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Chapter 42. File Systems
File system DAX is now available for ext4 and XFS as a Technology Preview
Starting with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.3, Direct Access (DAX) provides, as a Technology Preview, a means for an application to directly map persistent memory into its address space.
To use DAX, a system must have some form of persistent memory available, usually in the form of one or more Non-Volatile Dual In-line Memory Modules (NVDIMMs), and a file system that supports DAX must be created on the NVDIMM(s). Also, the file system must be mounted with the
daxmount option. Then, an
mmapof a file on the dax-mounted file system results in a direct mapping of storage into the application's address space. (BZ#1274459)
pNFS block layout is now available
As a Technology Preview, Red Hat Enterprise Linux clients can now mount pNFS shares with the block layout feature.
Note that Red Hat recommends using the pNFS SCSI layout instead, which is similar to block layout but easier to use. (BZ#1111712)
pNFS SCSI layout is now available for client and server
Client and server support for parallel NFS (pNFS) SCSI layouts is provided as a Technology Preview starting with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.3. Building on the work of block layouts, the pNFS layout is defined across SCSI devices and contains sequential series of fixed-size blocks as logical units that must be capable of supporting SCSI persistent reservations. The Logical Unit (LU) devices are identified by their SCSI device identification, and fencing is handled through the assignment of reservations. (BZ#1305092)
OverlayFS is a type of union file system. It allows the user to overlay one file system on top of another. Changes are recorded in the upper file system, while the lower file system remains unmodified. This allows multiple users to share a file-system image, such as a container or a DVD-ROM, where the base image is on read-only media. Refer to the kernel file Documentation/filesystems/overlayfs.txt for additional information.
OverlayFS remains a Technology Preview in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.5 under most circumstances. As such, the kernel will log warnings when this technology is activated.
Full support is available for OverlayFS when used with Docker under the following restrictions:
- OverlayFS is only supported for use as a Docker graph driver. Its use can only be supported for container COW content, not for persistent storage. Any persistent storage must be placed on non-OverlayFS volumes to be supported. Only default Docker configuration can be used; that is, one level of overlay, one lowerdir, and both lower and upper levels are on the same file system.
- Only XFS is currently supported for use as a lower layer file system.
- On Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.3 and earlier, SELinux must be enabled and in enforcing mode on the physical machine, but must be disabled in the container when performing container separation, that is the
/etc/sysconfig/dockerfile must not contain
--selinux-enabled. Starting with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.4, OverlayFS supports SELinux security labels, and you can enable SELinux support for containers by specifying
- The OverlayFS kernel ABI and userspace behavior are not considered stable, and may see changes in future updates.
- In order to make the yum and rpm utilities work properly inside the container, the user should be using the yum-plugin-ovl packages.
Note that OverlayFS provides a restricted set of the POSIX standards. Test your application thoroughly before deploying it with OverlayFS.
Note that XFS file systems must be created with the
-n ftype=1option enabled for use as an overlay. With the rootfs and any file systems created during system installation, set the
--mkfsoptions=-n ftype=1parameters in the Anaconda kickstart. When creating a new file system after the installation, run the
# mkfs -t xfs -n ftype=1 /PATH/TO/DEVICEcommand. To determine whether an existing file system is eligible for use as an overlay, run the
# xfs_info /PATH/TO/DEVICE | grep ftypecommand to see if the
ftype=1option is enabled.
There are also several known issues associated with OverlayFS as of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.5 release. For details, see
Non-standard behaviorin the
Btrfs file system
Btrfs(B-Tree) file system is available as a Technology Preview in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.4 introduced the last planned update to this feature.
Btrfshas been deprecated, which means Red Hat will not be moving
Btrfsto a fully supported feature and it will be removed in a future major release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. (BZ#1477977)
New package: ima-evm-utils
The ima-evm-utils package provides utilities to label the file system and verify the integrity of your system at run time using the Integrity Measurement Architecture (IMA) and Extended Verification Module (EVM) features. These utilities enable you to monitor if files have been accidentally or maliciously altered.
The ima-evm-utils package is now available as a Technology Preview. (BZ#1384450)