accounts you want to restore.
  4. Click on the Restore button.

    A screenshot of the "Preserved users" page displaying a table of users and their attributes. The checkbox next to one user entry is checked and the "Restore" button at the top right is highlighted.

  5. In the Confirmation dialog box, click on the OK button.

The IdM Web UI displays a green confirmation and moves the user accounts to the Active users tab.

3.8. Deleting users in the IdM Web UI

Deleting users is an irreversible operation, causing the user accounts to be permanently deleted from the IdM database, including group memberships and passwords. Any external configuration for the user, such as the system account and home directory, is not deleted, but is no longer accessible through IdM.

You can delete:

  • Active users — the IdM Web UI offers you with the options:

  • Stage users — you can just delete stage users permanently.
  • Preserved users — you can delete preserved users permanently.

The following procedure describes deleting active users. Similarly, you can delete user accounts on:

  • The Stage users tab
  • The Preserved users tab

Prerequisites

  • Administrator privileges for managing the IdM Web UI or User Administrator role.

Procedure

  1. Log in to the IdM Web UI.

    For details, see Accessing the IdM Web UI in a web browser.

  2. Go to Users → Active users tab.

    Alternatively, you can delete the user account in the Users → Stage users or Users → Preserved users.

  3. Click the Delete icon.
  4. In the Remove users dialog box, switch the Delete mode radio button to delete.
  5. Click on the Delete button.

The users accounts have been permanently deleted from IdM.

Chapter 4. Managing user accounts using Ansible playbooks

You can manage users in IdM using Ansible playbooks. After presenting the user life cycle, this chapter describes how to use Ansible playbooks for the following operations:

4.1. User life cycle

Identity Management (IdM) supports three user account states:

  • Stage users are not allowed to authenticate. This is an initial state. Some of the user account properties required for active users cannot be set, for example, group membership.
  • Active users are allowed to authenticate. All required user account properties must be set in this state.
  • Preserved users are former active users that are considered inactive and cannot authenticate to IdM. Preserved users retain most of the account properties they had as active users, but they are not part of any user groups.

A flow chart displaying 4 items: Active users - Stage users - Preserved users - Deleted users. Arrows communicate the relationships between each kind of user: Active users can be "preserved" as Preserved users. Preserved users can be "restored" as Active users. Preserved users can be "staged" as Stage users and Stage users can be "activated" into Active users. All users can be deleted to become "Deleted users".

You can delete user entries permanently from the IdM database.

Important

Deleted user accounts cannot be restored. When you delete a user account, all the information associated with the account is permanently lost.

A new administrator can only be created by a user with administrator rights, such as the default admin user. If you accidentally delete all administrator accounts, the Directory Manager must create a new administrator manually in the Directory Server.

Warning

Do not delete the admin user. As admin is a pre-defined user required by IdM, this operation causes problems with certain commands. If you want to define and use an alternative admin user, disable the pre-defined admin user with ipa user-disable admin after you granted admin permissions to at least one different user.

Warning

Do not add local users to IdM. The Name Service Switch (NSS) always resolves IdM users and groups before resolving local users and groups. This means that, for example, IdM group membership does not work for local users.

4.2. Ensuring the presence of an IdM user using an Ansible playbook

The following procedure describes ensuring the presence of a user in IdM using an Ansible playbook.

Prerequisites

  • You know the IdM administator password.
  • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller.

Procedure

  1. Create an inventory file, for example inventory.file, and define ipaserver in it:

    [ipaserver]
    server.idm.example.com
  2. Create an Ansible playbook file with the data of the user whose presence in IdM you want to ensure. To simplify this step, you can copy and modify the example in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/user/add-user.yml file. For example, to create user named idm_user and add Password123 as the user password:

    ---
    - name: Playbook to handle users
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
    
      tasks:
      - name: Create user idm_user
        ipauser:
          ipaadmin_password: MySecret123
          name: idm_user
          first: Alice
          last: Acme
          uid: 1000111
          gid: 10011
          phone: "+555123457"
          email: idm_user@acme.com
          passwordexpiration: "2023-01-19 23:59:59"
          password: "Password123"
          update_password: on_create

    You must use the following options to add a user:

    • name: the login name
    • first: the first name string
    • last: the last name string

    For the full list of available user options, see the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/README-user.md Markdown file.

    Note

    If you use the update_password: on_create option, Ansible only creates the user password when it creates the user. If the user is already created with a password, Ansible does not generate a new password.

  3. Run the playbook:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i path_to_inventory_directory/inventory.file path_to_playbooks_directory/add-IdM-user.yml

Verification steps

  • You can verify if the new user account exists in IdM by using the ipa user-show command:

    1. Log into ipaserver as admin:

      $ ssh admin@server.idm.example.com
      Password:
      [admin@server /]$
    2. Request a Kerberos ticket for admin:

      $ kinit admin
      Password for admin@IDM.EXAMPLE.COM:
    3. Request information about idm_user:

      $ ipa user-show idm_user
        User login: idm_user
        First name: Alice
        Last name: Acme
        ....

    The user named idm_user is present in IdM.

4.3. Ensuring the presence of multiple IdM users using Ansible playbooks

The following procedure describes ensuring the presence of multiple users in IdM using an Ansible playbook.

Prerequisites

  • You know the IdM administator password.
  • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller.

Procedure

  1. Create an inventory file, for example inventory.file, and define ipaserver in it:

    [ipaserver]
    server.idm.example.com
  2. Create an Ansible playbook file with the data of the users whose presence you want to ensure in IdM. To simplify this step, you can copy and modify the example in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/user/ensure-users-present.yml file. For example, to create users idm_user_1, idm_user_2, and idm_user_3, and add Password123 as the password of idm_user_1:

    ---
    - name: Playbook to handle users
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
    
      tasks:
      - name: Create user idm_users
        ipauser:
          ipaadmin_password: MySecret123
          users:
          - name: idm_user_1
            first: Alice
            last: Acme
            uid: 10001
            gid: 10011
            phone: "+555123457"
            email: idm_user@acme.com
            passwordexpiration: "2023-01-19 23:59:59"
            password: "Password123"
          - name: idm_user_2
            first: Bob
            last: Acme
            uid: 100011
            gid: 10011
          - name: idm_user_3
            first: Eve
            last: Acme
            uid: 1000111
            gid: 10011
    Note

    If you do not specify the update_password: on_create option, Ansible re-sets the user password every time the playbook is run: if the user has changed the password since the last time the playbook was run, Ansible re-sets password.

  3. Run the playbook:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i path_to_inventory_directory/inventory.file path_to_playbooks_directory/add-users.yml

Verification steps

  • You can verify if the user account exists in IdM by using the ipa user-show command:

    1. Log into ipaserver as administrator:

      $ ssh administrator@server.idm.example.com
      Password:
      [admin@server /]$
    2. Display information about idm_user_1:

      $ ipa user-show idm_user_1
        User login: idm_user_1
        First name: Alice
        Last name: Acme
        Password: True
        ....

    The user named idm_user_1 is present in IdM.

4.4. Ensuring the presence of multiple IdM users from a JSON file using Ansible playbooks

The following procedure describes how you can ensure the presence of multiple users in IdM using an Ansible playbook. The users are stored in a JSON file.

Prerequisites

  • You know the IdM administator password.
  • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller.

Procedure

  1. Create an inventory file, for example inventory.file, and define ipaserver in it:

    [ipaserver]
    server.idm.example.com
  2. Create an Ansible playbook file with the necessary tasks. Reference the JSON file with the data of the users whose presence you want to ensure. To simplify this step, you can copy and modify the example in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/ensure-users-present-ymlfile.yml file:

    ---
    - name: Ensure users' presence
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
    
      tasks:
      - name: Include users.json
        include_vars:
          file: users.json
    
      - name: Users present
        ipauser:
          ipaadmin_password: MySecret123
          users: "{{ users }}"
  3. Create the users.json file, and add the IdM users into it. To simplify this step, you can copy and modify the example in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/user/users.json file. For example, to create users idm_user_1, idm_user_2, and idm_user_3, and add Password123 as the password of idm_user_1:

    {
      "users": [
       {
        "name": "idm_user_1",
        "first": "Alice",
        "last": "Acme",
        "password": "Password123"
       },
       {
        "name": "idm_user_2",
        "first": "Bob",
        "last": "Acme"
       },
       {
        "name": "idm_user_3",
        "first": "Eve",
        "last": "Acme"
       }
      ]
    }
  4. Run the Ansible playbook specifying the playbook file and the inventory file:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i path_to_inventory_directory/inventory.file path_to_playbooks_directory/ensure-users-present-jsonfile.yml

Verification steps

  • You can verify if the user accounts are present in IdM using the ipa user-show command:

    1. Log into ipaserver as administrator:

      $ ssh administrator@server.idm.example.com
      Password:
      [admin@server /]$
    2. Display information about idm_user_1:

      $ ipa user-show idm_user_1
        User login: idm_user_1
        First name: Alice
        Last name: Acme
        Password: True
        ....

    The user named idm_user_1 is present in IdM.

4.5. Ensuring the absence of users using Ansible playbooks

The following procedure describes how you can use an Ansible playbook to ensure that specific users are absent from IdM.

Prerequisites

  • You know the IdM administator password.
  • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller.

Procedure

  1. Create an inventory file, for example inventory.file, and define ipaserver in it:

    [ipaserver]
    server.idm.example.com
  2. Create an Ansible playbook file with the users whose absence from IdM you want to ensure. To simplify this step, you can copy and modify the example in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/user/ensure-users-present.yml file. For example, to delete users idm_user_1, idm_user_2, and idm_user_3:

    ---
    - name: Playbook to handle users
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
    
      tasks:
      - name: Delete users idm_user_1, idm_user_2, idm_user_3
        ipauser:
          ipaadmin_password: MySecret123
          users:
          - name: idm_user_1
          - name: idm_user_2
          - name: idm_user_3
          state: absent
  3. Run the Ansible playbook specifying the playbook file and the inventory file:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i path_to_inventory_directory/inventory.file path_to_playbooks_directory/delete-users.yml

Verification steps

You can verify that the user accounts do not exist in IdM by using the ipa user-show command:

  1. Log into ipaserver as administrator:

    $ ssh administrator@server.idm.example.com
    Password:
    [admin@server /]$
  2. Request information about idm_user_1:

    $ ipa user-show idm_user_1
    ipa: ERROR: idm_user_1: user not found

    The user named idm_user_1 does not exist in IdM.

4.6. Additional resources

  • See the README-user.md Markdown file in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/ directory.
  • See sample Ansible playbooks in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/user directory.

Chapter 5. Managing user passwords in IdM

5.1. Who can change IdM user passwords and how

Regular users without the permission to change other users' passwords can change only their own personal password. The new password must meet the IdM password policies applicable to the groups of which the user is a member. For details on configuring password policies, see Defining IdM password policies.

Administrators and users with password change rights can set initial passwords for new users and reset passwords for existing users. These passwords:

Note

The LDAP Directory Manager (DM) user can change user passwords using LDAP tools. The new password can override any IdM password policies. Passwords set by DM do not expire after the first login.

5.2. Changing your user password in the IdM Web UI

As an Identity Management (IdM) user, you can change your user password in the IdM Web UI.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in to the IdM Web UI.

Procedure

  1. In the upper right corner, click User name → Change password.

    Figure 5.1. Resetting Password

    user change own pwd
  2. Enter the current and new passwords.

5.3. Resetting another user’s password in the IdM Web UI

As an administrative user of Identity Management (IdM), you can change passwords for other users in the IdM Web UI.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in to the IdM Web UI as an administrative user.

Procedure

  1. Select IdentityUsers.
  2. Click the name of the user to edit.
  3. Click ActionsReset password.

    Figure 5.2. Resetting Password

    pwd reset1
  4. Enter the new password, and click Reset Password.

    Figure 5.3. Confirming New Password

    pwd reset2

5.4. Resetting the Directory Manager user password

If you lose the Identity Management (IdM) Directory Manager password, you can reset it.

Prerequisites

  • You have root access to an IdM server.

Procedure

  1. Generate a new password hash by using the pwdhash command. For example:

    # pwdhash -D /etc/dirsrv/slapd-IDM-EXAMPLE-COM password
    {PBKDF2_SHA256}AAAgABU0bKhyjY53NcxY33ueoPjOUWtl4iyYN5uW...

    By specifying the path to the Directory Server configuration, you automatically use the password storage scheme set in the nsslapd-rootpwstoragescheme attribute to encrypt the new password.

  2. On every IdM server in your topology, execute the following steps:

    1. Stop all IdM services installed on the server:

      # ipactl stop
    2. Edit the /etc/dirsrv/IDM-EXAMPLE-COM/dse.ldif file and set the nsslapd-rootpw attribute to the value generated by the pwdhash command:

      nsslapd-rootpw: {PBKDF2_SHA256}AAAgABU0bKhyjY53NcxY33ueoPjOUWtl4iyYN5uW...
    3. Start all IdM services installed on the server:
    # ipactl start

5.5. Changing your user password or resetting another user’s password in IdM CLI

You can change your user password using the Identity Management (IdM) command-line interface (CLI). If you are an administrative user, you can use the CLI to reset another user’s password.

Prerequisites

  • You have obtained a ticket-granting ticket (TGT) for an IdM user.
  • If you are resetting another user’s password, you must have obtained a TGT for an administrative user in IdM.

Procedure

  • Enter the ipa user-mod command with the name of the user and the --password option. The command will prompt you for the new password.

    $ ipa user-mod idm_user --password
    Password:
    Enter Password again to verify:
    --------------------
    Modified user "idm_user"
    --------------------
    ...
Note

You can also use the ipa passwd idm_user command instead of ipa user-mod.

5.6. Enabling password reset in IdM without prompting the user for a password change at the next login

By default, when an administrator resets another user’s password, the password expires after the first successful login. As IdM Directory Manager, you can specify the following privileges for individual IdM administrators:

  • They can perform password change operations without requiring users to change their passwords subsequently on their first login.
  • They can bypass the password policy so that no strength or history enforcement is applied.
Warning

Bypassing the password policy can be a security threat. Exercise caution when selecting users to whom you grant these additional privileges.

Prerequisites

  • You know the Directory Manager password.

Procedure

  1. On every Identity Management (IdM) server in the domain, make the following changes:

    1. Enter the ldapmodify command to modify LDAP entries. Specify the name of the IdM server and the 389 port and press Enter:

      $ ldapmodify -x -D "cn=Directory Manager" -W -h server.idm.example.com -p 389
      Enter LDAP Password:
    2. Enter the Directory Manager password.
    3. Enter the distinguished name for the ipa_pwd_extop password synchronization entry and press Enter:

      dn: cn=ipa_pwd_extop,cn=plugins,cn=config
    4. Specify the modify type of change and press Enter:

      changetype: modify
    5. Specify what type of modification you want LDAP to execute and to which attribute. Press Enter:

      add: passSyncManagersDNs
    6. Specify the administrative user accounts in the passSyncManagersDNs attribute. The attribute is multi-valued. For example, to grant the admin user the password resetting powers of Directory Manager:

      passSyncManagersDNs: \
      uid=admin,cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=example,dc=com
    7. Press Enter twice to stop editing the entry.

The whole procedure looks as follows:

$ ldapmodify -x -D "cn=Directory Manager" -W -h server.idm.example.com -p 389
Enter LDAP Password:
dn: cn=ipa_pwd_extop,cn=plugins,cn=config
changetype: modify
add: passSyncManagersDNs
passSyncManagersDNs: uid=admin,cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=example,dc=com

The admin user, listed under passSyncManagerDNs, now has the additional privileges.

5.7. Checking if an IdM user’s account is locked

As an Identity Management (IdM) administrator, you can check if an IdM user’s account is locked. For that, you must compare a user’s maximum allowed number of failed login attempts with the number of the user’s actual failed logins.

Prerequisites

  • You have obtained the ticket-granting ticket (TGT) of an administrative user in IdM.

Procedure

  1. Display the status of the user account to see the number of failed logins:

    $ ipa user-status example_user
    -----------------------
    Account disabled: False
    -----------------------
      Server: idm.example.com
      Failed logins: 8
      Last successful authentication: N/A
      Last failed authentication: 20220229080317Z
      Time now: 2022-02-29T08:04:46Z
    ----------------------------
    Number of entries returned 1
    ----------------------------
  2. Display the number of allowed login attempts for a particular user:

    1. Log in to the IdM Web UI as IdM administrator.
    2. Open the Identity → Users → Active users tab.

    A screenshot of the IdM Web UI displaying the "Active Users" page which is a sub-page of the Users sub-menu from the Identity tab.

    1. Click the user name to open the user settings.
    2. In the Password policy section, locate the Max failures item.
  3. Compare the number of failed logins as displayed in the output of the ipa user-status command with the Max failures number displayed in the IdM Web UI. If the number of failed logins equals that of maximum allowed login attempts, the user account is locked.

5.8. Unlocking user accounts after password failures in IdM

If a user attempts to log in using an incorrect password a certain number of times, Identity Management (IdM) locks the user account, which prevents the user from logging in. For security reasons, IdM does not display any warning message that the user account has been locked. Instead, the CLI prompt might continue asking the user for a password again and again.

IdM automatically unlocks the user account after a specified amount of time has passed. Alternatively, you can unlock the user account manually with the following procedure.

Prerequisites

  • You have obtained the ticket-granting ticket of an IdM administrative user.

Procedure

  • To unlock a user account, use the ipa user-unlock command.

    $ ipa user-unlock idm_user
    -----------------------
    Unlocked account "idm_user"
    -----------------------

    After this, the user can log in again.

5.9. Enabling the tracking of last successful Kerberos authentication for users in IdM

For performance reasons, Identity Management (IdM) running in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 does not store the time stamp of the last successful Kerberos authentication of a user. As a consequence, certain commands, such as ipa user-status, do not display the time stamp.

Prerequisites

  • You have obtained the ticket-granting ticket (TGT) of an administrative user in IdM.
  • You have root access to the IdM server on which you are executing the procedure.

Procedure

  1. Display the currently enabled password plug-in features:

    # ipa config-show | grep "Password plugin features"
      Password plugin features: AllowNThash, KDC:Disable Last Success

    The output shows that the KDC:Disable Last Success plug-in is enabled. The plug-in hides the last successful Kerberos authentication attempt from being visible in the ipa user-status output.

  2. Add the --ipaconfigstring=feature parameter for every feature to the ipa config-mod command that is currently enabled, except for KDC:Disable Last Success:

    # ipa config-mod --ipaconfigstring='AllowNThash'

    This command enables only the AllowNThash plug-in. To enable multiple features, specify the --ipaconfigstring=feature parameter separately for each feature.

  3. Restart IdM:

    # ipactl restart

Chapter 6. Defining IdM password policies

This chapter describes Identity Management (IdM) password policies and how to add a new password policy in IdM using an Ansible playbook.

6.1. What is a password policy

A password policy is a set of rules that passwords must meet. For example, a password policy can define the minimum password length and the maximum password lifetime. All users affected by this policy are required to set a sufficiently long password and change it frequently enough to meet the specified conditions. In this way, password policies help reduce the risk of someone discovering and misusing a user’s password.

6.2. Password policies in IdM

Passwords are the most common way for Identity Management (IdM) users to authenticate to the IdM Kerberos domain. Password policies define the requirements that these IdM user passwords must meet.

Note

The IdM password policy is set in the underlying LDAP directory, but the Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC) enforces the password policy.

Password policy attributes lists the attributes you can use to define a password policy in IdM.

Table 6.1. Password Policy Attributes

AttributeExplanationExample

Max lifetime

The maximum amount of time in days that a password is valid before a user must reset it.

Max lifetime = 90

User passwords are valid only for 90 days. After that, IdM prompts users to change them.

Min lifetime

The minimum amount of time in hours that must pass between two password change operations.

Min lifetime = 1

After users change their passwords, they must wait at least 1 hour before changing them again.

History size

The number of previous passwords that are stored. A user cannot reuse a password from their password history but can reuse old passwords that are not stored.

History size = 0

In this case, the password history is empty and users can reuse any of their previous passwords.

Character classes

The number of different character classes the user must use in the password. The character classes are:

* Uppercase characters

* Lowercase characters

* Digits

* Special characters, such as comma (,), period (.), asterisk (*)

* Other UTF-8 characters

Using a character three or more times in a row decreases the character class by one. For example:

* Secret1 has 3 character classes: uppercase, lowercase, digits

* Secret111 has 2 character classes: uppercase, lowercase, digits, and a -1 penalty for using 1 repeatedly

Character classes = 0

The default number of classes required is 0. To configure the number, run the ipa pwpolicy-mod command with the --minclasses option.

See also the Important note below this table.

Min length

The minimum number of characters in a password.

If any of the additional password policy options are set, then the minimum length of passwords is 6 regardless of the value to which the Min length option is set.

Min length = 8

Users cannot use passwords shorter than 8 characters.

Max failures

The maximum number of failed login attempts before IdM locks the user account.

Max failures = 6

IdM locks the user account when the user enters a wrong password 7 times in a row.

Failure reset interval

The amount of time in seconds after which IdM resets the current number of failed login attempts.

Failure reset interval = 60

If the user waits for more than 1 minute after the number of failed login attempts defined in Max failures, the user can attempt to log in again without risking a user account lock.

Lockout duration

The amount of time in seconds that the user account is locked after the number of failed login attempts defined in Max failures.

Lockout duration = 600

Users with locked accounts are unable to log in for 10 minutes.

Important

Use the English alphabet and common symbols for the character classes requirement if you have a diverse set of hardware that may not have access to international characters and symbols. For more information about character class policies in passwords, see What characters are valid in a password? in Red Hat Knowledgebase.

6.3. Ensuring the presence of a password policy in IdM using an Ansible playbook

This section describes how to ensure the presence of a password policy in Identity Management (IdM) using an Ansible playbook.

In the default global_policy password policy in IdM, the number of different character classes in the password is set to 0. The history size is also set to 0.

Complete this procedure to enforce a stronger password policy for an IdM group using an Ansible playbook.

Note

You can only define a password policy for an IdM group. You cannot define a password policy for an individual user.

Prerequisites

  • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller.
  • You know the IdM administrator password.
  • The group for which you are ensuring the presence of a password policy exists in IdM.

Procedure

  1. Create an inventory file, for example inventory.file, and define the FQDN of your IdM server in the [ipaserver] section:

    [ipaserver]
    server.idm.example.com
  2. Create your Ansible playbook file that defines the password policy whose presence you want to ensure. To simplify this step, copy and modify the example in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/pwpolicy/pwpolicy_present.yml file:

    ---
    - name: Tests
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
    
      tasks:
      - name: Ensure presence of pwpolicy for group ops
        ipapwpolicy:
          ipaadmin_password: MySecret123
          name: ops
          minlife: 7
          maxlife: 49
          history: 5
          priority: 1
          lockouttime: 300
          minlength: 8
          minclasses: 4
          maxfail: 3
          failinterval: 5

    For details on what the individual variables mean, see Password policy attributes.

  3. Run the playbook:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i path_to_inventory_directory/inventory.file path_to_playbooks_directory_/new_pwpolicy_present.yml

You have successfully used an Ansible playbook to ensure that a password policy for the ops group is present in IdM.

Important

The priority of the ops password policy is set to 1, whereas the global_policy password policy has no priority set. For this reason, the ops policy automatically supersedes global_policy for the ops group and is enforced immediately.

global_policy serves as a fallback policy when no group policy is set for a user, and it can never take precedence over a group policy.

Additional resources

6.4. Additional password policy options in IdM

As an Identity Management (IdM) administrator, you can strengthen the default password requirements by enabling additional password policy options based on the libpwquality feature set. The additional password policy options include the following:

--maxrepeat
Specifies the maximum acceptable number of same consecutive characters in the new password.
--maxsequence
Specifies the maximum length of monotonic character sequences in the new password. Examples of such a sequence are 12345 or fedcb. Most such passwords will not pass the simplicity check. The only exception is when the sequence is only a minor part of the password.
--dictcheck
If nonzero, checks whether the password, with possible modifications, matches a word in a dictionary. Currently libpwquality performs the dictionary check using the cracklib library.
--usercheck
If nonzero, checks whether the password, with possible modifications, contains the user name in some form. It is not performed for user names shorter than 3 characters.

You cannot apply the additional password policy options to existing passwords. If you apply any of the additional options, IdM automatically sets the --minlength option, the minimum number of characters in a password, to 6 characters.

Note

In a mixed environment with RHEL 7 and RHEL 8 servers, you can enforce the additional password policy settings only on servers running on RHEL 8.4 and later. If a user is logged in to an IdM client and the IdM client is communicating with an IdM server running on RHEL 8.3 or earlier, then the new password policy requirements set by the system administrator will not be applied. To ensure consistent behavior, upgrade or update all servers to RHEL 8.4 and later.

Additional resources:

6.5. Applying additional password policy options to an IdM group

This section describes how to apply additional password policy options in Identity Management (IdM). The example describes how to strengthen the password policy for the managers group by making sure that the new passwords do not contain the users' respective user names and that the passwords contain no more than two identical characters in succession.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in as an IdM administrator.
  • The managers group exists in IdM.
  • The managers password policy exists in IdM.

Procedure

  1. Apply the user name check to all new passwords suggested by the users in the managers group:

    $ ipa pwpolicy-mod --usercheck=True managers
    Note

    If you do not specify the name of the password policy, the default global_policy is modified.

  2. Set the maximum number of identical consecutive characters to 2 in the managers password policy:

    $ ipa pwpolicy-mod --maxrepeat=2 managers

    A password now will not be accepted if it contains more than 2 identical consecutive characters. For example, the eR873mUi111YJQ combination is unacceptable because it contains three 1s in succession.

Verification

  1. Add a test user named test_user:

    $ ipa user-add test_user
    First name: test
    Last name: user
    ----------------------------
    Added user "test_user"
    ----------------------------
  2. Add the test user to the managers group:

    1. In the IdM Web UI, click IdentityGroupsUser Groups.
    2. Click managers.
    3. Click Add.
    4. In the Add users into user group 'managers' page, check test_user.
    5. Click the > arrow to move the user to the Prospective column.
    6. Click Add.
  3. Reset the password for the test user:

    1. Go to IdentityUsers.
    2. Click test_user.
    3. In the Actions menu, click Reset Password.
    4. Enter a temporary password for the user.
  4. On the command line, try to obtain a Kerberos ticket-granting ticket (TGT) for the test_user:

    $ kinit test_user
    1. Enter the temporary password.
    2. The system informs you that you must change your password. Enter a password that contains the user name of test_user:

      Password expired. You must change it now.
      Enter new password:
      Enter it again:
      Note

      Kerberos does not have fine-grained error password policy reporting and, in certain cases, does not provide a clear reason why a password was rejected.

    3. The system informs you that the entered password was rejected. Enter a password that contains three or more identical characters in succession:

      Password change rejected: Password not changed.
      Unspecified password quality failure while trying to change password.
      Please try again.
      
      Enter new password:
      Enter it again:
    4. The system informs you that the entered password was rejected. Enter a password that meets the criteria of the managers password policy:

      Password change rejected: Password not changed.
      Unspecified password quality failure while trying to change password.
      Please try again.
      
      Enter new password:
      Enter it again:
  5. View the obtained TGT:

    $ klist
    Ticket cache: KCM:0:33945
    Default principal: test_user@IDM.EXAMPLE.COM
    
    Valid starting       Expires              Service principal
    07/07/2021 12:44:44  07/08/2021 12:44:44  krbtgt@IDM.EXAMPLE.COM@IDM.EXAMPLE.COM

The managers password policy now works correctly for users in the managers group.

Chapter 7. Managing expiring password notifications

You can use the Expiring Password Notification (EPN) tool, provided by the ipa-client-epn package, to build a list of Identity Management (IdM) users whose passwords are expiring in a configured amount of time. To install, configure, and use the EPN tool, refer to the relevant sections.

7.1. What is the Expiring Password Notification tool

The Expiring Password Notification (EPN) tool is a standalone tool you can use to build a list of Identity Management (IdM) users whose passwords are expiring in a configured amount of time.

IdM administrators can use EPN to:

  • Display a list of affected users in JSON format, which is created when run in dry-run mode.
  • Calculate how many emails will be sent for a given day or date range.
  • Send password expiration email notifications to users.
  • Configure the ipa-epn.timer to run the EPN tool daily and send an email to users whose passwords are expiring within the defined future date ranges.
  • Customize the email notification to send to users.
Note

If a user account is disabled, no email notifications are sent if the password is going to expire.

7.2. Installing the Expiring Password Notification tool

This procedure describes how to install the Expiring Password Notification (EPN) tool.

Prerequisites

  • Install the EPN tool on either an Identity Management (IdM) replica or an IdM client with a local Postfix SMTP server configured as a smart host.

Procedure

  • Install the EPN tool:

    # yum install ipa-client-epn

7.3. Running the EPN tool to send emails to users whose passwords are expiring

This procedure describes how to run the Expiring Password Notification (EPN) tool to send emails to users whose passwords are expiring.

Note

The EPN tool is stateless. If the EPN tool fails to email any of the users whose passwords are expiring on a given day, the EPN tool does not save a list of those users.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Update the epn.conf configuration file to set the options for the EPN tool to notify users of upcoming password expiration.

    # vi /etc/ipa/epn.conf
  2. Update the notify_ttls as required. The default is to notify users whose passwords are expiring in 28, 14, 7, 3, and 1 day(s).

    notify_ttls = 28, 14, 7, 3, 1
  3. Configure your SMTP server and port:

    smtp_server = localhost
    smtp_port = 25
  4. Specify the email address from which the email expiration notification is sent. Any unsuccessfully delivered emails are returned to this address.

    mail_from =admin-email@example.com
  5. Save the /etc/ipa/epn.conf file.
  6. Run the EPN tool in dry-run mode to generate a list of the users to whom the password expiration email notification would be sent if you run the tool without the --dry-run option.

    ipa-epn --dry-run
    [
        {
         "uid": "user5",
         "cn": "user 5",
         "krbpasswordexpiration": "2020-04-17 15:51:53",
         "mail": "['user5@ipa.test']"
        }
    ]
    [
        {
         "uid": "user6",
         "cn": "user 6",
         "krbpasswordexpiration": "2020-12-17 15:51:53",
         "mail": "['user5@ipa.test']"
         }
    ]
    The IPA-EPN command was successful
    Note

    If the list of users returned is very large and you run the tool without the --dry-run option, this might cause an issue with your email server.

  7. Run the EPN tool without the --dry-run option to send expiration emails to the list of all the users returned when you ran the EPN tool in dry-run mode:

    ipa-epn
    [
      {
         "uid": "user5",
         "cn": "user 5",
         "krbpasswordexpiration": "2020-10-01 15:51:53",
         "mail": "['user5@ipa.test']"
      }
    ]
    [
      {
        "uid": "user6",
        "cn": "user 6",
        "krbpasswordexpiration": "2020-12-17 15:51:53",
        "mail": "['user5@ipa.test']"
      }
    ]
    The IPA-EPN command was successful
  8. You can add EPN to any monitoring system and invoke it with the --from-nbdays and --to-nbdays options to determine how many users passwords are going to expire within a specific time frame:

    # ipa-epn --from-nbdays 8 --to-nbdays 12
    Note

    If you invoke the EPN tool with the --from-nbdays and --to-nbdays options, it is automatically executed in dry-run mode.

Verification steps

  • Run the EPN tool and verify an email notification is sent.

Additional resources

  • See ipa-epn man page.
  • See epn.conf man page.

7.4. Enabling the ipa-epn.timer to send an email to all users whose passwords are expiring

This procedure describes how to use ipa-epn.timer to run the Expiring Password Notification (EPN) tool to send emails to users whose passwords are expiring. The ipa-epn.timer parses the epn.conf file and sends an email to users whose passwords are expiring within the defined future date ranges configured in that file.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  • Start the ipa-epn.timer:

    systemctl start ipa-epn.timer

Once you start the timer, by default, the EPN tool is run every day at 1 a.m.

Additional resources

  • See the ipa-epn man page.

7.5. Modifying the Expiring Password Notification email template

This procedure describes how to customize the Expiring Password Notification (EPN) email message template.

Prerequisites

  • The ipa-client-epn package is installed.

Procedure

  1. Open the EPN message template:

    # vi /etc/ipa/epn/expire_msg.template
  2. Update the template text as required.

    Hi {{ fullname }},
    
    Your password will expire on {{ expiration }}.
    
    Please change it as soon as possible.

    You can use the following variables in the template.

    • User ID: uid
    • Full name: fullname
    • First name: first
    • Last name: last
    • Password expiration date: expiration
  3. Save the message template file.

Verification steps

  • Run the EPN tool and verify the email notification contains the updated text.

Additional resources

  • See the ipa-epn man page.

Chapter 8. Granting sudo access to an IdM user on an IdM client

This section describes how to grant sudo access to users in Identity Management.

8.1. Sudo access on an IdM client

System administrators can grant sudo access to allow non-root users to execute administrative commands that are normally reserved for the root user. Consequently, when users need to perform an administrative command normally reserved for the root user, they precede that command with sudo. After entering their password, the command is executed as if they were the root user. To execute a sudo command as another user or group, such as a database service account, you can configure a RunAs alias for a sudo rule.

If a Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 8 host is enrolled as an Identity Management (IdM) client, you can specify sudo rules defining which IdM users can perform which commands on the host in the following ways:

  • Locally in the /etc/sudoers file
  • Centrally in IdM

This section describes creating a central sudo rule for an IdM client using the command line interface (CLI) and the IdM Web UI.

In RHEL 8.4 and later, you can also configure password-less authentication for sudo using the Generic Security Service Application Programming Interface (GSSAPI), the native way for UNIX-based operating systems to access and authenticate Kerberos services. You can use the pam_sss_gss.so Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) to invoke GSSAPI authentication via the SSSD service, allowing users to authenticate to the sudo command with a valid Kerberos ticket.

Additional resources

8.2. Granting sudo access to an IdM user on an IdM client using the CLI

In Identity Management (IdM), you can grant sudo access for a specific command to an IdM user account on a specific IdM host. First, add a sudo command and then create a sudo rule for one or more commands.

For example, complete this procedure to create the idm_user_reboot sudo rule to grant the idm_user account the permission to run the /usr/sbin/reboot command on the idmclient machine.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in as IdM administrator.
  • You have created a user account for idm_user in IdM and unlocked the account by creating a password for the user. For details on adding a new IdM user using the CLI, see Adding users using the command line.
  • No local idm_user account is present on the idmclient host. The idm_user user is not listed in the local /etc/passwd file.

Procedure

  1. Retrieve a Kerberos ticket as the IdM admin.

    [root@idmclient ~]# kinit admin
  2. Add the /usr/sbin/reboot command to the IdM database of sudo commands:

    [root@idmclient ~]# ipa sudocmd-add /usr/sbin/reboot
    -------------------------------------
    Added Sudo Command "/usr/sbin/reboot"
    -------------------------------------
      Sudo Command: /usr/sbin/reboot
  3. Create a sudo rule named idm_user_reboot:

    [root@idmclient ~]# ipa sudorule-add idm_user_reboot
    ---------------------------------
    Added Sudo Rule "idm_user_reboot"
    ---------------------------------
      Rule name: idm_user_reboot
      Enabled: TRUE
  4. Add the /usr/sbin/reboot command to the idm_user_reboot rule:

    [root@idmclient ~]# ipa sudorule-add-allow-command idm_user_reboot --sudocmds '/usr/sbin/reboot'
      Rule name: idm_user_reboot
      Enabled: TRUE
      Sudo Allow Commands: /usr/sbin/reboot
    -------------------------
    Number of members added 1
    -------------------------
  5. Apply the idm_user_reboot rule to the IdM idmclient host:

    [root@idmclient ~]# ipa sudorule-add-host idm_user_reboot --hosts idmclient.idm.example.com
    Rule name: idm_user_reboot
    Enabled: TRUE
    Hosts: idmclient.idm.example.com
    Sudo Allow Commands: /usr/sbin/reboot
    -------------------------
    Number of members added 1
    -------------------------
  6. Add the idm_user account to the idm_user_reboot rule:

    [root@idmclient ~]# ipa sudorule-add-user idm_user_reboot --users idm_user
    Rule name: idm_user_reboot
    Enabled: TRUE
    Users: idm_user
    Hosts: idmclient.idm.example.com
    Sudo Allow Commands: /usr/sbin/reboot
    -------------------------
    Number of members added 1
    -------------------------
  7. Optionally, define the validity of the idm_user_reboot rule:

    1. To define the time at which a sudo rule starts to be valid, use the ipa sudorule-mod sudo_rule_name command with the --setattr sudonotbefore=DATE option. The DATE value must follow the yyyymmddHHMMSSZ format, with seconds specified explicitly. For example, to set the start of the validity of the idm_user_reboot rule to 31 December 2025 12:34:00, enter:

      [root@idmclient ~]# ipa sudorule-mod idm_user_reboot --setattr sudonotbefore=20251231123400Z
    2. To define the time at which a sudo rule stops being valid, use the --setattr sudonotafter=DATE option. For example, to set the end of the idm_user_reboot rule validity to 31 December 2026 12:34:00, enter:

      [root@idmclient ~]# ipa sudorule-mod idm_user_reboot --setattr sudonotafter=20261231123400Z
Note

Propagating the changes from the server to the client can take a few minutes.

Verification steps

  1. Log in to the idmclient host as the idm_user account.
  2. Display which sudo rules the idm_user account is allowed to perform.

    [idm_user@idmclient ~]$ sudo -l
    Matching Defaults entries for idm_user on idmclient:
        !visiblepw, always_set_home, match_group_by_gid, always_query_group_plugin,
        env_reset, env_keep="COLORS DISPLAY HOSTNAME HISTSIZE KDEDIR LS_COLORS",
        env_keep+="MAIL PS1 PS2 QTDIR USERNAME LANG LC_ADDRESS LC_CTYPE",
        env_keep+="LC_COLLATE LC_IDENTIFICATION LC_MEASUREMENT LC_MESSAGES",
        env_keep+="LC_MONETARY LC_NAME LC_NUMERIC LC_PAPER LC_TELEPHONE",
        env_keep+="LC_TIME LC_ALL LANGUAGE LINGUAS _XKB_CHARSET XAUTHORITY KRB5CCNAME",
        secure_path=/sbin\:/bin\:/usr/sbin\:/usr/bin
    
    User idm_user may run the following commands on idmclient:
        (root) /usr/sbin/reboot
  3. Reboot the machine using sudo. Enter the password for idm_user when prompted:

    [idm_user@idmclient ~]$ sudo /usr/sbin/reboot
    [sudo] password for idm_user:

8.3. Granting sudo access to an AD user on an IdM client using the CLI

Identity Management (IdM) system administrators can use IdM user groups to set access permissions, host-based access control, sudo rules, and other controls on IdM users. IdM user groups grant and restrict access to IdM domain resources.

You can add both Active Directory (AD) users and AD groups to IdM user groups. To do that:

  1. Add the AD users or groups to a non-POSIX external IdM group.
  2. Add the non-POSIX external IdM group to an IdM POSIX group.

You can then manage the privileges of the AD users by managing the privileges of the POSIX group. For example, you can grant sudo access for a specific command to an IdM POSIX user group on a specific IdM host.

Note

It is also possible to add AD user groups as members to IdM external groups. This might make it easier to define policies for Windows users, by keeping the user and group management within the single AD realm.

Important

Do not use ID overrides of AD users for SUDO rules in IdM. ID overrides of AD users represent only POSIX attributes of AD users, not AD users themselves.

You can add ID overrides as group members. However, you can only use this functionality to manage IdM resources in the IdM API. The possibility to add ID overrides as group members is not extended to POSIX environments and you therefore cannot use it for membership in sudo or host-based access control (HBAC) rules.

This procedure describes how to create the ad_users_reboot sudo rule to grant the administrator@ad-domain.com AD user the permission to run the /usr/sbin/reboot command on the idmclient IdM host, which is normally reserved for the root user. administrator@ad-domain.com is a member of the ad_users_external non-POSIX group, which is, in turn, a member of the ad_users POSIX group.

Prerequisites

  • You have obtained the IdM admin Kerberos ticket-granting ticket (TGT).
  • A cross-forest trust exists between the IdM domain and the ad-domain.com AD domain.
  • No local administrator account is present on the idmclient host: the administrator user is not listed in the local /etc/passwd file.

Procedure

  1. Create the ad_users group that contains the ad_users_external group with the administrator@ad-domain member:

    1. Optional: Create or select a corresponding group in the AD domain to use to manage AD users in the IdM realm. You can use multiple AD groups and add them to different groups on the IdM side.
    2. Create the ad_users_external group and indicate that it contains members from outside the IdM domain by adding the --external option:

      [root@ipaserver ~]# ipa group-add --desc='AD users external map' ad_users_external --external
      -------------------------------
      Added group "ad_users_external"
      -------------------------------
        Group name: ad_users_external
        Description: AD users external map
      Note

      Ensure that the external group that you specify here is an AD security group with a global or universal group scope as defined in the Active Directory security groups document. For example, the Domain users or Domain admins AD security groups cannot be used because their group scope is domain local.

    3. Create the ad_users group:

      [root@ipaserver ~]# ipa group-add --desc='AD users' ad_users
      ----------------------
      Added group "ad_users"
      ----------------------
        Group name: ad_users
        Description: AD users
        GID: 129600004
    4. Add the administrator@ad-domain.com AD user to ad_users_external as an external member:

      [root@ipaserver ~]# ipa group-add-member ad_users_external --external "administrator@ad-domain.com"
       [member user]:
       [member group]:
        Group name: ad_users_external
        Description: AD users external map
        External member: S-1-5-21-3655990580-1375374850-1633065477-513
      -------------------------
      Number of members added 1
      -------------------------

      The AD user must be identified by a fully-qualified name, such as DOMAIN\user_name or user_name@DOMAIN. The AD identity is then mapped to the AD SID for the user. The same applies to adding AD groups.

    5. Add ad_users_external to ad_users as a member:

      [root@ipaserver ~]# ipa group-add-member ad_users --groups ad_users_external
        Group name: ad_users
        Description: AD users
        GID: 129600004
        Member groups: ad_users_external
      -------------------------
      Number of members added 1
      -------------------------
  2. Grant the members of ad_users the permission to run /usr/sbin/reboot on the idmclient host:

    1. Add the /usr/sbin/reboot command to the IdM database of sudo commands:

      [root@idmclient ~]# ipa sudocmd-add /usr/sbin/reboot
      -------------------------------------
      Added Sudo Command "/usr/sbin/reboot"
      -------------------------------------
        Sudo Command: /usr/sbin/reboot
    2. Create a sudo rule named ad_users_reboot:

      [root@idmclient ~]# ipa sudorule-add ad_users_reboot
      ---------------------------------
      Added Sudo Rule "ad_users_reboot"
      ---------------------------------
        Rule name: ad_users_reboot
        Enabled: True
    3. Add the /usr/sbin/reboot command to the ad_users_reboot rule:

      [root@idmclient ~]# ipa sudorule-add-allow-command ad_users_reboot --sudocmds '/usr/sbin/reboot'
        Rule name: ad_users_reboot
        Enabled: True
        Sudo Allow Commands: /usr/sbin/reboot
      -------------------------
      Number of members added 1
      -------------------------
    4. Apply the ad_users_reboot rule to the IdM idmclient host:

      [root@idmclient ~]# ipa sudorule-add-host ad_users_reboot --hosts idmclient.idm.example.com
      Rule name: ad_users_reboot
      Enabled: True
      Hosts: idmclient.idm.example.com
      Sudo Allow Commands: /usr/sbin/reboot
      -------------------------
      Number of members added 1
      -------------------------
    5. Add the ad_users group to the ad_users_reboot rule:

      [root@idmclient ~]# ipa sudorule-add-user ad_users_reboot --groups ad_users
      Rule name: ad_users_reboot
      Enabled: TRUE
      User Groups: ad_users
      Hosts: idmclient.idm.example.com
      Sudo Allow Commands: /usr/sbin/reboot
      -------------------------
      Number of members added 1
      -------------------------
Note

Propagating the changes from the server to the client can take a few minutes.

Verification steps

  1. Log in to the idmclient host as administrator@ad-domain.com, an indirect member of the ad_users group:

    $ ssh administrator@ad-domain.com@ipaclient
    Password:
  2. Optionally, display the sudo commands that administrator@ad-domain.com is allowed to execute:

    [administrator@ad-domain.com@idmclient ~]$ sudo -l
    Matching Defaults entries for administrator@ad-domain.com on idmclient:
        !visiblepw, always_set_home, match_group_by_gid, always_query_group_plugin,
        env_reset, env_keep="COLORS DISPLAY HOSTNAME HISTSIZE KDEDIR LS_COLORS",
        env_keep+="MAIL PS1 PS2 QTDIR USERNAME LANG LC_ADDRESS LC_CTYPE",
        env_keep+="LC_COLLATE LC_IDENTIFICATION LC_MEASUREMENT LC_MESSAGES",
        env_keep+="LC_MONETARY LC_NAME LC_NUMERIC LC_PAPER LC_TELEPHONE",
        env_keep+="LC_TIME LC_ALL LANGUAGE LINGUAS _XKB_CHARSET XAUTHORITY KRB5CCNAME",
        secure_path=/sbin\:/bin\:/usr/sbin\:/usr/bin
    
    User administrator@ad-domain.com may run the following commands on idmclient:
        (root) /usr/sbin/reboot
  3. Reboot the machine using sudo. Enter the password for administrator@ad-domain.com when prompted:

    [administrator@ad-domain.com@idmclient ~]$ sudo /usr/sbin/reboot
    [sudo] password for administrator@ad-domain.com:

8.4. Granting sudo access to an IdM user on an IdM client using the IdM Web UI

In Identity Management (IdM), you can grant sudo access for a specific command to an IdM user account on a specific IdM host. First, add a sudo command and then create a sudo rule for one or more commands.

Complete this procedure to create the idm_user_reboot sudo rule to grant the idm_user account the permission to run the /usr/sbin/reboot command on the idmclient machine.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in as IdM administrator.
  • You have created a user account for idm_user in IdM and unlocked the account by creating a password for the user. For details on adding a new IdM user using the command-line interface, see Adding users using the command line.
  • No local idm_user account is present on the idmclient host. The idm_user user is not listed in the local /etc/passwd file.

Procedure

  1. Add the /usr/sbin/reboot command to the IdM database of sudo commands:

    1. Navigate to PolicySudoSudo Commands.
    2. Click Add in the upper right corner to open the Add sudo command dialog box.
    3. Enter the command you want the user to be able to perform using sudo: /usr/sbin/reboot.

      Figure 8.1. Adding IdM sudo command

      A screenshot of a pop-up window labeled "Add sudo command." There is a required field labeled "Sudo command" with contents "/usr/sbin/reboot". A "Description" field is empty. The bottom-right of the window has four buttons: "Add" - "Add and Add Another" - "Add and Edit" - "Cancel".
    4. Click Add.
  2. Use the new sudo command entry to create a sudo rule to allow idm_user to reboot the idmclient machine:

    1. Navigate to PolicySudoSudo rules.
    2. Click Add in the upper right corner to open the Add sudo rule dialog box.
    3. Enter the name of the sudo rule: idm_user_reboot.
    4. Click Add and Edit.
    5. Specify the user:

      1. In the Who section, check the Specified Users and Groups radio button.
      2. In the User category the rule applies to subsection, click Add to open the Add users into sudo rule "idm_user_reboot" dialog box.
      3. In the Add users into sudo rule "idm_user_reboot" dialog box in the Available column, check the idm_user checkbox, and move it to the Prospective column.
      4. Click Add.
    6. Specify the host:

      1. In the Access this host section, check the Specified Hosts and Groups radio button.
      2. In the Host category this rule applies to subsection, click Add to open the Add hosts into sudo rule "idm_user_reboot" dialog box.
      3. In the Add hosts into sudo rule "idm_user_reboot" dialog box in the Available column, check the idmclient.idm.example.com checkbox, and move it to the Prospective column.
      4. Click Add.
    7. Specify the commands:

      1. In the Command category the rule applies to subsection of the Run Commands section, check the Specified Commands and Groups radio button.
      2. In the Sudo Allow Commands subsection, click Add to open the Add allow sudo commands into sudo rule "idm_user_reboot" dialog box.
      3. In the Add allow sudo commands into sudo rule "idm_user_reboot" dialog box in the Available column, check the /usr/sbin/reboot checkbox, and move it to the Prospective column.
      4. Click Add to return to the idm_sudo_reboot page.

      Figure 8.2. Adding IdM sudo rule

      A screenshot of an overview of the sudo rule that was added. There is a "Who" section with a table of users the rule applies to. There is an "Access this host" section with a table of hosts that the rule applies to. There is a "Run Commands" section with a table of commands that pertain to the rule.
    8. Click Save in the top left corner.

The new rule is enabled by default.

Note

Propagating the changes from the server to the client can take a few minutes.

Verification steps

  1. Log in to idmclient as idm_user.
  2. Reboot the machine using sudo. Enter the password for idm_user when prompted:

    $ sudo /usr/sbin/reboot
    [sudo] password for idm_user:

If the sudo rule is configured correctly, the machine reboots.

8.5. Creating a sudo rule on the CLI that runs a command as a service account on an IdM client

In IdM, you can configure a sudo rule with a RunAs alias to run a sudo command as another user or group. For example, you might have an IdM client that hosts a database application, and you need to run commands as the local service account that corresponds to that application.

Use this example to create a sudo rule on the command line called run_third-party-app_report to allow the idm_user account to run the /opt/third-party-app/bin/report command as the thirdpartyapp service account on the idmclient host.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in as IdM administrator.
  • You have created a user account for idm_user in IdM and unlocked the account by creating a password for the user. For details on adding a new IdM user using the CLI, see Adding users using the command line.
  • No local idm_user account is present on the idmclient host. The idm_user user is not listed in the local /etc/passwd file.
  • You have a custom application named third-party-app installed on the idmclient host.
  • The report command for the third-party-app application is installed in the /opt/third-party-app/bin/report directory.
  • You have created a local service account named thirdpartyapp to execute commands for the third-party-app application.

Procedure

  1. Retrieve a Kerberos ticket as the IdM admin.

    [root@idmclient ~]# kinit admin
  2. Add the /opt/third-party-app/bin/report command to the IdM database of sudo commands:

    [root@idmclient ~]# ipa sudocmd-add /opt/third-party-app/bin/report
    ----------------------------------------------------
    Added Sudo Command "/opt/third-party-app/bin/report"
    ----------------------------------------------------
      Sudo Command: /opt/third-party-app/bin/report
  3. Create a sudo rule named run_third-party-app_report:

    [root@idmclient ~]# ipa sudorule-add run_third-party-app_report
    --------------------------------------------
    Added Sudo Rule "run_third-party-app_report"
    --------------------------------------------
      Rule name: run_third-party-app_report
      Enabled: TRUE
  4. Use the --users=<user> option to specify the RunAs user for the sudorule-add-runasuser command:

    [root@idmclient ~]# ipa sudorule-add-runasuser run_third-party-app_report --users=thirdpartyapp
      Rule name: run_third-party-app_report
      Enabled: TRUE
      RunAs External User: thirdpartyapp
    -------------------------
    Number of members added 1
    -------------------------

    The user (or group specified with the --groups=* option) can be external to IdM, such as a local service account or an Active Directory user. Do not add a % prefix for group names.

  5. Add the /opt/third-party-app/bin/report command to the run_third-party-app_report rule:

    [root@idmclient ~]# ipa sudorule-add-allow-command run_third-party-app_report --sudocmds '/opt/third-party-app/bin/report'
    Rule name: run_third-party-app_report
    Enabled: TRUE
    Sudo Allow Commands: /opt/third-party-app/bin/report
    RunAs External User: thirdpartyapp
    -------------------------
    Number of members added 1
    -------------------------
  6. Apply the run_third-party-app_report rule to the IdM idmclient host:

    [root@idmclient ~]# ipa sudorule-add-host run_third-party-app_report --hosts idmclient.idm.example.com
    Rule name: run_third-party-app_report
    Enabled: TRUE
    Hosts: idmclient.idm.example.com
    Sudo Allow Commands: /opt/third-party-app/bin/report
    RunAs External User: thirdpartyapp
    -------------------------
    Number of members added 1
    -------------------------
  7. Add the idm_user account to the run_third-party-app_report rule:

    [root@idmclient ~]# ipa sudorule-add-user run_third-party-app_report --users idm_user
    Rule name: run_third-party-app_report
    Enabled: TRUE
    Users: idm_user
    Hosts: idmclient.idm.example.com
    Sudo Allow Commands: /opt/third-party-app/bin/report
    RunAs External User: thirdpartyapp
    -------------------------
    Number of members added 1
Note

Propagating the changes from the server to the client can take a few minutes.

Verification steps

  1. Log in to the idmclient host as the idm_user account.
  2. Test the new sudo rule:

    1. Display which sudo rules the idm_user account is allowed to perform.

      [idm_user@idmclient ~]$ sudo -l
      Matching Defaults entries for idm_user@idm.example.com on idmclient:
          !visiblepw, always_set_home, match_group_by_gid, always_query_group_plugin,
          env_reset, env_keep="COLORS DISPLAY HOSTNAME HISTSIZE KDEDIR LS_COLORS",
          env_keep+="MAIL PS1 PS2 QTDIR USERNAME LANG LC_ADDRESS LC_CTYPE",
          env_keep+="LC_COLLATE LC_IDENTIFICATION LC_MEASUREMENT LC_MESSAGES",
          env_keep+="LC_MONETARY LC_NAME LC_NUMERIC LC_PAPER LC_TELEPHONE",
          env_keep+="LC_TIME LC_ALL LANGUAGE LINGUAS _XKB_CHARSET XAUTHORITY KRB5CCNAME",
          secure_path=/sbin\:/bin\:/usr/sbin\:/usr/bin
      
      User idm_user@idm.example.com may run the following commands on idmclient:
          (thirdpartyapp) /opt/third-party-app/bin/report
    2. Run the report command as the thirdpartyapp service account.

      [idm_user@idmclient ~]$ sudo -u thirdpartyapp /opt/third-party-app/bin/report
      [sudo] password for idm_user@idm.example.com:
      Executing report...
      Report successful.

8.6. Creating a sudo rule in the IdM WebUI that runs a command as a service account on an IdM client

In IdM, you can configure a sudo rule with a RunAs alias to run a sudo command as another user or group. For example, you might have an IdM client that hosts a database application, and you need to run commands as the local service account that corresponds to that application.

Use this example to create a sudo rule in the IdM WebUI called run_third-party-app_report to allow the idm_user account to run the /opt/third-party-app/bin/report command as the thirdpartyapp service account on the idmclient host.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in as IdM administrator.
  • You have created a user account for idm_user in IdM and unlocked the account by creating a password for the user. For details on adding a new IdM user using the CLI, see Adding users using the command line.
  • No local idm_user account is present on the idmclient host. The idm_user user is not listed in the local /etc/passwd file.
  • You have a custom application named third-party-app installed on the idmclient host.
  • The report command for the third-party-app application is installed in the /opt/third-party-app/bin/report directory.
  • You have created a local service account named thirdpartyapp to execute commands for the third-party-app application.

Procedure

  1. Add the /opt/third-party-app/bin/report command to the IdM database of sudo commands:

    1. Navigate to PolicySudoSudo Commands.
    2. Click Add in the upper right corner to open the Add sudo command dialog box.
    3. Enter the command: /opt/third-party-app/bin/report.

      A screenshot of a pop-up window labeled "Add sudo command." There is a required field labeled "Sudo command" with contents "/opt/third-party-app/bin/report". A "Description" field is empty. The bottom-right of the window has four buttons: "Add" - "Add and Add Another" - "Add and Edit" - "Cancel".
    4. Click Add.
  2. Use the new sudo command entry to create the new sudo rule:

    1. Navigate to PolicySudoSudo rules.
    2. Click Add in the upper right corner to open the Add sudo rule dialog box.
    3. Enter the name of the sudo rule: run_third-party-app_report.

      A screenshot of a pop-up window labeled "Add sudo rule." There is a required field labeled "Rule name" with contents "run_third-party-app_report". The bottom-right of the window has four buttons: "Add" - "Add and Add Another" - "Add and Edit" - "Cancel".
    4. Click Add and Edit.
    5. Specify the user:

      1. In the Who section, check the Specified Users and Groups radio button.
      2. In the User category the rule applies to subsection, click Add to open the Add users into sudo rule "run_third-party-app_report" dialog box.
      3. In the Add users into sudo rule "run_third-party-app_report" dialog box in the Available column, check the idm_user checkbox, and move it to the Prospective column.

        A screenshot of a pop-up window labeled "Add users into sudo rule." You can select users from an Available list on the left and move them to a Prospective column on the right. The bottom-right of the window has two buttons: "Add" - "Cancel".
      4. Click Add.
    6. Specify the host:

      1. In the Access this host section, check the Specified Hosts and Groups radio button.
      2. In the Host category this rule applies to subsection, click Add to open the Add hosts into sudo rule "run_third-party-app_report" dialog box.
      3. In the Add hosts into sudo rule "run_third-party-app_report" dialog box in the Available column, check the idmclient.idm.example.com checkbox, and move it to the Prospective column.

        A screenshot of a pop-up window labeled "Add hosts into sudo rule." You can select hosts from an Available list on the left and move them to a Prospective column on the right. The bottom-right of the window has two buttons: "Add" - "Cancel".
      4. Click Add.
    7. Specify the commands:

      1. In the Command category the rule applies to subsection of the Run Commands section, check the Specified Commands and Groups radio button.
      2. In the Sudo Allow Commands subsection, click Add to open the Add allow sudo commands into sudo rule "run_third-party-app_report" dialog box.
      3. In the Add allow sudo commands into sudo rule "run_third-party-app_report" dialog box in the Available column, check the /opt/third-party-app/bin/report checkbox, and move it to the Prospective column.

        A screenshot of a pop-up window labeled "Add allow sudo commands into sudo rule." You can select sudo commands from an Available list on the left and move them to a Prospective column on the right. The bottom-right of the window has two buttons: "Add" - "Cancel".
      4. Click Add to return to the run_third-party-app_report page.
    8. Specify the RunAs user:

      1. In the As Whom section, check the Specified Users and Groups radio button.
      2. In the RunAs Users subsection, click Add to open the Add RunAs users into sudo rule "run_third-party-app_report" dialog box.
      3. In the Add RunAs users into sudo rule "run_third-party-app_report" dialog box, enter the thirdpartyapp service account in the External box and move it to the Prospective column.

        A screenshot of a dialog box where you can specify the "thirdpartyapp" service account as an external user.
      4. Click Add to return to the run_third-party-app_report page.
    9. Click Save in the top left corner.

The new rule is enabled by default.

Figure 8.3. Details of the sudo rule

A screenshot of an overview of the sudo rule that was added. The "Who" section has an entry for "idm_user." The "Access this host" section has "idmclient.idm.example.com." The "Run Commands" section has the "/opt/third-party-app/bin/report" command. The "As Whom" section lists the "thirdpartyapp" account.
Note

Propagating the changes from the server to the client can take a few minutes.

Verification steps

  1. Log in to the idmclient host as the idm_user account.
  2. Test the new sudo rule:

    1. Display which sudo rules the idm_user account is allowed to perform.

      [idm_user@idmclient ~]$ sudo -l
      Matching Defaults entries for idm_user@idm.example.com on idmclient:
          !visiblepw, always_set_home, match_group_by_gid, always_query_group_plugin,
          env_reset, env_keep="COLORS DISPLAY HOSTNAME HISTSIZE KDEDIR LS_COLORS",
          env_keep+="MAIL PS1 PS2 QTDIR USERNAME LANG LC_ADDRESS LC_CTYPE",
          env_keep+="LC_COLLATE LC_IDENTIFICATION LC_MEASUREMENT LC_MESSAGES",
          env_keep+="LC_MONETARY LC_NAME LC_NUMERIC LC_PAPER LC_TELEPHONE",
          env_keep+="LC_TIME LC_ALL LANGUAGE LINGUAS _XKB_CHARSET XAUTHORITY KRB5CCNAME",
          secure_path=/sbin\:/bin\:/usr/sbin\:/usr/bin
      
      User idm_user@idm.example.com may run the following commands on idmclient:
          (thirdpartyapp) /opt/third-party-app/bin/report
    2. Run the report command as the thirdpartyapp service account.

      [idm_user@idmclient ~]$ sudo -u thirdpartyapp /opt/third-party-app/bin/report
      [sudo] password for idm_user@idm.example.com:
      Executing report...
      Report successful.

8.7. Enabling GSSAPI authentication for sudo on an IdM client

The following procedure describes enabling Generic Security Service Application Program Interface (GSSAPI) authentication on an IdM client for the sudo and sudo -i commands via the pam_sss_gss.so PAM module. With this configuration, IdM users can authenticate to the sudo command with their Kerberos ticket.

Prerequisites

  • You have created a sudo rule for an IdM user that applies to an IdM host. For this example, you have created the idm_user_reboot sudo rule to grant the idm_user account the permission to run the /usr/sbin/reboot command on the idmclient host.
  • The idmclient host is running RHEL 8.4 or later.
  • You need root privileges to modify the /etc/sssd/sssd.conf file and PAM files in the /etc/pam.d/ directory.

Procedure

  1. Open the /etc/sssd/sssd.conf configuration file.
  2. Add the following entry to the [domain/<domain_name>] section.

    [domain/<domain_name>]
    pam_gssapi_services = sudo, sudo-i
  3. Save and close the /etc/sssd/sssd.conf file.
  4. Restart the SSSD service to load the configuration changes.

    [root@idmclient ~]# systemctl restart sssd
  5. Open the /etc/pam.d/sudo PAM configuration file.
  6. Add the following entry as the first line of the auth section in the /etc/pam.d/sudo file.

    #%PAM-1.0
    auth sufficient pam_sss_gss.so
    auth       include      system-auth
    account    include      system-auth
    password   include      system-auth
    session    include      system-auth
  7. Save and close the /etc/pam.d/sudo file.
  8. Open the /etc/pam.d/sudo-i PAM configuration file.
  9. Add the following entry as the first line of the auth section in the /etc/pam.d/sudo-i file.

    #%PAM-1.0
    auth sufficient pam_sss_gss.so
    auth       include      sudo
    account    include      sudo
    password   include      sudo
    session    optional     pam_keyinit.so force revoke
    session    include      sudo
  10. Save and close the /etc/pam.d/sudo-i file.

Verification steps

  1. Log into the host as the idm_user account.

    [root@idm-client ~]# ssh -l idm_user@idm.example.com localhost
    idm_user@idm.example.com's password:
  2. Verify that you have a ticket-granting ticket as the idm_user account.

    [idmuser@idmclient ~]$ klist
    Ticket cache: KCM:1366201107
    Default principal: idm_user@IDM.EXAMPLE.COM
    
    Valid starting       Expires              Service principal
    01/08/2021 09:11:48  01/08/2021 19:11:48  krbtgt/IDM.EXAMPLE.COM@IDM.EXAMPLE.COM
    	renew until 01/15/2021 09:11:44
  3. (Optional) If you do not have Kerberos credentials for the idm_user account, destroy your current Kerberos credentials and request the correct ones.

    [idm_user@idmclient ~]$ kdestroy -A
    
    [idm_user@idmclient ~]$ kinit idm_user@IDM.EXAMPLE.COM
    Password for idm_user@idm.example.com:
  4. Reboot the machine using sudo, without specifying a password.

    [idm_user@idmclient ~]$ sudo /usr/sbin/reboot

8.8. Enabling GSSAPI authentication and enforcing Kerberos authentication indicators for sudo on an IdM client

The following procedure describes enabling Generic Security Service Application Program Interface (GSSAPI) authentication on an IdM client for the sudo and sudo -i commands via the pam_sss_gss.so PAM module. Additionally, only users who have logged in with a smart card will authenticate to those commands with their Kerberos ticket.

Note

You can use this procedure as a template to configure GSSAPI authentication with SSSD for other PAM-aware services, and further restrict access to only those users that have a specific authentication indicator attached to their Kerberos ticket.

Prerequisites

  • You have created a sudo rule for an IdM user that applies to an IdM host. For this example, you have created the idm_user_reboot sudo rule to grant the idm_user account the permission to run the /usr/sbin/reboot command on the idmclient host.
  • You have configured smart card authentication for the idmclient host.
  • The idmclient host is running RHEL 8.4 or later.
  • You need root privileges to modify the /etc/sssd/sssd.conf file and PAM files in the /etc/pam.d/ directory.

Procedure

  1. Open the /etc/sssd/sssd.conf configuration file.
  2. Add the following entries to the [domain/<domain_name>] section.

    [domain/<domain_name>]
    pam_gssapi_services = sudo, sudo-i
    pam_gssapi_indicators_map = sudo:pkinit, sudo-i:pkinit
  3. Save and close the /etc/sssd/sssd.conf file.
  4. Restart the SSSD service to load the configuration changes.

    [root@idmclient ~]# systemctl restart sssd
  5. Open the /etc/pam.d/sudo PAM configuration file.
  6. Add the following entry as the first line of the auth section in the /etc/pam.d/sudo file.

    #%PAM-1.0
    auth sufficient pam_sss_gss.so
    auth       include      system-auth
    account    include      system-auth
    password   include      system-auth
    session    include      system-auth
  7. Save and close the /etc/pam.d/sudo file.
  8. Open the /etc/pam.d/sudo-i PAM configuration file.
  9. Add the following entry as the first line of the auth section in the /etc/pam.d/sudo-i file.

    #%PAM-1.0
    auth sufficient pam_sss_gss.so
    auth       include      sudo
    account    include      sudo
    password   include      sudo
    session    optional     pam_keyinit.so force revoke
    session    include      sudo
  10. Save and close the /etc/pam.d/sudo-i file.

Verification steps

  1. Log into the host as the idm_user account and authenticate with a smart card.

    [root@idmclient ~]# ssh -l idm_user@idm.example.com localhost
    PIN for smart_card
  2. Verify that you have a ticket-granting ticket as the smart card user.

    [idm_user@idmclient ~]$ klist
    Ticket cache: KEYRING:persistent:1358900015:krb_cache_TObtNMd
    Default principal: idm_user@IDM.EXAMPLE.COM
    
    Valid starting       Expires              Service principal
    02/15/2021 16:29:48  02/16/2021 02:29:48  krbtgt/IDM.EXAMPLE.COM@IDM.EXAMPLE.COM
    	renew until 02/22/2021 16:29:44
  3. Display which sudo rules the idm_user account is allowed to perform.

    [idm_user@idmclient ~]$ sudo -l
    Matching Defaults entries for idmuser on idmclient:
        !visiblepw, always_set_home, match_group_by_gid, always_query_group_plugin,
        env_reset, env_keep="COLORS DISPLAY HOSTNAME HISTSIZE KDEDIR LS_COLORS",
        env_keep+="MAIL PS1 PS2 QTDIR USERNAME LANG LC_ADDRESS LC_CTYPE",
        env_keep+="LC_COLLATE LC_IDENTIFICATION LC_MEASUREMENT LC_MESSAGES",
        env_keep+="LC_MONETARY LC_NAME LC_NUMERIC LC_PAPER LC_TELEPHONE",
        env_keep+="LC_TIME LC_ALL LANGUAGE LINGUAS _XKB_CHARSET XAUTHORITY KRB5CCNAME",
        secure_path=/sbin\:/bin\:/usr/sbin\:/usr/bin
    
    User idm_user may run the following commands on idmclient:
        (root) /usr/sbin/reboot
  4. Reboot the machine using sudo, without specifying a password.

    [idm_user@idmclient ~]$ sudo /usr/sbin/reboot

8.9. SSSD options controlling GSSAPI authentication for PAM services

You can use the following options for the /etc/sssd/sssd.conf configuration file to adjust the GSSAPI configuration within the SSSD service.

pam_gssapi_services
GSSAPI authentication with SSSD is disabled by default. You can use this option to specify a comma-separated list of PAM services that are allowed to try GSSAPI authentication using the pam_sss_gss.so PAM module. To explicitly disable GSSAPI authentication, set this option to -.
pam_gssapi_indicators_map

This option only applies to Identity Management (IdM) domains. Use this option to list Kerberos authentication indicators that are required to grant PAM access to a service. Pairs must be in the format <PAM_service>:_<required_authentication_indicator>_.

Valid authentication indicators are:

  • otp for two-factor authentication
  • radius for RADIUS authentication
  • pkinit for PKINIT, smart card, or certificate authentication
  • hardened for hardened passwords
pam_gssapi_check_upn
This option is enabled and set to true by default. If this option is enabled, the SSSD service requires that the user name matches the Kerberos credentials. If false, the pam_sss_gss.so PAM module authenticates every user that is able to obtain the required service ticket.

Examples

The following options enable Kerberos authentication for the sudo and sudo-i services, requires that sudo users authenticated with a one-time password, and user names must match the Kerberos principal. Because these settings are in the [pam] section, they apply to all domains:

[pam]
pam_gssapi_services = sudo, sudo-i
pam_gssapi_indicators_map = sudo:otp
pam_gssapi_check_upn = true

You can also set these options in individual [domain] sections to overwrite any global values in the [pam] section. The following options apply different GSSAPI settings to each domain:

For the idm.example.com domain
  • Enable GSSAPI authentication for the sudo and sudo -i services.
  • Require certificate or smart card authentication authenticators for the sudo command.
  • Require one-time password authentication authenticators for the sudo -i command.
  • Enforce matching user names and Kerberos principals.
For the ad.example.com domain
  • Enable GSSAPI authentication only for the sudo service.
  • Do not enforce matching user names and principals.
[domain/idm.example.com]
pam_gssapi_services = sudo, sudo-i
pam_gssapi_indicators_map = sudo:pkinit, sudo-i:otp
pam_gssapi_check_upn = true
...

[domain/ad.example.com]
pam_gssapi_services = sudo
pam_gssapi_check_upn = false
...

8.10. Troubleshooting GSSAPI authentication for sudo

If you are unable to authenticate to the sudo service with a Kerberos ticket from IdM, use the following scenarios to troubleshoot your configuration.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  • If you see the following error, the Kerberos service might not able to resolve the correct realm for the service ticket based on the host name:

    Server not found in Kerberos database

    In this situation, add the hostname directly to [domain_realm] section in the /etc/krb5.conf Kerberos configuration file:

    [idm-user@idm-client ~]$ cat /etc/krb5.conf
    ...
    
    [domain_realm]
     .example.com = EXAMPLE.COM
     example.com = EXAMPLE.COM
     server.example.com = EXAMPLE.COM
  • If you see the following error, you do not have any Kerberos credentials:

    No Kerberos credentials available

    In this situation, retrieve Kerberos credentials with the kinit utility or authenticate with SSSD:

    [idm-user@idm-client ~]$ kinit idm-user@IDM.EXAMPLE.COM
    Password for idm-user@idm.example.com:
  • If you see either of the following errors in the /var/log/sssd/sssd_pam.log log file, the Kerberos credentials do not match the username of the user currently logged in:

    User with UPN [<UPN>] was not found.
    
    UPN [<UPN>] does not match target user [<username>].

    In this situation, verify that you authenticated with SSSD, or consider disabling the pam_gssapi_check_upn option in the /etc/sssd/sssd.conf file:

    [idm-user@idm-client ~]$ cat /etc/sssd/sssd.conf
    ...
    
    pam_gssapi_check_upn = false
  • For additional troubleshooting, you can enable debugging output for the pam_sss_gss.so PAM module.

    • Add the debug option at the end of all pam_sss_gss.so entries in PAM files, such as /etc/pam.d/sudo and /etc/pam.d/sudo-i:

      [root@idm-client ~]# cat /etc/pam.d/sudo
      #%PAM-1.0
      auth       sufficient   pam_sss_gss.so   debug
      auth       include      system-auth
      account    include      system-auth
      password   include      system-auth
      session    include      system-auth
      [root@idm-client ~]# cat /etc/pam.d/sudo-i
      #%PAM-1.0
      auth       sufficient   pam_sss_gss.so   debug
      auth       include      sudo
      account    include      sudo
      password   include      sudo
      session    optional     pam_keyinit.so force revoke
      session    include      sudo
    • Try to authenticate with the pam_sss_gss.so module and review the console output. In this example, the user did not have any Kerberos credentials.

      [idm-user@idm-client ~]$ sudo ls -l /etc/sssd/sssd.conf
      pam_sss_gss: Initializing GSSAPI authentication with SSSD
      pam_sss_gss: Switching euid from 0 to 1366201107
      pam_sss_gss: Trying to establish security context
      pam_sss_gss: SSSD User name: idm-user@idm.example.com
      pam_sss_gss: User domain: idm.example.com
      pam_sss_gss: User principal:
      pam_sss_gss: Target name: host@idm.example.com
      pam_sss_gss: Using ccache: KCM:
      pam_sss_gss: Acquiring credentials, principal name will be derived
      pam_sss_gss: Unable to read credentials from [KCM:] [maj:0xd0000, min:0x96c73ac3]
      pam_sss_gss: GSSAPI: Unspecified GSS failure.  Minor code may provide more information
      pam_sss_gss: GSSAPI: No credentials cache found
      pam_sss_gss: Switching euid from 1366200907 to 0
      pam_sss_gss: System error [5]: Input/output error

8.11. Using an Ansible playbook to ensure sudo access for an IdM user on an IdM client

In Identity Management (IdM), you can ensure sudo access to a specific command is granted to an IdM user account on a specific IdM host.

Complete this procedure to ensure a sudo rule named idm_user_reboot exists. The rule grants idm_user the permission to run the /usr/sbin/reboot command on the idmclient machine.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Create an inventory file, for example inventory.file, and define ipaservers in it:

    [ipaservers]
    server.idm.example.com
  2. Add one or more sudo commands:

    1. Create an ensure-reboot-sudocmd-is-present.yml Ansible playbook that ensures the presence of the /usr/sbin/reboot command in the IdM database of sudo commands. To simplify this step, you can copy and modify the example in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/sudocmd/ensure-sudocmd-is-present.yml file:

      ---
      - name: Playbook to manage sudo command
        hosts: ipaserver
        become: true
      
        tasks:
        # Ensure sudo command is present
        - ipasudocmd:
            ipaadmin_password: MySecret123
            name: /usr/sbin/reboot
            state: present
    2. Run the playbook:

      $ ansible-playbook -v -i path_to_inventory_directory/inventory.file path_to_playbooks_directory/ensure-reboot-sudocmd-is-present.yml
  3. Create a sudo rule that references the commands:

    1. Create an ensure-sudorule-for-idmuser-on-idmclient-is-present.yml Ansible playbook that uses the sudo command entry to ensure the presence of a sudo rule. The sudo rule allows idm_user to reboot the idmclient machine. To simplify this step, you can copy and modify the example in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/sudorule/ensure-sudorule-is-present.yml file:

      ---
      - name: Tests
        hosts: ipaserver
        become: true
      
        tasks:
        # Ensure a sudorule is present granting idm_user the permission to run /usr/sbin/reboot on idmclient
        - ipasudorule:
            ipaadmin_password: MySecret123
            name: idm_user_reboot
            description: A test sudo rule.
            allow_sudocmd: /usr/sbin/reboot
            host: idmclient.idm.example.com
            user: idm_user
            state: present
    2. Run the playbook:

      $ ansible-playbook -v -i path_to_inventory_directory/inventory.file path_to_playbooks_directory/ensure-sudorule-for-idmuser-on-idmclient-is-present.yml

Verification steps

Test that the sudo rule whose presence you have ensured on the IdM server works on idmclient by verifying that idm_user can reboot idmclient using sudo. Note that it can take a few minutes for the changes made on the server to take effect on the client.

  1. Log in to idmclient as idm_user.
  2. Reboot the machine using sudo. Enter the password for idm_user when prompted:

    $ sudo /usr/sbin/reboot
    [sudo] password for idm_user:

If sudo is configured correctly, the machine reboots.

Additional resources

  • See the README-sudocmd.md, README-sudocmdgroup.md, and README-sudorule.md files in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/ directory.

Chapter 9. Using ldapmodify to manage IdM users externally

As an IdM administrators you can use the ipa commands to manage your directory content. Alternatively, you can use the ldapmodify command to achieve similar goals. You can use this command interactively and provide all the data directly in the command line. You also can provide data in the file in the LDAP Data Interchange Format (LDIF) to ldapmodify command.

9.1. Templates for managing IdM user accounts externally

This section describes templates for various user management operations in IdM. The templates show which attributes you must modify using ldapmodify to achieve the following goals:

  • Adding a new stage user
  • Modifying a user’s attribute
  • Enabling a user
  • Disabling a user
  • Preserving a user

The templates are formatted in the LDAP Data Interchange Format (LDIF). LDIF is a standard plain text data interchange format for representing LDAP directory content and update requests.

Using the templates, you can configure the LDAP provider of your provisioning system to manage IdM user accounts.

For detailed example procedures, see the following sections:

Templates for adding a new stage user

  • A template for adding a user with UID and GID assigned automatically. The distinguished name (DN) of the created entry must start with uid=user_login:

    dn: uid=user_login,cn=staged users,cn=accounts,cn=provisioning,dc=idm,dc=example,dc=com
    changetype: add
    objectClass: top
    objectClass: inetorgperson
    uid: user_login
    sn: surname
    givenName: first_name
    cn: full_name
  • A template for adding a user with UID and GID assigned statically:

    dn: uid=user_login,cn=staged users,cn=accounts,cn=provisioning,dc=idm,dc=example,dc=com
    changetype: add
    objectClass: top
    objectClass: person
    objectClass: inetorgperson
    objectClass: organizationalperson
    objectClass: posixaccount
    uid: user_login
    uidNumber: UID_number
    gidNumber: GID_number
    sn: surname
    givenName: first_name
    cn: full_name
    homeDirectory: /home/user_login

    You are not required to specify any IdM object classes when adding stage users. IdM adds these classes automatically after the users are activated.

Templates for modifying existing users

  • Modifying a user’s attribute:

    dn: distinguished_name
    changetype: modify
    replace: attribute_to_modify
    attribute_to_modify: new_value
  • Disabling a user:

    dn: distinguished_name
    changetype: modify
    replace: nsAccountLock
    nsAccountLock: TRUE
  • Enabling a user:

    dn: distinguished_name
    changetype: modify
    replace: nsAccountLock
    nsAccountLock: FALSE

    Updating the nssAccountLock attribute has no effect on stage and preserved users. Even though the update operation completes successfully, the attribute value remains nssAccountLock: TRUE.

  • Preserving a user:

    dn: distinguished_name
    changetype: modrdn
    newrdn: uid=user_login
    deleteoldrdn: 0
    newsuperior: cn=deleted users,cn=accounts,cn=provisioning,dc=idm,dc=example,dc=com
Note

Before modifying a user, obtain the user’s distinguished name (DN) by searching using the user’s login. In the following example, the user_allowed_to_modify_user_entries user is a user allowed to modify user and group information, for example activator or IdM administrator. The password in the example is this user’s password:

[...]
# ldapsearch -LLL -x -D "uid=user_allowed_to_modify_user_entries,cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=idm,dc=example,dc=com" -w "Secret123" -H ldap://r8server.idm.example.com -b "cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=idm,dc=example,dc=com" uid=test_user
dn: uid=test_user,cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=idm,dc=example,dc=com
memberOf: cn=ipausers,cn=groups,cn=accounts,dc=idm,dc=example,dc=com

9.2. Templates for managing IdM group accounts externally

This section describes templates for various user group management operations in IdM. The templates show which attributes you must modify using ldapmodify to achieve the following aims:

  • Creating a new group
  • Deleting an existing group
  • Adding a member to a group
  • Removing a member from a group

The templates are formatted in the LDAP Data Interchange Format (LDIF). LDIF is a standard plain text data interchange format for representing LDAP directory content and update requests.

Using the templates, you can configure the LDAP provider of your provisioning system to manage IdM group accounts.

Creating a new group

dn: cn=group_name,cn=groups,cn=accounts,dc=idm,dc=example,dc=com
changetype: add
objectClass: top
objectClass: ipaobject
objectClass: ipausergroup
objectClass: groupofnames
objectClass: nestedgroup
objectClass: posixgroup
uid: group_name
cn: group_name
gidNumber: GID_number

Modifying groups

  • Deleting an existing group:

    dn: group_distinguished_name
    changetype: delete
  • Adding a member to a group:

    dn: group_distinguished_name
    changetype: modify
    add: member
    member: uid=user_login,cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=idm,dc=example,dc=com

    Do not add stage or preserved users to groups. Even though the update operation completes successfully, the users will not be updated as members of the group. Only active users can belong to groups.

  • Removing a member from a group:

    dn: distinguished_name
    changetype: modify
    delete: member
    member: uid=user_login,cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=idm,dc=example,dc=com
Note

Before modifying a group, obtain the group’s distinguished name (DN) by searching using the group’s name.

# ldapsearch -YGSSAPI -H ldap://server.idm.example.com -b "cn=groups,cn=accounts,dc=idm,dc=example,dc=com" "cn=group_name"
dn: cn=group_name,cn=groups,cn=accounts,dc=idm,dc=example,dc=com
ipaNTSecurityIdentifier: S-1-5-21-1650388524-2605035987-2578146103-11017
cn: testgroup
objectClass: top
objectClass: groupofnames
objectClass: nestedgroup
objectClass: ipausergroup
objectClass: ipaobject
objectClass: posixgroup
objectClass: ipantgroupattrs
ipaUniqueID: 569bf864-9d45-11ea-bea3-525400f6f085
gidNumber: 1997010017

9.3. Using ldapmodify command interactively

You can modify Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) entries in the interactive mode.

Procedure

  1. In a command line, enter the LDAP Data Interchange Format (LDIF) statement after the ldapmodify command.

    Example 9.1. Changing the telephone number for a testuser

    # ldapmodify -Y GSSAPI -H ldap://server.example.com
    dn: uid=testuser,cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=example,dc=com
    changetype: modify
    replace: telephoneNumber
    telephonenumber: 88888888

    Note that you need to obtain a Kerberos ticket for using -Y option.

  2. Press Ctlr+D to exit the interactive mode.
  3. Alternatively, provide an LDIF file after ldapmodify command:

    Example 9.2. The ldapmodify command reads modification data from an LDIF file

    # ldapmodify -Y GSSAPI -H ldap://server.example.com -f ~/example.ldif

Additional resources

  • For more information on how to use the ldapmodify command see ldapmodify(1) man page.
  • For more information on the LDIF structure, see ldif(5) man page.

9.4. Preserving an IdM user with ldapmodify

This section describes how to use ldapmodify to preserve an IdM user; that is, how to deactivate a user account after the employee has left the company.

Prerequisites

  • You can authenticate as an IdM user with a role to preserve users.

Procedure

  1. Log in as an IdM user with a role to preserve users:

    $ kinit admin
  2. Enter the ldapmodify command and specify the Generic Security Services API (GSSAPI) as the Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL) mechanism to be used for authentication:

    # ldapmodify -Y GSSAPI
    SASL/GSSAPI authentication started
    SASL username: admin@IDM.EXAMPLE.COM
    SASL SSF: 256
    SASL data security layer installed.
  3. Enter the dn of the user you want to preserve:

    dn: uid=user1,cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=idm,dc=example,dc=com
  4. Enter modrdn as the type of change you want to perform:

    changetype: modrdn
  5. Specify the newrdn for the user:

    newrdn: uid=user1
  6. Indicate that you want to preserve the user:

    deleteoldrdn: 0
  7. Specify the new superior DN:

    newsuperior: cn=deleted users,cn=accounts,cn=provisioning,dc=idm,dc=example,dc=com

    Preserving a user moves the entry to a new location in the directory information tree (DIT). For this reason, you must specify the DN of the new parent entry as the new superior DN.

  8. Press Enter again to confirm that this is the end of the entry:

    [Enter]
    
    modifying rdn of entry "uid=user1,cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=idm,dc=example,dc=com"
  9. Exit the connection using Ctrl + C.

Verification steps

  • Verify that the user has been preserved by listing all preserved users:

    $ ipa user-find --preserved=true
    --------------
    1 user matched
    --------------
      User login: user1
      First name: First 1
      Last name: Last 1
      Home directory: /home/user1
      Login shell: /bin/sh
      Principal name: user1@IDM.EXAMPLE.COM
      Principal alias: user1@IDM.EXAMPLE.COM
      Email address: user1@idm.example.com
      UID: 1997010003
      GID: 1997010003
      Account disabled: True
      Preserved user: True
    ----------------------------
    Number of entries returned 1
    ----------------------------

Chapter 10. Searching IdM entries using the ldapsearch command

You can use the ipa find command to search through the Identity Management entries. For more information on ipa command see Structure of IPA commands section.

This section introduces the basics of an alternative search option using ldapsearch command line command through the Identity Management entries.

10.1. Using the ldapsearch command

The ldapsearch command has the following format:

# ldapsearch [-x | -Y mechanism] [options] [search_filter] [list_of_attributes]
  • To configure the authentication method, specify the -x option to use simple binds or the -Y option to set the Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL) mechanism. Note that you need to obtain a Kerberos ticket if you are using the -Y GSSAPI option.
  • The options are the ldapsearch command options described in a table below.
  • The search_filter is an LDAP search filter.
  • The list_of_attributes is a list of the attributes that the search results return.

For example, you want to search all the entries of a base LDAP tree for the user name user01:

# ldapsearch -x -H ldap://ldap.example.com -s sub "(uid=user01)"
  • The -x option tells the ldapsearch command to authenticate with the simple bind. Note that if you do not provide the Distinguish Name (DN) with the -D option, the authentication is anonymous.
  • The -H option connects you to the ldap://ldap.example.com.
  • The -s sub option tells the ldapsearch command to search all the entries, starting from the base DN, for the user with the name user01. The "(uid=user01)" is a filter.

Note that if you do not provide the starting point for the search with the -b option, the command searches in the default tree. It is specified in the BASE parameter of the etc/openldap/ldap.conf file.

Table 10.1. The ldapsearch command options

OptionDescription

-b

The starting point for the search. If your search parameters contain an asterisk (*) or other character, that the command line can interpret into a code, you must wrap the value in single or double quotation marks. For example, -b cn=user,ou=Product Development,dc=example,dc=com.

-D

The Distinguished Name (DN) with which you want to authenticate.

-H

An LDAP URL to connect to the server. The -H option replaces the -h and -p options.

-l

The time limit in seconds to wait for a search request to complete.

-s scope

The scope of the search. You can choose one of the following for the scope:

  • base searches only the entry from the -b option or defined by the LDAP_BASEDN environment variable.
  • one searches only the children of the entry from the -b option.
  • sub a subtree search from the -b option starting point.

-W

Requests for the password.

-x

Disables the default SASL connection to allow simple binds.

-Y SASL_mechanism

Sets the SASL mechanism for the authentication.

-z number

The maximum number of entries in the search result.

Note, you must specify one of the authentication mechanisms with the -x or -Y option with the ldapsearch command.

Additional resources

  • For details on how to use ldapsearch, see ldapsearch(1) man page.

10.2. Using the ldapsearch filters

The ldapsearch filters allow you to narrow down the search results.

For example, you want the search result to contain all the entries with a common names set to example:

"(cn=example)"

In this case, the equal sign (=) is the operator, and example is the value.

Table 10.2. The ldapsearch filter operators

Search typeOperatorDescription

Equality

=

Returns the entries with the exact match to the value. For example, cn=example.

Substring

=string* string

Returns all entries with the substring match. For example, cn=exa*l. The asterisk (*) indicates zero (0) or more characters.

Greater than or equal to

>=

Returns all entries with attributes that are greater than or equal to the value. For example, uidNumber >= 5000.

Less than or equal to

<=

Returns all entries with attributes that are less than or equal to the value. For example, uidNumber <= 5000.

Presence

=*

Returns all entries with one or more attributes. For example, cn=*.

Approximate

~=

Returns all entries with the similar to the value attributes. For example, l~=san fransico can return l=san francisco.

You can use boolean operators to combine multiple filters to the ldapsearch command.

Table 10.3. The ldapsearch filter boolean operators

Search typeOperatorDescription

AND

&

Returns all entries where all statements in the filters are true. For example, (&(filter)(filter)(filter)…​).

OR

|

Returns all entries where at least one statement in the filters is true. For example, (|(filter)(filter)(filter)…​).

NOT

!

Returns all entries where the statement in the filter is not true. For example, (!(filter)).

Chapter 11. Configuring IdM for external provisioning of users

As a system administrator, you can configure Identity Management (IdM) to support the provisioning of users by an external solution for managing identities.

Rather than use the ipa utility, the administrator of the external provisioning system can access the IdM LDAP using the ldapmodify utility. The administrator can add individual stage users from the CLI using ldapmodify or using an LDIF file.

The assumption is that you, as an IdM administrator, fully trust your external provisioning system to only add validated users. However, at the same time you do not want to assign the administrators of the external provisioning system the IdM role of User Administrator to enable them to add new active users directly.

You can configure a script to automatically move the staged users created by the external provisioning system to active users automatically.

This chapter contains these sections:

  1. Preparing Identity Management (IdM) to use an external provisioning system to add stage users to IdM.
  2. Creating a script to move the users added by the external provisioning system from stage to active users.
  3. Using an external provisioning system to add an IdM stage user. You can do that in two ways:

11.1. Preparing IdM accounts for automatic activation of stage user accounts

This procedure shows how to configure two IdM user accounts to be used by an external provisioning system. By adding the accounts to a group with an appropriate password policy, you enable the external provisioning system to manage user provisioning in IdM. In the following, the user account to be used by the external system to add stage users is named provisionator. The user account to be used to automatically activate the stage users is named activator.

Prerequisites

  • The host on which you perform the procedure is enrolled into IdM.

Procedure

  1. Log in as IdM administrator:

    $ kinit admin
  2. Create a user named provisionator with the privileges to add stage users.

    1. Add the provisionator user account:
    $ ipa user-add provisionator --first=provisioning --last=account --password
    1. Grant the provisionator user the required privileges.

      1. Create a custom role, System Provisioning, to manage adding stage users:

        $ ipa role-add --desc "Responsible for provisioning stage users" "System Provisioning"
      2. Add the Stage User Provisioning privilege to the role. This privilege provides the ability to add stage users:

        $ ipa role-add-privilege "System Provisioning" --privileges="Stage User Provisioning"
      3. Add the provisionator user to the role:

        $ ipa role-add-member --users=provisionator "System Provisioning"
      4. Verify that the provisionator exists in IdM:
      $ ipa user-find provisionator --all --raw
      --------------
      1 user matched
      --------------
        dn: uid=provisionator,cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=idm,dc=example,dc=com
        uid: provisionator
        [...]
  3. Create a user, activator, with the privileges to manage user accounts.

    1. Add the activator user account:

      $ ipa user-add activator --first=activation --last=account --password
    2. Grant the activator user the required privileges by adding the user to the default User Administrator role:

      $ ipa role-add-member --users=activator "User Administrator"
  4. Create a user group for application accounts:

    $ ipa group-add application-accounts
  5. Update the password policy for the group. The following policy prevents password expiration and lockout for the account but compensates the potential risks by requiring complex passwords:

    $ ipa pwpolicy-add application-accounts --maxlife=10000 --minlife=0 --history=0 --minclasses=4 --minlength=8 --priority=1 --maxfail=0 --failinterval=1 --lockouttime=0
  6. (Optional) Verify that the password policy exists in IdM:

    $ ipa pwpolicy-show application-accounts
      Group: application-accounts
      Max lifetime (days): 10000
      Min lifetime (hours): 0
      History size: 0
    [...]
  7. Add the provisioning and activation accounts to the group for application accounts:

    $ ipa group-add-member application-accounts --users={provisionator,activator}
  8. Change the passwords for the user accounts:

    $ kpasswd provisionator
    $ kpasswd activator

    Changing the passwords is necessary because new IdM users passwords expire immediately.

11.2. Configuring automatic activation of IdM stage user accounts

This procedure shows how to create a script for activating stage users. The system runs the script automatically at specified time intervals. This ensures that new user accounts are automatically activated and available for use shortly after they are created.

Important

The procedure assumes that the owner of the external provisioning system has already validated the users and that they do not require additional validation on the IdM side before the script adds them to IdM.

It is sufficient to enable the activation process on only one of your IdM servers.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Generate a keytab file for the activation account:

    # ipa-getkeytab -s server.idm.example.com -p "activator" -k /etc/krb5.ipa-activation.keytab

    If you want to enable the activation process on more than one IdM server, generate the keytab file on one server only. Then copy the keytab file to the other servers.

  2. Create a script, /usr/local/sbin/ipa-activate-all, with the following contents to activate all users:

    #!/bin/bash
    
    kinit -k -i activator
    
    ipa stageuser-find --all --raw | grep "  uid:" | cut -d ":" -f 2 | while read uid; do ipa stageuser-activate ${uid}; done
  3. Edit the permissions and ownership of the ipa-activate-all script to make it executable:

    # chmod 755 /usr/local/sbin/ipa-activate-all
    # chown root:root /usr/local/sbin/ipa-activate-all
  4. Create a systemd unit file, /etc/systemd/system/ipa-activate-all.service, with the following contents:

    [Unit]
    Description=Scan IdM every minute for any stage users that must be activated
    
    [Service]
    Environment=KRB5_CLIENT_KTNAME=/etc/krb5.ipa-activation.keytab
    Environment=KRB5CCNAME=FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_ipa-activate-all
    ExecStart=/usr/local/sbin/ipa-activate-all
  5. Create a systemd timer, /etc/systemd/system/ipa-activate-all.timer, with the following contents:

    [Unit]
    Description=Scan IdM every minute for any stage users that must be activated
    
    [Timer]
    OnBootSec=15min
    OnUnitActiveSec=1min
    
    [Install]
    WantedBy=multi-user.target
  6. Reload the new configuration:

    # systemctl daemon-reload
  7. Enable ipa-activate-all.timer:

    # systemctl enable ipa-activate-all.timer
  8. Start ipa-activate-all.timer:

    # systemctl start ipa-activate-all.timer
  9. (Optional) Verify that the ipa-activate-all.timer daemon is running:

    # systemctl status ipa-activate-all.timer
    ● ipa-activate-all.timer - Scan IdM every minute for any stage users that must be activated
       Loaded: loaded (/etc/systemd/system/ipa-activate-all.timer; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
       Active: active (waiting) since Wed 2020-06-10 16:34:55 CEST; 15s ago
      Trigger: Wed 2020-06-10 16:35:55 CEST; 44s left
    
    Jun 10 16:34:55 server.idm.example.com systemd[1]: Started Scan IdM every minute for any stage users that must be activated.

11.3. Adding an IdM stage user defined in an LDIF file

This section describes how an administrator of an external provisioning system can access IdM LDAP and use an LDIF file to add stage users. While the example below shows adding one single user, multiple users can be added in one file in bulk mode.

Prerequisites

  • IdM administrator has created the provisionator account and a password for it. For details, see Preparing IdM accounts for automatic activation of stage user accounts.
  • You as the external administrator know the password of the provisionator account.
  • You can SSH to the IdM server from your LDAP server.
  • You are able to supply the minimal set of attributes that an IdM stage user must have to allow the correct processing of the user life cycle, namely:

    • The distinguished name (dn)
    • The common name (cn)
    • The last name (sn)
    • The uid

Procedure

  1. On the external server, create an LDIF file that contains information about the new user:

    dn: uid=stageidmuser,cn=staged users,cn=accounts,cn=provisioning,dc=idm,dc=example,dc=com
    changetype: add
    objectClass: top
    objectClass: inetorgperson
    uid: stageidmuser
    sn: surname
    givenName: first_name
    cn: full_name
  2. Transfer the LDIF file from the external server to the IdM server:

    $ scp add-stageidmuser.ldif provisionator@server.idm.example.com:/provisionator/
    Password:
    add-stageidmuser.ldif                                                                                          100%  364   217.6KB/s   00:00
  3. Use the SSH protocol to connect to the IdM server as provisionator:

    $ ssh provisionator@server.idm.example.com
    Password:
    [provisionator@server ~]$
  4. On the IdM server, obtain the Kerberos ticket-granting ticket (TGT) for the provisionator account:

    [provisionator@server ~]$ kinit provisionator
  5. Enter the ldapadd command with the -f option and the name of the LDIF file. Specify the name of the IdM server and the port number:

    ~]$ ldapadd -h server.idm.example.com -p 389 -f  add-stageidmuser.ldif
    SASL/GSSAPI authentication started
    SASL username: provisionator@IDM.EXAMPLE.COM
    SASL SSF: 256
    SASL data security layer installed.
    adding the entry "uid=stageidmuser,cn=staged users,cn=accounts,cn=provisioning,dc=idm,dc=example,dc=com"

11.4. Adding an IdM stage user directly from the CLI using ldapmodify

This section describes how an administrator of an external provisioning system can access the Identity Management (IdM) LDAP and use the ldapmodify utility to add a stage user.

Prerequisites

  • The IdM administrator has created the provisionator account and a password for it. For details, see Preparing IdM accounts for automatic activation of stage user accounts.
  • You as the external administrator know the password of the provisionator account.
  • You can SSH to the IdM server from your LDAP server.
  • You are able to supply the minimal set of attributes that an IdM stage user must have to allow the correct processing of the user life cycle, namely:

    • The distinguished name (dn)
    • The common name (cn)
    • The last name (sn)
    • The uid

Procedure

  1. Use the SSH protocol to connect to the IdM server using your IdM identity and credentials:

    $ ssh provisionator@server.idm.example.com
    Password:
    [provisionator@server ~]$
  2. Obtain the TGT of the provisionator account, an IdM user with a role to add new stage users:

    $ kinit provisionator
  3. Enter the ldapmodify command and specify Generic Security Services API (GSSAPI) as the Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL) mechanism to use for authentication. Specify the name of the IdM server and the port:

    # ldapmodify -h server.idm.example.com -p 389 -Y GSSAPI
    SASL/GSSAPI authentication started
    SASL username: provisionator@IDM.EXAMPLE.COM
    SASL SSF: 56
    SASL data security layer installed.
  4. Enter the dn of the user you are adding:

    dn: uid=stageuser,cn=staged users,cn=accounts,cn=provisioning,dc=idm,dc=example,dc=com
  5. Enter add as the type of change you are performing:

    changetype: add
  6. Specify the LDAP object class categories required to allow the correct processing of the user life cycle:

    objectClass: top
    objectClass: inetorgperson

    You can specify additional object classes.

  7. Enter the uid of the user:

    uid: stageuser
  8. Enter the cn of the user:

    cn: Babs Jensen
  9. Enter the last name of the user:

    sn: Jensen
  10. Press Enter again to confirm that this is the end of the entry:

    [Enter]
    
    adding new entry "uid=stageuser,cn=staged users,cn=accounts,cn=provisioning,dc=idm,dc=example,dc=com"
  11. Exit the connection using Ctrl + C.

Verification steps

Verify the contents of the stage entry to make sure your provisioning system added all required POSIX attributes and the stage entry is ready to be activated.

  • To display the new stage user’s LDAP attributes, enter the ipa stageuser-show --all --raw command:

    $ ipa stageuser-show stageuser --all --raw
      dn: uid=stageuser,cn=staged users,cn=accounts,cn=provisioning,dc=idm,dc=example,dc=com
      uid: stageuser
      sn: Jensen
      cn: Babs Jensen
      has_password: FALSE
      has_keytab: FALSE
      nsaccountlock: TRUE
      objectClass: top
      objectClass: inetorgperson
      objectClass: organizationalPerson
      objectClass: person
    1. Note that the user is explicitly disabled by the nsaccountlock attribute.

11.5. Additional resources

Chapter 12. Strengthening Kerberos security with PAC information

The following sections explain how Identity Management (IdM) works with Privilege Attribute Certificate (PAC) information by default since RHEL 8.5. Also, you can enable Security Identifiers (SIDs) in IdM deployments that were installed before RHEL 8.5.

12.1. Privilege Attribute Certificate (PAC) use in IdM

To increase security, RHEL Identity Management (IdM) now issues Kerberos tickets with Privilege Attribute Certificate (PAC) information by default in new deployments. A PAC has rich information about a Kerberos principal, including its Security Identifier (SID), group memberships, and home directory information.

SIDs, which Microsoft Active Directory (AD) uses by default, are globally unique identifiers that are never reused. SIDs express multiple namespaces: each domain has a SID, which is a prefix in the SID of each object.

Starting from RHEL 8.5, when you install an IdM server or replica, the installation script generates SIDs for users and groups by default. This allows IdM to work with PAC data. If you installed IdM before RHEL 8.5, and you have not configured a trust with an AD domain, you may not have generated SIDs for your IdM objects. For more information about generating SIDs for your IdM objects, see Enabling Security Identifiers (SIDs) in IdM.

By evaluating PAC information in Kerberos tickets, you can control resource access with much greater detail. For example, the Administrator account in one domain has a uniquely different SID than the Administrator account in any other domain. In an IdM environment with a trust to an AD domain, you can set access controls based on globally unique SIDs rather than simple user names or UIDs that might repeat in different locations, such as every Linux root account having a UID of 0.

12.2. Enabling Security Identifiers (SIDs) in IdM

If you installed IdM before RHEL 8.5, and you have not configured a trust with an AD domain, you might not have generated Security Identifiers (SIDs) for your IdM objects. This is because, before, the only way to generate SIDs was to run the ipa-adtrust-install command to add the Trust Controller role to an IdM server.

As of RHEL 8.6, Kerberos in IdM requires that your IdM objects have SIDs, which are necessary for security based on Privilege Access Certificate (PAC) information.

Prerequisites

  • You installed IdM before RHEL 8.5.
  • You have not run the ipa-sidgen task, which is part of configuring a trust with an Active Directory domain.
  • You can authenticate as the IdM admin account.

Procedure

  • Enable SID usage and trigger the SIDgen task to generate SIDs for existing users and groups. This task might be resource-intensive:

    [root@server ~]# ipa config-mod --enable-sid --add-sids

Verification

  • Verify that the IdM admin user account entry has an ipantsecurityidentifier attribute with a SID that ends with -500, the SID reserved for the domain administrator:

    [root@server ~]# ipa user-show admin --all | grep ipantsecurityidentifier
      ipantsecurityidentifier: S-1-5-21-2633809701-976279387-419745629-500

Chapter 13. Managing Kerberos ticket policies

Kerberos ticket policies in Identity Management (IdM) set restrictions on Kerberos ticket access, duration, and renewal. You can configure Kerberos ticket policies for the Key Distribution Center (KDC) running on your IdM server.

This chapter presents the following Kerberos ticket management topics and tasks:

13.1. The role of the IdM KDC

Identity Management’s authentication mechanisms use the Kerberos infrastructure established by the Key Distribution Center (KDC). The KDC is the trusted authority that stores credential information and ensures the authenticity of data originating from entities within the IdM network.

Each IdM user, service, and host acts as a Kerberos client and is identified by a unique Kerberos principal:

  • For users: identifier@REALM, such as admin@EXAMPLE.COM
  • For services: service/fully-qualified-hostname@REALM, such as http/server.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM
  • For hosts: host/fully-qualified-hostname@REALM, such as host/client.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM

The following image is a simplification of the communication between a Kerberos client, the KDC, and a Kerberized application that the client wants to communicate with.

Kerberos KDC flow of communication
  1. A Kerberos client identifies itself to the KDC by authenticating as a Kerberos principal. For example, an IdM user performs kinit username and provides their password.
  2. The KDC checks for the principal in its database, authenticates the client, and evaluates Kerberos ticket policies to determine whether to grant the request.
  3. The KDC issues the client a ticket-granting ticket (TGT) with a lifecycle and authentication indicators according to the appropriate ticket policy.
  4. With the TGT, the client requests a service ticket from the KDC to communicate with a Kerberized service on a target host.
  5. The KDC checks if the client’s TGT is still valid, and evaluates the service ticket request against ticket policies.
  6. The KDC issues the client a service ticket.
  7. With the service ticket, the client can initiate encrypted communication with the service on the target host.

13.2. IdM Kerberos ticket policy types

IdM Kerberos ticket policies implement the following ticket policy types:

Connection policy

To protect Kerberized services with different levels of security, you can define connection policies to enforce rules based on which pre-authentication mechanism a client used to retrieve a ticket-granting ticket (TGT).

For example, you can require smart card authentication to connect to client1.example.com, and require two-factor authentication to access the testservice application on client2.example.com.

To enforce connection policies, associate authentication indicators with services. Only clients that have the required authentication indicators in their service ticket requests are able to access those services. For more information, see Kerberos authentication indicators.

Ticket lifecycle policy

Each Kerberos ticket has a lifetime and a potential renewal age: you can renew a ticket before it reaches its maximum lifetime, but not after it exceeds its maximum renewal age.

The default global ticket lifetime is one day (86400 seconds) and the default global maximum renewal age is one week (604800 seconds). To adjust these global values, see Configuring the global ticket lifecycle policy.

You can also define your own ticket lifecycle policies:

13.3. Kerberos authentication indicators

The Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC) attaches authentication indicators to a ticket-granting ticket (TGT) based on which pre-authentication mechanism the client used to prove its identity:

otp
two-factor authentication (password + One-Time Password)
radius
RADIUS authentication (commonly for 802.1x authentication)
pkinit
PKINIT, smart card, or certificate authentication
hardened
hardened passwords (SPAKE or FAST)[1]

The KDC then attaches the authentication indicators from the TGT to any service ticket requests that stem from it. The KDC enforces policies such as service access control, maximum ticket lifetime, and maximum renewable age based on the authentication indicators.

Authentication indicators and IdM services

If you associate a service or a host with an authentication indicator, only clients that used the corresponding authentication mechanism to obtain a TGT will be able to access it. The KDC, not the application or service, checks for authentication indicators in service ticket requests, and grants or denies requests based on Kerberos connection policies.

For example, to require two-factor authentication to connect to a Virtual Private Network (VPN), associate the otp authentication indicator with that service. Only users who used a One-Time password to obtain their initial TGT from the KDC will be able to log in to the VPN:

Figure 13.1. Example of a VPN service requiring the otp authentication indicator

auth indicators

If a service or a host has no authentication indicators assigned to it, it will accept tickets authenticated by any mechanism.



[1] A hardened password is protected against brute-force password dictionary attacks by using Single-Party Public-Key Authenticated Key Exchange (SPAKE) pre-authentication and/or Flexible Authentication via Secure Tunneling (FAST) armoring.

13.4. Enforcing authentication indicators for an IdM service

The authentication mechanisms supported by Identity Management (IdM) vary in their authentication strength. For example, obtaining the initial Kerberos ticket-granting ticket (TGT) using a one-time password (OTP) in combination with a standard password is considered more secure than authentication using only a standard password.

By associating authentication indicators with a particular IdM service, you can, as an IdM administrator, configure the service so that only users who used those specific pre-authentication mechanisms to obtain their initial ticket-granting ticket (TGT) will be able to access the service.

In this way, you can configure different IdM services so that:

  • Only users who used a stronger authentication method to obtain their initial TGT, such as a one-time password (OTP), can access services critical to security, such as a VPN.
  • Users who used simpler authentication methods to obtain their initial TGT, such as a password, can only access non-critical services, such as local logins.

Figure 13.2. Example of authenticating using different technologies

auth indicators

This procedure describes creating an IdM service and configuring it to require particular Kerberos authentication indicators from incoming service ticket requests.

13.4.1. Creating an IdM service entry and its Kerberos keytab

Adding an IdM service entry to IdM for a service running on an IdM host creates a corresponding Kerberos principal, and allows the service to request an SSL certificate, a Kerberos keytab, or both.

The following procedure describes creating an IdM service entry and generating an associated Kerberos keytab for encrypting communication with that service.

Prerequisites

  • Your service can store a Kerberos principal, an SSL certificate, or both.

Procedure

  1. Add an IdM service with the ipa service-add command to create a Kerberos principal associated with it. For example, to create the IdM service entry for the testservice application that runs on host client.example.com:

    [root@client ~]# ipa service-add testservice/client.example.com
    -------------------------------------------------------------
    Modified service "testservice/client.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM"
    -------------------------------------------------------------
      Principal name: testservice/client.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM
      Principal alias: testservice/client.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM
      Managed by: client.example.com
  2. Generate and store a Kerberos keytab for the service on the client.

    [root@client ~]# ipa-getkeytab -k /etc/testservice.keytab -p testservice/client.example.com
    Keytab successfully retrieved and stored in: /etc/testservice.keytab

Verification steps

  1. Display information about an IdM service with the ipa service-show command.

    [root@server ~]# ipa service-show testservice/client.example.com
      Principal name: testservice/client.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM
      Principal alias: testservice/client.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM
      Keytab: True
      Managed by: client.example.com
  2. Display the contents of the service’s Kerberos keytab with the klist command.

    [root@server etc]# klist -ekt /etc/testservice.keytab
    Keytab name: FILE:/etc/testservice.keytab
    KVNO Timestamp           Principal
    ---- ------------------- ------------------------------------------------------
       2 04/01/2020 17:52:55 testservice/client.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM (aes256-cts-hmac-sha1-96)
       2 04/01/2020 17:52:55 testservice/client.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM (aes128-cts-hmac-sha1-96)
       2 04/01/2020 17:52:55 testservice/client.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM (camellia128-cts-cmac)
       2 04/01/2020 17:52:55 testservice/client.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM (camellia256-cts-cmac)

13.4.2. Associating authentication indicators with an IdM service using IdM CLI

As an Identity Management (IdM) administrator, you can configure a host or a service to require that a service ticket presented by the client application contains a specific authentication indicator. For example, you can ensure that only users who used a valid IdM two-factor authentication token with their password when obtaining a Kerberos ticket-granting ticket (TGT) will be able to access that host or service.

This procedure describes configuring a service to require particular Kerberos authentication indicators from incoming service ticket requests.

Prerequisites

Warning

Do not assign authentication indicators to internal IdM services. The following IdM services cannot perform the interactive authentication steps required by PKINIT and multi-factor authentication methods:

host/server.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM
HTTP/server.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM
ldap/server.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM
DNS/server.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM
cifs/server.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM

Procedure

  • Use the ipa service-mod command to specify one or more required authentication indicators for a service, identified with the --auth-ind argument.

    Authentication method--auth-ind value

    Two-factor authentication

    otp

    RADIUS authentication

    radius

    PKINIT, smart card, or certificate authentication

    pkinit

    Hardened passwords (SPAKE or FAST)

    hardened

    For example, to require that a user was authenticated with smart card or OTP authentication to retrieve a service ticket for the testservice principal on host client.example.com:

    [root@server ~]# ipa service-mod testservice/client.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM --auth-ind otp --auth-ind pkinit
    -------------------------------------------------------------
    Modified service "testservice/client.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM"
    -------------------------------------------------------------
      Principal name: testservice/client.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM
      Principal alias: testservice/client.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM
      Authentication Indicators: otp, pkinit
      Managed by: client.example.com
Note

To remove all authentication indicators from a service, provide an empty list of indicators:

[root@server ~]# ipa service-mod testservice/client.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM --auth-ind ''
------------------------------------------------------
Modified service "testservice/client.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM"
------------------------------------------------------
  Principal name: testservice/client.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM
  Principal alias: testservice/client.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM
  Managed by: client.example.com

Verification steps

  • Display information about an IdM service, including the authentication indicators it requires, with the ipa service-show command.

    [root@server ~]# ipa service-show testservice/client.example.com
      Principal name: testservice/client.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM
      Principal alias: testservice/client.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM
      Authentication Indicators: otp, pkinit
      Keytab: True
      Managed by: client.example.com

13.4.3. Associating authentication indicators with an IdM service using IdM Web UI

As an Identity Management (IdM) administrator, you can configure a host or a service to require a service ticket presented by the client application to contain a specific authentication indicator. For example, you can ensure that only users who used a valid IdM two-factor authentication token with their password when obtaining a Kerberos ticket-granting ticket (TGT) will be able to access that host or service.

This procedure describes how to use the IdM Web UI to configure a host or service to require particular Kerberos authentication indicators from incoming ticket requests.

Prerequisites

  • You have logged in to the IdM Web UI as an administrative user.

Procedure

  1. Select IdentityHosts or IdentityServices.
  2. Click the name of the required host or service.
  3. Under Authentication indicators, select the required authentication method.

    • For example, selecting OTP ensures that only users who used a valid IdM two-factor authentication token with their password when obtaining a Kerberos TGT will be able to access the host or service.
    • If you select both OTP and RADIUS, then both users that used a valid IdM two-factor authentication token with their password when obtaining a Kerberos TGT and users that used the RADIUS server for obtaining their Kerberos TGT will be allowed access.
  4. Click Save at the top of the page.

13.4.4. Retrieving a Kerberos service ticket for an IdM service

The following procedure describes retrieving a Kerberos service ticket for an IdM service. You can use this procedure to test Kerberos ticket policies, such as enforcing that certain Kerberos authentication indicators are present in a ticket-granting ticket (TGT).

Prerequisites

Procedure

  • Use the kvno command with the -S option to retrieve a service ticket, and specify the name of the IdM service and the fully-qualified domain name of the host that manages it.

    [root@server ~]# kvno -S testservice client.example.com
    testservice/client.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM: kvno = 1
Note

If you need to access an IdM service and your current ticket-granting ticket (TGT) does not possess the required Kerberos authentication indicators associated with it, clear your current Kerberos credentials cache with the kdestroy command and retrieve a new TGT:

[root@server ~]# kdestroy

For example, if you initially retrieved a TGT by authenticating with a password, and you need to access an IdM service that has the pkinit authentication indicator associated with it, destroy your current credentials cache and re-authenticate with a smart card. See Kerberos authentication indicators.

Verification steps

  • Use the klist command to verify that the service ticket is in the default Kerberos credentials cache.

    [root@server etc]# klist_
    Ticket cache: KCM:1000
    Default principal: admin@EXAMPLE.COM
    
    Valid starting       Expires              Service principal
    04/01/2020 12:52:42  04/02/2020 12:52:39  krbtgt/EXAMPLE.COM@EXAMPLE.COM
    04/01/2020 12:54:07 04/02/2020 12:52:39 testservice/client.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM

13.4.5. Additional resources

13.5. Configuring the global ticket lifecycle policy

The global ticket policy applies to all service tickets and to users that do not have any per-user ticket policies defined.

The following procedure describes adjusting the maximum ticket lifetime and maximum ticket renewal age for the global Kerberos ticket policy using the ipa krbtpolicy-mod command.

While using the ipa krbtpolicy-mod command, specify at least one of the following arguments:

  • --maxlife for the maximum ticket lifetime in seconds
  • --maxrenew for the maximum renewable age in seconds

Procedure

  1. To modify the global ticket policy:

    [root@server ~]# ipa krbtpolicy-mod --maxlife=$((8*60*60)) --maxrenew=$((24*60*60))
      Max life: 28800
      Max renew: 86400

    In this example, the maximum lifetime is set to eight hours (8 * 60 minutes * 60 seconds) and the maximum renewal age is set to one day (24 * 60 minutes * 60 seconds).

  2. Optional: To reset the global Kerberos ticket policy to the default installation values:

    [root@server ~]# ipa krbtpolicy-reset
      Max life: 86400
      Max renew: 604800

Verification steps

  • Display the global ticket policy:

    [root@server ~]# ipa krbtpolicy-show
      Max life: 28800
      Max renew: 86640

13.6. Configuring global ticket policies per authentication indicator

This procedure describes adjusting the global maximum ticket lifetime and maximum renewable age for each authentication indicator. These settings apply to users that do not have per-user ticket policies defined.

Use the ipa krbtpolicy-mod command to specify the global maximum lifetime or maximum renewable age for Kerberos tickets depending on the authentication indicators attached to them.

Procedure

  • For example, to set the global two-factor ticket lifetime and renewal age values to one week, and the global smart card ticket lifetime and renewal age values to two weeks:

    [root@server ~]# ipa krbtpolicy-mod --otp-maxlife=604800 --otp-maxrenew=604800 --pkinit-maxlife=172800 --pkinit-maxrenew=172800

Verification steps

  • Display the global ticket policy:

    [root@server ~]# ipa krbtpolicy-show
      Max life: 86400
      OTP max life: 604800
      PKINIT max life: 172800
      Max renew: 604800
      OTP max renew: 604800
      PKINIT max renew: 172800

    Notice that the OTP and PKINIT values are different from the global default Max life and Max renew values.

13.7. Configuring the default ticket policy for a user

You can define a unique Kerberos ticket policy that only applies to a single user. These per-user settings override the global ticket policy, for all authentication indicators.

Use the ipa krbtpolicy-mod username command, and specify at least one of the following arguments:

  • --maxlife for the maximum ticket lifetime in seconds
  • --maxrenew for the maximum renewable age in seconds

Procedure

  1. For example, to set the IdM admin user’s maximum ticket lifetime to two days and maximum renewal age to two weeks:

    [root@server ~]# ipa krbtpolicy-mod admin --maxlife=172800 --maxrenew=1209600
      Max life: 172800
      Max renew: 1209600
  2. Optional: To reset the ticket policy for a user:

    [root@server ~]# ipa krbtpolicy-reset admin

Verification steps

  • Display the effective Kerberos ticket policy that applies to a user:

    [root@server ~]# ipa krbtpolicy-show admin
      Max life: 172800
      Max renew: 1209600

13.8. Configuring individual authentication indicator ticket policies for a user

As an administrator, you can define Kerberos ticket policies for a user that differ per authentication indicator. For example, you can configure a policy to allow the IdM admin user to renew a ticket for two days if it was obtained with OTP authentication, and a week if it was obtained with smart card authentication.

These per-authentication indicator settings will override the user’s default ticket policy, the global default ticket policy, and any global authentication indicator ticket policy.

Use the ipa krbtpolicy-mod username command to set custom maximum lifetime and maximum renewable age values for a user’s Kerberos tickets depending on the authentication indicators attached to them.

Procedure

  1. For example, to allow the IdM admin user to renew a Kerberos ticket for two days if it was obtained with One-Time Password authentication, set the --otp-maxrenew option:

    [root@server ~]# ipa krbtpolicy-mod admin --otp-maxrenew=$((2*24*60*60))
      OTP max renew: 172800
  2. Optional: To reset the ticket policy for a user:

    [root@server ~]# ipa krbtpolicy-reset username

Verification steps

  • Display the effective Kerberos ticket policy that applies to a user:

    [root@server ~]# ipa krbtpolicy-show admin
      Max life: 28800
      Max renew: 86640

13.9. Authentication indicator options for the krbtpolicy-mod command

Specify values for authentication indicators with the following arguments.

Table 13.1. Authentication indicator options for the krbtpolicy-mod command

Authentication indicatorArgument for maximum lifetimeArgument for maximum renewal age

otp

--otp-maxlife

--otp-maxrenew

radius

--radius-maxlife

--radius-maxrenew

pkinit

--pkinit-maxlife

--pkinit-maxrenew

hardened

--hardened-maxlife

--hardened-maxrenew

Chapter 14. Maintaining IdM Kerberos keytab files

The following documentation explain what Kerberos keytab files are and how Identity Management (IdM) uses them to allow services to authenticate securely with Kerberos.

You can use this information to understand why you should protect these sensitive files, and to troubleshoot communication issues between IdM services.

This section discusses the following topics:

14.1. How Identity Management uses Kerberos keytab files

A Kerberos keytab is a file containing Kerberos principals and their corresponding encryption keys. Hosts, services, users, and scripts can use keytabs to authenticate to the Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC) securely, without requiring human interaction.

Every IdM service on an IdM server has a unique Kerberos principal stored in the Kerberos database. For example, if IdM servers east.idm.example.com and west.idm.example.com provide DNS services, IdM creates 2 unique DNS Kerberos principals to identify these services, which follow the naming convention <service>/host.domain.com@REALM.COM:

  • DNS/east.idm.example.com@IDM.EXAMPLE.COM
  • DNS/west.idm.example.com@IDM.EXAMPLE.COM

IdM creates a keytab on the server for each of these services in order to store a local copy of the Kerberos keys, along with their Key Version Numbers (KVNO). For example, the default keytab file /etc/krb5.keytab stores the host principal, which represents that machine in the Kerberos realm and is used for login authentication. The KDC generates encryption keys for the different encryption algorithms it supports, such as aes256-cts-hmac-sha1-96 and aes128-cts-hmac-sha1-96.

You can display the contents of a keytab file with the klist command:

[root@idmserver ~]# klist -ekt /etc/krb5.keytab
Keytab name: FILE:/etc/krb5.keytab
KVNO Timestamp           Principal
---- ------------------- ------------------------------------------------------
   2 02/24/2022 20:28:09 host/idmserver.idm.example.com@IDM.EXAMPLE.COM (aes256-cts-hmac-sha1-96)
   2 02/24/2022 20:28:09 host/idmserver.idm.example.com@IDM.EXAMPLE.COM (aes128-cts-hmac-sha1-96)
   2 02/24/2022 20:28:09 host/idmserver.idm.example.com@IDM.EXAMPLE.COM (camellia128-cts-cmac)
   2 02/24/2022 20:28:09 host/idmserver.idm.example.com@IDM.EXAMPLE.COM (camellia256-cts-cmac)

14.2. Verifying that Kerberos keytab files are in sync with the IdM database

When you change a Kerberos password, IdM automatically generates a new corresponding Kerberos key and increments its Key Version Number (KVNO). If a Kerberos keytab is not updated with the new key and KVNO, any services that depend on that keytab to retrieve a valid key might not be able to authenticate to the Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC).

If one of your IdM services cannot communicate with another service, use the following procedure to verify that your Kerberos keytab files are in sync with the keys stored in the IdM database. If they are out of sync, retrieve a Kerberos keytab with an updated key and KVNO. This example compares and retrieves an updated DNS principal for an IdM server.

Prerequisites

  • You must authenticate as the IdM admin account to retrieve keytab files
  • You must authenticate as the root account to modify keytab files owned by other users

Procedure

  1. Display the KVNO of the principals in the keytab you are verifying. In the following example, the /etc/named.keytab file has the key for the DNS/server1.idm.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM principal with a KVNO of 2.

    [root@server1 ~]# klist -ekt /etc/named.keytab
    Keytab name: FILE:/etc/named.keytab
    KVNO Timestamp           Principal
    ---- ------------------- ------------------------------------------------------
       2 11/26/2021 13:51:11 DNS/server1.idm.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM (aes256-cts-hmac-sha1-96)
       2 11/26/2021 13:51:11 DNS/server1.idm.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM (aes128-cts-hmac-sha1-96)
       2 11/26/2021 13:51:11 DNS/server1.idm.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM (camellia128-cts-cmac)
       2 11/26/2021 13:51:11 DNS/server1.idm.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM (camellia256-cts-cmac)
  2. Display the KVNO of the principal stored in the IdM database. In this example, the KVNO of the key in the IdM database does not match the KVNO in the keytab.

    [root@server1 ~]# kvno DNS/server1.idm.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM
    DNS/server1.idm.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM: kvno = 3
  3. Authenticate as the IdM admin account.

    [root@server1 ~]# kinit admin
    Password for admin@IDM.EXAMPLE.COM:
  4. Retrieve an updated Kerberos key for the principal and store it in its keytab. Perform this step as the root user so you can modify the /etc/named.keytab file, which is owned by the named user.

    [root@server1 ~]# ipa-getkeytab -s server1.idm.example.com -p DNS/server1.idm.example.com -k /etc/named.keytab

Verification

  1. Display the updated KVNO of the principal in the keytab.

    [root@server1 ~]# klist -ekt /etc/named.keytab
    Keytab name: FILE:/etc/named.keytab
    KVNO Timestamp           Principal
    ---- ------------------- ------------------------------------------------------
       4 08/17/2022 14:42:11 DNS/server1.idm.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM (aes256-cts-hmac-sha1-96)
       4 08/17/2022 14:42:11 DNS/server1.idm.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM (aes128-cts-hmac-sha1-96)
       4 08/17/2022 14:42:11 DNS/server1.idm.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM (camellia128-cts-cmac)
       4 08/17/2022 14:42:11 DNS/server1.idm.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM (camellia256-cts-cmac)
  2. Display the KVNO of the principal stored in the IdM database and ensure it matches the KVNO from the keytab.

    [root@server1 ~]# kvno DNS/server1.idm.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM
    DNS/server1.idm.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM: kvno = 4

14.3. List of IdM Kerberos keytab files and their contents

The following table displays the location, contents, and purpose of the IdM Kerberos keytab files.

Table 14.1. Table

Keytab locationContentsPurpose

/etc/krb5.keytab

host principal

Verifying user credentials when logging in, used by NFS if there is no nfs principal

/etc/dirsrv/ds.keytab

ldap principal

Authenticating users to the IdM database, securely replicating database contents between IdM replicas

/var/lib/ipa/gssproxy/http.keytab

HTTP principal

Authenticating to the Apache server

/etc/named.keytab

DNS principal

Securely updating DNS records

/etc/ipa/dnssec/ipa-dnskeysyncd.keytab

ipa-dnskeysyncd principal

Keeping OpenDNSSEC synchronized with LDAP

/etc/pki/pki-tomcat/dogtag.keytab

dogtag principal

Communicating with the Certificate Authority (CA)

/etc/samba/samba.keytab

cifs and host principals

Communicating with the Samba service

/var/lib/sss/keytabs/ad-domain.com.keytab

Active Directory (AD) domain controller (DCs) principals in the form HOSTNAME$@AD-DOMAIN.COM

Communicating with AD DCs through an IdM-AD Trust

Chapter 15. Using the KDC Proxy in IdM

Some administrators might choose to make the default Kerberos ports inaccessible in their deployment. To allow users, hosts, and services to obtain Kerberos credentials, you can use the HTTPS service as a proxy that communicates with Kerberos via the HTTPS port 443.

In Identity Management (IdM), the Kerberos Key Distribution Center Proxy (KKDCP) provides this functionality.

On an IdM server, KKDCP is enabled by default and available at https://server.idm.example.com/KdcProxy. On an IdM client, you must change its Kerberos configuration to access the KKDCP.

15.1. Configuring an IdM client to use KKDCP

As an Identity Management (IdM) system administrator, you can configure an IdM client to use the Kerberos Key Distribution Center Proxy (KKDCP) on an IdM server. This is useful if the default Kerberos ports are not accessible on the IdM server and the HTTPS port 443 is the only way of accessing the Kerberos service.

Prerequisites

  • You have root access to the IdM client.

Procedure

  1. Open the /etc/krb5.conf file for editing.
  2. In the [realms] section, enter the URL of the KKDCP for the kdc, admin_server, and kpasswd_server options:

    [realms]
    EXAMPLE.COM = {
      kdc = https://kdc.example.com/KdcProxy
      admin_server = https://kdc.example.com/KdcProxy
      kpasswd_server = https://kdc.example.com/KdcProxy
      default_domain = example.com
    }

    For redundancy, you can add the parameters kdc, admin_server, and kpasswd_server multiple times to indicate different KKDCP servers.

  3. Restart the sssd service to make the changes take effect:

    ~]# systemctl restart sssd

15.2. Verifying that KKDCP is enabled on an IdM server

On an Identity Management (IdM) server, the Kerberos Key Distribution Center Proxy (KKDCP) is automatically enabled each time the Apache web server starts if the attribute and value pair ipaConfigString=kdcProxyEnabled exists in the directory. In this situation, the symbolic link /etc/httpd/conf.d/ipa-kdc-proxy.conf is created.

You can verify if the KKDCP is enabled on the IdM server, even as an unprivileged user.

Procedure

  • Check that the symbolic link exists:
$ ls -l /etc/httpd/conf.d/ipa-kdc-proxy.conf
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 36 Jun 21  2020 /etc/httpd/conf.d/ipa-kdc-proxy.conf -> /etc/ipa/kdcproxy/ipa-kdc-proxy.conf

The output confirms that KKDCP is enabled.

15.3. Disabling KKDCP on an IdM server

As an Identity Management (IdM) system administrator, you can disable the Kerberos Key Distribution Center Proxy (KKDCP) on an IdM server.

Prerequisites

  • You have root access to the IdM server.

Procedure

  1. Remove the ipaConfigString=kdcProxyEnabled attribute and value pair from the directory:

    # ipa-ldap-updater /usr/share/ipa/kdcproxy-disable.uldif
    Update complete
    The ipa-ldap-updater command was successful
  2. Restart the httpd service:

    # systemctl restart httpd.service

KKDCP is now disabled on the current IdM server.

Verification steps

  • Verify that the symbolic link does not exist:

    $ ls -l /etc/httpd/conf.d/ipa-kdc-proxy.conf
    ls: cannot access '/etc/httpd/conf.d/ipa-kdc-proxy.conf': No such file or directory

15.4. Re-enabling KKDCP on an IdM server

On an IdM server, the Kerberos Key Distribution Center Proxy (KKDCP) is enabled by default and available at https://server.idm.example.com/KdcProxy.

If KKDCP has been disabled on a server, you can re-enable it.

Prerequisites

  • You have root access to the IdM server.

Procedure

  1. Add the ipaConfigString=kdcProxyEnabled attribute and value pair to the directory:

    # ipa-ldap-updater /usr/share/ipa/kdcproxy-enable.uldif
    Update complete
    The ipa-ldap-updater command was successful
  2. Restart the httpd service:

    # systemctl restart httpd.service

KKDCP is now enabled on the current IdM server.

Verification steps

  • Verify that the symbolic link exists:

    $ ls -l /etc/httpd/conf.d/ipa-kdc-proxy.conf
    lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 36 Jun 21  2020 /etc/httpd/conf.d/ipa-kdc-proxy.conf -> /etc/ipa/kdcproxy/ipa-kdc-proxy.conf

15.5. Configuring the KKDCP server I

With the following configuration, you can enable TCP to be used as the transport protocol between the IdM KKDCP and the Active Directory (AD) realm, where multiple Kerberos servers are used.

Prerequisites

  • You have root access.

Procedure

  1. Set the use_dns parameter in the [global] section of the /etc/ipa/kdcproxy/kdcproxy.conf file to false.

    [global]
    use_dns = false
  2. Put the proxied realm information into the /etc/ipa/kdcproxy/kdcproxy.conf file. For example, for the [AD.EXAMPLE.COM] realm with proxy list the realm configuration parameters as follows:

    [AD.EXAMPLE.COM]
    kerberos = kerberos+tcp://1.2.3.4:88 kerberos+tcp://5.6.7.8:88
    kpasswd = kpasswd+tcp://1.2.3.4:464 kpasswd+tcp://5.6.7.8:464
    Important

    The realm configuration parameters must list multiple servers separated by a space, as opposed to /etc/krb5.conf and kdc.conf, in which certain options may be specified multiple times.

  3. Restart Identity Management (IdM) services:

    # ipactl restart

Additional resources

15.6. Configuring the KKDCP server II

The following server configuration relies on the DNS service records to find Active Directory (AD) servers to communicate with.

Prerequisites

  • You have root access.

Procedure

  1. In the /etc/ipa/kdcproxy/kdcproxy.conf file, the [global] section, set the use_dns parameter to true.

    [global]
    configs = mit
    use_dns = true

    The configs parameter allows you to load other configuration modules. In this case, the configuration is read from the MIT libkrb5 library.

  2. Optional: In case you do not want to use DNS service records, add explicit AD servers to the [realms] section of the /etc/krb5.conf file. If the realm with proxy is, for example, AD.EXAMPLE.COM, you add:

    [realms]
    AD.EXAMPLE.COM = {
        kdc = ad-server.ad.example.com
        kpasswd_server = ad-server.ad.example.com
    }
  3. Restart Identity Management (IdM) services:

    # ipactl restart

Additional resources

Chapter 16. Managing self-service rules in IdM using the CLI

This chapter introduces self-service rules in Identity Management (IdM) and describes how to create and edit self-service access rules in the command-line interface (CLI).

16.1. Self-service access control in IdM

Self-service access control rules define which operations an Identity Management (IdM) entity can perform on its IdM Directory Server entry: for example, IdM users have the ability to update their own passwords.

This method of control allows an authenticated IdM entity to edit specific attributes within its LDAP entry, but does not allow add or delete operations on the entire entry.

Warning

Be careful when working with self-service access control rules: configuring access control rules improperly can inadvertently elevate an entity’s privileges.

16.2. Creating self-service rules using the CLI

This procedure describes creating self-service access rules in IdM using the command-line interface (CLI).

Prerequisites

Procedure

  • To add a self-service rule, use the ipa selfservice-add command and specify the following two options:

    --permissions
    sets the read and write permissions the Access Control Instruction (ACI) grants.
    --attrs
    sets the complete list of attributes to which this ACI grants permission.

For example, to create a self-service rule allowing users to modify their own name details:

$ ipa selfservice-add "Users can manage their own name details" --permissions=write --attrs=givenname --attrs=displayname --attrs=title --attrs=initials
-----------------------------------------------------------
Added selfservice "Users can manage their own name details"
-----------------------------------------------------------
    Self-service name: Users can manage their own name details
    Permissions: write
    Attributes: givenname, displayname, title, initials

16.3. Editing self-service rules using the CLI

This procedure describes editing self-service access rules in IdM using the command-line interface (CLI).

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Optional: Display existing self-service rules with the ipa selfservice-find command.
  2. Optional: Display details for the self-service rule you want to modify with the ipa selfservice-show command.
  3. Use the ipa selfservice-mod command to edit a self-service rule.

For example:

$ ipa selfservice-mod "Users can manage their own name details" --attrs=givenname --attrs=displayname --attrs=title --attrs=initials --attrs=surname
--------------------------------------------------------------
Modified selfservice "Users can manage their own name details"
--------------------------------------------------------------
Self-service name: Users can manage their own name details
Permissions: write
Attributes: givenname, displayname, title, initials
Important

Using the ipa selfservice-mod command overwrites the previously defined permissions and attributes, so always include the complete list of existing permissions and attributes along with any new ones you want to define.

Verification steps

  • Use the ipa selfservice-show command to display the self-service rule you edited.
$ ipa selfservice-show "Users can manage their own name details"
--------------------------------------------------------------
Self-service name: Users can manage their own name details
Permissions: write
Attributes: givenname, displayname, title, initials

16.4. Deleting self-service rules using the CLI

This procedure describes deleting self-service access rules in IdM using the command-line interface (CLI).

Prerequisites

Procedure

  • Use the ipa selfservice-del command to delete a self-service rule.

For example:

$ ipa selfservice-del "Users can manage their own name details"
-----------------------------------------------------------
Deleted selfservice "Users can manage their own name details"
-----------------------------------------------------------

Verification steps

  • Use the ipa selfservice-find command to display all self-service rules. The rule you just deleted should be missing.

Chapter 17. Managing self-service rules using the IdM Web UI

This chapter introduces self-service rules in Identity Management (IdM) and describes how to create and edit self-service access rules in the web interface (IdM Web UI).

17.1. Self-service access control in IdM

Self-service access control rules define which operations an Identity Management (IdM) entity can perform on its IdM Directory Server entry: for example, IdM users have the ability to update their own passwords.

This method of control allows an authenticated IdM entity to edit specific attributes within its LDAP entry, but does not allow add or delete operations on the entire entry.

Warning

Be careful when working with self-service access control rules: configuring access control rules improperly can inadvertently elevate an entity’s privileges.

17.2. Creating self-service rules using the IdM Web UI

This procedure describes how to create self-service access rules in IdM using the web interface (IdM Web UI).

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Open the Role-Based Access Control sub-menu in the IPA Server tab and select Self Service Permissions.
  2. Click Add at the top-right of the list of the self-service access rules:

    Adding a self-service rule

  3. The Add Self Service Permission window opens. Enter the name of the new self-service rule in the Self-service name field. Spaces are allowed:

    Form for adding a self-service rule

  4. Select the check boxes next to the attributes you want users to be able to edit.
  5. Optional: If an attribute you would like to provide access to is not listed, you can add a listing for it:

    1. Click the Add button.
    2. Enter the attribute name in the Attribute text field of the following Add Custom Attribute window.
    3. Click the OK button to add the attribute
    4. Verify that the new attribute is selected
  6. Click the Add button at the bottom of the form to save the new self-service rule.
    Alternatively, you can save and continue editing the self-service rule by clicking the Add and Edit button, or save and add further rules by clicking the Add and Add another button.

17.3. Editing self-service rules using the IdM Web UI

This procedure describes how to edit self-service access rules in IdM using the web interface (IdM Web UI).

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Open the Role-Based Access Control sub-menu in the IPA Server tab and select Self Service Permissions.
  2. Click on the name of the self-service rule you want to modify.

    Editing an existing self-service rule

  3. The edit page only allows you to edit the list of attributes to you want to add or remove to the self-service rule. Select or deselect the appropriate check boxes.
  4. Click the Save button to save your changes to the self-service rule.

17.4. Deleting self-service rules using the IdM Web UI

This procedure describes how to delete self-service access rules in IdM using the web interface (IdM Web UI).

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Open the Role-Based Access Control sub-menu in the IPA Server tab and select Self Service Permissions.
  2. Select the check box next to the rule you want to delete, then click on the Delete button on the right of the list.

    Deleting a self-service rule

  3. A dialog opens, click on Delete to confirm.

Chapter 18. Using Ansible playbooks to manage self-service rules in IdM

This section introduces self-service rules in Identity Management (IdM) and describes how to create and edit self-service access rules using Ansible playbooks. Self-service access control rules allow an IdM entity to perform specified operations on its IdM Directory Server entry.

This section covers the following topics:

18.1. Self-service access control in IdM

Self-service access control rules define which operations an Identity Management (IdM) entity can perform on its IdM Directory Server entry: for example, IdM users have the ability to update their own passwords.

This method of control allows an authenticated IdM entity to edit specific attributes within its LDAP entry, but does not allow add or delete operations on the entire entry.

Warning

Be careful when working with self-service access control rules: configuring access control rules improperly can inadvertently elevate an entity’s privileges.

18.2. Using Ansible to ensure that a self-service rule is present

The following procedure describes how to use an Ansible playbook to define self-service rules and ensure their presence on an Identity Management (IdM) server. In this example, the new Users can manage their own name details rule grants users the ability to change their own givenname, displayname, title and initials attributes. This allows them to, for example, change their display name or initials if they want to.

Prerequisites

  • You know the IdM administrator password.
  • You have configured an Ansible control node that meets the following requirements:

    • You are using Ansible version 2.8 or later.
    • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller.
    • In the ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory, you have created an Ansible inventory file with the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) of the IdM server where you are configuring these options.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory:

    $ cd ~/MyPlaybooks/
  2. Make a copy of the selfservice-present.yml file located in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/selfservice/ directory:

    $ cp /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/selfservice/selfservice-present.yml selfservice-present-copy.yml
  3. Open the selfservice-present-copy.yml Ansible playbook file for editing.
  4. Adapt the file by setting the following variables in the ipaselfservice task section:

    • Set the ipaadmin_password variable to the password of the IdM administrator.
    • Set the name variable to the name of the new self-service rule.
    • Set the permission variable to a comma-separated list of permissions to grant: read and write.
    • Set the attribute variable to a list of attributes that users can manage themselves: givenname, displayname, title, and initials.

    This is the modified Ansible playbook file for the current example:

    ---
    - name: Self-service present
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
    
      tasks:
      - name: Ensure self-service rule "Users can manage their own name details" is present
        ipaselfservice:
          ipaadmin_password: Secret123
          name: "Users can manage their own name details"
          permission: read, write
          attribute:
          - givenname
          - displayname
          - title
          - initials
  5. Save the file.
  6. Run the Ansible playbook specifying the playbook file and the inventory file:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i inventory selfservice-present-copy.yml

Additional resources

  • See Self-service access control in IdM.
  • See the README-selfservice.md file in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/ directory.
  • See the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/selfservice directory.

18.3. Using Ansible to ensure that a self-service rule is absent

The following procedure describes how to use an Ansible playbook to ensure a specified self-service rule is absent from your IdM configuration. The example below describes how to make sure the Users can manage their own name details self-service rule does not exist in IdM. This will ensure that users cannot, for example, change their own display name or initials.

Prerequisites

  • You know the IdM administrator password.
  • You have configured an Ansible control node that meets the following requirements:

    • You are using Ansible version 2.8 or later.
    • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller.
    • In the ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory, you have created an Ansible inventory file with the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) of the IdM server where you are configuring these options.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory:

    $ cd ~/MyPlaybooks/
  2. Make a copy of the selfservice-absent.yml file located in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/selfservice/ directory:

    $ cp /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/selfservice/selfservice-absent.yml selfservice-absent-copy.yml
  3. Open the selfservice-absent-copy.yml Ansible playbook file for editing.
  4. Adapt the file by setting the following variables in the ipaselfservice task section:

    • Set the ipaadmin_password variable to the password of the IdM administrator.
    • Set the name variable to the name of the self-service rule.
    • Set the state variable to absent.

    This is the modified Ansible playbook file for the current example:

    ---
    - name: Self-service absent
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
    
      tasks:
      - name: Ensure self-service rule "Users can manage their own name details" is absent
        ipaselfservice:
          ipaadmin_password: Secret123
          name: "Users can manage their own name details"
          state: absent
  5. Save the file.
  6. Run the Ansible playbook specifying the playbook file and the inventory file:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i inventory selfservice-absent-copy.yml

Additional resources

  • See Self-service access control in IdM.
  • See the README-selfservice.md file in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/ directory.
  • See the sample playbooks in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/selfservice directory.

18.4. Using Ansible to ensure that a self-service rule has specific attributes

The following procedure describes how to use an Ansible playbook to ensure that an already existing self-service rule has specific settings. In the example, you ensure the Users can manage their own name details self-service rule also has the surname member attribute.

Prerequisites

  • You know the IdM administrator password.
  • You have configured an Ansible control node that meets the following requirements:

    • You are using Ansible version 2.8 or later.
    • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller.
    • In the ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory, you have created an Ansible inventory file with the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) of the IdM server where you are configuring these options.
  • The Users can manage their own name details self-service rule exists in IdM.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory:

    $ cd ~/MyPlaybooks/
  2. Make a copy of the selfservice-member-present.yml file located in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/selfservice/ directory:

    $ cp /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/selfservice/selfservice-member-present.yml selfservice-member-present-copy.yml
  3. Open the selfservice-member-present-copy.yml Ansible playbook file for editing.
  4. Adapt the file by setting the following variables in the ipaselfservice task section:

    • Set the ipaadmin_password variable to the password of the IdM administrator.
    • Set the name variable to the name of the self-service rule to modify.
    • Set the attribute variable to surname.
    • Set the action variable to member.

    This is the modified Ansible playbook file for the current example:

    ---
    - name: Self-service member present
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
    
      tasks:
      - name: Ensure selfservice "Users can manage their own name details" member attribute surname is present
        ipaselfservice:
          ipaadmin_password: Secret123
          name: "Users can manage their own name details"
          attribute:
          - surname
          action: member
  5. Save the file.
  6. Run the Ansible playbook specifying the playbook file and the inventory file:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i inventory selfservice-member-present-copy.yml

Additional resources

  • See Self-service access control in IdM.
  • See the README-selfservice.md file available in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/ directory.
  • See the sample playbooks in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/selfservice directory.

18.5. Using Ansible to ensure that a self-service rule does not have specific attributes

The following procedure describes how to use an Ansible playbook to ensure that a self-service rule does not have specific settings. You can use this playbook to make sure a self-service rule does not grant undesired access. In the example, you ensure the Users can manage their own name details self-service rule does not have the givenname and surname member attributes.

Prerequisites

  • You know the IdM administrator password.
  • You have configured an Ansible control node that meets the following requirements:

    • You are using Ansible version 2.8 or later.
    • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller.
    • In the ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory, you have created an Ansible inventory file with the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) of the IdM server where you are configuring these options.
  • The Users can manage their own name details self-service rule exists in IdM.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory:

    $ cd ~/MyPlaybooks/
  2. Make a copy of the selfservice-member-absent.yml file located in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/selfservice/ directory:

    $ cp /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/selfservice/selfservice-member-absent.yml selfservice-member-absent-copy.yml
  3. Open the selfservice-member-absent-copy.yml Ansible playbook file for editing.
  4. Adapt the file by setting the following variables in the ipaselfservice task section:

    • Set the ipaadmin_password variable to the password of the IdM administrator.
    • Set the name variable to the name of the self-service rule you want to modify.
    • Set the attribute variable to givenname and surname.
    • Set the action variable to member.
    • Set the state variable to absent.

    This is the modified Ansible playbook file for the current example:

    ---
    - name: Self-service member absent
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
    
      tasks:
      - name: Ensure selfservice "Users can manage their own name details" member attributes givenname and surname are absent
        ipaselfservice:
          ipaadmin_password: Secret123
          name: "Users can manage their own name details"
          attribute:
          - givenname
          - surname
          action: member
          state: absent
  5. Save the file.
  6. Run the Ansible playbook specifying the playbook file and the inventory file:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i inventory selfservice-member-absent-copy.yml

Additional resources

  • See Self-service access control in IdM.
  • See the README-selfservice.md file in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/ directory.
  • See the sample playbooks in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/selfservice directory.

Chapter 19. Managing user groups in IdM CLI

This chapter introduces user groups management using the IdM CLI.

A user group is a set of users with common privileges, password policies, and other characteristics.

A user group in Identity Management (IdM) can include:

  • IdM users
  • other IdM user groups
  • external users, which are users that exist outside of IdM

19.1. The different group types in IdM

IdM supports the following types of groups:

POSIX groups (the default)

POSIX groups support Linux POSIX attributes for their members. Note that groups that interact with Active Directory cannot use POSIX attributes.

POSIX attributes identify users as separate entities. Examples of POSIX attributes relevant to users include uidNumber, a user number (UID), and gidNumber, a group number (GID).

Non-POSIX groups

Non-POSIX groups do not support POSIX attributes. For example, these groups do not have a GID defined.

All members of this type of group must belong to the IdM domain.

External groups

Use external groups to add group members that exist in an identity store outside of the IdM domain, such as:

  • A local system
  • An Active Directory domain
  • A directory service

External groups do not support POSIX attributes. For example, these groups do not have a GID defined.

Table 19.1. User groups created by default

Group nameDefault group members

ipausers

All IdM users

admins

Users with administrative privileges, including the default admin user

editors

This is a legacy group that no longer has any special privileges

trust admins

Users with privileges to manage the Active Directory trusts

When you add a user to a user group, the user gains the privileges and policies associated with the group. For example, to grant administrative privileges to a user, add the user to the admins group.

Warning

Do not delete the admins group. As admins is a pre-defined group required by IdM, this operation causes problems with certain commands.

In addition, IdM creates user private groups by default whenever a new user is created in IdM. For more information about private groups, see Adding users without a private group.

19.2. Direct and indirect group members

User group attributes in IdM apply to both direct and indirect members: when group B is a member of group A, all users in group B are considered indirect members of group A.

For example, in the following diagram:

  • User 1 and User 2 are direct members of group A.
  • User 3, User 4, and User 5 are indirect members of group A.

Figure 19.1. Direct and Indirect Group Membership

A chart with Group A (with 2 users) and Group B (with 3 users). Group B is nested inside Group A so Group A contains a total of 5 users.

If you set a password policy for user group A, the policy also applies to all users in user group B.

19.3. Adding a user group using IdM CLI

This section describes how to add a user group using IdM CLI.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  • Add a user group by using the ipa group-add group_name command. For example, to create group_a:

    $ ipa group-add group_a
    ---------------------
    Added group "group_a"
    ---------------------
      Group name: group_a
      GID: 1133400009

    By default, ipa group-add adds a POSIX user group. To specify a different group type, add options to ipa group-add:

    You can specify a custom GID when adding a user group by using the --gid=custom_GID option. If you do this, be careful to avoid ID conflicts. If you do not specify a custom GID, IdM automatically assigns a GID from the available ID range.

Warning

Do not add local groups to IdM. The Name Service Switch (NSS) always resolves IdM users and groups before resolving local users and groups. This means that, for example, IdM group membership does not work for local users.

19.4. Searching for user groups using IdM CLI

This section describes how to search for existing user groups using IdM CLI.

Procedure

  • Display all user groups by using the ipa group-find command. To specify a group type, add options to ipa group-find:

    • Display all POSIX groups using the ipa group-find --posix command.
    • Display all non-POSIX groups using the ipa group-find --nonposix command.
    • Display all external groups using the ipa group-find --external command.

      For more information on different group types, see The different group types in IdM.

19.5. Deleting a user group using IdM CLI

This section describes how to delete a user group using IdM CLI. Note that deleting a group does not delete the group members from IdM.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  • Delete a user group by using the ipa group-del group_name command. For example, to delete group_a:

    $ ipa group-del group_a
    --------------------------
    Deleted group "group_a"
    --------------------------

19.6. Adding a member to a user group using IdM CLI

This section describes how to add a member to a user group using IdM CLI. You can add both users and user groups as members of a user group. For more information, see The different group types in IdM and Direct and indirect group members.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  • Add a member to a user group by using the ipa group-add-member command.

    Specify the type of member using these options:

    • --users adds an IdM user
    • --external adds a user that exists outside the IdM domain, in the format of DOMAIN\user_name or user_name@domain
    • --groups adds an IdM user group

    For example, to add group_b as a member of group_a:

    $ ipa group-add-member group_a --groups=group_b
    Group name: group_a
    GID: 1133400009
    Member users: user_a
    Member groups: group_b
    Indirect Member users: user_b
    -------------------------
    Number of members added 1
    -------------------------

    Members of group_b are now indirect members of group_a.

Important

When adding a group as a member of another group, do not create recursive groups. For example, if Group A is a member of Group B, do not add Group B as a member of Group A. Recursive groups can cause unpredictable behavior.

Note

After you add a member to a user group, the update may take some time to spread to all clients in your Identity Management environment. This is because when any given host resolves users, groups and netgroups, the System Security Services Daemon (SSSD) first looks into its cache and performs server lookups only for missing or expired records.

19.7. Adding users without a user private group

By default, IdM creates user private groups (UPGs) whenever a new user is created in IdM. UPGs are a specific group type:

  • The UPG has the same name as the newly created user.
  • The user is the only member of the UPG. The UPG cannot contain any other members.
  • The GID of the private group matches the UID of the user.

However, it is possible to add users without creating a UPG.

19.7.1. Users without a user private group

If a NIS group or another system group already uses the GID that would be assigned to a user private group, it is necessary to avoid creating a UPG.

You can do this in two ways:

In both cases, IdM will require specifying a GID when adding new users, otherwise the operation will fail. This is because IdM requires a GID for the new user, but the default user group ipausers is a non-POSIX group and therefore does not have an associated GID. The GID you specify does not have to correspond to an already existing group.

Note

Specifying the GID does not create a new group. It only sets the GID attribute for the new user, because the attribute is required by IdM.

19.7.2. Adding a user without a user private group when private groups are globally enabled

You can add a user without creating a user private group (UPG) even when UPGs are enabled on the system. This requires manually setting a GID for the new user. For details on why this is needed, see Users without a user private group.

Procedure

  • To prevent IdM from creating a UPG, add the --noprivate option to the ipa user-add command.

    Note that for the command to succeed, you must specify a custom GID. For example, to add a new user with GID 10000:

    $ ipa user-add jsmith --first=John --last=Smith --noprivate --gid 10000

19.7.3. Disabling user private groups globally for all users

You can disable user private groups (UPGs) globally. This prevents the creation of UPGs for all new users. Existing users are unaffected by this change.

Procedure

  1. Obtain administrator privileges:

    $ kinit admin
  2. IdM uses the Directory Server Managed Entries Plug-in to manage UPGs. List the instances of the plug-in:

    $ ipa-managed-entries --list
  3. To ensure IdM does not create UPGs, disable the plug-in instance responsible for managing user private groups:

    $ ipa-managed-entries -e "UPG Definition" disable
    Disabling Plugin
    Note

    To re-enable the UPG Definition instance later, use the ipa-managed-entries -e "UPG Definition" enable command.

  4. Restart Directory Server to load the new configuration.

    $ sudo systemctl restart dirsrv.target

    To add a user after UPGs have been disabled, you need to specify a GID. For more information, see Adding a user when user private groups are globally disabled

Verification steps

  • To check if UPGs are globally disabled, use the disable command again:

    $ ipa-managed-entries -e "UPG Definition" disable
    Plugin already disabled

19.7.4. Adding a user when user private groups are globally disabled

When user private groups (UPGs) are disabled globally, IdM does not assign a GID to a new user automatically. To successfully add a user, you must assign a GID manually or by using an automember rule. For details on why this is required, see Users without a user private group.

Prerequisities

Procedure

  • To make sure adding a new user succeeds when creating UPGs is disabled, choose one of the following:

    • Specify a custom GID when adding a new user. The GID does not have to correspond to an already existing user group.

      For example, when adding a user from the command line, add the --gid option to the ipa user-add command.

    • Use an automember rule to add the user to an existing group with a GID.

19.8. Adding users or groups as member managers to an IdM user group using the IdM CLI

This section describes how to add users or groups as member managers to an IdM user group using the IdM CLI. Member managers can add users or groups to IdM user groups but cannot change the attributes of a group.

Prerequisites

  • You must be logged in as the administrator. For details, see Using kinit to log in to IdM manually.
  • You must have the name of the user or group you are adding as member managers and the name of the group you want them to manage.

Procedure

  • Add a user as a member manager to an IdM user group by using the ipa group-add-member-manager command.

    For example, to add the user test as a member manager of group_a:

    $ ipa group-add-member-manager group_a --users=test
    Group name: group_a
    GID: 1133400009
    Membership managed by users: test
    -------------------------
    Number of members added 1
    -------------------------

    User test can now manage members of group_a.

  • Add a group as a member manager to an IdM user group by using the ipa group-add-member-manager command.

    For example, to add the group group_admins as a member manager of group_a:

    $ ipa group-add-member-manager group_a --groups=group_admins
    Group name: group_a
    GID: 1133400009
    Membership managed by groups: group_admins
    Membership managed by users: test
    -------------------------
    Number of members added 1
    -------------------------

    Group group_admins can now manage members of group_a.

Note

After you add a member manager to a user group, the update may take some time to spread to all clients in your Identity Management environment.

Verification steps

  • Using the ipa group-show command to verify the user and group were added as member managers.

    $ ipa group-show group_a
    Group name: group_a
    GID: 1133400009
    Membership managed by groups: group_admins
    Membership managed by users: test

Additional resources

  • See ipa group-add-member-manager --help for more details.

19.9. Viewing group members using IdM CLI

This section describes how to view members of a group using IdM CLI. You can view both direct and indirect group members. For more information, see Direct and indirect group members.

Procedure:

  • To list members of a group, use the ipa group-show group_name command. For example:

    $ ipa group-show group_a
      ...
      Member users: user_a
      Member groups: group_b
      Indirect Member users: user_b
    Note

    The list of indirect members does not include external users from trusted Active Directory domains. The Active Directory trust user objects are not visible in the Identity Management interface because they do not exist as LDAP objects within Identity Management.

19.10. Removing a member from a user group using IdM CLI

This section describes how to remove a member from a user group using IdM CLI.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Optional. Use the ipa group-show command to confirm that the group includes the member you want to remove.
  2. Remove a member from a user group by using the ipa group-remove-member command.

    Specify members to remove using these options:

    • --users removes an IdM user
    • --external removes a user that exists outside the IdM domain, in the format of DOMAIN\user_name or user_name@domain
    • --groups removes an IdM user group

    For example, to remove user1, user2, and group1 from a group called group_name:

    $ ipa group-remove-member group_name --users=user1 --users=user2 --groups=group1

19.11. Removing users or groups as member managers from an IdM user group using the IdM CLI

This section describes how to remove users or groups as member managers from an IdM user group using the IdM CLI. Member managers can remove users or groups from IdM user groups but cannot change the attributes of a group.

Prerequisites

  • You must be logged in as the administrator. For details, see Using kinit to log in to IdM manually.
  • You must have the name of the existing member manager user or group you are removing and the name of the group they are managing.

Procedure

  • Remove a user as a member manager of an IdM user group by using the ipa group-remove-member-manager command.

    For example, to remove the user test as a member manager of group_a:

    $ ipa group-remove-member-manager group_a --users=test
    Group name: group_a
    GID: 1133400009
    Membership managed by groups: group_admins
    ---------------------------
    Number of members removed 1
    ---------------------------

    User test can no longer manage members of group_a.

  • Remove a group as a member manager of an IdM user group by using the ipa group-remove-member-manager command.

    For example, to remove the group group_admins as a member manager of group_a:

    $ ipa group-remove-member-manager group_a --groups=group_admins
    Group name: group_a
    GID: 1133400009
    ---------------------------
    Number of members removed 1
    ---------------------------

    Group group_admins can no longer manage members of group_a.

Note

After you remove a member manager from a user group, the update may take some time to spread to all clients in your Identity Management environment.

Verification steps

  • Using the ipa group-show command to verify the user and group were removed as member managers.

    $ ipa group-show group_a
    Group name: group_a
    GID: 1133400009

Additional resources

  • See ipa group-remove-member-manager --help for more details.

Chapter 20. Managing user groups in IdM Web UI

This chapter introduces user groups management using the IdM web UI.

A user group is a set of users with common privileges, password policies, and other characteristics.

A user group in Identity Management (IdM) can include:

  • IdM users
  • other IdM user groups
  • external users, which are users that exist outside of IdM

20.1. The different group types in IdM

IdM supports the following types of groups:

POSIX groups (the default)

POSIX groups support Linux POSIX attributes for their members. Note that groups that interact with Active Directory cannot use POSIX attributes.

POSIX attributes identify users as separate entities. Examples of POSIX attributes relevant to users include uidNumber, a user number (UID), and gidNumber, a group number (GID).

Non-POSIX groups

Non-POSIX groups do not support POSIX attributes. For example, these groups do not have a GID defined.

All members of this type of group must belong to the IdM domain.

External groups

Use external groups to add group members that exist in an identity store outside of the IdM domain, such as:

  • A local system
  • An Active Directory domain
  • A directory service

External groups do not support POSIX attributes. For example, these groups do not have a GID defined.

Table 20.1. User groups created by default

Group nameDefault group members

ipausers

All IdM users

admins

Users with administrative privileges, including the default admin user

editors

This is a legacy group that no longer has any special privileges

trust admins

Users with privileges to manage the Active Directory trusts

When you add a user to a user group, the user gains the privileges and policies associated with the group. For example, to grant administrative privileges to a user, add the user to the admins group.

Warning

Do not delete the admins group. As admins is a pre-defined group required by IdM, this operation causes problems with certain commands.

In addition, IdM creates user private groups by default whenever a new user is created in IdM. For more information about private groups, see Adding users without a private group.

20.2. Direct and indirect group members

User group attributes in IdM apply to both direct and indirect members: when group B is a member of group A, all users in group B are considered indirect members of group A.

For example, in the following diagram:

  • User 1 and User 2 are direct members of group A.
  • User 3, User 4, and User 5 are indirect members of group A.

Figure 20.1. Direct and Indirect Group Membership

A chart with Group A (with 2 users) and Group B (with 3 users). Group B is nested inside Group A so Group A contains a total of 5 users.

If you set a password policy for user group A, the policy also applies to all users in user group B.

20.3. Adding a user group using IdM Web UI

This section describes how to add a user group using the IdM Web UI.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in to the IdM Web UI.

Procedure

  1. Click Identity → Groups, and select User Groups in the left sidebar.
  2. Click Add to start adding the group.
  3. Fill out the information about the group. For more information about user group types, see The different group types in IdM.

    You can specify a custom GID for the group. If you do this, be careful to avoid ID conflicts. If you do not specify a custom GID, IdM automatically assigns a GID from the available ID range.

    Screenshot of the "Add user group" pop-up window with the following fields: Group name (which is a required field) - Description - Group Type - GID. The "Add" button is at the bottom.
  4. Click Add to confirm.

20.4. Deleting a user group using IdM Web UI

This section describes how to delete a user group using the IdM Web UI. Note that deleting a group does not delete the group members from IdM.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in to the IdM Web UI.

Procedure

  1. Click Identity → Groups and select User Groups.
  2. Select the group to delete.
  3. Click Delete.
  4. Click Delete to confirm.

20.5. Adding a member to a user group using IdM Web UI

You can add both users and user groups as members of a user group. For more information, see The different group types in IdM and Direct and indirect group members.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in to the IdM Web UI.

Procedure

  1. Click Identity → Groups and select User Groups in the left sidebar.
  2. Click the name of the group.
  3. Select the type of group member you want to add: Users, User Groups, or External.

    A screenshot of the "User Group" page highlighting the three buttons for the three categories of group members you can add: "Users" - "User Groups" - "External users".
  4. Click Add.
  5. Select the check box next to one or more members you want to add.
  6. Click the rightward arrow to move the selected members to the group.

    A screenshot of the "Add users into user group group_a" pop-up window with a column to the left with "Available users" logins that can be checked. There is a right-arrow you can click to add users to the "Prospective" list on the right.
  7. Click Add to confirm.

20.6. Adding users or groups as member managers to an IdM user group using the Web UI

This section describes how to add users or groups as member managers to an IdM user group using the Web UI. Member managers can add users or groups to IdM user groups but cannot change the attributes of a group.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in to the IdM Web UI.
  • You must have the name of the user or group you are adding as member managers and the name of the group you want them to manage.

Procedure

  1. Click Identity → Groups and select User Groups in the left sidebar.
  2. Click the name of the group.
  3. Select the type of group member manager you want to add: Users or User Groups.

    groups add member manager
  4. Click Add.
  5. Select the check box next to one or more members you want to add.
  6. Click the rightward arrow to move the selected members to the group.

    groups add member managers users
  7. Click Add to confirm.
Note

After you add a member manager to a user group, the update may take some time to spread to all clients in your Identity Management environment.

Verification steps

  • Verify the newly added user or user group has been added to the member manager list of users or user groups:

    groups member manager added

Additional resources

  • See ipa group-add-member-manager --help for more information.

20.7. Viewing group members using IdM Web UI

This section describes how to view members of a group using the IdM Web UI. You can view both direct and indirect group members. For more information, see Direct and indirect group members.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in to the IdM Web UI.

Procedure

  1. Select Identity → Groups.
  2. Select User Groups in the left sidebar.
  3. Click the name of the group you want to view.
  4. Switch between Direct Membership and Indirect Membership.

    A screenshot showing radial buttons next to the "Direct Membership" and "Indirect Membership" options next to "Show Results."

20.8. Removing a member from a user group using IdM Web UI

This section describes how to remove a member from a user group using the IdM Web UI.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in to the IdM Web UI.

Procedure

  1. Click Identity → Groups and select User Groups in the left sidebar.
  2. Click the name of the group.
  3. Select the type of group member you want to remove: Users, User Groups, or External.

    A screenshot of the "User Group" page highlighting the three buttons for the three categories of group members you can add: "Users" - "User Groups" - "External users".
  4. Select the check box next to the member you want to remove.
  5. Click Delete.
  6. Click Delete to confirm.

20.9. Removing users or groups as member managers from an IdM user group using the Web UI

This section describes how to remove users or groups as member managers from an IdM user group using the Web UI. Member managers can remove users or groups from IdM user groups but cannot change the attributes of a group.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in to the IdM Web UI.
  • You must have the name of the existing member manager user or group you are removing and the name of the group they are managing.

Procedure

  1. Click Identity → Groups and select User Groups in the left sidebar.
  2. Click the name of the group.
  3. Select the type of member manager you want to remove: Users or User Groups.

    groups add member manager
  4. Select the check box next to the member manager you want to remove.
  5. Click Delete.
  6. Click Delete to confirm.
Note

After you remove a member manager from a user group, the update may take some time to spread to all clients in your Identity Management environment.

Verification steps

  • Verify the user or user group has been removed from the member manager list of users or user groups:

    groups member manager removed

Additional resources

  • See ipa group-add-member-manager --help for more details.

Chapter 21. Managing user groups using Ansible playbooks

This section introduces user group management using Ansible playbooks.

A user group is a set of users with common privileges, password policies, and other characteristics.

A user group in Identity Management (IdM) can include:

  • IdM users
  • other IdM user groups
  • external users, which are users that exist outside of IdM

The section includes the following topics:

21.1. The different group types in IdM

IdM supports the following types of groups:

POSIX groups (the default)

POSIX groups support Linux POSIX attributes for their members. Note that groups that interact with Active Directory cannot use POSIX attributes.

POSIX attributes identify users as separate entities. Examples of POSIX attributes relevant to users include uidNumber, a user number (UID), and gidNumber, a group number (GID).

Non-POSIX groups

Non-POSIX groups do not support POSIX attributes. For example, these groups do not have a GID defined.

All members of this type of group must belong to the IdM domain.

External groups

Use external groups to add group members that exist in an identity store outside of the IdM domain, such as:

  • A local system
  • An Active Directory domain
  • A directory service

External groups do not support POSIX attributes. For example, these groups do not have a GID defined.

Table 21.1. User groups created by default

Group nameDefault group members

ipausers

All IdM users

admins

Users with administrative privileges, including the default admin user

editors

This is a legacy group that no longer has any special privileges

trust admins

Users with privileges to manage the Active Directory trusts

When you add a user to a user group, the user gains the privileges and policies associated with the group. For example, to grant administrative privileges to a user, add the user to the admins group.

Warning

Do not delete the admins group. As admins is a pre-defined group required by IdM, this operation causes problems with certain commands.

In addition, IdM creates user private groups by default whenever a new user is created in IdM. For more information about private groups, see Adding users without a private group.

21.2. Direct and indirect group members

User group attributes in IdM apply to both direct and indirect members: when group B is a member of group A, all users in group B are considered indirect members of group A.

For example, in the following diagram:

  • User 1 and User 2 are direct members of group A.
  • User 3, User 4, and User 5 are indirect members of group A.

Figure 21.1. Direct and Indirect Group Membership

A chart with Group A (with 2 users) and Group B (with 3 users). Group B is nested inside Group A so Group A contains a total of 5 users.

If you set a password policy for user group A, the policy also applies to all users in user group B.

21.3. Ensuring the presence of IdM groups and group members using Ansible playbooks

The following procedure describes ensuring the presence of IdM groups and group members - both users and user groups - using an Ansible playbook.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Create an inventory file, for example inventory.file, and define ipaserver in it:

    [ipaserver]
    server.idm.example.com
  2. Create an Ansible playbook file with the necessary user and group information:

    ---
    - name: Playbook to handle groups
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
    
      tasks:
      - name: Create group ops with gid 1234
        ipagroup:
          ipaadmin_password: MySecret123
          name: ops
          gidnumber: 1234
    
      - name: Create group sysops
        ipagroup:
          ipaadmin_password: MySecret123
          name: sysops
          user:
          - idm_user
    
      - name: Create group appops
        ipagroup:
          ipaadmin_password: MySecret123
          name: appops
    
      - name: Add group members sysops and appops to group ops
        ipagroup:
          ipaadmin_password: MySecret123
          name: ops
          group:
          - sysops
          - appops
  3. Run the playbook:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i path_to_inventory_directory/inventory.file path_to_playbooks_directory/add-group-members.yml

Verification steps

You can verify if the ops group contains sysops and appops as direct members and idm_user as an indirect member by using the ipa group-show command:

  1. Log into ipaserver as administrator:

    $ ssh admin@server.idm.example.com
    Password:
    [admin@server /]$
  2. Display information about ops:

    ipaserver]$ ipa group-show ops
      Group name: ops
      GID: 1234
      Member groups: sysops, appops
      Indirect Member users: idm_user

    The appops and sysops groups - the latter including the idm_user user - exist in IdM.

Additional resources

  • See the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/README-group.md Markdown file.

21.4. Using Ansible to enable AD users to administer IdM

This section describes how to use an Ansible playbook to ensure that a user ID override is present in an Identity Management (IdM) group. The user ID override is the override of an Active Directory (AD) user that you created in the Default Trust View after you established a trust with AD. As a result of running the playbook, an AD user, for example an AD administrator, is able to fully administer IdM without having two different accounts and passwords.

Prerequisites

  • You know the IdM admin password.
  • You have installed a trust with AD.
  • The user ID override of the AD user already exists in IdM. If it does not, create it with the ipa idoverrideuser-add 'default trust view' ad_user@ad.example.com command.
  • The group to which you are adding the user ID override already exists in IdM.
  • You are using the 4.8.7 version of IdM or later. To view the version of IdM you have installed on your server, enter ipa --version.
  • You have configured an Ansible control node that meets the following requirements:

    • You are using Ansible version 2.8 or later.
    • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package.
    • In the ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory, you have created an Ansible inventory file with the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) of the IdM server where you are configuring the group membership.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to your ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory:

    $ cd ~/MyPlaybooks/
  2. Create an add-useridoverride-to-group.yml playbook with the following content:

    ---
    - name: Playbook to ensure presence of users in a group
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
    
    
      - name: Ensure the ad_user@ad.example.com user ID override is a member of the admins group:
        ipagroup:
          ipaadmin_password: Secret123
          name: admins
          idoverrideuser:
          - ad_user@ad.example.com

    In the example:

    • Secret123 is the IdM admin password.
    • admins is the name of the IdM POSIX group to which you are adding the ad_user@ad.example.com ID override. Members of this group have full administrator privileges.
    • ad_user@ad.example.com is the user ID override of an AD administrator. The user is stored in the AD domain with which a trust has been established.
  3. Save the file.
  4. Run the Ansible playbook specifying the playbook file and the inventory file:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i inventory add-useridoverride-to-group.yml

Additional resources

21.5. Ensuring the presence of member managers in IdM user groups using Ansible playbooks

The following procedure describes ensuring the presence of IdM member managers - both users and user groups - using an Ansible playbook.

Prerequisites

  • You know the IdM administrator password.
  • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller.
  • You must have the name of the user or group you are adding as member managers and the name of the group you want them to manage.

Procedure

  1. Create an inventory file, for example inventory.file, and define ipaserver in it:

    [ipaserver]
    server.idm.example.com
  2. Create an Ansible playbook file with the necessary user and group member management information:

    ---
    - name: Playbook to handle membership management
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
    
      tasks:
      - name: Ensure user test is present for group_a
        ipagroup:
          ipaadmin_password: MySecret123
          name: group_a
          membermanager_user: test
    
      - name: Ensure group_admins is present for group_a
        ipagroup:
          ipaadmin_password: MySecret123
          name: group_a
          membermanager_group: group_admins
  3. Run the playbook:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i path_to_inventory_directory/inventory.file path_to_playbooks_directory/add-member-managers-user-groups.yml

Verification steps

You can verify if the group_a group contains test as a member manager and group_admins is a member manager of group_a by using the ipa group-show command:

  1. Log into ipaserver as administrator:

    $ ssh admin@server.idm.example.com
    Password:
    [admin@server /]$
  2. Display information about managergroup1:

    ipaserver]$ ipa group-show group_a
      Group name: group_a
      GID: 1133400009
      Membership managed by groups: group_admins
      Membership managed by users: test

Additional resources

  • See ipa host-add-member-manager --help.
  • See the ipa man page.

21.6. Ensuring the absence of member managers in IdM user groups using Ansible playbooks

The following procedure describes ensuring the absence of IdM member managers - both users and user groups - using an Ansible playbook.

Prerequisites

  • You know the IdM administrator password.
  • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller.
  • You must have the name of the existing member manager user or group you are removing and the name of the group they are managing.

Procedure

  1. Create an inventory file, for example inventory.file, and define ipaserver in it:

    [ipaserver]
    server.idm.example.com
  2. Create an Ansible playbook file with the necessary user and group member management information:

    ---
    - name: Playbook to handle membership management
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
    
      tasks:
      - name: Ensure member manager user and group members are absent for group_a
        ipagroup:
          ipaadmin_password: MySecret123
          name: group_a
          membermanager_user: test
          membermanager_group: group_admins
          action: member
          state: absent
  3. Run the playbook:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i path_to_inventory_directory/inventory.file path_to_playbooks_directory/ensure-member-managers-are-absent.yml

Verification steps

You can verify if the group_a group does not contain test as a member manager and group_admins as a member manager of group_a by using the ipa group-show command:

  1. Log into ipaserver as administrator:

    $ ssh admin@server.idm.example.com
    Password:
    [admin@server /]$
  2. Display information about group_a:

    ipaserver]$ ipa group-show group_a
      Group name: group_a
      GID: 1133400009

Additional resources

  • See ipa host-remove-member-manager --help.
  • See the ipa man page.

Chapter 22. Automating group membership using IdM CLI

Using automatic group membership allows you to assign users and hosts to groups automatically based on their attributes. For example, you can:

  • Divide employees' user entries into groups based on the employees' manager, location, or any other attribute.
  • Divide hosts based on their class, location, or any other attribute.
  • Add all users or all hosts to a single global group.

This chapter covers the following topics:

22.1. Benefits of automatic group membership

Using automatic membership for users allows you to:

  • Reduce the overhead of manually managing group memberships

    You no longer have to assign every user and host to groups manually.

  • Improve consistency in user and host management

    Users and hosts are assigned to groups based on strictly defined and automatically evaluated criteria.

  • Simplify the management of group-based settings

    Various settings are defined for groups and then applied to individual group members, for example sudo rules, automount, or access control. Adding users and hosts to groups automatically makes managing these settings easier.

22.2. Automember rules

When configuring automatic group membership, the administrator defines automember rules. An automember rule applies to a specific user or host target group. It cannot apply to more than one group at a time.

After creating a rule, the administrator adds conditions to it. These specify which users or hosts get included or excluded from the target group:

  • Inclusive conditions

    When a user or host entry meets an inclusive condition, it will be included in the target group.

  • Exclusive conditions

    When a user or host entry meets an exclusive condition, it will not be included in the target group.

The conditions are specified as regular expressions in the Perl-compatible regular expressions (PCRE) format. For more information on PCRE, see the pcresyntax(3) man page.

Note

IdM evaluates exclusive conditions before inclusive conditions. In case of a conflict, exclusive conditions take precedence over inclusive conditions.

An automember rule applies to every entry created in the future. These entries will be automatically added to the specified target group. If an entry meets the conditions specified in multiple automember rules, it will be added to all the corresponding groups.

Existing entries are not affected by the new rule. If you want to change existing entries, see Applying automember rules to existing entries using IdM CLI.

22.3. Adding an automember rule using IdM CLI

This section describes adding an automember rule using the IdM CLI. For information about automember rules, see Automember rules.

After adding an automember rule, you can add conditions to it using the procedure described in Adding a condition to an automember rule.

Note

Existing entries are not affected by the new rule. If you want to change existing entries, see Applying automember rules to existing entries using IdM CLI.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Enter the ipa automember-add command to add an automember rule.
  2. When prompted, specify:

    • Automember rule. This is the target group name.
    • Grouping Type. This specifies whether the rule targets a user group or a host group. To target a user group, enter group. To target a host group, enter hostgroup.

    For example, to add an automember rule for a user group named user_group:

    $ ipa automember-add
    Automember Rule: user_group
    Grouping Type: group
    --------------------------------
    Added automember rule "user_group"
    --------------------------------
        Automember Rule: user_group

Verification steps

22.4. Adding a condition to an automember rule using IdM CLI

This section describes how to add a condition to an automember rule using the IdM CLI. For information about automember rules, see Automember rules.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Define one or more inclusive or exclusive conditions using the ipa automember-add-condition command.
  2. When prompted, specify:

    • Automember rule. This is the target rule name. See Automember rules for details.
    • Attribute Key. This specifies the entry attribute to which the filter will apply. For example, uid for users.
    • Grouping Type. This specifies whether the rule targets a user group or a host group. To target a user group, enter group. To target a host group, enter hostgroup.
    • Inclusive regex and Exclusive regex. These specify one or more conditions as regular expressions. If you only want to specify one condition, press Enter when prompted for the other.

    For example, the following condition targets all users with any value (.*) in their user login attribute (uid).

    $ ipa automember-add-condition
    Automember Rule: user_group
    Attribute Key: uid
    Grouping Type: group
    [Inclusive Regex]: .*
    [Exclusive Regex]:
    ----------------------------------
    Added condition(s) to "user_group"
    ----------------------------------
      Automember Rule: user_group
      Inclusive Regex: uid=.*
    ----------------------------
    Number of conditions added 1
    ----------------------------

    As another example, you can use an automembership rule to target all Windows users synchronized from Active Directory (AD). To achieve this, create a condition that that targets all users with ntUser in their objectClass attribute, which is shared by all AD users:

    $ ipa automember-add-condition
    Automember Rule: ad_users
    Attribute Key: objectclass
    Grouping Type: group
    [Inclusive Regex]: ntUser
    [Exclusive Regex]:
    -------------------------------------
    Added condition(s) to "ad_users"
    -------------------------------------
      Automember Rule: ad_users
      Inclusive Regex: objectclass=ntUser
    ----------------------------
    Number of conditions added 1
    ----------------------------

Verification steps

22.5. Viewing existing automember rules using IdM CLI

This section describes how to view existing automember rules using the IdM CLI.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Enter the ipa automember-find command.
  2. When prompted, specify the Grouping type:

    • To target a user group, enter group.
    • To target a host group, enter hostgroup.

      For example:

    $ ipa automember-find
    Grouping Type: group
    ---------------
    1 rules matched
    ---------------
      Automember Rule: user_group
      Inclusive Regex: uid=.*
    ----------------------------
    Number of entries returned 1
    ----------------------------

22.6. Deleting an automember rule using IdM CLI

This section describes how to delete an automember rule using the IdM CLI.

Deleting an automember rule also deletes all conditions associated with the rule. To remove only specific conditions from a rule, see Removing a condition from an automember rule using IdM CLI.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Enter the ipa automember-del command.
  2. When prompted, specify:

    • Automember rule. This is the rule you want to delete.
    • Grouping rule. This specifies whether the rule you want to delete is for a user group or a host group. Enter group or hostgroup.

22.7. Removing a condition from an automember rule using IdM CLI

This section describes how to remove a specific condition from an automember rule.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Enter the ipa automember-remove-condition command.
  2. When prompted, specify:

    • Automember rule. This is the name of the rule from which you want to remove a condition.
    • Attribute Key. This is the target entry attribute. For example, uid for users.
    • Grouping Type. This specifies whether the condition you want to delete is for a user group or a host group. Enter group or hostgroup.
    • Inclusive regex and Exclusive regex. These specify the conditions you want to remove. If you only want to specify one condition, press Enter when prompted for the other.

      For example:

    $ ipa automember-remove-condition
    Automember Rule: user_group
    Attribute Key: uid
    Grouping Type: group
    [Inclusive Regex]: .*
    [Exclusive Regex]:
    -----------------------------------
    Removed condition(s) from "user_group"
    -----------------------------------
      Automember Rule: user_group
    ------------------------------
    Number of conditions removed 1
    ------------------------------

22.8. Applying automember rules to existing entries using IdM CLI

Automember rules apply automatically to user and host entries created after the rules were added. They are not applied retroactively to entries that existed before the rules were added.

To apply automember rules to previously added entries, you have to manually rebuild automatic membership. Rebuilding automatic membership re-evaluates all existing automember rules and applies them either to all user or hosts entries, or to specific entries.

Note

Rebuilding automatic membership does not remove user or host entries from groups, even if the entries no longer match the group’s inclusive conditions. To remove them manually, see Removing a member from a user group using IdM CLI or Removing IdM host group members using the CLI.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  • To rebuild automatic membership, enter the ipa automember-rebuild command. Use the following options to specify the entries to target:

    • To rebuild automatic membership for all users, use the --type=group option:

      $ ipa automember-rebuild --type=group
      --------------------------------------------------------
      Automember rebuild task finished. Processed (9) entries.
      --------------------------------------------------------
    • To rebuild automatic membership for all hosts, use the --type=hostgroup option.
    • To rebuild automatic membership for a specified user or users, use the --users=target_user option:

      $ ipa automember-rebuild --users=target_user1 --users=target_user2
      --------------------------------------------------------
      Automember rebuild task finished. Processed (2) entries.
      --------------------------------------------------------
    • To rebuild automatic membership for a specified host or hosts, use the --hosts=client.idm.example.com option.

22.9. Configuring a default automember group using IdM CLI

When you configure a default automember group, new user or host entries that do not match any automember rule are automatically added to this default group.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Enter the ipa automember-default-group-set command to configure a default automember group.
  2. When prompted, specify:

    • Default (fallback) Group, which specifies the target group name.
    • Grouping Type, which specifies whether the target is a user group or a host group. To target a user group, enter group. To target a host group, enter hostgroup.

      For example:

      $ ipa automember-default-group-set
      Default (fallback) Group: default_user_group
      Grouping Type: group
      ---------------------------------------------------
      Set default (fallback) group for automember "default_user_group"
      ---------------------------------------------------
        Default (fallback) Group: cn=default_user_group,cn=groups,cn=accounts,dc=example,dc=com
    Note

    To remove the current default automember group, enter the ipa automember-default-group-remove command.

Verification steps

  • To verify that the group is set correctly, enter the ipa automember-default-group-show command. The command displays the current default automember group. For example:

    $ ipa automember-default-group-show
    Grouping Type: group
      Default (fallback) Group: cn=default_user_group,cn=groups,cn=accounts,dc=example,dc=com

Chapter 23. Automating group membership using IdM Web UI

Using automatic group membership enables you to assign users and hosts to groups automatically based on their attributes. For example, you can:

  • Divide employees' user entries into groups based on the employees' manager, location, or any other attribute.
  • Divide hosts based on their class, location, or any other attribute.
  • Add all users or all hosts to a single global group.

This chapter covers the following topics:

23.1. Benefits of automatic group membership

Using automatic membership for users allows you to:

  • Reduce the overhead of manually managing group memberships

    You no longer have to assign every user and host to groups manually.

  • Improve consistency in user and host management

    Users and hosts are assigned to groups based on strictly defined and automatically evaluated criteria.

  • Simplify the management of group-based settings

    Various settings are defined for groups and then applied to individual group members, for example sudo rules, automount, or access control. Adding users and hosts to groups automatically makes managing these settings easier.

23.2. Automember rules

When configuring automatic group membership, the administrator defines automember rules. An automember rule applies to a specific user or host target group. It cannot apply to more than one group at a time.

After creating a rule, the administrator adds conditions to it. These specify which users or hosts get included or excluded from the target group:

  • Inclusive conditions

    When a user or host entry meets an inclusive condition, it will be included in the target group.

  • Exclusive conditions

    When a user or host entry meets an exclusive condition, it will not be included in the target group.

The conditions are specified as regular expressions in the Perl-compatible regular expressions (PCRE) format. For more information on PCRE, see the pcresyntax(3) man page.

Note

IdM evaluates exclusive conditions before inclusive conditions. In case of a conflict, exclusive conditions take precedence over inclusive conditions.

An automember rule applies to every entry created in the future. These entries will be automatically added to the specified target group. If an entry meets the conditions specified in multiple automember rules, it will be added to all the corresponding groups.

Existing entries are not affected by the new rule. If you want to change existing entries, see Applying automember rules to existing entries using IdM Web UI.

23.3. Adding an automember rule using IdM Web UI

This section describes adding an automember rule using the IdM Web UI. For information about automember rules, see Automember rules.

Note

Existing entries are not affected by the new rule. If you want to change existing entries, see Applying automember rules to existing entries using IdM Web UI.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in to the IdM Web UI.
  • You must be a member of the admins group.
  • The target group of the new rule exists in IdM.

Procedure

  1. Click Identity → Automember, and select either User group rules or Host group rules.
  2. Click Add.
  3. In the Automember rule field, select the group to which the rule will apply. This is the target group name.

    Screenshot of the "Add Rule" window displaying the drop-down field for the Automember Rule where you can choose between rules you have previously defined.
  4. Click Add to confirm.
  5. Optional: You can add conditions to the new rule using the procedure described in Adding a condition to an automember rule using IdM Web UI.

23.4. Adding a condition to an automember rule using IdM Web UI

This section describes how to add a condition to an automember rule using the IdM Web UI. For information about automember rules, see Automember rules.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in to the IdM Web UI.
  • You must be a member of the admins group.
  • The target rule exists in IdM.

Procedure

  1. Click Identity → Automember, and select either User group rules or Host group rules.
  2. Click on the rule to which you want to add a condition.
  3. In the Inclusive or Exclusive sections, click Add.

    A screenshot of the User group rule page displaying attributes for the user_group rule. The "Inclusive" section has a table with an "Attribute" column and an "Expression" column with an entry for the Attribute "uid" and its Expression is ".*". At the bottom is the Exclusive section which also has a table with an Attribute column and an Expression column but it has no entries.
  4. In the Attribute field, select the required attribute, for example uid.
  5. In the Expression field, define a regular expression.
  6. Click Add.

    For example, the following condition targets all users with any value (.*) in their user ID (uid) attribute.

    Screenshot of the "Add Condition into automember" pop-up window displaying a drop-down menu for an Attribute (uid is selected) and a field for the corresponding "Expression" (which is required and .* has been entered). The "Add" button is at the bottom of the window.

23.5. Viewing existing automember rules and conditions using IdM Web UI

This section describes how to view existing automember rules and conditions using the IdM Web UI.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in to the IdM Web UI.
  • You must be a member of the admins group.

Procedure

  1. Click Identity → Automember, and select either User group rules or Host group rules to view the respective automember rules.
  2. Optional: Click on a rule to see the conditions for that rule in the Inclusive or Exclusive sections.

    A screenshot of the details of the user group rule "user_group." There is a "General" section displaying the name of the Automember rule and a "Description." There is an "Inclusive" section at the bottom with a table displaying entries with columns labeled "Attribute" and "Expression." This table has one entry with uid as the Attribute and .* as the Expression. At the very bottom there is an "Exclusive" section with a table that matches the structure of the "Inclusive" table but it has no entries.

23.6. Deleting an automember rule using IdM Web UI

This section describes how to delete an automember rule using the IdM Web UI.

Deleting an automember rule also deletes all conditions associated with the rule. To remove only specific conditions from a rule, see Removing a condition from an automember rule using IdM Web UI.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in to the IdM Web UI.
  • You must be a member of the admins group.

Procedure

  1. Click Identity → Automember, and select either User group rules or Host group rules to view the respective automember rules.
  2. Select the check box next to the rule you want to remove.
  3. Click Delete.

    A screenshot of the "User group rules" page displaying a table of automember rules. The checkbox for the "user_group" entry has been selected and the "Delete" button has been highlighted.
  4. Click Delete to confirm.

23.7. Removing a condition from an automember rule using IdM Web UI

This section describes how to remove a specific condition from an automember rule using the IdM Web UI.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in to the IdM Web UI.
  • You must be a member of the admins group.

Procedure

  1. Click Identity → Automember, and select either User group rules or Host group rules to view the respective automember rules.
  2. Click on a rule to see the conditions for that rule in the Inclusive or Exclusive sections.
  3. Select the check box next to the conditions you want to remove.
  4. Click Delete.

    A screenshot of the "User group rule" page displaying information for "user_group". An entry in the "Inclusive" section has its checkbox checked and the "Delete" button that pertains to the "Inclusive" section is highlighted.
  5. Click Delete to confirm.

23.8. Applying automember rules to existing entries using IdM Web UI

Automember rules apply automatically to user and host entries created after the rules were added. They are not applied retroactively to entries that existed before the rules were added.

To apply automember rules to previously added entries, you have to manually rebuild automatic membership. Rebuilding automatic membership re-evaluates all existing automember rules and applies them either to all user or hosts entries, or to specific entries.

Note

Rebuilding automatic membership does not remove user or host entries from groups, even if the entries no longer match the group’s inclusive conditions. To remove them manually, see Removing a member from a user group using IdM Web UI or Removing host group members in the IdM Web UI.

23.8.1. Rebuilding automatic membership for all users or hosts

This section describes how to rebuild automatic membership for all user or host entries.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in to the IdM Web UI.
  • You must be a member of the admins group.

Procedure

  1. Select IdentityUsers or Hosts.
  2. Click ActionsRebuild auto membership.

    A screenshot highlighting that "Rebuild auto membership" is an option from the "Actions" drop-down menu.

23.8.2. Rebuilding automatic membership for a single user or host only

This section describes how to rebuild automatic membership for a specific user or host entry.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in to the IdM Web UI.
  • You must be a member of the admins group.

Procedure

  1. Select IdentityUsers or Hosts.
  2. Click on the required user or host name.
  3. Click ActionsRebuild auto membership.

    A screenshot highlighting the "Rebuild auto membership" option among many others in the contents of the "Actions" drop-down menu.

23.9. Configuring a default user group using IdM Web UI

When you configure a default user group, new user entries that do not match any automember rule are automatically added to this default group.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in to the IdM Web UI.
  • You must be a member of the admins group.
  • The target user group you want to set as default exists in IdM.

Procedure

  1. Click Identity → Automember, and select User group rules.
  2. In the Default user group field, select the group you want to set as the default user group.

    Setting a default user group

23.10. Configuring a default host group using IdM Web UI

When you configure a default host group, new host entries that do not match any automember rule are automatically added to this default group.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in to the IdM Web UI.
  • You must be a member of the admins group.
  • The target host group you want to set as default exists in IdM.

Procedure

  1. Click Identity → Automember, and select Host group rules.
  2. In the Default host group field, select the group you want to set as the default host group.

    Setting a default host group

Chapter 24. Using Ansible to automate group membership in IdM

Using automatic group membership, you can assign users and hosts user groups and host groups automatically, based on their attributes. For example, you can:

  • Divide employees' user entries into groups based on the employees' manager, location, position or any other attribute. You can list all attributes by entering ipa user-add --help on the command-line.
  • Divide hosts into groups based on their class, location, or any other attribute. You can list all attributes by entering ipa host-add --help on the command-line.
  • Add all users or all hosts to a single global group.

You can use Red Hat Ansible Engine to automate the management of automatic group membership in Identity Management (IdM).

This section covers the following topics:

24.1. Preparing your Ansible control node for managing IdM

As a system administrator managing Identity Management (IdM), when working with Red Hat Ansible Engine, it is good practice to do the following:

  • Create a subdirectory dedicated to Ansible playbooks in your home directory, for example ~/MyPlaybooks.
  • Copy and adapt sample Ansible playbooks from the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/* and /usr/share/doc/rhel-system-roles/* directories and subdirectories into your ~/MyPlaybooks directory.
  • Include your inventory file in your ~/MyPlaybooks directory.

By following this practice, you can find all your playbooks in one place and you can run your playbooks without invoking root privileges.

Note

You only need root privileges on the managed nodes to execute the ipaserver, ipareplica, ipaclient, ipabackup, ipasmartcard_server and ipasmartcard_client ansible-freeipa roles. These roles require privileged access to directories and the dnf software package manager.

This section describes how to create the ~/MyPlaybooks directory and configure it so that you can use it to store and run Ansible playbooks.

Prerequisites

  • You have installed an IdM server on your managed nodes, server.idm.example.com and replica.idm.example.com.
  • You have configured DNS and networking so you can log in to the managed nodes, server.idm.example.com and replica.idm.example.com, directly from the control node.
  • You know the IdM admin password.

Procedure

  1. Create a directory for your Ansible configuration and playbooks in your home directory:

    $ mkdir ~/MyPlaybooks/
  2. Change into the ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory:

    $ cd ~/MyPlaybooks
  3. Create the ~/MyPlaybooks/ansible.cfg file with the following content:

    [defaults]
    inventory = /home/your_username/MyPlaybooks/inventory
    
    [privilege_escalation]
    become=True
  4. Create the ~/MyPlaybooks/inventory file with the following content:

    [ipaserver]
    server.idm.example.com
    
    [ipareplicas]
    replica1.idm.example.com
    replica2.idm.example.com
    
    [ipacluster:children]
    ipaserver
    ipareplicas
    
    [ipacluster:vars]
    ipaadmin_password=SomeADMINpassword
    
    [ipaclients]
    ipaclient1.example.com
    ipaclient2.example.com
    
    [ipaclients:vars]
    ipaadmin_password=SomeADMINpassword

    This configuration defines two host groups, eu and us, for hosts in these locations. Additionally, this configuration defines the ipaserver host group, which contains all hosts from the eu and us groups.

  5. [Optional] Create an SSH public and private key. To simplify access in your test environment, do not set a password on the private key:

    $ ssh-keygen
  6. Copy the SSH public key to the IdM admin account on each managed node:

    $ ssh-copy-id admin@server.idm.example.com
    $ ssh-copy-id admin@replica.idm.example.com

    You must enter the IdM admin password when you enter these commands.

24.2. Using Ansible to ensure that an automember rule for an IdM user group is present

The following procedure describes how to use an Ansible playbook to ensure an automember rule for an Identity Management (IdM) group exists. In the example, the presence of an automember rule is ensured for the testing_group user group.

Prerequisites

  • You know the IdM admin password.
  • The testing_group user group exists in IdM.
  • You have configured an Ansible control node that meets the following requirements:

    • You are using Ansible version 2.8 or later.
    • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller.
    • In the ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory, you have created an Ansible inventory file with the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) of the IdM server where you are configuring these options.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to your ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory:

    $ cd ~/MyPlaybooks/
  2. Copy the automember-group-present.yml Ansible playbook file located in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/automember/ directory:

    $ cp /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/automember/automember-group-present.yml automember-group-present-copy.yml
  3. Open the automember-group-present-copy.yml file for editing.
  4. Adapt the file by setting the following variables in the ipaautomember task section:

    • Set the ipaadmin_password variable to the password of the IdM admin.
    • Set the name variable to testing_group.
    • Set the automember_type variable to group.
    • Ensure that the state variable is set to present.

    This is the modified Ansible playbook file for the current example:

    ---
    - name: Automember group present example
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
      tasks:
      - name: Ensure group automember rule admins is present
        ipaautomember:
          ipaadmin_password: Secret123
          name: testing_group
          automember_type: group
          state: present
  5. Save the file.
  6. Run the Ansible playbook specifying the playbook file and the inventory file:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i inventory automember-group-present-copy.yml

Additional resources

24.3. Using Ansible to ensure that a specified condition is present in an IdM user group automember rule

The following procedure describes how to use an Ansible playbook to ensure that a specified condition exists in an automember rule for an Identity Management (IdM) group. In the example, the presence of a UID-related condition in the automember rule is ensured for the testing_group group. By specifying the .* condition, you ensure that all future IdM users automatically become members of the testing_group.

Prerequisites

  • You know the IdM admin password.
  • The testing_group user group and automember user group rule exist in IdM.
  • You have configured an Ansible control node that meets the following requirements:

    • You are using Ansible version 2.8 or later.
    • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller.
    • In the ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory, you have created an Ansible inventory file with the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) of the IdM server where you are configuring these options.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to your ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory:

    $ cd ~/MyPlaybooks/
  2. Copy the automember-hostgroup-rule-present.yml Ansible playbook file located in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/automember/ directory and name it, for example, automember-usergroup-rule-present.yml:

    $ cp /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/automember/automember-hostgroup-rule-present.yml automember-usergroup-rule-present.yml
  3. Open the automember-usergroup-rule-present.yml file for editing.
  4. Adapt the file by modifying the following parameters:

    • Rename the playbook to correspond to your use case, for example: Automember user group rule member present.
    • Rename the task to correspond to your use case, for example: Ensure an automember condition for a user group is present.
    • Set the following variables in the ipaautomember task section:

      • Set the ipaadmin_password variable to the password of the IdM admin.
      • Set the name variable to testing_group.
      • Set the automember_type variable to group.
      • Ensure that the state variable is set to present.
      • Ensure that the action variable is set to member.
      • Set the inclusive key variable to UID.
      • Set the inclusive expression variable to .*

    This is the modified Ansible playbook file for the current example:

    ---
    - name: Automember user group rule member present
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
      tasks:
      - name: Ensure an automember condition for a user group is present
        ipaautomember:
          ipaadmin_password: Secret123
          name: testing_group
          automember_type: group
          state: present
          action: member
          inclusive:
            - key: UID
              expression: .*
  5. Save the file.
  6. Run the Ansible playbook specifying the playbook file and the inventory file:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i inventory automember-usergroup-rule-present.yml

Verification steps

  1. Log in as an IdM administrator.

    $ kinit admin
  2. Add a user, for example:

    $ ipa user-add user101 --first user --last 101
    -----------------------
    Added user "user101"
    -----------------------
      User login: user101
      First name: user
      Last name: 101
      ...
      Member of groups: ipausers, testing_group
      ...

Additional resources

24.4. Using Ansible to ensure that a condition is absent from an IdM user group automember rule

The following procedure describes how to use an Ansible playbook to ensure a condition is absent from an automember rule for an Identity Management (IdM) group. In the example, the absence of a condition in the automember rule is ensured that specifies that users whose initials are dp should be included. The automember rule is applied to the testing_group group. By applying the condition, you ensure that no future IdM user whose initials are dp becomes a member of the testing_group.

Prerequisites

  • You know the IdM admin password.
  • The testing_group user group and automember user group rule exist in IdM.
  • You have configured an Ansible control node that meets the following requirements:

    • You are using Ansible version 2.8 or later.
    • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller.
    • In the ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory, you have created an Ansible inventory file with the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) of the IdM server where you are configuring these options.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to your ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory:

    $ cd ~/MyPlaybooks/
  2. Copy the automember-hostgroup-rule-absent.yml Ansible playbook file located in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/automember/ directory and name it, for example, automember-usergroup-rule-absent.yml:

    $ cp /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/automember/automember-hostgroup-rule-absent.yml automember-usergroup-rule-absent.yml
  3. Open the automember-usergroup-rule-absent.yml file for editing.
  4. Adapt the file by modifying the following parameters:

    • Rename the playbook to correspond to your use case, for example: Automember user group rule member absent.
    • Rename the task to correspond to your use case, for example: Ensure an automember condition for a user group is absent.
    • Set the following variables in the ipaautomember task section:

      • Set the ipaadmin_password variable to the password of the IdM admin.
      • Set the name variable to testing_group.
      • Set the automember_type variable to group.
      • Ensure that the state variable is set to absent.
      • Ensure that the action variable is set to member.
      • Set the inclusive key variable to initials.
      • Set the inclusive expression variable to dp.

    This is the modified Ansible playbook file for the current example:

    ---
    - name: Automember user group rule member absent
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
      tasks:
      - name: Ensure an automember condition for a user group is absent
        ipaautomember:
          ipaadmin_password: Secret123
          name: testing_group
          automember_type: group
          state: absent
          action: member
          inclusive:
            - key: initials
              expression: dp
  5. Save the file.
  6. Run the Ansible playbook specifying the playbook file and the inventory file:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i inventory automember-usergroup-rule-absent.yml

Verification steps

  1. Log in as an IdM administrator.

    $ kinit admin
  2. View the automember group:

    $ ipa automember-show --type=group testing_group
     Automember Rule: testing_group

The absence of an Inclusive Regex: initials=dp entry in the output confirms that the testing_group automember rule does not contain the condition specified.

Additional resources

24.5. Using Ansible to ensure that an automember rule for an IdM user group is absent

The following procedure describes how to use an Ansible playbook to ensure an automember rule is absent for an Identity Management (IdM) group. In the example, the absence of an automember rule is ensured for the testing_group group.

Note

Deleting an automember rule also deletes all conditions associated with the rule. To remove only specific conditions from a rule, see Using Ansible to ensure that a condition is absent in an IdM user group automember rule.

Prerequisites

  • You know the IdM admin password.
  • You have configured an Ansible control node that meets the following requirements:

    • You are using Ansible version 2.8 or later.
    • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller.
    • In the ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory, you have created an Ansible inventory file with the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) of the IdM server where you are configuring these options.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to your ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory:

    $ cd ~/MyPlaybooks/
  2. Copy the automember-group-absent.yml Ansible playbook file located in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/automember/ directory:

    $ cp /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/automember/automember-group-absent.yml automember-group-absent-copy.yml
  3. Open the automember-group-absent-copy.yml file for editing.
  4. Adapt the file by setting the following variables in the ipaautomember task section:

    • Set the ipaadmin_password variable to the password of the IdM admin.
    • Set the name variable to testing_group.
    • Set the automember_type variable to group.
    • Ensure that the state variable is set to absent.

    This is the modified Ansible playbook file for the current example:

    ---
    - name: Automember group absent example
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
      tasks:
      - name: Ensure group automember rule admins is absent
        ipaautomember:
          ipaadmin_password: Secret123
          name: testing_group
          automember_type: group
          state: absent
  5. Save the file.
  6. Run the Ansible playbook specifying the playbook file and the inventory file:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i inventory automember-group-absent.yml

Additional resources

24.6. Using Ansible to ensure that a condition is present in an IdM host group automember rule

This section describes how to use Ansible to ensure that a condition is present in an IdM host group automember rule. The example describes how to ensure that hosts with the FQDN of .*.idm.example.com are members of the primary_dns_domain_hosts host group and hosts whose FQDN is .*.example.org are not members of the primary_dns_domain_hosts host group.

Prerequisites

  • You know the IdM admin password.
  • The primary_dns_domain_hosts host group and automember host group rule exist in IdM.
  • You have configured an Ansible control node that meets the following requirements:

    • You are using Ansible version 2.8 or later.
    • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller.
    • In the ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory, you have created an Ansible inventory file with the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) of the IdM server where you are configuring these options.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to your ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory:

    $ cd ~/MyPlaybooks/
  2. Copy the automember-hostgroup-rule-present.yml Ansible playbook file located in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/automember/ directory:

    $ cp /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/automember/automember-hostgroup-rule-present.yml automember-hostgroup-rule-present-copy.yml
  3. Open the automember-hostgroup-rule-present-copy.yml file for editing.
  4. Adapt the file by setting the following variables in the ipaautomember task section:

    • Set the ipaadmin_password variable to the password of the IdM admin.
    • Set the name variable to primary_dns_domain_hosts.
    • Set the automember_type variable to hostgroup.
    • Ensure that the state variable is set to present.
    • Ensure that the action variable is set to member.
    • Ensure that the inclusive key variable is set to fqdn.
    • Set the corresponding inclusive expression variable to .*.idm.example.com.
    • Set the exclusive key variable to fqdn.
    • Set the corresponding exclusive expression variable to .*.example.org.

    This is the modified Ansible playbook file for the current example:

    ---
    - name: Automember user group rule member present
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
      tasks:
      - name: Ensure an automember condition for a user group is present
        ipaautomember:
          ipaadmin_password: Secret123
          name: primary_dns_domain_hosts
          automember_type: hostgroup
          state: present
          action: member
          inclusive:
            - key: fqdn
              expression: .*.idm.example.com
          exclusive:
            - key: fqdn
              expression: .*.example.org
  5. Save the file.
  6. Run the Ansible playbook specifying the playbook file and the inventory file:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i inventory automember-hostgroup-rule-present-copy.yml

Additional resources

24.7. Additional resources

Chapter 25. Delegating permissions to user groups to manage users using IdM CLI

Delegation is one of the access control methods in IdM, along with self-service rules and role-based access control (RBAC). You can use delegation to assign permissions to one group of users to manage entries for another group of users.

This section covers the following topics:

25.1. Delegation rules

You can delegate permissions to user groups to manage users by creating delegation rules.

Delegation rules allow a specific user group to perform write (edit) operations on specific attributes for users in another user group. This form of access control rule is limited to editing the values of a subset of attributes you specify in a delegation rule; it does not grant the ability to add or remove whole entries or control over unspecified attributes.

Delegation rules grant permissions to existing user groups in IdM. You can use delegation to, for example, allow the managers user group to manage selected attributes of users in the employees user group.

25.2. Creating a delegation rule using IdM CLI

This section describes how to create a delegation rule using the IdM CLI.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in as a member of the admins group.

Procedure

  • Enter the ipa delegation-add command. Specify the following options:

    • --group: the group who is being granted permissions to the entries of users in the user group.
    • --membergroup: the group whose entries can be edited by members of the delegation group.
    • --permissions: whether users will have the right to view the given attributes (read) and add or change the given attributes (write). If you do not specify permissions, only the write permission will be added.
    • --attrs: the attributes which users in the member group are allowed to view or edit.

    For example:

$ ipa delegation-add "basic manager attributes" --permissions=read --permissions=write --attrs=businesscategory --attrs=departmentnumber --attrs=employeetype --attrs=employeenumber --group=managers --membergroup=employees
-------------------------------------------
Added delegation "basic manager attributes"
-------------------------------------------
  Delegation name: basic manager attributes
  Permissions: read, write
  Attributes: businesscategory, departmentnumber, employeetype, employeenumber
  Member user group: employees
  User group: managers

25.3. Viewing existing delegation rules using IdM CLI

This section describes how to view existing delegation rules using the IdM CLI.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in as a member of the admins group.

Procedure

  • Enter the ipa delegation-find command:
$ ipa delegation-find
--------------------
1 delegation matched
--------------------
  Delegation name: basic manager attributes
  Permissions: read, write
  Attributes: businesscategory, departmentnumber, employeenumber, employeetype
  Member user group: employees
  User group: managers
----------------------------
Number of entries returned 1
----------------------------

25.4. Modifying a delegation rule using IdM CLI

This section describes how to modify an existing delegation rule using the IdM CLI.

Important

The --attrs option overwrites whatever the previous list of supported attributes was, so always include the complete list of attributes along with any new attributes. This also applies to the --permissions option.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in as a member of the admins group.

Procedure

  • Enter the ipa delegation-mod command with the desired changes. For example, to add the displayname attribute to the basic manager attributes example rule:

    $ ipa delegation-mod "basic manager attributes" --attrs=businesscategory --attrs=departmentnumber --attrs=employeetype --attrs=employeenumber --attrs=displayname
    ----------------------------------------------
    Modified delegation "basic manager attributes"
    ----------------------------------------------
      Delegation name: basic manager attributes
      Permissions: read, write
      Attributes: businesscategory, departmentnumber, employeetype, employeenumber, displayname
      Member user group: employees
      User group: managers

25.5. Deleting a delegation rule using IdM CLI

This section describes how to delete an existing delegation rule using the IdM CLI.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in as a member of the admins group.

Procedure

  • Enter the ipa delegation-del command.
  • When prompted, enter the name of the delegation rule you want to delete:

    $ ipa delegation-del
    Delegation name: basic manager attributes
    ---------------------------------------------
    Deleted delegation "basic manager attributes"
    ---------------------------------------------

Chapter 26. Delegating permissions to user groups to manage users using IdM WebUI

Delegation is one of the access control methods in IdM, along with self-service rules and role-based access control (RBAC). You can use delegation to assign permissions to one group of users to manage entries for another group of users.

This section covers the following topics:

26.1. Delegation rules

You can delegate permissions to user groups to manage users by creating delegation rules.

Delegation rules allow a specific user group to perform write (edit) operations on specific attributes for users in another user group. This form of access control rule is limited to editing the values of a subset of attributes you specify in a delegation rule; it does not grant the ability to add or remove whole entries or control over unspecified attributes.

Delegation rules grant permissions to existing user groups in IdM. You can use delegation to, for example, allow the managers user group to manage selected attributes of users in the employees user group.

26.2. Creating a delegation rule using IdM WebUI

This section describes how to create a delegation rule using the IdM WebUI.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in to the IdM Web UI as a member of the admins group.

Procedure

  1. From the IPA Server menu, click Role-Based Access ControlDelegations.
  2. Click Add.

    A screenshot of the IdM Web UI displaying contents of the "Role-Based Access Control" drop-down sub-menu from the "IPA Server" tab. There are five options in the "Role-Based Access Control" drop-down menu: Roles - Privileges - Permissions - Self Service Permissions - Delegations.
  3. In the Add delegation window, do the following:

    1. Name the new delegation rule.
    2. Set the permissions by selecting the check boxes that indicate whether users will have the right to view the given attributes (read) and add or change the given attributes (write).
    3. In the User group drop-down menu, select the group who is being granted permissions to view or edit the entries of users in the member group.
    4. In the Member user group drop-down menu, select the group whose entries can be edited by members of the delegation group.
    5. In the attributes box, select the check boxes by the attributes to which you want to grant permissions.

      A screenshot of the "Add delegation" pop-up window where you can enter details for a delegation. The entry options include a text field for the Delegation name and checkboxes for "read" and "write" permissions. There is also a drop-down menu for the User group - a drop-down menu for the Member user group - and many checkboxes for Attributes (such as departmentnumber - employeenumber - businesscategory - employeetype).
    6. Click the Add button to save the new delegation rule.

26.3. Viewing existing delegation rules using IdM WebUI

This section describes how to view existing delegation rules using the IdM WebUI.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in to the IdM Web UI as a member of the admins group.

Procedure

  • From the IPA Server menu, click Role-Based Access ControlDelegations.

    A screenshot of the IdM Web UI displaying the "Delegations" page from the "Role-Based Access Control" submenu of the "IPA Server" tab. There is a table displaying Delegations organized by their "Delegation name."

26.4. Modifying a delegation rule using IdM WebUI

This section describes how to modify an existing delegation rule using the IdM WebUI.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in to the IdM Web UI as a member of the admins group.

Procedure

  1. From the IPA Server menu, click Role-Based Access ControlDelegations.

    A screenshot of the IdM Web UI displaying the Role-Based Access Control sub page from the IPA Server tab. The Delegations page displays a table with an entry for the "basic manager attributes" Delegation name.
  2. Click on the rule you want to modify.
  3. Make the desired changes:

    • Change the name of the rule.
    • Change granted permissions by selecting the check boxes that indicate whether users will have the right to view the given attributes (read) and add or change the given attributes (write).
    • In the User group drop-down menu, select the group who is being granted permissions to view or edit the entries of users in the member group.
    • In the Member user group drop-down menu, select the group whose entries can be edited by members of the delegation group.
    • In the attributes box, select the check boxes by the attributes to which you want to grant permissions. To remove permissions to an attribute, uncheck the relevant check box.

      The Delegation page displays details of the "basic manager attributes" Delegation such as the Delegation name - Permissions (which is required - such as "read" and "write") - User group (required such as "managers") - Member user group (required such as "employees") and Attributes (required such as employeetype - businesscategory - departmentnumber - displayname - employeenumber - homedirectory). The "save" button at the top left is highlighted.
    • Click the Save button to save the changes.

26.5. Deleting a delegation rule using IdM WebUI

This section describes how to delete an existing delegation rule using the IdM WebUI.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in to the IdM Web UI as a member of the admins group.

Procedure

  1. From the IPA Server menu, click Role-Based Access ControlDelegations.
  2. Select the check box next to the rule you want to remove.
  3. Click Delete.

    Screenshot of the "Role-Based Access Control" sub-menu of the "IPA Server" tab. The "Delegations" page displays a table with Delegation names and the checkbox for the "basic manager attributes" entry has been checked. The "Delete" button has been highlighted.
  4. Click Delete to confirm.

Chapter 27. Delegating permissions to user groups to manage users using Ansible playbooks

Delegation is one of the access control methods in IdM, along with self-service rules and role-based access control (RBAC). You can use delegation to assign permissions to one group of users to manage entries for another group of users.

This section covers the following topics:

27.1. Delegation rules

You can delegate permissions to user groups to manage users by creating delegation rules.

Delegation rules allow a specific user group to perform write (edit) operations on specific attributes for users in another user group. This form of access control rule is limited to editing the values of a subset of attributes you specify in a delegation rule; it does not grant the ability to add or remove whole entries or control over unspecified attributes.

Delegation rules grant permissions to existing user groups in IdM. You can use delegation to, for example, allow the managers user group to manage selected attributes of users in the employees user group.

27.2. Creating an Ansible inventory file for IdM

When working with Ansible, it is good practice to create, in your home directory, a subdirectory dedicated to Ansible playbooks that you copy and adapt from the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/* and /usr/share/doc/rhel-system-roles/* subdirectories. This practice has the following advantages:

  • You can find all your playbooks in one place.
  • You can run your playbooks without invoking root privileges.

Procedure

  1. Create a directory for your Ansible configuration and playbooks in your home directory:

    $ mkdir ~/MyPlaybooks/
  2. Change into the ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory:

    $ cd ~/MyPlaybooks
  3. Create the ~/MyPlaybooks/ansible.cfg file with the following content:

    [defaults]
    inventory = /home/<username>/MyPlaybooks/inventory
    
    [privilege_escalation]
    become=True
  4. Create the ~/MyPlaybooks/inventory file with the following content:

    [eu]
    server.idm.example.com
    
    [us]
    replica.idm.example.com
    
    [ipaserver:children]
    eu
    us

    This configuration defines two host groups, eu and us, for hosts in these locations. Additionally, this configuration defines the ipaserver host group, which contains all hosts from the eu and us groups.

27.3. Using Ansible to ensure that a delegation rule is present

The following procedure describes how to use an Ansible playbook to define privileges for a new IdM delegation rule and ensure its presence. In the example, the new basic manager attributes delegation rule grants the managers group the ability to read and write the following attributes for members of the employees group:

  • businesscategory
  • departmentnumber
  • employeenumber
  • employeetype

Prerequisites

  • You know the IdM administrator password.
  • You have configured an Ansible control node that meets the following requirements:

    • You are using Ansible version 2.8 or later.
    • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller.
    • You have created an Ansible inventory file with the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) of the IdM server where you are configuring these options.
    • Your Ansible inventory file is located in the ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory:

    $ cd ~/MyPlaybooks/
  2. Make a copy of the delegation-present.yml file located in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/delegation/ directory:

    $ cp /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/delegation/delegation-present.yml delegation-present-copy.yml
  3. Open the delegation-present-copy.yml Ansible playbook file for editing.
  4. Adapt the file by setting the following variables in the ipadelegation task section:

    • Set the ipaadmin_password variable to the password of the IdM administrator.
    • Set the name variable to the name of the new delegation rule.
    • Set the permission variable to a comma-separated list of permissions to grant: read and write.
    • Set the attribute variable to a list of attributes the delegated user group can manage: businesscategory, departmentnumber, employeenumber, and employeetype.
    • Set the group variable to the name of the group that is being given access to view or modify attributes.
    • Set the membergroup variable to the name of the group whose attributes can be viewed or modified.

    This is the modified Ansible playbook file for the current example:

    ---
    - name: Playbook to manage a delegation rule
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
    
      tasks:
      - name: Ensure delegation "basic manager attributes" is present
        ipadelegation:
          ipaadmin_password: Secret123
          name: "basic manager attributes"
          permission: read, write
          attribute:
          - businesscategory
          - departmentnumber
          - employeenumber
          - employeetype
          group: managers
          membergroup: employees
  5. Save the file.
  6. Run the Ansible playbook specifying the playbook file and the inventory file:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i ~/MyPlaybooks/inventory delegation-present-copy.yml

Additional resources

  • See Delegation rules.
  • See the README-delegation.md file in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/ directory.
  • See the sample playbooks in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/ipadelegation directory.

27.4. Using Ansible to ensure that a delegation rule is absent

The following procedure describes how to use an Ansible playbook to ensure a specified delegation rule is absent from your IdM configuration. The example below describes how to make sure the custom basic manager attributes delegation rule does not exist in IdM.

Prerequisites

  • You know the IdM administrator password.
  • You have configured an Ansible control node that meets the following requirements:

    • You are using Ansible version 2.8 or later.
    • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller.
    • You have created an Ansible inventory file with the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) of the IdM server where you are configuring these options.
    • Your Ansible inventory file is located in the ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory:

    $ cd ~/MyPlaybooks>/
  2. Make a copy of the delegation-absent.yml file located in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/delegation/ directory:

    $ cp /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/delegation/delegation-present.yml delegation-absent-copy.yml
  3. Open the delegation-absent-copy.yml Ansible playbook file for editing.
  4. Adapt the file by setting the following variables in the ipadelegation task section:

    • Set the ipaadmin_password variable to the password of the IdM administrator.
    • Set the name variable to the name of the delegation rule.
    • Set the state variable to absent.

    This is the modified Ansible playbook file for the current example:

    ---
    - name: Delegation absent
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
    
      tasks:
      - name: Ensure delegation "basic manager attributes" is absent
        ipadelegation:
          ipaadmin_password: Secret123
          name: "basic manager attributes"
          state: absent
  5. Save the file.
  6. Run the Ansible playbook specifying the playbook file and the inventory file:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i ~/MyPlaybooks/inventory delegation-absent-copy.yml

Additional resources

  • See Delegation rules.
  • See the README-delegation.md file in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/ directory.
  • See the sample playbooks in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/ipadelegation directory.

27.5. Using Ansible to ensure that a delegation rule has specific attributes

The following procedure describes how to use an Ansible playbook to ensure that a delegation rule has specific settings. You can use this playbook to modify a delegation role you have previously created. In the example, you ensure the basic manager attributes delegation rule only has the departmentnumber member attribute.

Prerequisites

  • You know the IdM administrator password.
  • You have configured an Ansible control node that meets the following requirements:

    • You are using Ansible version 2.8 or later.
    • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller.
    • You have created an Ansible inventory file with the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) of the IdM server where you are configuring these options.
    • Your Ansible inventory file is located in the ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory.
  • The basic manager attributes delegation rule exists in IdM.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory:

    $ cd ~/MyPlaybooks/
  2. Make a copy of the delegation-member-present.yml file located in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/delegation/ directory:

    $ cp /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/delegation/delegation-member-present.yml delegation-member-present-copy.yml
  3. Open the delegation-member-present-copy.yml Ansible playbook file for editing.
  4. Adapt the file by setting the following variables in the ipadelegation task section:

    • Set the ipaadmin_password variable to the password of the IdM administrator.
    • Set the name variable to the name of the delegation rule to modify.
    • Set the attribute variable to departmentnumber.
    • Set the action variable to member.

    This is the modified Ansible playbook file for the current example:

    ---
    - name: Delegation member present
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
    
      tasks:
      - name: Ensure delegation "basic manager attributes" member attribute departmentnumber is present
        ipadelegation:
          ipaadmin_password: Secret123
          name: "basic manager attributes"
          attribute:
          - departmentnumber
          action: member
  5. Save the file.
  6. Run the Ansible playbook specifying the playbook file and the inventory file:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i ~/MyPlaybooks/inventory delegation-member-present-copy.yml

Additional resources

  • See Delegation rules.
  • See the README-delegation.md file in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/ directory.
  • See the sample playbooks in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/ipadelegation directory.

27.6. Using Ansible to ensure that a delegation rule does not have specific attributes

The following procedure describes how to use an Ansible playbook to ensure that a delegation rule does not have specific settings. You can use this playbook to make sure a delegation role does not grant undesired access. In the example, you ensure the basic manager attributes delegation rule does not have the employeenumber and employeetype member attributes.

Prerequisites

  • You know the IdM administrator password.
  • You have configured an Ansible control node that meets the following requirements:

    • You are using Ansible version 2.8 or later.
    • You have installed the ansible-freeipa package on the Ansible controller.
    • You have created an Ansible inventory file with the fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) of the IdM server where you are configuring these options.
    • Your Ansible inventory file is located in the ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory.
  • The basic manager attributes delegation rule exists in IdM.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the ~/MyPlaybooks/ directory:

    $ cd ~/MyPlaybooks/
  2. Make a copy of the delegation-member-absent.yml file located in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/delegation/ directory:

    $ cp /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/delegation/delegation-member-absent.yml delegation-member-absent-copy.yml
  3. Open the delegation-member-absent-copy.yml Ansible playbook file for editing.
  4. Adapt the file by setting the following variables in the ipadelegation task section:

    • Set the ipaadmin_password variable to the password of the IdM administrator.
    • Set the name variable to the name of the delegation rule to modify.
    • Set the attribute variable to employeenumber and employeetype.
    • Set the action variable to member.
    • Set the state variable to absent.

    This is the modified Ansible playbook file for the current example:

    ---
    - name: Delegation member absent
      hosts: ipaserver
      become: true
    
      tasks:
      - name: Ensure delegation "basic manager attributes" member attributes employeenumber and employeetype are absent
        ipadelegation:
          ipaadmin_password: Secret123
          name: "basic manager attributes"
          attribute:
          - employeenumber
          - employeetype
          action: member
          state: absent
  5. Save the file.
  6. Run the Ansible playbook specifying the playbook file and the inventory file:

    $ ansible-playbook -v -i ~/MyPlaybooks/inventory delegation-member-absent-copy.yml

Additional resources

  • See Delegation rules.
  • See the README-delegation.md file in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/ directory.
  • See the sample playbooks in the /usr/share/doc/ansible-freeipa/playbooks/ipadelegation directory.

Chapter 28. Managing role-based access controls in IdM using the CLI

This chapter introduces role-based access control in Identity Management (IdM) and describes the following operations in the command-line interface (CLI):

28.1. Role-based access control in IdM

Role-based access control (RBAC) in IdM grants a very different kind of authority to users compared to self-service and delegation access controls.

Role-based access control is composed of three parts:

  • Permissions grant the right to perform a specific task such as adding or deleting users, modifying a group, enabling read-access, etc.
  • Privileges combine permissions, for example all the permissions needed to add a new user.
  • Roles grant a set of privileges to users, user groups, hosts or host groups.

28.1.1. Permissions in IdM

Permissions are the lowest level unit of role-based access control, they define operations together with the LDAP entries to which those operations apply. Comparable to building blocks, permissions can be assigned to as many privileges as needed.
One or more rights define what operations are allowed:

  • write
  • read
  • search
  • compare
  • add
  • delete
  • all

These operations apply to three basic targets:

  • subtree: a domain name (DN); the subtree under this DN
  • target filter: an LDAP filter
  • target: DN with possible wildcards to specify entries

Additionally, the following convenience options set the corresponding attribute(s):

  • type: a type of object (user, group, etc); sets subtree and target filter
  • memberof: members of a group; sets a target filter
  • targetgroup: grants access to modify a specific group (such as granting the rights to manage group membership); sets a target

With IdM permissions, you can control which users have access to which objects and even which attributes of these objects. IdM enables you to allow or block individual attributes or change the entire visibility of a specific IdM function, such as users, groups, or sudo, to all anonymous users, all authenticated users, or just a certain group of privileged users.
For example, the flexibility of this approach to permissions is useful for an administrator who wants to limit access of users or groups only to the specific sections these users or groups need to access and to make the other sections completely hidden to them.

Note

A permission cannot contain other permissions.

28.1.2. Default managed permissions

Managed permissions are permissions that come by default with IdM. They behave like other permissions created by the user, with the following differences:

  • You cannot delete them or modify their name, location, and target attributes.
  • They have three sets of attributes:

    • Default attributes, the user cannot modify them, as they are managed by IdM
    • Included attributes, which are additional attributes added by the user
    • Excluded attributes, which are attributes removed by the user

A managed permission applies to all attributes that appear in the default and included attribute sets but not in the excluded set.

Note

While you cannot delete a managed permission, setting its bind type to permission and removing the managed permission from all privileges effectively disables it.

Names of all managed permissions start with System:, for example System: Add Sudo rule or System: Modify Services. Earlier versions of IdM used a different scheme for default permissions. For example, the user could not delete them and was only able to assign them to privileges. Most of these default permissions have been turned into managed permissions, however, the following permissions still use the previous scheme:

  • Add Automember Rebuild Membership Task
  • Add Configuration Sub-Entries
  • Add Replication Agreements
  • Certificate Remove Hold
  • Get Certificates status from the CA
  • Read DNA Range
  • Modify DNA Range
  • Read PassSync Managers Configuration
  • Modify PassSync Managers Configuration
  • Read Replication Agreements
  • Modify Replication Agreements
  • Remove Replication Agreements
  • Read LDBM Database Configuration
  • Request Certificate
  • Request Certificate ignoring CA ACLs
  • Request Certificates from a different host
  • Retrieve Certificates from the CA
  • Revoke Certificate
  • Write IPA Configuration
Note

If you attempt to modify a managed permission from the command line, the system does not allow you to change the attributes that you cannot modify, the command fails. If you attempt to modify a managed permission from the Web UI, the attributes that you cannot modify are disabled.

28.1.3. Privileges in IdM

A privilege is a group of permissions applicable to a role.
While a permission provides the rights to do a single operation, there are certain IdM tasks that require multiple permissions to succeed. Therefore, a privilege combines the different permissions required to perform a specific task.
For example, setting up an account for a new IdM user requires the following permissions:

  • Creating a new user entry
  • Resetting a user password
  • Adding the new user to the default IPA users group

Combining these three low-level tasks into a higher level task in the form of a custom privilege named, for example, Add User makes it easier for a system administrator to manage roles. IdM already contains several default privileges. Apart from users and user groups, privileges are also assigned to hosts and host groups, as well as network services. This practice permits a fine-grained control of operations by a set of users on a set of hosts using specific network services.

Note

A privilege may not contain other privileges.

28.1.4. Roles in IdM

A role is a list of privileges that users specified for the role possess.
In effect, permissions grant the ability to perform given low-level tasks (create a user entry, add an entry to a group, etc.), privileges combine one or more of these permissions needed for a higher-level task (such as creating a new user in a given group). Roles gather privileges together as needed: for example, a User Administrator role would be able to add, modify, and delete users.

Important

Roles are used to classify permitted actions. They are not used as a tool to implement privilege separation or to protect from privilege escalation.

Note

Roles can not contain other roles.

28.1.5. Predefined roles in Identity Management

Red Hat Identity Management provides the following range of pre-defined roles:

Table 28.1. Predefined Roles in Identity Management

RolePrivilegeDescription

Enrollment Administrator

Host Enrollment

Responsible for client, or host, enrollment

helpdesk

Modify Users and Reset passwords, Modify Group membership

Responsible for performing simple user administration tasks

IT Security Specialist

Netgroups Administrators, HBAC Administrator, Sudo Administrator

Responsible for managing security policy such as host-based access controls, sudo rules

IT Specialist

Host Administrators, Host Group Administrators, Service Administrators, Automount Administrators

Responsible for managing hosts

Security Architect

Delegation Administrator, Replication Administrators, Write IPA Configuration, Password Policy Administrator

Responsible for managing the Identity Management environment, creating trusts, creating replication agreements

User Administrator

User Administrators, Group Administrators, Stage User Administrators

Responsible for creating users and groups

28.2. Managing IdM permissions in the CLI

This section describes how to manage Identity Management (IdM) permissions using the command-line interface (CLI).

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Create new permission entries with the ipa permission-add command.
    For example, to add a permission named dns admin:

    $ ipa permission-add "dns admin"
  2. Specify the properties of the permission with the following options:

    • --bindtype specifies the bind rule type. This option accepts the all, anonymous, and permission arguments. The permission bindtype means that only the users who are granted this permission via a role can exercise it.
      For example:

      $ ipa permission-add "dns admin" --bindtype=all

      If you do not specify --bindtype, then permission is the default value.

      Note

      It is not possible to add permissions with a non-default bind rule type to privileges. You also cannot set a permission that is already present in a privilege to a non-default bind rule type.

    • --right lists the rights granted by the permission, it replaces the deprecated --permissions option. The available values are add, delete, read, search, compare, write, all.

      You can set multiple attributes by using multiple --right options or with a comma-separated list inside curly braces. For example:

      $ ipa permission-add "dns admin" --right=read --right=write
      $ ipa permission-add "dns admin" --right={read,write}
      Note

      add and delete are entry-level operations (for example deleting a user, adding a group, etc.) while read, search, compare and write are more attribute-level: you can write to userCertificate but not read userPassword.

    • --attrs gives the list of attributes over which the permission is granted.
      You can set multiple attributes by using multiple --attrs options or by listing the options in a comma-separated list inside curly braces. For example:

      $ ipa permission-add "dns admin" --attrs=description --attrs=automountKey
      $ ipa permission-add "dns admin" --attrs={description,automountKey}

      The attributes provided with --attrs must exist and be allowed attributes for the given object type, otherwise the command fails with schema syntax errors.

    • --type defines the entry object type to which the permission applies, such as user, host, or service. Each type has its own set of allowed attributes.
      For example:

      $ ipa permission-add "manage service" --right=all --type=service --attrs=krbprincipalkey --attrs=krbprincipalname --attrs=managedby
    • --subtree gives a subtree entry; the filter then targets every entry beneath this subtree entry. Provide an existing subtree entry; --subtree does not accept wildcards or non-existent domain names (DNs). Include a DN within the directory.
      Because IdM uses a simplified, flat directory tree structure, --subtree can be used to target some types of entries, like automount locations, which are containers or parent entries for other configuration. For example:

      $ ipa permission-add "manage automount locations" --subtree="ldap://ldap.example.com:389/cn=automount,dc=example,dc=com" --right=write --attrs=automountmapname --attrs=automountkey --attrs=automountInformation
      Note

      The --type and --subtree options are mutually exclusive: you can see the inclusion of filters for --type as a simplification of --subtree, intending to make life easier for an admin.

    • --filter uses an LDAP filter to identify which entries the permission applies to.
      IdM automatically checks the validity of the given filter. The filter can be any valid LDAP filter, for example:

      $ ipa permission-add "manage Windows groups" --filter="(!(objectclass=posixgroup))" --right=write --attrs=description
    • --memberof sets the target filter to members of the given group after checking that the group exists. For example, to let the users with this permission modify the login shell of members of the engineers group:

      $ ipa permission-add ManageShell --right="write" --type=user --attr=loginshell --memberof=engineers
    • --targetgroup sets target to the specified user group after checking that the group exists. For example, to let those with the permission write the member attribute in the engineers group (so they can add or remove members):

      $ ipa permission-add ManageMembers --right="write" --subtree=cn=groups,cn=accounts,dc=example,dc=test --attr=member --targetgroup=engineers
    • Optionally, you can specify a target domain name (DN):

      • --target specifies the DN to apply the permission to. Wildcards are accepted.
      • --targetto specifies the DN subtree where an entry can be moved to.
      • --targetfrom specifies the DN subtree from where an entry can be moved.

28.3. Command options for existing permissions

Use the following variants to modify existing permissions as needed:

  • To edit existing permissions, use the ipa permission-mod command. You can use the same command options as for adding permissions.
  • To find existing permissions, use the ipa permission-find command. You can use the same command options as for adding permissions.
  • To view a specific permission, use the ipa permission-show command.
    The --raw argument shows the raw 389-ds ACI that is generated. For example:

     $ ipa permission-show <permission> --raw
  • The ipa permission-del command deletes a permission completely.

Additional resources

  • See the ipa man page.
  • See the ipa help command.

28.4. Managing IdM privileges in the CLI

This section describes how to manage Identity Management (IdM) privileges using the command-line interface (CLI).

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Add privilege entries using the ipa privilege-add command
    For example, to add a privilege named managing filesystems with a description:

    $ ipa privilege-add "managing filesystems" --desc="for filesystems"
  2. Assign the required permissions to the privilege group with the privilege-add-permission command
    For example, to add the permissions named managing automount and managing ftp services to the managing filesystems privilege:

    $ ipa privilege-add-permission "managing filesystems" --permissions="managing automount" --permissions="managing ftp services"

28.5. Command options for existing privileges

Use the following variants to modify existing privileges as needed:

  • To modify existing privileges, use the ipa privilege-mod command.
  • To find existing privileges, use the ipa privilege-find command.
  • To view a specific privilege, use the ipa privilege-show command.
  • The ipa privilege-remove-permission command removes one or more permissions from a privilege.
  • The ipa privilege-del command deletes a privilege completely.

Additional resources

  • See the ipa man page.
  • See the ipa help command.

28.6. Managing IdM roles in the CLI

This section describes how to manage Identity Management (IdM) roles using the command-line interface (CLI).

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Add new role entries using the ipa role-add command:

    $ ipa role-add --desc="User Administrator" useradmin
    ------------------------
    Added role "useradmin"
    ------------------------
    Role name: useradmin
    Description: User Administrator
  2. Add the required privileges to the role using the ipa role-add-privilege command:

    $ ipa role-add-privilege --privileges="user administrators" useradmin
    Role name: useradmin
    Description: User Administrator
    Privileges: user administrators
    ----------------------------
    Number of privileges added 1
    ----------------------------
  3. Add the required members to the role using the ipa role-add-member command. Allowed member types are: users, groups, hosts and hostgroups.
    For example, to add the group named useradmins to the previously created useradmin role:

    $ ipa role-add-member --groups=useradmins useradmin
    Role name: useradmin
    Description: User Administrator
    Member groups: useradmins
    Privileges: user administrators
    -------------------------
    Number of members added 1
    -------------------------

28.7. Command options for existing roles

Use the following variants to modify existing roles as needed:

  • To modify existing roles, use the ipa role-mod command.
  • To find existing roles, use the ipa role-find command.
  • To view a specific role, use the ipa role-show command.
  • To remove a member from the role, use the ipa role-remove-member command.
  • The ipa role-remove-privilege command removes one or more privileges from a role.
  • The ipa role-del command deletes a role completely.

Additional resources

  • See the ipa man page
  • See the ipa help command.

Chapter 29. Managing role-based access controls using the IdM Web UI

This chapter introduces role-based access control in Identity Management (IdM) and describes the following operations in the web interface (Web UI):

29.1. Role-based access control in IdM

Role-based access control (RBAC) in IdM grants a very different kind of authority to users compared to self-service and delegation access controls.

Role-based access control is composed of three parts:

  • Permissions grant the right to perform a specific task such as adding or deleting users, modifying a group, enabling read-access, etc.
  • Privileges combine permissions, for example all the permissions needed to add a new user.
  • Roles grant a set of privileges to users, user groups, hosts or host groups.

29.1.1. Permissions in IdM

Permissions are the lowest level unit of role-based access control, they define operations together with the LDAP entries to which those operations apply. Comparable to building blocks, permissions can be assigned to as many privileges as needed.
One or more rights define what operations are allowed:

  • write
  • read
  • search
  • compare
  • add
  • delete
  • all

These operations apply to three basic targets:

  • subtree: a domain name (DN); the subtree under this DN
  • target filter: an LDAP filter
  • target: DN with possible wildcards to specify entries

Additionally, the following convenience options set the corresponding attribute(s):

  • type: a type of object (user, group, etc); sets subtree and target filter
  • memberof: members of a group; sets a target filter
  • targetgroup: grants access to modify a specific group (such as granting the rights to manage group membership); sets a target

With IdM permissions, you can control which users have access to which objects and even which attributes of these objects. IdM enables you to allow or block individual attributes or change the entire visibility of a specific IdM function, such as users, groups, or sudo, to all anonymous users, all authenticated users, or just a certain group of privileged users.
For example, the flexibility of this approach to permissions is useful for an administrator who wants to limit access of users or groups only to the specific sections these users or groups need to access and to make the other sections completely hidden to them.

Note

A permission cannot contain other permissions.

29.1.2. Default managed permissions

Managed permissions are permissions that come by default with IdM. They behave like other permissions created by the user, with the following differences:

  • You cannot delete them or modify their name, location, and target attributes.
  • They have three sets of attributes:

    • Default attributes, the user cannot modify them, as they are managed by IdM
    • Included attributes, which are additional attributes added by the user
    • Excluded attributes, which are attributes removed by the user

A managed permission applies to all attributes that appear in the default and included attribute sets but not in the excluded set.

Note

While you cannot delete a managed permission, setting its bind type to permission and removing the managed permission from all privileges effectively disables it.

Names of all managed permissions start with System:, for example System: Add Sudo rule or System: Modify Services. Earlier versions of IdM used a different scheme for default permissions. For example, the user could not delete them and was only able to assign them to privileges. Most of these default permissions have been turned into managed permissions, however, the following permissions still use the previous scheme:

  • Add Automember Rebuild Membership Task
  • Add Configuration Sub-Entries
  • Add Replication Agreements
  • Certificate Remove Hold
  • Get Certificates status from the CA
  • Read DNA Range
  • Modify DNA Range
  • Read PassSync Managers Configuration
  • Modify PassSync Managers Configuration
  • Read Replication Agreements
  • Modify Replication Agreements
  • Remove Replication Agreements
  • Read LDBM Database Configuration
  • Request Certificate
  • Request Certificate ignoring CA ACLs
  • Request Certificates from a different host
  • Retrieve Certificates from the CA
  • Revoke Certificate
  • Write IPA Configuration
Note

If you attempt to modify a managed permission from the command line, the system does not allow you to change the attributes that you cannot modify, the command fails. If you attempt to modify a managed permission from the Web UI, the attributes that you cannot modify are disabled.

29.1.3. Privileges in IdM

A privilege is a group of permissions applicable to a role.
While a permission provides the rights to do a single operation, there are certain IdM tasks that require multiple permissions to succeed. Therefore, a privilege combines the different permissions required to perform a specific task.
For example, setting up an account for a new IdM user requires the following permissions:

  • Creating a new user entry
  • Resetting a user password
  • Adding the new user to the default IPA users group

Combining these three low-level tasks into a higher level task in the form of a custom privilege named, for example, Add User makes it easier for a system administrator to manage roles. IdM already contains several default privileges. Apart from users and user groups, privileges are also assigned to hosts and host groups, as well as network services. This practice permits a fine-grained control of operations by a set of users on a set of hosts using specific network services.

Note

A privilege may not contain other privileges.

29.1.4. Roles in IdM

A role is a list of privileges that users specified for the role possess.
In effect, permissions grant the ability to perform given low-level tasks (create a user entry, add an entry to a group, etc.), privileges combine one or more of these permissions needed for a higher-level task (such as creating a new user in a given group). Roles gather privileges together as needed: for example, a User Administrator role would be able to add, modify, and delete users.

Important

Roles are used to classify permitted actions. They are not used as a tool to implement privilege separation or to protect from privilege escalation.

Note

Roles can not contain other roles.

29.1.5. Predefined roles in Identity Management

Red Hat Identity Management provides the following range of pre-defined roles:

Table 29.1. Predefined Roles in Identity Management

RolePrivilegeDescription

Enrollment Administrator

Host Enrollment

Responsible for client, or host, enrollment

helpdesk

Modify Users and Reset passwords, Modify Group membership

Responsible for performing simple user administration tasks

IT Security Specialist

Netgroups Administrators, HBAC Administrator, Sudo Administrator

Responsible for managing security policy such as host-based access controls, sudo rules

IT Specialist

Host Administrators, Host Group Administrators, Service Administrators, Automount Administrators

Responsible for managing hosts

Security Architect

Delegation Administrator, Replication Administrators, Write IPA Configuration, Password Policy Administrator

Responsible for managing the Identity Management environment, creating trusts, creating replication agreements

User Administrator

User Administrators, Group Administrators, Stage User Administrators

Responsible for creating users and groups

29.2. Managing permissions in the IdM Web UI

This section describes how to manage permissions in Identity Management (IdM) using the web interface (IdM Web UI).

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. To add a new permission, open the Role-Based Access Control sub-menu in the IPA Server tab and select Permissions:

    Permissions task

  2. The list of permissions opens: Click the Add button at the top of the list of the permissions:

    Adding a new permission

  3. The Add Permission form opens. Specify the name of the new permission and define its properties accordingly: