9.5. Configuring Yum and Yum Repositories
/etc/yum.conf. This file contains one mandatory
[main]section, which enables you to set yum options that have global effect, and can also contain one or more
[repository]sections, which allow you to set repository-specific options. However, it is recommended to define individual repositories in new or existing
.repofiles in the
/etc/yum.repos.d/directory. The values you define in individual
[repository]sections of the
/etc/yum.conffile override values set in the
- set global yum options by editing the
[main]section of the
- set options for individual repositories by editing the
.repofiles in the
- use yum variables in
/etc/yum.confand files in the
/etc/yum.repos.d/directory so that dynamic version and architecture values are handled correctly;
- add, enable, and disable yum repositories on the command line; and
- set up your own custom yum repository.
9.5.1. Setting [main] Options
/etc/yum.confconfiguration file contains exactly one
[main]section, and while some of the key-value pairs in this section affect how yum operates, others affect how yum treats repositories. You can add many additional options under the
[main]section heading in
/etc/yum.confconfiguration file can look like this:
[main] cachedir=/var/cache/yum/$basearch/$releasever keepcache=0 debuglevel=2 logfile=/var/log/yum.log exactarch=1 obsoletes=1 gpgcheck=1 plugins=1 installonly_limit=3 [comments abridged] # PUT YOUR REPOS HERE OR IN separate files named file.repo # in /etc/yum.repos.d
assumeyesoption determines whether or not yum prompts for confirmation of critical actions. Replace value with one of:
0(default) — yum prompts for confirmation of critical actions it performs.
1— Do not prompt for confirmation of critical
assumeyes=1is set, yum behaves in the same way as the command-line options
- Use this option to set the directory where yum stores its cache and database files. Replace directory with an absolute path to the directory. By default, yum's cache directory is
/var/cache/yum/$basearch/$releasever/.See Section 9.5.3, “Using Yum Variables” for descriptions of the
- This option specifies the detail of debugging output produced by yum. Here, value is an integer between
10. Setting a higher
debuglevelvalue causes yum to display more detailed debugging output.
debuglevel=2is the default, while
debuglevel=0disables debugging output.
- With this option, you can set yum to consider the exact architecture when updating already installed packages. Replace value with:
0— Do not take into account the exact architecture when updating packages.
1(default) — Consider the exact architecture when updating packages. With this setting, yum does not install a package for 32-bit architecture to update a package already installed on the system with 64-bit architecture.
excludeoption enables you to exclude packages by keyword during installation or system update. Listing multiple packages for exclusion can be accomplished by quoting a space-delimited list of packages. Shell glob expressions using wildcards (for example,
?) are allowed.
- Use the
gpgcheckoption to specify if yum should perform a GPG signature check on packages. Replace value with:
0— Disable GPG signature-checking on packages in all repositories, including local package installation.
1(default) — Enable checking of GPG signature on all packages in all repositories, including local package installation. With
gpgcheckenabled, all packages' signatures are checked.If this option is set in the
[main]section of the
/etc/yum.conffile, it sets the GPG-checking rule for all repositories. However, you can also set
gpgcheck=valuefor individual repositories instead; that is, you can enable GPG-checking on one repository while disabling it on another. Setting
gpgcheck=valuefor an individual repository in its corresponding
.repofile overrides the default if it is present in
- Use the
group_commandoption to specify how the
yum group install,
yum group upgrade, and
yum group removecommands handle a package group. Replace value with on of:
simple— Install all members of a package group. Upgrade only previously installed packages, but do not install packages that have been added to the group in the meantime.
compat— Similar to
yum upgradealso installs packages that were added to the group since the previous upgrade.
objects— (default.) With this option, yum keeps track of the previously installed groups and distinguishes between packages installed as a part of the group and packages installed separately. See Example 9.15, “Viewing information on the LibreOffice package group”
- Here you can specify which type of packages (optional, default or mandatory) is installed when the
installcommand is called. The default and mandatory package types are chosen by default.
- With this option, you can set yum to record transaction history. Replace value with one of:
0— yum should not record history entries for transactions.
1(default) — yum should record history entries for transactions. This operation takes certain amount of disk space, and some extra time in the transactions, but it provides a lot of information about past operations, which can be displayed with the
history_record=1is the default.For more information on the
historycommand, see Section 9.4, “Working with Transaction History”.
NoteYum uses history records to detect modifications to the
rpmdbdata base that have been done outside of yum. In such case, yum displays a warning and automatically searches for possible problems caused by altering
history_recordturned off, yum is not able to detect these changes and no automatic checks are performed.
installonlypkgs=space separated list of packages
- Here you can provide a space-separated list of packages which yum can install, but will never update. See the
yum.conf(5) manual page for the list of packages which are install-only by default.If you add the
/etc/yum.conf, ensure that you list all of the packages that should be install-only, including any of those listed under the
yum.conf(5). In particular, make sure that kernel packages are always listed in
installonlypkgs(as they are by default), and
installonly_limitis always set to a value greater than
2so that a backup kernel is always available in case the default one fails to boot.
- This option sets how many packages listed in the
installonlypkgsdirective can be installed at the same time. Replace value with an integer representing the maximum number of versions that can be installed simultaneously for any single package listed in
installonlypkgs.The defaults for the
installonlypkgsdirective include several different kernel packages, so be aware that changing the value of
installonly_limitalso affects the maximum number of installed versions of any single kernel package. The default value listed in
installonly_limit=3, and the minimum possible value is
installonly_limit=2.You cannot set
installonly_limit=1because that would make yum remove the running kernel, which is prohibited. If
installonly_limit=1is used, yum fails.Using
installonly_limit=2ensures that one backup kernel is available. However, it is recommended to keep the default setting
installonly_limit=3, so that you have two backup kernels available.
keepcacheoption determines whether yum keeps the cache of headers and packages after successful installation. Here, value is one of:
0(default) — Do not retain the cache of headers and packages after a successful installation.
1— Retain the cache after a successful installation.
- To specify the location for logging output, replace file_name with an absolute path to the file in which yum should write its logging output. By default, yum logs to
- Here value stands for the maximum number of simultaneous connections, default is 5.
multilib_policyoption sets the installation behavior if several architecture versions are available for package install. Here, value stands for:
best— install the best-choice architecture for this system. For example, setting
multilib_policy=beston an AMD64 system causes yum to install the 64-bit versions of all packages.
all— always install every possible architecture for every package. For example, with
allon an AMD64 system, yum would install both the i686 and AMD64 versions of a package, if both were available.
obsoletesoption enables the obsoletes process logic during updates.When one package declares in its spec file that it obsoletes another package, the latter package is replaced by the former package when the former package is installed. Obsoletes are declared, for example, when a package is renamed. Replace value with one of:
0— Disable yum's obsoletes processing logic when performing updates.
1(default) — Enable yum's obsoletes processing logic when performing updates.
- This is a global switch to enable or disable yum plug-ins, value is one of:
0— Disable all yum plug-ins globally.
ImportantDisabling all plug-ins is not advised because certain plug-ins provide important yum services. In particular, product-id and subscription-manager plug-ins provide support for the certificate-based
Content Delivery Network(CDN). Disabling plug-ins globally is provided as a convenience option, and is generally only recommended when diagnosing a potential problem with yum.
1(default) — Enable all yum plug-ins globally. With
plugins=1, you can still disable a specific yum plug-in by setting
enabled=0in that plug-in's configuration file.For more information about various yum plug-ins, see Section 9.6, “Yum Plug-ins”. For further information on controlling plug-ins, see Section 9.6.1, “Enabling, Configuring, and Disabling Yum Plug-ins”.
- Here, directory is an absolute path to the directory where
.repofiles are located. All
.repofiles contain repository information (similar to the
/etc/yum.conf). Yum collects all repository information from
.repofiles and the
[repository]section of the
/etc/yum.conffile to create a master list of repositories to use for transactions. If
reposdiris not set, yum uses the default directory
- This option sets the number of times yum should attempt to retrieve a file before returning an error. value is an integer
0or greater. Setting value to
0makes yum retry forever. The default value is
[main]options, see the
[main] OPTIONSsection of the yum.conf(5) manual page.
9.5.2. Setting [repository] Options
[repository]sections, where repository is a unique repository ID such as
my_personal_repo(spaces are not permitted), allow you to define individual yum repositories. To avoid conflicts, custom repositories should not use names used by Red Hat repositories.
[repository] name=repository_name baseurl=repository_url
[repository]section must contain the following directives:
- Here, repository_name is a human-readable string describing the repository.
- Replace repository_url with a URL to the directory where the repodata directory of a repository is located:
Usually this URL is an HTTP link, such as:
- If the repository is available over HTTP, use:
- If the repository is available over FTP, use:
- If the repository is local to the machine, use:
- If a specific online repository requires basic HTTP authentication, you can specify your user name and password by prepending it to the URL as
username:password@link. For example, if a repository on http://www.example.com/repo/ requires a user name of “user” and a password of “password”, then the
baseurllink could be specified as
baseurl=http://path/to/repo/releases/$releasever/server/$basearch/os/Note that yum always expands the
$basearchvariables in URLs. For more information about yum variables, see Section 9.5.3, “Using Yum Variables”.
- This is a simple way to tell yum to use or ignore a particular repository, value is one of:
0— Do not include this repository as a package source when performing updates and installs. This is an easy way of quickly turning repositories on and off, which is useful when you desire a single package from a repository that you do not want to enable for updates or installs.
1— Include this repository as a package source.Turning repositories on and off can also be performed by passing either the
yum, or through the Add/Remove Software window of the PackageKit utility.
- Controls parallel downloading of repository packages. Here, value is one of:
auto(default) — parallel downloading is used if possible, which means that yum automatically disables it for repositories created by plug-ins to avoid failures.
on— parallel downloading is enabled for the repository.
off— parallel downloading is disabled for the repository.
[repository]options exist, part of them have the same form and function as certain
[main]options. For a complete list, see the
[repository] OPTIONSsection of the yum.conf(5) manual page.
Example 9.25. A sample /etc/yum.repos.d/redhat.repo file
# # Red Hat Repositories # Managed by (rhsm) subscription-manager # [red-hat-enterprise-linux-scalable-file-system-for-rhel-6-entitlement-rpms] name = Red Hat Enterprise Linux Scalable File System (for RHEL 6 Entitlement) (RPMs) baseurl = https://cdn.redhat.com/content/dist/rhel/entitlement-6/releases/$releasever/$basearch/scalablefilesystem/os enabled = 1 gpgcheck = 1 gpgkey = file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-redhat-release sslverify = 1 sslcacert = /etc/rhsm/ca/redhat-uep.pem sslclientkey = /etc/pki/entitlement/key.pem sslclientcert = /etc/pki/entitlement/11300387955690106.pem [red-hat-enterprise-linux-scalable-file-system-for-rhel-6-entitlement-source-rpms] name = Red Hat Enterprise Linux Scalable File System (for RHEL 6 Entitlement) (Source RPMs) baseurl = https://cdn.redhat.com/content/dist/rhel/entitlement-6/releases/$releasever/$basearch/scalablefilesystem/source/SRPMS enabled = 0 gpgcheck = 1 gpgkey = file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-redhat-release sslverify = 1 sslcacert = /etc/rhsm/ca/redhat-uep.pem sslclientkey = /etc/pki/entitlement/key.pem sslclientcert = /etc/pki/entitlement/11300387955690106.pem [red-hat-enterprise-linux-scalable-file-system-for-rhel-6-entitlement-debug-rpms] name = Red Hat Enterprise Linux Scalable File System (for RHEL 6 Entitlement) (Debug RPMs) baseurl = https://cdn.redhat.com/content/dist/rhel/entitlement-6/releases/$releasever/$basearch/scalablefilesystem/debug enabled = 0 gpgcheck = 1 gpgkey = file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-redhat-release sslverify = 1 sslcacert = /etc/rhsm/ca/redhat-uep.pem sslclientkey = /etc/pki/entitlement/key.pem sslclientcert = /etc/pki/entitlement/11300387955690106.pem
9.5.3. Using Yum Variables
yumcommands and in all yum configuration files (that is,
.repofiles in the
- You can use this variable to reference the release version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Yum obtains the value of
distroverpkg=valueline in the
/etc/yum.confconfiguration file. If there is no such line in
/etc/yum.conf, then yum infers the correct value by deriving the version number from the
redhat-releaseproductpackage that provides the
- You can use this variable to refer to the system's CPU architecture as returned when calling Python's
os.uname()function. Valid values for
- You can use
$basearchto reference the base architecture of the system. For example, i686 and i586 machines both have a base architecture of
i386, and AMD64 and Intel 64 machines have a base architecture of
- These ten variables are each replaced with the value of any shell environment variables with the same name. If one of these variables is referenced (in
/etc/yum.conffor example) and a shell environment variable with the same name does not exist, then the configuration file variable is not replaced.
$” sign) in the
/etc/yum/vars/directory, and add the desired value on its first line.
$osname, create a new file with “Red Hat Enterprise Linux” on the first line and save it as
echo "Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7" > /etc/yum/vars/osname
9.5.4. Viewing the Current Configuration
[main]section of the
/etc/yum.conffile), execute the
yum-config-managercommand with no command-line options:
Example 9.26. Viewing configuration of the main section
yum-config-manager main \*Loaded plugins: langpacks, product-id, subscription-manager ================================== main =================================== [main] alwaysprompt = True assumeyes = False bandwith = 0 bugtracker_url = https://bugzilla.redhat.com/enter_bug.cgi?product=Red%20Hat%20Enterprise%20Linux%206&component=yum cache = 0 [output truncated]
9.5.5. Adding, Enabling, and Disabling a Yum Repository
Content Delivery Network(CDN), the Red Hat Subscription Manager tools are used to manage repositories in the
Adding a Yum Repository
[repository]section to the
/etc/yum.conffile, or to a
.repofile in the
/etc/yum.repos.d/directory. All files with the
.repofile extension in this directory are read by yum, and it is recommended to define your repositories here instead of in
Content Delivery Network(CDN) constitutes a potential security risk, and could lead to security, stability, compatibility, and maintainability issues.
.repofile. To add such a repository to your system and enable it, run the following command as
Example 9.27. Adding example.repo
yum-config-manager --add-repo http://www.example.com/example.repoLoaded plugins: langpacks, product-id, subscription-manager adding repo from: http://www.example.com/example.repo grabbing file http://www.example.com/example.repo to /etc/yum.repos.d/example.repo example.repo | 413 B 00:00 repo saved to /etc/yum.repos.d/example.repo
Enabling a Yum Repository
yum repolist allto list available repository IDs). Alternatively, you can use a glob expression to enable all matching repositories:
Example 9.28. Enabling repositories defined in custom sections of /etc/yum.conf.
yum-config-manager --enable example\*Loaded plugins: langpacks, product-id, subscription-manager ============================== repo: example ============================== [example] bandwidth = 0 base_persistdir = /var/lib/yum/repos/x86_64/7Server baseurl = http://www.example.com/repo/7Server/x86_64/ cache = 0 cachedir = /var/cache/yum/x86_64/7Server/example [output truncated]
Example 9.29. Enabling all repositories
/etc/yum.conffile and in the
yum-config-manager --enable \*Loaded plugins: langpacks, product-id, subscription-manager ============================== repo: example ============================== [example] bandwidth = 0 base_persistdir = /var/lib/yum/repos/x86_64/7Server baseurl = http://www.example.com/repo/7Server/x86_64/ cache = 0 cachedir = /var/cache/yum/x86_64/7Server/example [output truncated]
yum-config-manager --enablecommand displays the current repository configuration.
Disabling a Yum Repository
yum repolist allto list available repository IDs). Similarly to
yum-config-manager --enable, you can use a glob expression to disable all matching repositories at the same time:
Example 9.30. Disabling all repositories
/etc/yum.conffile and in the
yum-config-manager --disable \*Loaded plugins: langpacks, product-id, subscription-manager ============================== repo: example ============================== [example] bandwidth = 0 base_persistdir = /var/lib/yum/repos/x86_64/7Server baseurl = http://www.example.com/repo/7Server/x86_64/ cache = 0 cachedir = /var/cache/yum/x86_64/7Server/example [output truncated]
yum-config-manager --disablecommand displays the current configuration.
9.5.6. Creating a Yum Repository
- Install the createrepo package:
# yum install createrepo
- Copy all packages for your new repository into one directory, such as
cp /your/packages/*.rpm /tmp/local_repo/
- To create the repository run:
createrepo /tmp/local_repo/This creates the necessary metadata for the yum repository and places metadata in a newly created subdirectory
repodata.The repository is now ready to be consumed by yum. This repository can be shared over the HTTP or FTP protocol, or refered directly from the local machine. See the Section 9.5.2, “Setting [repository] Options” section for more details on how to configure a yum repository.
NoteWhen constructing the URL for a repository, refer to the
/mnt/local_repo/repodata, as this directory contains only metadata. Actual yum packages are in
18.104.22.168. Adding packages to an already created yum repository
- Copy the new packages to your repository directory, such as
cp /your/packages/*.rpm /tmp/local_repo/
- To reflect the newly added packages in the metadata, run:
createrepo --update /tmp/local_repo/
- Optional: If you have already used any yum command with newly updated repository, run:
yum clean expire-cache