Composing, Installing, and Managing RHEL for Edge images

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8

Composing, Installing, and Managing RHEL for Edge Images on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8

Red Hat Customer Content Services

Abstract

This document is for users who want to compose customized RHEL (rpm-ostree) images using Image Builder, and then remotely install and manage the images on Edge servers.

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Chapter 1. Introducing RHEL for Edge images

A RHEL for Edge image is an rpm-ostree image that includes system packages to remotely install RHEL on Edge servers.

The system packages include:

  • Base OS package
  • Podman as the container engine
  • Additional RPM content

You can customize the image to configure the OS content as per your requirements, and can deploy them on physical and virtual machines, in an on-premise, cloud, or container environment.

You can deploy a RHEL for Edge image on Bare Metal, Appliance, and Edge servers.

With a RHEL for Edge image, you can achieve the following:

Key features

1.1. RHEL for Edge—supported architecture

Currently, you can deploy RHEL for Edge images on AMD and Intel 64-bit systems.

1.2. How to compose and deploy a RHEL for Edge image

The overall process to compose and deploy a RHEL for Edge image varies depending on whether your deployment environment is network-based or non-network-based.

Broadly, composing and deploying a RHEL for Edge image involves the following two phases:

  1. Composing a RHEL rpm-ostree image using Image Builder. You can access Image Builder through a command-line interface in the composer-cli tool, or use a graphical user interface in the RHEL 8 Web Console.
  2. Deploying the image using RHEL installer.

While composing a RHEL for Edge image, you can select any of the following image types:

  • RHEL for Edge Commit (.tar) - suitable for network-based environments. The commit image type is not directly bootable, even though it contains a full operating system. To boot commit image type, you must deploy it.
  • RHEL for Edge Container (.tar) - suitable for non-network-based deployments. The image type creates an OSTree commit and embeds it into an OCI container with a web server. When the container is started, the web server serves the commit as an OSTree repository.
  • RHEL for Edge Installer (.iso) - suitable for non-network-based deployments. The image type pulls the commit from the running container and creates an installable boot ISO with a kickstart file configured to use the embedded OSTree commit.

The image types vary in terms of their contents, and are therefore suitable for different types of deployment environments. While the RHEL for Edge Commit is suitable for network-based environments, the RHEL for Edge Container and RHEL for Edge Installer images are suitable for non-network-based deployments.

Following are the high-level steps for each of the deployment environments:

Non-Network-based deployments

Composing and deploying a RHEL for Edge image in non-network-based deployments involves the following high-level steps:

  1. Install and register a RHEL system
  2. Install Image Builder
  3. Using Image Builder, create a blueprint for RHEL for Edge Container image
  4. Import the RHEL for Edge blueprint in Image Builder
  5. Create a RHEL for Edge image embed in an OCI container with a webserver ready to deploy the commit as an OSTree repository
  6. Download the RHEL for Edge image container file
  7. Deploy the container serving a repository with the RHEL for Edge commit
  8. Using Image Builder, create an empty blueprint for RHEL for Edge Installer image
  9. Download a RHEL boot.iso image
  10. Run the installation
  11. Create an image

The following diagram represents the RHEL for Edge image non-network deployment workflow:

Figure 1.1. Deploying RHEL for Edge in non-network environment

RHEL for Edge non-network deployment workflow

Network-based deployments

Composing and deploying a RHEL for Edge image in network-based deployments involves the following high-level steps:

Use Image Builder to create flexible RHEL rpm-ostree images to suit your requirements, and then use Anaconda to deploy them in your environment. Image Builder automatically identifies the details of your deployment setup and generates the image output as a rhel-edge-commit as a .tar file.

You can access Image Builder through a command-line interface in the composer-cli tool, or use a graphical user interface in the RHEL 8 Web Console.

You can compose and deploy the RHEL for Edge image by performing the following high-level steps:

  1. Install and register a RHEL system
  2. Install Image Builder
  3. Using Image Builder, create a blueprint for RHEL for Edge image
  4. Import the RHEL for Edge blueprint in Image Builder
  5. Create a RHEL for Edge image
  6. Download the RHEL for Edge image file
  7. Set up a web server
  8. Download a RHEL boot.iso image
  9. Using the web server, install the RHEL for Edge image on Edge devices

The following diagram represents the RHEL for Edge network image deployment workflow:

Figure 1.2. Deploying RHEL for Edge in network-base environment

RHEL for Edge network deployment workflow

Additional resources

For more information about installing and registering a RHEL system, see Performing a Standard RHEL Installation.

1.3. Difference between RHEL RPM images and RHEL for Edge images

You can create RHEL system images in traditional package-based RPM format and also as RHEL for Edge (rpm-ostree) images.

You can use the traditional package-based RPMs to deploy RHEL on traditional data centers. However, with RHEL for Edge images you can deploy RHEL on servers other than traditional datacenter. These servers include systems where processing of large amounts of data is done closest to the source where data is generated—Edge servers.

Refer to the following table to know how RHEL for Edge images differ from the package-based RHEL RPM images.

Table 1.1. Difference between RHEL RPM images and RHEL for Edge images

Key attributes

RHEL RPM image

RHEL for Edge image

OS assembly

You can assemble the packages locally to form an image.

The packages are assembled in an ostree which you can install on a system.

OS updates

You can use yum update to apply the available updates from the enabled repositories.

You can use rpm-ostree upgrade to stage an update if any new commit is available in the ostree remote at /etc/ostree/remotes.d/. The update takes effect on system reboot.

Repository

The package contains Yum repositories

The package contains Ostree remote repository

User access permissions

Read write

Read-only (/usr)

Data persistence

You can mount the image to any non tmpfs mount point

/etc & /var are read-write enabled and include persisting data.

Chapter 2. Setting up Image Builder

Use Image Builder to create your customized RHEL for Edge images. After you install Image Builder on a RHEL system, Image Builder is available as an application in RHEL web console. You can also access Image Builder through a command line interface in the composer-cli tool.

Note

It is recommended to install Image Builder on a virtual machine.

In the environment where you want to install Image Builder, ensure that you first meet the system requirements and then install it.

2.1. Image Builder system requirements

The environment where Image Builder runs, for example a virtual machine, must meet the requirements that are listed in the following table.

Table 2.1. Image Builder system requirements

Parameter

Minimal Required Value

System type

A dedicated virtual machine

Processor

2 cores

Memory

4 GiB

Disk space

20 GiB

Access privileges

Administrator level (root)

Network

Connectivity to Internet

2.2. Installing Image Builder

To install Image Builder on a dedicated virtual machine, follow these steps:

Prerequisites

  • The virtual machine is created and is powered On.
  • You have installed RHEL and you have subscribed to RHSM or Redhat Satellite.

Procedure

  1. Install the following packages on the virtual machine.

    • osbuild-composer
    • composer-cli
    • cockpit-composer
    • Bash-completion
    # yum install osbuild-composer composer-cli cockpit-composer bash-completion

    Image Builder is installed as an application in RHEL web console.

  2. Reboot the virtual machine
  3. Enable Image Builder.

    # systemctl enable osbuild-composer.socket --now
    # systemctl enable cockpit.socket --now

    The osbuild-composer and cockpit services start automatically on first access.

  4. Configure the system firewall to allow access to the web console:

    # firewall-cmd --add-service=cockpit && firewall-cmd --add-service=cockpit --permanent
  5. Load the shell configuration script so that the autocomplete feature for the composer-cli command starts working immediately without reboot:

    $ source  /etc/bash_completion.d/composer-cli

Chapter 3. Composing a RHEL for Edge image using Image Builder in RHEL web console

Use Image Builder to create a custom RHEL for Edge image (OSTree commit).

To access Image Builder and to create your custom RHEL for Edge image, you can either use the RHEL web console interface or the command-line interface.

This section provides information about accessing Image Builder and creating RHEL for Edge images using the RHEL web console. To access Image Builder and to create RHEL for Edge images using CLI, see, Chapter 4, Composing a RHEL for Edge image using Image Builder command-line.

You can compose RHEL for Edge images using Image Builder in RHEL web console by performing the following high-level steps:

  1. Access Image Builder in RHEL web console
  2. Create a blueprint for RHEL for Edge image
  3. Create a user account for the RHEL for Edge image blueprint
  4. Create a RHEL for Edge image
  5. Download the RHEL for Edge image

3.1. Accessing Image Builder in the RHEL web console

To access Image Builder in RHEL web console, ensure that you have met the following prerequisites and then follow the procedure.

Prerequisites

  • You have installed a RHEL system.
  • You have administrative rights on the system.
  • You have subscribed the RHEL system to Redhat Subscription Manager (RHSM) or to Redhat Satellite server.
  • The system is powered on and accessible over network.
  • You have installed Image Builder on the system.

Procedure

  1. On the RHEL system, access https://localhost:9090/ in a web browser.
  2. For more information about how to remotely access Image Builder, see Managing systems using the RHEL 8 web console document.
  3. Log in to the web console using an administrative user account.
  4. On the web console, in the left hand menu, click Apps.
  5. Click Image Builder.
  6. The Image Builder dashboard appears in the right pane.
  7. You can now proceed to create a blueprint for the RHEL for Edge images.

3.2. Creating a RHEL for Edge image blueprint using Image Builder in RHEL web console

To create a RHEL for Edge image blueprint using Image Builder in RHEL web console, ensure that you have met the following prerequisites and then follow the procedure.

Prerequisites

  • On a RHEL system, you have opened the Image Builder dashboard.

Procedure

  1. On the Image Builder dashboard, click Create Blueprint.

    A Create Blueprint dialogue box appears.

  2. Specify a name and description for the blueprint that you want to create.
  3. Click Create.

    The dashboard displays a list of available components.

  4. From the Available Components, click + for the component that you want to include in the blueprint.

    To search for a specific component, enter the component name in the Filter By Name text box, and then press Enter. The Component Details pane displays the component details and its dependent components. You can select the required version. The web console selects the latest version by default.

    To remove a component from the blueprint, in the Available Components pane, click - against the component name.

    Note

    The blueprint to create a “RHEL for Edge Installer (.tar)” must be empty, that is, not customized with packages or user creation.

  5. In the Components Details pane, click Add.
  6. Click Commit to save the blueprint.

    A dialog box with the blueprint summary appears.

  7. Click Commit.
  8. From the breadcrumbs, click Back to Blueprints.

    The Image Builder dashboard lists the blueprints that you created.

3.3. Adding a source to RHEL for Edge image blueprint

By default, the appstream and baseos yum official sources are available. You can use the sources defined in Image Builder, yum repository, mirrorlist and metalink, to include the RPMs packages from custom third parties repositories and you can add them to blueprints. These sources are global and therefore available to all blueprints.

The System sources repositories are set up locally on your computer and cannot be disabled or removed from Image Builder. You can add additional custom sources and thus be able to access other contents than the System sources available on your system. Any RPM repository that is accessible from the host system is valid as a source. It is not possible to disable a System Source.

Perform the following steps to add a Source to your blueprints.

Prerequisites

  • You have opened the Image Builder interface of the RHEL 8 web console in a browser.

Procedure

  1. Click the ⫶ Manage Sources button in the upper right corner.

    A pop-up window appears with the available sources, their names and descriptions.

  2. On the right side of the pop-up window, click the Add Source button.
  3. Add the desired Source name, the Source path, and the Source Type.

    Optionally, check the boxes related to the Security field.

    1. SSL Certificate - to verify a repository’s identity and enable an encrypted connection.
    2. GPG Key - to validate signatures of RPM packages available in this repository.
  4. Click Add Source. The screen shows the available sources window and lists the source you have added.

    Note

    Adding repositories for different major versions of RHEL results in errors during the image build process. Building a version of RHEL that is different than the host system, is not supported in this version of Image Builder.

    As a result, the new System source is available for use or any changes that you may want to make.

3.4. Creating an administrative user account for a RHEL for Edge image blueprint

To build and deploy the RHEL for Edge image that you have created, you must have administrative user privileges on the image blueprint. Use Image Builder to create an administrative user account for the image blueprint. You can then use this user account to deploy the image that you have created. For the administrative user account you can either have a password-based access or an SSH-key based access.

Prerequisites

  • You have created an SSH key that you can use for the user account to be created.
  • You have accessed the Image Builder dashboard in the RHEL web console.
  • You have created a blueprint for RHEL for Edge image.

Procedure

  1. On the Image Builder dashboard, find the blueprint for RHEL for Edge image.

    To search a required blueprint, specify the blueprint name in the Filter by Name text box and then press Enter.

  2. Click the blueprint name.

    Image Builder displays the blueprint details.

  3. On the Customizations tab, click Create User Account.
  4. On the Create User Account dialogue box, specify the required details and a password for the user account.

    For password-based access, specify a password for the user account.

    For SSH-based access, specify an SSH key for the user account.

Note

Ensure that you select the Server administrator check box, if you want to provide administrators rights to the user account you are creating.

Image Builder creates a specified user account and displays the details.

You can create additional user accounts, if required.

3.5. Creating a RHEL for Edge image using Image Builder in RHEL web console

Follow the steps in this procedure to create a RHEL for Edge image using Image Builder in RHEL web console.

Prerequisites

  • On a RHEL system, you have accessed the Image Builder dashboard.
  • You have created a blueprint for RHEL for Edge image.

Procedure

  1. On the Image Builder dashboard, for the blueprint that you have created for RHEL for Edge image, click Create Image. To search for a specific blueprint, enter the blueprint name in the Filter By Name text box, and then press Enter.
  2. On the Create Image window, perform the following steps:

    1. From the Type dropdown list, select “RHEL for Edge Commit (.tar)” for network-based deployment. For non-network-based deployments, select “RHEL for Edge Container (.tar)” to serve a commit or “RHEL for Edge Installer (.tar)”, to consume the commit and deploy an OS with that commit.
    2. In the Parent commit textbox, specify a previous commit, or leave it empty; if you do not have a commit at this time.
    3. In the Ref textbox, specify a reference for where your commit is going to be created. By default, the web console specifies rhel/8/arch_name/edge.
    4. Click Create.

      Note

      If you have made any earlier edits to the blueprint, but have not committed them, then click Commit and create.

      Image Builder creates a RHEL for Edge image for the blueprint that you created.

      To view the RHEL for Edge image creation progress, click the blueprint name from the breadcrumbs, and then click the Images tab.

      Note

      The image creation process takes a few minutes to complete. To abort the image creation process, click Stop from the More Options menu.

3.6. Downloading a RHEL for Edge image

After Image Builder successfully creates the RHEL for Edge image, download the image on the local host.

Procedure

To download an image:

  1. From the More Options menu, click Download.

    The Image Builder downloads the file at your default download location.

The downloaded file consists of a .tar file with an OSTree repository. This repository contains the commit and a json file which contains information metadata about the repository content.

Chapter 4. Composing a RHEL for Edge image using Image Builder command-line

Use Image Builder to create a custom RHEL for Edge image (OSTree commit).

To access Image Builder and to create your custom RHEL for Edge image, you can either use the RHEL web console interface or the command-line interface.

This chapter provides information about creating RHEL for Edge images using the CLI. To create RHEL for Edge images using RHEL web console, see, Chapter 3, Composing a RHEL for Edge image using Image Builder in RHEL web console.

For Network-based deployments, the workflow to compose RHEL for Edge images using the CLI, involves the following high-level steps:

  1. Create a blueprint for RHEL for Edge image
  2. Create a RHEL for Edge image
  3. Download the RHEL for Edge image

To perform the steps, use the composer-cli package.

Note

To run the composer-cli commands as non-root, you must be part of the weldr group or you must have administrator access to the system.

For Non-Network-based deployments, the workflow to compose RHEL for Edge images using the CLI, involves the following high-level steps:

  1. Create a blueprint for RHEL for Edge image
  2. Create a RHEL for Edge Container image
  3. Create an empty RHEL for Edge Installer image
  4. Download the RHEL for Edge image

4.1. Creating a RHEL for Edge image blueprint using Image Builder command-line interface

To create a blueprint for RHEL for Edge image, perform the following steps:

Procedure

  1. Create a plain text file in the Tom’s Obvious, Minimal Language (TOML) format, with the following content:

    name = "blueprint-name"
    description = "blueprint-text-description"
    version = "0.0.1"
    modules = [ ]
    groups = [ ]

    Where,

    • blueprint-name is the name and blueprint-text-description is the description for your blueprint.
    • 0.0.1 is the version number according to the Semantic Versioning scheme.
    • Modules describe the package name and matching version glob to be installed into the image, for example, the package name = "tmux" and the matching version glob is version = "2.9a".

      Notice that currently there are no differences between packages and modules.

    • Groups are packages groups to be installed into the image, for example the group package anaconda-tools.

      At this time, if you do not know the modules and groups, leave them empty.

  2. Include the required packages and customize the other details in the blueprint to suit your requirements.

    For more information about the packages that you can include and customize in a blueprint, see Supported Image Customizations.

    For every package that you want to include in the blueprint, add the following lines to the file:

    [[packages]]
    name = "package-name"
    version = "package-version"

    Where,

    • package-name is the name of the package, such as httpd, gdb-doc, or coreutils.
    • package-version is the version number of the package that you want to use.

      The package-version supports the following dnf version specifications:

    • For a specific version, use the exact version number such as 8.3.0.
    • For the latest available version, use the asterisk *.
    • For the latest minor version, use formats such as 8.*.
  3. Push (import) the blueprint to the Image Builder server:

    # composer-cli blueprints push blueprint-name.toml
  4. List the existing blueprints to check whether the created blueprint is successfully pushed and exists.

    # composer-cli blueprints show BLUEPRINT-NAME
  5. Check whether the components and versions listed in the blueprint and their dependencies are valid:

    # composer-cli blueprints depsolve blueprint-name

4.2. Creating a RHEL for Edge image using Image Builder command-line interface

To create a RHEL for Edge image using Image Builder command line interface, ensure that you have met the following prerequisites and then follow the procedure.

Prerequisites

  • You have created a blueprint for RHEL for Edge image.

Procedure

  1. Begin to create the RHEL for Edge image.

    # composer-cli compose start-ostree --ref rhel/8/x86_64/edge --url URL-OSTree-repository blueprint-name image-type

    Where,

  2. Check the image compose status.

    # composer-cli compose status

    The output displays the status in the following format:

    <UUID> RUNNING date blueprint-name blueprint-version image-type
    Note

    The image creation process takes a few minutes to complete.

    To interrupt the image creation process, run:

    # composer-cli compose cancel <UUID>

    To delete an existing image, run:

    # composer-cli compose delete <UUID>

4.3. Creating a RHEL for Edge Installer image using command-line interface for non-network-based deployments

To create a RHEL for Edge Installer image that embeds the OSTree commit, using Image Builder command-line interface, ensure that you have met the following prerequisites and then follow the procedure.

Prerequisites

  • You have created an empty blueprint for RHEL for Edge image.

    An empty blueprint has no customizations, that is, no added packages and created users. The added packages and created users are pulled from the repository that is used to build the ISO image.

Procedure

  1. Begin to create the RHEL for Edge image.

    # composer-cli compose start-ostree --ref rhel/8/x86_64/edge --url URL-OSTree-repository blueprint-name image-type

    Where,

    • ref is the same value that customer used to build ostree repository
    • URL-OSTree-repository is the URL to the OSTree repository of the commit to embed in the image. For example, http://10.0.2.2:8080/repository/. See Section 5.2, “Setting up a web server to install RHEL for Edge image”
    • blueprint-name is the RHEL for Edge blueprint name.
    • image-type is rhel-edge-installer.

      A confirmation that the composer process has been added to the queue appears. It also shows a Universally Unique Identifier (UUID) number for the image created. Use the UUID number to track your build. Also keep the UUID number handy for further tasks.

  2. Check the image compose status.

    # composer-cli compose status

    The command output displays the status in the following format:

    <UUID> RUNNING date blueprint-name blueprint-version image-type
    Note

    The image creation process takes a few minutes to complete.

    To interrupt the image creation process, run:

    # composer-cli compose cancel <UUID>

    To delete an existing image, run:

    # composer-cli compose delete <UUID>

4.4. Downloading a RHEL for Edge image using the Image Builder command-line interface

To download a RHEL for Edge image using Image Builder command line interface, ensure that you have met the following prerequisites and then follow the procedure.

Prerequisites

  • You have created a RHEL for Edge image.

Procedure

  1. Review the RHEL for Edge image status.

    # composer-cli compose status

    The output must display the following:

    $ <UUID> FINISHED date blueprint-name blueprint-version image-type
  2. Download the image.

    # composer-cli compose image <UUID>

    Image Builder downloads the image as a tar file at <var/lib/osbuild-composer/composer/results/<UUID>/compose/>.

    The UUID number and the image size is displayed alongside.

    $ <UUID>-commit.tar: size MB

The image contains a commit and a json file that contains information metadata about the repository content.

Chapter 5. Deploying a RHEL for Edge image

You can deploy a RHEL for Edge image using the RHEL installer graphical user interface or a Kickstart file. The overall process for deploying a RHEL for Edge image depends on whether your deployment environment is network-based for non-network-based.

Note

To deploy the images on bare metal, use a Kickstart file.

Network-based deployments

Deploying a RHEL for Edge image in a network-based environment involves the following high-level steps:

  1. Extract the image file contents. See Section 3.6, “Downloading a RHEL for Edge image” for information on how to download the RHEL for Edge image
  2. Set up a web server
  3. Install the image

Non-network-based deployments

Deploying a RHEL for Edge image in a non-network-based environment involves the following high-level steps:

  1. Download the RHEL for Edge Container and RHEL for Edge Install. See Section 3.6, “Downloading a RHEL for Edge image” for information on how to download the RHEL for Edge image
  2. Load the RHEL for Edge Container image into Podman
  3. Run the RHEL for Edge Container image into Podman
  4. Load the empty blueprint
  5. Build the RHEL for Edge Installer image
  6. Prepare a qcow disk
  7. Boot the Virtual Machine (VM)
  8. Install the image

5.1. Extracting RHEL for Edge image commit

After you download the commit, extract the .tar file and note the ref name and the commit ID.

The downloaded commit file consists of a .tar file with an OSTree repository. The OSTree repository contains a commit and a compose.json file.

The compose.json file contains information metadata about the commit with information such as the “Ref” (reference ID) and the commit ID. The commit contains the rpm packages.

To extract the package contents, perform the following the steps:

Prerequisites

  1. Create a kickstart file or use an existing one.

Procedure

  1. Extract the downloaded image tar file:

    # tar xvf <UUID>-commit.tar
  2. Navigate to the directory where you have extracted the .tar file.

    It contains a compose.json file and an OSTree directory. The compose.json file contains the commit number and the OSTree directory contains the rpm packages.

  3. Open the compose.json file and note the commit ID number. You need this number handy when you proceed to set up a web server.

    If you have the jq JSON processor installed, you can also retrieve the commit hash ID using the jq tool:

    # jq '.["ostree-commit"]' < compose.json
  4. List the rpm packages in the commit.

    # rpm-ostree db list rhel/8/x86_64/edge --repo=repo
  5. Use a Kickstart file to run the RHEL installer. You can either use any existing file or can create one using the Kickstart Generator tool.

    In the Kickstart file, ensure that you include the details about how to provision the file system, create a user, and how to fetch and deploy the RHEL for Edge image. The RHEL installer uses this information during the installation process.

    The following is a Kickstart file example:

    lang en_US.UTF-8
    keyboard us
    timezone Etc/UTC --isUtc
    text
    zerombr
    clearpart --all --initlabel
    autopart
    reboot
    user --name=core --group=wheel
    sshkey --username=core "ssh-rsa AAAA3Nza...."
    
    ostreesetup --nogpg --osname=rhel --remote=edge
    --url=https://mirror.example.com/repo/
    --ref=rhel/8/x86_64/edge

    The following describes the parameters of the ostreesetup command,

    • --url=https://mirror.example.com/repo/ is the address of the host system where you extracted the edge commit and served over httpd. You can use the address to reach the host system from the guest machine.

      For example, if you extract the commit image in the /var/www/html directory and serve the commit over httpd on a machine whose hostname is www.example.com, the value of the --url parameter is http://www.example.com/repo.

      Note

      Use the http protocol to start a service to serve the commit, because https is not enabled on the Apache HTTP Server.

Additional resources

For more details on how to create a Kickstart file, see:

5.2. Setting up a web server to install RHEL for Edge image

After you have extracted the RHEL for Edge image contents, set up a web server to provide the image commit details to the RHEL installer via HTTP.

The following example provides the steps to set up a web server using a container.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Create a dockerfile with the following instructions:

    FROM registry.access.redhat.com/ubi8/ubi
    RUN yum -y install httpd && yum clean all
    COPY kickstart.ks /var/www/html/
    COPY repo /var/www/html/repo/
    EXPOSE 80
    CMD ["/usr/sbin/httpd", "-D", "FOREGROUND"]

    Where,

    • kickstart.ks is the name of the Kickstart file from the RHEL for Edge image. The kickstart file includes directive information. To help you manage the images later, it is advisable to include the checks and settings for Greenboot checks. To do so, you can update the Kickstart file to include the following settings:

      lang en_US.UTF-8
      keyboard us
      timezone Etc/UTC --isUtc
      text
      zerombr
      clearpart --all --initlabel
      autopart
      reboot
      user --name=core --group=wheel
      sshkey --username=core "ssh-rsa AAAA3Nza...."
      
      ostreesetup --nogpg --osname=rhel --remote=edge
      --url=https://mirror.example.com/repo/
      --ref=rhel/8/x86_64/edge
      
      %post
      cat << EOF > /etc/greenboot/check/required.d/check-dns.sh
      #!/bin/bash
      
      DNS_SERVER=$(grep nameserver /etc/resolv.conf | cut -f2 -d" ")
      COUNT=0
      
      # check DNS server is available
      ping -c1 $DNS_SERVER
      while [ $? != '0' ] && [ $COUNT -lt 10 ]; do
      ((COUNT++))
      echo "Checking for DNS: Attempt $COUNT ."
      sleep 10
      ping -c 1 $DNS_SERVER
      done
      EOF
      %end
    • The ARG commit=commit.tar line is the default value used for the commit argument during a container build. You can specify different tar files as a build argument during the container build.
    • The ADD $commit /var/www/html command copies the commit.tar file and automatically extracts it to the chosen location. You can choose a different location to extract and save the commit.

      The OSTree repository can be hosted from any HTTP service, and that the example, using a container, is just an option for how to do this. The docker file performs the following tasks:

      1. Uses the latest Universal Base Image (ubi)
      2. Installs the web server (httpd)
      3. Adds the kickstart file to the server
      4. Adds the RHEL for Edge image commit to the server

        The line ARG commit=commit.tar allows you to specify future commits using the command-line.

  2. Build a docker container

    #  podman build -t name-of-container-image --build-arg commit=uuid-commit.tar .
  3. Run the container

    #  podman run --rm -d -p port:80 localhost/name-of-container-image

    As a result, the server is set up and ready to launch the RHEL installer using the commit.tar repository and the kickstart file.

5.3. Downloading RHEL Boot.iso image

You can download a Red Hat Boot ISO image from the Red Hat Customer Portal. The Red Hat Boot ISO image is used to launch the RHEL installer. The installer fetches the Kickstart file that you provide for installing RHEL for Edge images.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Open a browser and access https://access.redhat.com/downloads.
  2. Click the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.
  3. CLick the button Download Now for the option "Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.2 Boot ISO"

For more information about downloading Boot.iso image, see Downloading the installation ISO image.

5.4. Installing the RHEL for Edge image using a Kickstart file

To install the RHEL for Edge image using a Kickstart file, use the web server. The web server uses the RHEL for Edge image commit.tar repository and the kickstart file to launch the RHEL installer.

Prerequisites

  • The server to fetch the commit in the Installer is available and running.
  • A disk image to install the commit you created.

Procedure

  1. Run the Anaconda Installer using the libvirt virt-install:

    virt-install --name rhel-edge-test-1 --memory 2048 --vcpus 2 --disk path=prepared_disk_image.qcow2,format=qcow2 --os-variant rhel8.0 --cdrom /home/username/Downloads/rhel8-edge.iso
  2. On the installation screen, press TAB to specify an additional kernel parameter:

    inst.ks=http://edge_device_ip:port/kickstart.ks

    The kernel parameter specifies that you want to install RHEL using the Kickstart file and not the RHEL image contained in the RHEL Installer.

    The RHEL Installer starts, fetches the Kickstart file from the server (HTTP) endpoint and executes the commands, including the command to install the RHEL for Edge image commit from the HTTP endpoint. Once the installation is complete, the installer prompts for login details.

  3. On the Login screen, specify your user account credentials and click Enter.
  4. Verify whether the RHEL for Edge image is successfully installed.

    $ rpm-ostree status

    The command output provides the image commit ID and shows that the installation is successful.

    Following is a sample output:

    State: idle
    Deployments:
    * ostree://edge:rhel/8/x86_64/edge
    		  Timestamp: 2020-09-18T20:06:54Z
    			Commit: 836e637095554e0b634a0a48ea05c75280519dd6576a392635e6fa7d4d5e96

5.5. Creating a RHEL for Edge Container image for non-network-based deployments

After you downloaded the RHEL for Edge Container commit, you can build a container, by loading the downloaded commit into Podman. For that, perform the following the steps:

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the directory where you have downloaded the RHEL for Edge Container image.
  2. Load the RHEL for Edge Container image into Podman.

    $ cat ./commit_ID-container.tar | sudo podman load

    The command output provides the image ID, for example: @8e0d51f061ff1a51d157804362bc875b649b27f2ae1e66566a15e7e6530cec63

  3. Tag the new RHEL for Edge Container image, using the image ID generated by the previous step.

    $ sudo podman tag image-ID localhost/edge-container

    The podman tag command assigns an additional name to the local image.

  4. Run the container named edge-container.

    $ sudo podman run --name=edge-container -p 8080:80 localhost/edge-container

    The podman run --name=edge-container command assigns a name to your container based on the localhost/edge-container image.

  5. List containers:

    $  $ podman ps -a
    CONTAINER ID  IMAGE                               	COMMAND	CREATED    	STATUS                	PORTS   NAMES
    2988198c4c4b  …./localhost/edge-container   /bin/bash  3 seconds ago  Up 2 seconds ago      	edge-container

As a result, Podman runs a container that serves a repository with the RHEL for Edge Container commit.

5.6. Creating a RHEL for Edge Installer image for non-network-based deployments

After you have built a running container to serve a repository with the RHEL for Edge Container commit, create an RHEL for Edge Installer (.iso) image. The Installer (.iso) pulls the commit served by RHEL for Edge Container (.tar) by HTTP. After the RHEL for Edge container is loaded in Podman, it exposes the OSTree in the URL format. The following example provides the steps to set up a web server using a container.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. On the Image Builder dashboard, for the empty blueprint that you have created for RHEL for Edge image, click Create Image.
  2. On the Create Image window, perform the following steps:

    1. In the Repository textbox, specify the RHEL for Edge container OSTree URL to embed in the image. For example, http://$podman_host_ip:8080/repo
    2. In the Ref textbox, specify the same reference as you provided during the creation of the RHEL for Edge Container commit to embed in the image. For example, rhel/edge/test.
    3. Click Create.

      Image Builder pulls the commit that is being served by the running container during the image build. Once the image build is complete, you can download the resulting image. See Downloading a RHEL for Edge image.

      You can use the same workflow for the CLI. See Creating a RHEL for Edge Installer image using command-line interface for non-network-based deployments.

.

5.7. Installing the RHEL for Edge image for non-network-based deployments

To install the RHEL for Edge image, follow the steps:

Prerequisites

  • You stopped the running container.
  • A disk image to install the commit you created.

Procedure

  1. Create an empty qcow image to install the (.iso). That is an image of a hard drive for the virtual machine (VM). For example:

    $  qemu-img create -f qcow2 diskfile.qcow2 5G
  2. Boot the VM using the disk as a drive and the installer ISO as a CD-ROM. For example:

    $  qemu-system-x86_64 \
              -enable-kvm \
              -m 4G \
              -cpu host \
              -net nic,model=virtio \
              -net user,hostfwd=tcp::2223-:22 \
              -cdrom $HOME/Downloads/Fedora-Server-netinst-x86_64-33-1.2.iso \
              disk-image.img

    This command instructs qemu (the hypervisor) to:

    • Use KVM virtualization.
    • Increase memory to 4000MB (some processes are consuming lots of memory, for example dnf).
    • Use the same CPU type as the host uses.
    • Connect the guest to a virtual network bridge on the host and forward TCP port 2223 from the host to the SSH port (22) on the guest.
    • Mount the installation ISO.
    • Use the hard drive image created above.

      It gives you an Anaconda Installer. The RHEL Installer starts, loads the Kickstart file from the ISO and executes the commands, including the command to install the RHEL for Edge image commit. Once the installation is complete, the installer prompts for login details.

      Note

      Anaconda is preconfigured to use the container commit during the installation.

  3. On the Login screen, specify your user account credentials and click Enter.

Verification steps

  1. Verify whether the RHEL for Edge image is successfully installed.

    $  rpm-ostree status

As a result, the command output provides the image commit ID and shows that the installation is successful.

Chapter 6. Managing RHEL for Edge images

To manage the RHEL for Edge images, you can perform any of the following administrative tasks:

  • Edit the RHEL for Edge image blueprint using Image Builder in RHEL web console
  • Edit the RHEL for Edge image blueprint using Image Builder command-line
  • Update the RHEL for Edge images
  • Configure rpm-ostree remotes on nodes/Update node policy
  • Restore RHEL for Edge images manually or automatically using a Greenboot

6.1. Editing a RHEL for Edge image blueprint using Image Builder in RHEL web console

You can edit the RHEL for Edge image blueprint to:

  • add additional components that you may require
  • modify the version of any existing component
  • remove any existing component

6.1.1. Adding a component to RHEL for Edge image blueprint using Image Builder in RHEL web console

To add a component to a RHEL for Edge image blueprint, ensure that you have met the following prerequisites and then follow the procedure to edit the corresponding blueprint.

Prerequisites

  • On a RHEL system, you have accessed the Image Builder dashboard.
  • You have created a blueprint for RHEL for Edge image.

Procedure

  1. On the Image Builder dashboard, click the RHEL for Edge image blueprint that you want to edit.

    To search for a specific blueprint, enter the blueprint name in the Filter By Name text box, and then press Enter.

  2. On the upper right side of the blueprint, click Edit Packages.

    The view changes to the Edit Packages mode.

  3. Enter the component name that you want to add in the Filter By Name text box, and then press Enter.

    A list with the component name appears.

  4. Click the + sign adjacent to the component.

    The component is added to the Blueprint.

  5. Click Commit.

    The blueprint updates are saved, and a message with the pending commit appears.

  6. On the summary dialogue box, review the changes and then click Commit.

    A message confirming the successful commit appears.

    As a result, a new version of the blueprint is created and the right pane lists the latest components.

6.1.2. Changing the version of an existing component in a RHEL for Edge image blueprint using the RHEL web console

You had selected a default (latest) version or had chosen a version for the components that you included in the blueprint. If required, you can now change the version for any component that you might want to.

To do so, ensure that you have met the following prerequisites and then follow the procedure to change the version of the component in the corresponding blueprint.

Prerequisites

  • On a RHEL system, you have accessed the Image Builder dashboard.
  • You have created a blueprint for RHEL for Edge image.
  • You have added at least one component to the RHEL for Edge blueprint.

Procedure

  1. On the Image Builder dashboard, click the blueprint that you want to edit.

    To search for a specific blueprint, enter the blueprint name in the Filter By Name text box, and then press Enter.

  2. On the upper right side of the blueprint, click Edit Packages.

    The view changes to the Edit Packages mode, and the right panel lists the component names that are currently committed to the blueprint.

  3. Click the component name.
  4. Select the desired version from the Component Options Version dropdown list.
  5. Click Apply Changes.

    The change is saved and the right pane lists the latest changes.

  6. Click Commit.

    The new version is saved in the blueprint. A message with pending commits appears.

  7. On the summary dialogue box, review the changes and then click Commit.

    A message confirming the successful commit appears.

    As a result a new version of the blueprint is created and the right pane lists the latest components.

6.1.3. Removing a component from RHEL for Edge image blueprint using Image Builder in RHEL web console

To remove one or more unwanted components from a RHEL for Edge image blueprint that you created, ensure that you have met the following prerequisites and then follow the procedure.

Prerequisites

  • On a RHEL system, you have accessed the Image Builder dashboard.
  • You have created a blueprint for RHEL for Edge image.
  • You have added at least one component to the RHEL for Edge blueprint.

Procedure

  1. On the Image Builder dashboard, click the blueprint that you want to edit.

    To search for a specific blueprint, enter the blueprint name in the Filter By Name text box, and then press Enter.

  2. On the upper right side of the blueprint, click Edit Packages.

    The view changes to the Edit Packages mode. The right panel lists the component names that are currently committed to the blueprint.

  3. From the More Options menu, click Remove.

    Optionally, click the component name and then click Remove.

  4. Click Commit.

    A message with pending commits appears.

  5. Review your changes and then click Commit.

    A message confirming the successful commit appears.

    As a result, a new version of the blueprint is created and the right pane lists the latest components.

6.2. Editing a RHEL for Edge image blueprint using command-line interface

You can change the specifications for your RHEL for Edge image blueprint using Image Builder command-line. To do so, ensure that you have met the following prerequisites and then follow the procedure to edit the corresponding blueprint.

Prerequisites

  • You have access to the Image Builder command-line.
  • You have created a RHEL for Edge image blueprint.

Procedure

  1. Save (export) the blueprint to a local text file:

    # composer-cli blueprints save BLUEPRINT-NAME
  2. Edit the BLUEPRINT-NAME.toml file with a text editor of your choice and make your changes.

    Before finishing with the edits, make sure the file is a valid blueprint:

  3. Increase the version number.

    Ensure that you use a Semantic Versioning scheme.

    Note

    if you do not change the version, the patch component of the version is increased automatically.

  4. Check if the contents are valid TOML specifications. See the TOML documentation for more information.

    Note

    TOML documentation is a community product and is not supported by Red Hat. You can report any issues with the tool at https://github.com/toml-lang/toml/issues.

  5. Save the file and close the editor.
  6. Push (import) the blueprint back into Image Builder command-line:

    # composer-cli blueprints push BLUEPRINT-NAME.toml
    Note

    When pushing the blueprint back into the Image Builder command-line, provide the file name including the .toml extension.

  7. Verify that the contents uploaded to Image Builder match your edits:

    # composer-cli blueprints show BLUEPRINT-NAME
  8. Check whether the components and versions listed in the blueprint and their dependencies are valid:

    # composer-cli blueprints depsolve BLUEPRINT-NAME

6.3. Updating RHEL for Edge images

6.3.1. How are RHEL for Edge image updates deployed

With RHEL for Edge images, you can either deploy the updates manually or can automate the deployment process. The updates are applied in an atomic manner, where the state of each update is known, and the updates are staged and applied only upon reboot. Because no changes are seen until you reboot the device, you can schedule a reboot to ensure the highest possible uptime.

During the image update, because only the updated OS content is transferred over the network, the deployment process is more efficient compared to transferring the entire image. The OS binaries and libraries (/usr) are read-only, and the read-write state is maintained in /var and /etc directories.

With the delta transfer, you can deploy the updates even in case of intermittent and low-bandwidth connections, or to disconnected devices by using local media. Additionally, you can also create static-deltas to further reduce the network usage. The static-deltas pull all individual updates into a single file archive, and significantly reduces the TCP network overhead of transferring the OS updates over a single TCP connection as opposed to transferring each update individually over multiple connections.

The following diagram illustrates the RHEL for Edge image update deployment process:

Image Deployment

6.3.2. Deploying RHEL for Edge image updates manually

After you have edited a RHEL for Edge blueprint, you can update the image commit. Image Builder generates a new commit for the updated RHEL for Edge image. Use this new commit to deploy the image with latest package versions or with additional packages.

To deploy RHEL for Edge images updates, ensure that you meet the prerequisites and then follow the procedure.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. On the Image Builder dashboard, for the blueprint that you have edited, click Create Image.
  2. On the Create Image window, perform the following steps:

    1. From the Type dropdown list, select “RHEL for Edge Commit (.tar)”.
    2. In the Parent commit textbox, specify the parent commit ID that was previously generated. See Section 5.1, “Extracting RHEL for Edge image commit”.
    3. In the Ref textbox, you can either specify a name for your commit or leave it empty. By default, the web console specifies the Ref as rhel/8/arch_name/edge.
    4. Click Create. Image Builder creates a RHEL for Edge image for the updated blueprint.

      To view the RHEL for Edge image creation progress, click the blueprint name from the breadcrumbs, and then click the Images tab.

      Note

      The image creation process takes a few minutes to complete.

      The resulting image includes the latest packages that you have added, if any, and have the original commit ID as a parent.

  3. Download the resulting RHEL for Edge image. For more information about downloading a RHEL for Edge image, see Section 3.6, “Downloading a RHEL for Edge image”.
  4. Extract the OSTree commit. For more information about extracting an OSTree commit, see Section 5.1, “Extracting RHEL for Edge image commit”.
  5. Build a docker container, serving the child commit ID this time.

    #  podman build -t <_name-of-server_> --build-arg commit=<uuid>-child_commit.tar .
  6. Run the container.

    #  podman run --rm -p 8000:80 <_name-of-server_>
  7. On the RHEL system provisioned, from the original edge image, verify the current status.

    $ rpm-ostree status

    If there is no new commit ID, run the following command to verify if there is any upgrade available:

    $ rpm-ostree upgrade --check

    The command output provides the current active OSTree commit ID.

  8. Update OSTree to make the new OSTree commit ID available.

    $ rpm-ostree upgrade

    OSTree verifies if there is an update on the repository. If yes, it fetches the update and requests you to reboot your system so that you can activate the deployment of this new commit update.

  9. Check the current status again:

    $ rpm-ostree status

    You can now see that there are 2 commits available:

    • The active parent commit.
    • A new commit that is not active and contains 1 added difference.
  10. To activate the new deployment and to make the new commit active, reboot your system.

    # systemctl reboot

    The Anaconda Installer reboots into the new deployment. On the login screen, you can see a new deployment available for you to boot.

  11. If you want to boot into the newest commit/deployment, the rpm-ostree upgrade command automatically orders the boot entries so that the new deployment is first in the list. Optionally, you can use the arrow key on your keyboard to select the GRUB menu entry and press Enter.
  12. Provide your login user account credentials.
  13. Verify the OSTree status:

    $ rpm-ostree status

    The command output provides the active commit ID.

  14. To view the changed packages, if any, run a diff between the parent commit and the new commit:

    $ rpm-ostree db diff parent_commit new_commit

    The update shows that the package you have installed is available and ready for use.

6.3.3. Deploying RHEL for Edge image updates manually for non-network-base deployments

After you have edited a RHEL for Edge blueprint, you can update the image commit. Image Builder generates a new commit for the updated RHEL for Edge image. Use this new commit to deploy the image with the latest package versions or with additional packages.

To deploy RHEL for Edge images updates, ensure that you meet the prerequisites and then follow the procedure.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. On the Image Builder dashboard, for the blueprint that you have edited, click Create Image.
  2. On the Create Image window, perform the following steps:

    1. From the Type dropdown list, select RHEL for Edge Container (.tar).
    2. In the Parent commit textbox, specify the previously generated parent commit ID. See Section 5.1, “Extracting RHEL for Edge image commit”.
    3. In the Repository textbox, specify the URL to the OSTree repository of the commit to embed in the image. For example, http://10.0.2.2:8080/repository/
    4. In the Ref textbox, specify the same reference as you provided during the creation of the RHEL for Edge Container commit to embed in the image. For example, 'rhel/edge/test`.
    5. Click Create. Image Builder creates a RHEL for Edge image for the updated blueprint.

      To view the progress of RHEL for Edge image creation, click the blueprint name from the breadcrumbs, and then click the Images tab.

      Note

      The image creation process takes a few minutes to complete.

      The resulting image includes the latest packages that you have added, if any, and has the original commit ID as a parent.

  3. Download the resulting RHEL for Edge image. For more information about downloading a RHEL for Edge image, see Section 3.6, “Downloading a RHEL for Edge image”.
  4. Load the RHEL for Edge Container image into Podman, serving the child commit ID this time.

    $ cat ./child-commit_ID-container.tar | sudo podman load
  5. Run Podman.

    #  sudo podman run -p 8080:80 localhost/edge-test
  6. On the RHEL system provisioned, from the original edge image, verify the current status.

    $ rpm-ostree status

    If there is no new commit ID, run the following command to verify if there is any upgrade available:

    $ rpm-ostree upgrade --check

    If there are updates available, the command output provides information about the available updates in the OSTree repository, such as the current active OSTree commit ID. Else, it prompts a message informing that there are no updates available.

  7. Update OSTree to make the new OSTree commit ID available.

    $ rpm-ostree upgrade

    OSTree verifies if there is an update on the repository. If yes, it fetches the update and requests you to reboot your system so that you can activate the deployment of this new commit update.

  8. Check the current status:

    $ rpm-ostree status

    You can now see that there are 2 commits available:

    • The active parent commit.
    • A new commit that is not active and contains 1 added difference.
  9. To activate the new deployment and to make the new commit active, reboot your system.

    # systemctl reboot

    The Anaconda Installer reboots into the new deployment. On the login screen, you can see a new deployment available for you to boot.

  10. If you want to boot into the newest commit/deployment, the rpm-ostree upgrade command automatically orders the boot entries so that the new deployment is first in the list. Optionally, you can use the arrow key on your keyboard to select the GRUB menu entry and press Enter.
  11. Provide your login user account credentials.
  12. Verify the OSTree status:

    $ rpm-ostree status

    The command output provides the active commit ID.

  13. To view the changed packages, if any, run a diff between the parent commit and the new commit:

    $ rpm-ostree db diff parent_commit new_commit

    The update shows that the package you have installed is available and ready for use.

6.3.4. Deploying RHEL for Edge automatic image updates

After you install a RHEL for Edge image on an Edge device, you can check for image updates available, if any, and can auto-apply them.

The rpm-ostreed-automatic.service (systemd service) and rpm-ostreed-automatic.timer (systemd timer) control the frequency of checks and upgrades. The available updates, if any, appear as staged deployments.

Deploying automatic image updates involves the following high-level steps:

  • Update the image update policy
  • Enable automatic download and staging of updates

6.3.5. Updating the RHEL for Edge image update policy

To update the image update policy, use the AutomaticUpdatePolicy and an IdleExitTimeout setting from the rpm-ostreed.conf file at /etc/rpm-ostreed.conf location on an Edge device.

The AutomaticUpdatePolicy settings controls the automatic update policy and has the following options:

  • none: Disables automatic updates. By default, the AutomaticUpdatePolicy setting is set to none.
  • check: Downloads enough metadata to display available updates with rpm-ostree status.
  • stage: Downloads and unpacks the updates that are applied on a reboot.

The IdleExitTimeout setting controls the time in seconds of inactivity before the daemon exit and has the following options:

  • 0: Disables auto-exit.
  • 60: By default, the IdleExitTimeout setting is set to 60.

To enable automatic updates, perform the following steps:

Procedure

  1. In the /etc/rpm-ostreed.conf file, update the following:

    • Change the value of AutomaticUpdatePolicy to check.
    • To run the update checks, specify a value in seconds for IdleExitTimeout.
  2. Reload the rpm-ostreed service and enable the systemd timer.

    # systemctl reload rpm-ostreed
    # systemctl enable rpm-ostreed-automatic.timer --now
  3. Verify the rpm-ostree status to ensure the automatic update policy is configured and time is active.

    # rpm-ostree status

    The command output shows the following:

    State: idle; auto updates enabled (check; last run <minutes> ago)

    Additionally, the output also displays information about the available updates.

6.3.6. Enabling RHEL for Edge automatic download and staging of updates

After you update the image update policy to check for image updates, the updates if any are displayed along with the update details. If you decide to apply the updates, enable the policy to automatically download and stage the updates. The available image updates are then downloaded and staged for deployment. The updates are applied and take effect when you reboot the Edge device.

To enable the policy for automatic download and staging of updates, perform the following updates:

Procedure

  1. In the /etc/rpm-ostreed.conf file, update ‘AutomaticUpdatePolicy’ to stage.
  2. Reload the rpm-ostreed service.

    # systemctl enable rpm-ostreed-automatic.timer --now
  3. Verify the rpm-ostree status

    # rpm-ostree status

    The command output shows the following:

    State: idle
    AutomaticUpdates: stage; rpm-ostreed-automatic.timer: last run <time> ago
  4. To initiate the updates, you can either wait for the timer to initiate the updates, or can manually start the service.

    # systemctl start rpm-ostreed-automatic.service

    After the updates are initiated, the rpm-ostree status shows the following:

    # rpm-ostree status
    State: busy
    AutomaticUpdates: stage; rpm-ostreed-automatic.service: running
    Transaction: automatic (stage)

    When the update is complete, a new deployment is staged in the list of deployments, and the original booted deployment is left untouched. You can decide if you want to boot the system using the new deployment or can wait for the next update.

    To view the list of deployments, run the rpm-ostree status command.

    Following is a sample output.

    # rpm-ostree status
    State: idle
    AutomaticUpdates: stage; rpm-ostreed-automatic.timer: last run <time> ago
    Deployments:

    To view the list of deployments with the updated package details, run the rpm-ostree status -v command.

6.4. Rolling back RHEL for Edge images

You can verify if the updated image is successfully deployed or not. If the deployment is unsuccessful, you can roll back to a previous version (commit). To roll back to a previous functional state, you can either perform the steps manually or can use an automated process.

6.4.1. How are RHEL for Edge images rolled back

With RHEL for Edge images, only transactional updates are applied to the operating system. With the transactional updates, you can easily rollback the unsuccessful updates to the last known good state, preventing system failure during updates.

You can use intelligent rollbacks with Greenboot to eliminate the issues of choosing between application stability and application of security updates.

Greenboot leverages rpm-ostree and runs custom health checks that run on system startup. In the event of an issue, the system rolls back the changes and preserves the last working state.

The following diagram illustrates the RHEL for Edge image roll back process.

Image restoration process

6.4.2. Rolling back RHEL for Edge images manually

If the deployment for RHEL for Edge image update fails or if the update fails to work successfully, then you can manually roll back to a previous deployment version.

To roll back to a previous version, perform the following steps:

Procedure

  1. Run the rollback command:

    # rpm-ostree rollback

    The command output provides details about the commit ID that is being moved and indicates a completed transaction with the details of the package being removed.

  2. Reboot the system.

    # systemctl reboot

    The command activates the previous commit with the stable content. The changes are applied and the previous version is restored.

6.4.3. Rolling back RHEL for Edge images using an automated process

Greenboot checks provides a framework that is integrated into the boot process and can trigger rpm-ostree rollbacks when a health check fails. For the health checks, you can create a custom script that indicates whether a health check passed or failed. Based on the result, you can decide when a rollback should be triggered.

To create a health check script, perform the following steps:

Procedure

  1. Create a script that returns a standard exit code 0.

    For example, the following script ensures that the configured DNS server is available:

    #!/bin/bash
    
    DNS_SERVER=$(grep ^nameserver /etc/resolv.conf | head -n 1 | cut -f2 -d" ")
    COUNT=0
    # check DNS server is available
    ping -c1 $DNS_SERVER
    while [ $? != '0' ] && [ $COUNT -lt 10 ]; do
    ((COUNT++))
    echo "Checking for DNS: Attempt $COUNT ."
    sleep 10
    ping -c 1 $DNS_SERVER
    done
  2. Include an executable file for the health checks at /etc/greenboot/check/required.d/.

    chmod +x check-dns.sh

    During the next reboot, the script is executed as part of the boot process, before the system enters the boot-complete.target. If the health checks are successful, no action is taken. If the health checks fail, the system is rebooted several times, before marking the update as failed and rolling back to the previous update.

Verification steps

To check if the default gateway is reachable, run the following health check script:

  1. Create a script that returns a standard exit code 0.

    #!/bin/bash
    
    DEF_GW=$(ip r | awk '/^default/ {print $3}')
    SCRIPT=$(basename $0)
    
    count=10
    connected=0
    ping_timeout=5
    interval=5
    
    while [ $count -gt 0 -a $connected -eq 0 ]; do
      echo "$SCRIPT: Pinging default gateway $DEF_GW"
      ping -c 1 -q -W $ping_timeout $DEF_GW > /dev/null 2>&1 && connected=1 || sleep $interval
      ((--count))
    done
    
    if [ $connected -eq 1 ]; then
      echo "$SCRIPT: Default gateway $DEF_GW is reachable."
      exit 0
    else
      echo "$SCRIPT: Failed to ping default gateway $DEF_GW!" 1>&2
      exit 1
    fi
  2. Include an executable file for the health checks at /etc/greenboot/check/required.d/ directory.

    chmod +x check-gw.sh

Appendix A. Terminology and commands

This section provides the rpmostree terminology and commands.

A.1. OSTree and rpm-ostree terminology

Following are some helpful terms that are used in context to OSTree and rpm-ostree images.

Table A.1. OSTree and rpm-ostree terminology

Term

Definition

OSTree

A tool used for managing Linux-based operating system versions. The OSTree tree view is similar to Git and is based on similar concepts.

rpm-ostree

A hybrid image or system package that hosts operating system updates.

Commit

A release or image version of the operating system. Image Builder generates an ostree commit for RHEL for Edge images. You can use these images to install or update RHEL on Edge servers.

Refs

Represents a branch in ostree. Refs always resolve to the latest commit. For example, rhel/8/x86_64/edge.

Revision (Rev)

SHA-256 for a specific commit.

Remote

The http or https endpoint that hosts the ostree content. This is analogous to the baseurl for a yum repository.

static-delta

Updates to ostree images are always delta updates. In case of RHEL for Edge images, the TCP overhead can be higher than expected due to the updates to number of files. To avoid TCP overhead, you can generate static-delta between specific commits, and send the update in a single connection. This optimization helps large deployments with constrained connectivity.

A.2. ostree commands

This section provides a few ostree commands that you can use when installing or managing ostree images.

Table A.2. ostree commands

ostree pull

ostree pull-local --repo [path] src

ostree pull-local <path> <rev> --repo=<repo-path>

ostree pull <URL> <rev> --repo=<repo-path>

ostree summary

ostree summary -u --repo=<repo-path>

View refs

ostree refs --repo ~/Code/src/osbuild-iot/build/repo/ --list

View commits in repo

ostree log --repo=/home/gicmo/Code/src/osbuild-iot/build/repo/ <REV>

Inspect a commit

ostree show --repo build/repo <REV>

List remotes of a repo

ostree remote list --repo <repo-path>

Resolve a REV

ostree rev-parse --repo ~/Code/src/osbuild-iot/build/repo fedora/x86_64/osbuild-demo

ostree rev-parse --repo ~/Code/src/osbuild-iot/build/repo b3a008eceeddd0cfd

Create static-delta

ostree static-delta generate --repo=[path] --from=REV --to=REV

Sign an existing ostree commit with a GPG key

ostree gpg-sign --repo=<repo-path> --gpg-homedir <gpg_home> COMMIT KEY-ID…

A.3. rpm-ostree commands

This section provides a few rpm-ostree commands that you can use when installing or managing ostree images.

Table A.3. rpm-ostree commands

CommandsDescription

rpm-ostree --repo=/home/gicmo/Code/src/osbuild-iot/build/repo/ db list <REV>

This command lists the packages existing in the <REV> commit into the repository.

rpm-ostree rollback

OSTree manages an ordered list of bootloader entries, called deployments. The entry at index 0 is the default bootloader entry. Each entry has a separate /etc directory, but all the entries share a single /var directory. You can use the bootloader to choose between entries by pressing Tab to interrupt startup. This rolls back to the previous state, i.e. the default deployment changes places with the non-default one.

rpm-ostree status

This command gives information about the current deployment in use. Lists the names and refspecs of all possible deployments in order, such that the first deployment in the list is the default upon boot. The deployment marked with * is the current booted deployment, and marking with 'r' indicates the most recent upgrade.

rpm-ostree db list

Use this command to see which packages are within the commit or commits. You must specify at least one commit, but more than one or a range of commits also work.

rpm-ostree db diff

Use this command to show how the packages are different between the trees in two revs (revisions). If no revs are provided, the booted commit is compared to the pending commit. If only a single rev is provided, the booted commit is compared to that rev.

rpm-ostree upgrade

This command downloads the latest version of the current tree, and deploys it, setting up the current tree as the default for the next boot. This has no effect on your running filesystem tree. You must reboot for any changes to take effect.

Additional resources

  • For more information, see the rpm-ostree man page.

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