2.2. Using authconfig
authconfigtool can help configure what kind of data store to use for user credentials, such as LDAP. On Red Hat Enterprise Linux,
authconfighas both GUI and command-line options to configure any user data stores. The
authconfigtool can configure the system to use specific services — SSSD, LDAP, NIS, or Winbind — for its user database, along with using different forms of authentication mechanisms.
To configure Identity Management systems, Red Hat recommends using the
ipa-client-installutility or the
realmdsystem instead of
authconfigutilities are limited and substantially less flexible. For more information, see Section 2.1, “Identity Management Tools for System Authentication”.
The following three
authconfigutilities are available for configuring authentication settings:
authconfig-gtkprovides a full graphical interface.
authconfigprovides a command-line interface for manual configuration.
authconfig-tuiprovides a text-based UI. Note that this utility has been deprecated.
All of these configuration utilities must be run as
2.2.1. Tips for Using the authconfig CLI
authconfigcommand-line tool updates all of the configuration files and services required for system authentication, according to the settings passed to the script. Along with providing even more identity and authentication configuration options than can be set through the UI, the
authconfigtool can also be used to create backup and kickstart files.
For a complete list of
authconfigoptions, check the help output and the man page.
There are some things to remember when running
- With every command, use either the
--testoption. One of those options is required for the command to run successfully. Using
--updatewrites the configuration changes. The
--testoption displays the changes but does not apply the changes to the configuration.If the
--updateoption is not used, then the changes are not written to the system configuration files.
- The command line can be used to update existing configuration as well as to set new configuration. Because of this, the command line does not enforce that required attributes are used with a given invocation (because the command may be updating otherwise complete settings).When editing the authentication configuration, be very careful that the configuration is complete and accurate. Changing the authentication settings to incomplete or wrong values can lock users out of the system. Use the --test option to confirm that the settings are proper before using the --update option to write them.
- Each enable option has a corresponding disable option.
2.2.2. Installing the authconfig UI
authconfigUI is not installed by default, but it can be useful for administrators to make quick changes to the authentication configuration.
To install the UI, install the
authconfig-gtkpackage. This has dependencies on some common system packages, such as the
authconfigcommand-line tool, Bash, and Python. Most of those are installed by default.
[root@server ~]# yum install authconfig-gtk Loaded plugins: langpacks, product-id, subscription-manager Resolving Dependencies --> Running transaction check ---> Package authconfig-gtk.x86_64 0:6.2.8-8.el7 will be installed --> Finished Dependency Resolution Dependencies Resolved ================================================================================ Package Arch Version Repository Size ================================================================================ Installing: authconfig-gtk x86_64 6.2.8-8.el7 RHEL-Server 105 k Transaction Summary ================================================================================ Install 1 Package ... 8< ...
2.2.3. Launching the authconfig UI
- Open the terminal and log in as root.
- Run the
Any changes take effect immediately when the
authconfigUI is closed.
There are three configuration tabs in the Authentication dialog box:
- Identity & Authentication, which configures the resource used as the identity store (the data repository where the user IDs and corresponding credentials are stored).
- Advanced Options, which configures authentication methods other than passwords or certificates, like smart cards and fingerprint.
- Password Options, which configures password authentication methods.
Figure 2.1. authconfig Window
2.2.4. Testing Authentication Settings
It is critical that authentication is fully and properly configured. Otherwise all users (even root) could be locked out of the system, or some users blocked.
--testoption prints all of the authentication configuration for the system, for every possible identity and authentication mechanism. This shows both the settings for what is enabled and what areas are disabled.
testoption can be run by itself to show the full, current configuration or it can be used with an
authconfigcommand to show how the configuration will be changed (without actually changing it). This can be very useful in verifying that the proposed authentication settings are complete and correct.
[root@server ~]# authconfig --test caching is disabled nss_files is always enabled nss_compat is disabled nss_db is disabled nss_hesiod is disabled hesiod LHS = "" hesiod RHS = "" nss_ldap is disabled LDAP+TLS is disabled LDAP server = "" LDAP base DN = "" nss_nis is disabled NIS server = "" NIS domain = "" nss_nisplus is disabled nss_winbind is disabled SMB workgroup = "MYGROUP" SMB servers = "" SMB security = "user" SMB realm = "" Winbind template shell = "/bin/false" SMB idmap range = "16777216-33554431" nss_sss is enabled by default nss_wins is disabled nss_mdns4_minimal is disabled DNS preference over NSS or WINS is disabled pam_unix is always enabled shadow passwords are enabled password hashing algorithm is sha512 pam_krb5 is disabled krb5 realm = "#" krb5 realm via dns is disabled krb5 kdc = "" krb5 kdc via dns is disabled krb5 admin server = "" pam_ldap is disabled LDAP+TLS is disabled LDAP server = "" LDAP base DN = "" LDAP schema = "rfc2307" pam_pkcs11 is disabled use only smartcard for login is disabled smartcard module = "" smartcard removal action = "" pam_fprintd is disabled pam_ecryptfs is disabled pam_winbind is disabled SMB workgroup = "MYGROUP" SMB servers = "" SMB security = "user" SMB realm = "" pam_sss is disabled by default credential caching in SSSD is enabled SSSD use instead of legacy services if possible is enabled IPAv2 is disabled IPAv2 domain was not joined IPAv2 server = "" IPAv2 realm = "" IPAv2 domain = "" pam_pwquality is enabled (try_first_pass local_users_only retry=3 authtok_type=) pam_passwdqc is disabled () pam_access is disabled () pam_mkhomedir or pam_oddjob_mkhomedir is disabled (umask=0077) Always authorize local users is enabled () Authenticate system accounts against network services is disabled
2.2.5. Saving and Restoring Configuration Using
Changing authentication settings can be problematic. Improperly changing the configuration can wrongly exclude users who should have access, can cause connections to the identity store to fail, or can even lock all access to a system.
Before editing the authentication configuration, it is strongly recommended that administrators take a backup of all configuration files. This is done with the
[root@server ~]# authconfig --savebackup=/backups/authconfigbackup20200701
The authentication configuration can be restored to any previous saved version using the
--restorebackupoption, with the name of the backup to use.
[root@server ~]# authconfig --restorebackup=/backups/authconfigbackup20200701
authconfigcommand saves an automatic backup every time the configuration is altered. It is possible to restore the last backup using the
[root@server ~]# authconfig --restorelastbackup