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1.2. Default Cgroup Hierarchies

By default, systemd automatically creates a hierarchy of slice, scope and service units to provide a unified structure for the cgroup tree. With the systemctl command, you can further modify this structure by creating custom slices, as shown in Section 2.1, “Creating Control Groups”. Also, systemd automatically mounts hierarchies for important kernel resource controllers (see Available Controllers in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7) in the /sys/fs/cgroup/ directory.


The deprecated cgconfig tool from the libcgroup package is available to mount and handle hierarchies for controllers not yet supported by systemd (most notably the net-prio controller). Never use libcgropup tools to modify the default hierarchies mounted by systemd since it would lead to unexpected behavior. The libcgroup library will be removed in future versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. For more information on how to use cgconfig, see Chapter 3, Using libcgroup Tools.

Systemd Unit Types

All processes running on the system are child processes of the systemd init process. Systemd provides three unit types that are used for the purpose of resource control (for a complete list of systemd's unit types, see the chapter called Managing Services with systemd in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 System Administrator's Guide):
  • Service — A process or a group of processes, which systemd started based on a unit configuration file. Services encapsulate the specified processes so that they can be started and stopped as one set. Services are named in the following way:
    Where name stands for the name of the service.
  • Scope — A group of externally created processes. Scopes encapsulate processes that are started and stopped by arbitrary processes through the fork() function and then registered by systemd at runtime. For instance, user sessions, containers, and virtual machines are treated as scopes. Scopes are named as follows:
    Here, name stands for the name of the scope.
  • Slice — A group of hierarchically organized units. Slices do not contain processes, they organize a hierarchy in which scopes and services are placed. The actual processes are contained in scopes or in services. In this hierarchical tree, every name of a slice unit corresponds to the path to a location in the hierarchy. The dash ("-") character acts as a separator of the path components. For example, if the name of a slice looks as follows:
    it means that a slice called parent-name.slice is a subslice of the parent.slice. This slice can have its own subslice named parent-name-name2.slice, and so on.
    There is one root slice denoted as:
Service, scope, and slice units directly map to objects in the cgroup tree. When these units are activated, they map directly to cgroup paths built from the unit names. For example, the ex.service residing in the test-waldo.slice is mapped to the cgroup test.slice/test-waldo.slice/ex.service/.
Services, scopes, and slices are created manually by the system administrator or dynamically by programs. By default, the operating system defines a number of built-in services that are necessary to run the system. Also, there are four slices created by default:
  • -.slice — the root slice;
  • system.slice — the default place for all system services;
  • user.slice — the default place for all user sessions;
  • machine.slice — the default place for all virtual machines and Linux containers.
Note that all user sessions are automatically placed in a separated scope unit, as well as virtual machines and container processes. Furthermore, all users are assigned with an implicit subslice. Besides the above default configuration, the system administrator can define new slices and assign services and scopes to them.
The following tree is a simplified example of a cgroup tree. This output was generated with the systemd-cgls command described in Section 2.4, “Obtaining Information about Control Groups”:
├─1 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd --switched-root --system --deserialize 20  
│ └─user-1000.slice
│   └─session-1.scope
│     ├─11459 gdm-session-worker [pam/gdm-password]
│     ├─11471 gnome-session --session gnome-classic
│     ├─11479 dbus-launch --sh-syntax --exit-with-session
│     ├─11480 /bin/dbus-daemon --fork --print-pid 4 --print-address 6 --session
│     ...
  │ └─422 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-journald
  │ └─11691 /usr/sbin/bluetoothd -n
  │ └─5328 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-localed
  │ └─5001 /usr/libexec/colord
  │ └─1191 /usr/sbin/sshd -D
As you can see, services and scopes contain processes and are placed in slices that do not contain processes of their own. The only exception is PID 1 that is located in the special systemd slice marked as -.slice. Also note that -.slice is not shown as it is implicitly identified with the root of the entire tree.
Service and slice units can be configured with persistent unit files as described in Section 2.3.2, “Modifying Unit Files”, or created dynamically at runtime by API calls to PID 1 (see the section called “Online Documentation” for API reference). Scope units can be created only dynamically. Units created dynamically with API calls are transient and exist only during runtime. Transient units are released automatically as soon as they finish, get deactivated, or the system is rebooted.