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High Availability Add-On Administration

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7

Configuring Red Hat High Availability deployments

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Steven Levine

Red Hat Customer Content Services

Abstract

High Availability Add-On Administration provides sample cluster configurations that utilize the High Availability Add-On for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

Chapter 1. Creating a Red Hat High-Availability Cluster with Pacemaker

This chapter describes the procedure for creating a Red Hat High Availability two-node cluster using pcs. After you have created a cluster, you can configure the resources and resource groups that you require.
Configuring the cluster provided in this chapter requires that your system include the following components:
  • 2 nodes, which will be used to create the cluster. In this example, the nodes used are z1.example.com and z2.example.com.
  • Network switches for the private network, required for communication among the cluster nodes and other cluster hardware such as network power switches and Fibre Channel switches.
  • A power fencing device for each node of the cluster. This example uses two ports of the APC power switch with a host name of zapc.example.com.
This chapter is divided into three sections.

1.1. Cluster Software Installation

The procedure for installing and configuring a cluster is as follows.
  1. On each node in the cluster, install the Red Hat High Availability Add-On software packages along with all available fence agents from the High Availability channel.
    # yum install pcs pacemaker fence-agents-all
  2. If you are running the firewalld daemon, execute the following commands to enable the ports that are required by the Red Hat High Availability Add-On.

    Note

    You can determine whether the firewalld daemon is installed on your system with the rpm -q firewalld command. If the firewalld daemon is installed, you can determine whether it is running with the firewall-cmd --state command.
    # firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=high-availability
    # firewall-cmd --add-service=high-availability
  3. In order to use pcs to configure the cluster and communicate among the nodes, you must set a password on each node for the user ID hacluster, which is the pcs administration account. It is recommended that the password for user hacluster be the same on each node.
    # passwd hacluster
    Changing password for user hacluster.
    New password:
    Retype new password:
    passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.
    
  4. Before the cluster can be configured, the pcsd daemon must be started and enabled to boot on startup on each node. This daemon works with the pcs command to manage configuration across the nodes in the cluster.
    On each node in the cluster, execute the following commands to start the pcsd service and to enable pcsd at system start.
    # systemctl start pcsd.service
    # systemctl enable pcsd.service
  5. Authenticate the pcs user hacluster for each node in the cluster on the node from which you will be running pcs.
    The following command authenticates user hacluster on z1.example.com for both of the nodes in the example two-node cluster, z1.example.com and z2.example.com.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs cluster auth z1.example.com z2.example.com
    Username: hacluster
    Password:
    z1.example.com: Authorized
    z2.example.com: Authorized
    

1.2. Cluster Creation

This procedure creates a Red Hat High Availability Add-On cluster that consists of the nodes z1.example.com and z2.example.com.
  1. Execute the following command from z1.example.com to create the two-node cluster my_cluster that consists of nodes z1.example.com and z2.example.com. This will propagate the cluster configuration files to both nodes in the cluster. This command includes the --start option, which will start the cluster services on both nodes in the cluster.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs cluster setup --start --name my_cluster \
    z1.example.com z2.example.com
    z1.example.com: Succeeded
    z1.example.com: Starting Cluster...
    z2.example.com: Succeeded
    z2.example.com: Starting Cluster...
    
  2. Enable the cluster services to run on each node in the cluster when the node is booted.

    Note

    For your particular environment, you may choose to leave the cluster services disabled by skipping this step. This allows you to ensure that if a node goes down, any issues with your cluster or your resources are resolved before the node rejoins the cluster. If you leave the cluster services disabled, you will need to manually start the services when you reboot a node by executing the pcs cluster start command on that node.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs cluster enable --all
You can display the current status of the cluster with the pcs cluster status command. Because there may be a slight delay before the cluster is up and running when you start the cluster services with the --start option of the pcs cluster setup command, you should ensure that the cluster is up and running before performing any subsequent actions on the cluster and its configuration.
[root@z1 ~]# pcs cluster status
Cluster Status:
 Last updated: Thu Jul 25 13:01:26 2013
 Last change: Thu Jul 25 13:04:45 2013 via crmd on z2.example.com
 Stack: corosync
 Current DC: z2.example.com (2) - partition with quorum
 Version: 1.1.10-5.el7-9abe687
 2 Nodes configured
 0 Resources configured

1.3. Fencing Configuration

You must configure a fencing device for each node in the cluster. For information about the fence configuration commands and options, see the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 High Availability Add-On Reference. For general information on fencing and its importance in a Red Hat High Availability cluster, see Fencing in a Red Hat High Availability Cluster.

Note

When configuring a fencing device, attention should be given to whether that device shares power with any nodes or devices in the cluster. If a node and its fence device do share power, then the cluster may be at risk of being unable to fence that node if the power to it and its fence device should be lost. Such a cluster should either have redundant power supplies for fence devices and nodes, or redundant fence devices that do not share power. Alternative methods of fencing such as SBD or storage fencing may also bring redundancy in the event of isolated power losses.
This example uses the APC power switch with a host name of zapc.example.com to fence the nodes, and it uses the fence_apc_snmp fencing agent. Because both nodes will be fenced by the same fencing agent, you can configure both fencing devices as a single resource, using the pcmk_host_map and pcmk_host_list options.
You create a fencing device by configuring the device as a stonith resource with the pcs stonith create command. The following command configures a stonith resource named myapc that uses the fence_apc_snmp fencing agent for nodes z1.example.com and z2.example.com. The pcmk_host_map option maps z1.example.com to port 1, and z2.example.com to port 2. The login value and password for the APC device are both apc. By default, this device will use a monitor interval of sixty seconds for each node.
Note that you can use an IP address when specifying the host name for the nodes.
[root@z1 ~]# pcs stonith create myapc fence_apc_snmp \
ipaddr="zapc.example.com" pcmk_host_map="z1.example.com:1;z2.example.com:2" \
pcmk_host_check="static-list" pcmk_host_list="z1.example.com,z2.example.com" \
login="apc" passwd="apc"

Note

When you create a fence_apc_snmp stonith device, you may see the following warning message, which you can safely ignore:
Warning: missing required option(s): 'port, action' for resource type: stonith:fence_apc_snmp
The following command displays the parameters of an existing STONITH device.
[root@rh7-1 ~]# pcs stonith show myapc
 Resource: myapc (class=stonith type=fence_apc_snmp)
  Attributes: ipaddr=zapc.example.com pcmk_host_map=z1.example.com:1;z2.example.com:2 pcmk_host_check=static-list pcmk_host_list=z1.example.com,z2.example.com login=apc passwd=apc
  Operations: monitor interval=60s (myapc-monitor-interval-60s)
After configuring your fence device, you should test the device. For information on testing a fence device, see Fencing: Configuring Stonith in the High Availability Add-On Reference.

Note

Do not test your fence device by disabling the network interface, as this will not properly test fencing.

Note

Once fencing is configured and a cluster has been started, a network restart will trigger fencing for the node which restarts the network even when the timeout is not exceeded. For this reason, do not restart the network service while the cluster service is running because it will trigger unintentional fencing on the node.

Chapter 2. An active/passive Apache HTTP Server in a Red Hat High Availability Cluster

This chapter describes how to configure an active/passive Apache HTTP server in a two-node Red Hat Enterprise Linux High Availability Add-On cluster using pcs to configure cluster resources. In this use case, clients access the Apache HTTP server through a floating IP address. The web server runs on one of two nodes in the cluster. If the node on which the web server is running becomes inoperative, the web server starts up again on the second node of the cluster with minimal service interruption.
Figure 2.1, “Apache in a Red Hat High Availability Two-Node Cluster” shows a high-level overview of the cluster. The cluster is a two-node Red Hat High Availability cluster which is configured with a network power switch and with shared storage. The cluster nodes are connected to a public network, for client access to the Apache HTTP server through a virtual IP. The Apache server runs on either Node 1 or Node 2, each of which has access to the storage on which the Apache data is kept.
Apache in a Red Hat High Availability Two-Node Cluster

Figure 2.1. Apache in a Red Hat High Availability Two-Node Cluster

This use case requires that your system include the following components:
The cluster is configured with an Apache resource group, which contains the cluster components that the web server requires: an LVM resource, a file system resource, an IP address resource, and a web server resource. This resource group can fail over from one node of the cluster to the other, allowing either node to run the web server. Before creating the resource group for this cluster, you will perform the following procedures:
  1. Configure an ext4 file system mounted on the logical volume my_lv, as described in Section 2.1, “Configuring an LVM Volume with an ext4 File System”.
  2. Configure a web server, as described in Section 2.2, “Web Server Configuration”.
  3. Ensure that only the cluster is capable of activating the volume group that contains my_lv, and that the volume group will not be activated outside of the cluster on startup, as described in Section 2.3, “Exclusive Activation of a Volume Group in a Cluster”.
After performing these procedures, you create the resource group and the resources it contains, as described in Section 2.4, “Creating the Resources and Resource Groups with the pcs Command”.

2.1. Configuring an LVM Volume with an ext4 File System

This use case requires that you create an LVM logical volume on storage that is shared between the nodes of the cluster.
The following procedure creates an LVM logical volume and then creates an ext4 file system on that volume. In this example, the shared partition /dev/sdb1 is used to store the LVM physical volume from which the LVM logical volume will be created.

Note

LVM volumes and the corresponding partitions and devices used by cluster nodes must be connected to the cluster nodes only.
Since the /dev/sdb1 partition is storage that is shared, you perform this procedure on one node only,
  1. Create an LVM physical volume on partition /dev/sdb1.
    # pvcreate /dev/sdb1
      Physical volume "/dev/sdb1" successfully created
    
  2. Create the volume group my_vg that consists of the physical volume /dev/sdb1.
    # vgcreate my_vg /dev/sdb1
      Volume group "my_vg" successfully created
    
  3. Create a logical volume using the volume group my_vg.
    # lvcreate -L450 -n my_lv my_vg
      Rounding up size to full physical extent 452.00 MiB
      Logical volume "my_lv" created
    
    You can use the lvs command to display the logical volume.
    # lvs
      LV      VG      Attr      LSize   Pool Origin Data%  Move Log Copy%  Convert
      my_lv   my_vg   -wi-a---- 452.00m
      ...
    
  4. Create an ext4 file system on the logical volume my_lv.
    # mkfs.ext4 /dev/my_vg/my_lv
    mke2fs 1.42.7 (21-Jan-2013)
    Filesystem label=
    OS type: Linux
    ...
    

2.2. Web Server Configuration

The following procedure configures an Apache HTTP server.
  1. Ensure that the Apache HTTP server is installed on each node in the cluster. You also need the wget tool installed on the cluster to be able to check the status of the Apache HTTP server.
    On each node, execute the following command.
    # yum install -y httpd wget
  2. In order for the Apache resource agent to get the status of the Apache HTTP server, ensure that the following text is present in the /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf file on each node in the cluster, and ensure that it has not been commented out. If this text is not already present, add the text to the end of the file.
    <Location /server-status>
        SetHandler server-status
        Require local
    </Location> 
    
  3. When you use the apache resource agent to manage Apache, it does not use systemd. Because of this, you must edit the logrotate script supplied with Apache so that it does not use systemctl to reload Apache.
    Remove the following line in the /etc/logrotate.d/httpd file on each node in the cluster.
    /bin/systemctl reload httpd.service > /dev/null 2>/dev/null || true
    
    Replace the line you removed with the following line.
    /usr/sbin/httpd -f /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf -c "PidFile /var/run/httpd.pid" -k graceful > /dev/null 2>/dev/null || true
    
  4. Create a web page for Apache to serve up. On one node in the cluster, mount the file system you created in Section 2.1, “Configuring an LVM Volume with an ext4 File System”, create the file index.html on that file system, then unmount the file system.
    # mount /dev/my_vg/my_lv /var/www/
    # mkdir /var/www/html
    # mkdir /var/www/cgi-bin
    # mkdir /var/www/error
    # restorecon -R /var/www
    # cat <<-END >/var/www/html/index.html
    <html>
    <body>Hello</body>
    </html>
    END
    # umount /var/www

2.3. Exclusive Activation of a Volume Group in a Cluster

The following procedure configures the volume group in a way that will ensure that only the cluster is capable of activating the volume group, and that the volume group will not be activated outside of the cluster on startup. If the volume group is activated by a system outside of the cluster, there is a risk of corrupting the volume group's metadata.
This procedure modifies the volume_list entry in the /etc/lvm/lvm.conf configuration file. Volume groups listed in the volume_list entry are allowed to automatically activate on the local node outside of the cluster manager's control. Volume groups related to the node's local root and home directories should be included in this list. All volume groups managed by the cluster manager must be excluded from the volume_list entry. Note that this procedure does not require the use of clvmd.
Perform the following procedure on each node in the cluster.
  1. Execute the following command to ensure that locking_type is set to 1 and that use_lvmetad is set to 0 in the /etc/lvm/lvm.conf file. This command also disables and stops any lvmetad processes immediately.
    # lvmconf --enable-halvm --services --startstopservices
  2. Determine which volume groups are currently configured on your local storage with the following command. This will output a list of the currently-configured volume groups. If you have space allocated in separate volume groups for root and for your home directory on this node, you will see those volumes in the output, as in this example.
    # vgs --noheadings -o vg_name
      my_vg        
      rhel_home
      rhel_root
    
  3. Add the volume groups other than my_vg (the volume group you have just defined for the cluster) as entries to volume_list in the /etc/lvm/lvm.conf configuration file.
    For example, if you have space allocated in separate volume groups for root and for your home directory, you would uncomment the volume_list line of the lvm.conf file and add these volume groups as entries to volume_list as follows. Note that the volume group you have just defined for the cluster (my_vg in this example) is not in this list.
    volume_list = [ "rhel_root", "rhel_home" ]
    

    Note

    If no local volume groups are present on a node to be activated outside of the cluster manager, you must still initialize the volume_list entry as volume_list = [].
  4. Rebuild the initramfs boot image to guarantee that the boot image will not try to activate a volume group controlled by the cluster. Update the initramfs device with the following command. This command may take up to a minute to complete.
    # dracut -H -f /boot/initramfs-$(uname -r).img $(uname -r)
  5. Reboot the node.

    Note

    If you have installed a new Linux kernel since booting the node on which you created the boot image, the new initrd image will be for the kernel that was running when you created it and not for the new kernel that is running when you reboot the node. You can ensure that the correct initrd device is in use by running the uname -r command before and after the reboot to determine the kernel release that is running. If the releases are not the same, update the initrd file after rebooting with the new kernel and then reboot the node.
  6. When the node has rebooted, check whether the cluster services have started up again on that node by executing the pcs cluster status command on that node. If this yields the message Error: cluster is not currently running on this node then enter the following command.
    # pcs cluster start
    Alternately, you can wait until you have rebooted each node in the cluster and start cluster services on each of the nodes with the following command.
    # pcs cluster start --all

2.4. Creating the Resources and Resource Groups with the pcs Command

This use case requires that you create four cluster resources. To ensure these resources all run on the same node, they are configured as part of the resource group apachegroup. The resources to create are as follows, listed in the order in which they will start.
  1. An LVM resource named my_lvm that uses the LVM volume group you created in Section 2.1, “Configuring an LVM Volume with an ext4 File System”.
  2. A Filesystem resource named my_fs, that uses the file system device /dev/my_vg/my_lv you created in Section 2.1, “Configuring an LVM Volume with an ext4 File System”.
  3. An IPaddr2 resource, which is a floating IP address for the apachegroup resource group. The IP address must not be one already associated with a physical node. If the IPaddr2 resource's NIC device is not specified, the floating IP must reside on the same network as the statically assigned IP addresses used by the cluster nodes, otherwise the NIC device to assign the floating IP address cannot be properly detected.
  4. An apache resource named Website that uses the index.html file and the Apache configuration you defined in Section 2.2, “Web Server Configuration”.
The following procedure creates the resource group apachegroup and the resources that the group contains. The resources will start in the order in which you add them to the group, and they will stop in the reverse order in which they are added to the group. Run this procedure from one node of the cluster only.
  1. The following command creates the LVM resource my_lvm. This command specifies the exclusive=true parameter to ensure that only the cluster is capable of activating the LVM logical volume. Because the resource group apachegroup does not yet exist, this command creates the resource group.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs resource create my_lvm LVM volgrpname=my_vg \
    exclusive=true --group apachegroup
    When you create a resource, the resource is started automatically. You can use the following command to confirm that the resource was created and has started.
    # pcs resource show
     Resource Group: apachegroup
         my_lvm	(ocf::heartbeat:LVM):	Started
    
    You can manually stop and start an individual resource with the pcs resource disable and pcs resource enable commands.
  2. The following commands create the remaining resources for the configuration, adding them to the existing resource group apachegroup.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs resource create my_fs Filesystem \
    device="/dev/my_vg/my_lv" directory="/var/www" fstype="ext4" --group \
    apachegroup
    
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs resource create VirtualIP IPaddr2 ip=198.51.100.3 \
    cidr_netmask=24 --group apachegroup
    
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs resource create Website apache \
    configfile="/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf" \
    statusurl="http://127.0.0.1/server-status" --group apachegroup
  3. After creating the resources and the resource group that contains them, you can check the status of the cluster. Note that all four resources are running on the same node.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs status
    Cluster name: my_cluster
    Last updated: Wed Jul 31 16:38:51 2013
    Last change: Wed Jul 31 16:42:14 2013 via crm_attribute on z1.example.com
    Stack: corosync
    Current DC: z2.example.com (2) - partition with quorum
    Version: 1.1.10-5.el7-9abe687
    2 Nodes configured
    6 Resources configured
    
    
    Online: [ z1.example.com z2.example.com ]
    
    Full list of resources:
     myapc	(stonith:fence_apc_snmp):	Started z1.example.com 
     Resource Group: apachegroup
         my_lvm	(ocf::heartbeat:LVM):	Started z1.example.com 
         my_fs	(ocf::heartbeat:Filesystem):	Started z1.example.com 
         VirtualIP	(ocf::heartbeat:IPaddr2):	Started z1.example.com 
         Website	(ocf::heartbeat:apache):	Started z1.example.com
    
    Note that if you have not configured a fencing device for your cluster, as described in Section 1.3, “Fencing Configuration”, by default the resources do not start.
  4. Once the cluster is up and running, you can point a browser to the IP address you defined as the IPaddr2 resource to view the sample display, consisting of the simple word "Hello".
    Hello
    
    If you find that the resources you configured are not running, you can run the pcs resource debug-start resource command to test the resource configuration. For information on the pcs resource debug-start command, see the High Availability Add-On Reference manual.

2.5. Testing the Resource Configuration

In the cluster status display shown in Section 2.4, “Creating the Resources and Resource Groups with the pcs Command”, all of the resources are running on node z1.example.com. You can test whether the resource group fails over to node z2.example.com by using the following procedure to put the first node in standby mode, after which the node will no longer be able to host resources.
  1. The following command puts node z1.example.com in standby mode.
    root@z1 ~]# pcs cluster standby z1.example.com
  2. After putting node z1 in standby mode, check the cluster status. Note that the resources should now all be running on z2.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs status
    Cluster name: my_cluster
    Last updated: Wed Jul 31 17:16:17 2013
    Last change: Wed Jul 31 17:18:34 2013 via crm_attribute on z1.example.com
    Stack: corosync
    Current DC: z2.example.com (2) - partition with quorum
    Version: 1.1.10-5.el7-9abe687
    2 Nodes configured
    6 Resources configured
    
    
    Node z1.example.com (1): standby
    Online: [ z2.example.com ]
    
    Full list of resources:
    
     myapc	(stonith:fence_apc_snmp):	Started z1.example.com 
     Resource Group: apachegroup
         my_lvm	(ocf::heartbeat:LVM):	Started z2.example.com 
         my_fs	(ocf::heartbeat:Filesystem):	Started z2.example.com 
         VirtualIP	(ocf::heartbeat:IPaddr2):	Started z2.example.com 
         Website	(ocf::heartbeat:apache):	Started z2.example.com
    
    The web site at the defined IP address should still display, without interruption.
  3. To remove z1 from standby mode, enter the following command.
    root@z1 ~]# pcs cluster unstandby z1.example.com

    Note

    Removing a node from standby mode does not in itself cause the resources to fail back over to that node. For information on controlling which node resources can run on, see the chapter on configuring cluster resources in the Red Hat High Availability Add-On Reference.

Chapter 3. An active/passive NFS Server in a Red Hat High Availability Cluster

This chapter describes how to configure a highly available active/passive NFS server on a two-node Red Hat Enterprise Linux High Availability Add-On cluster using shared storage. The procedure uses pcs to configure Pacemaker cluster resources. In this use case, clients access the NFS file system through a floating IP address. The NFS server runs on one of two nodes in the cluster. If the node on which the NFS server is running becomes inoperative, the NFS server starts up again on the second node of the cluster with minimal service interruption.
This use case requires that your system include the following components:
  • Two nodes, which will be used to create the cluster running the Apache HTTP server. In this example, the nodes used are z1.example.com and z2.example.com.
  • A power fencing device for each node of the cluster. This example uses two ports of the APC power switch with a host name of zapc.example.com.
  • A public virtual IP address, required for the NFS server.
  • Shared storage for the nodes in the cluster, using iSCSI or Fibre Channel.
Configuring a highly available active/passive NFS server on a two-node Red Hat Enterprise Linux High requires that you perform the following steps.
  1. Create the cluster that will run the NFS server and configure fencing for each node in the cluster, as described in Section 3.1, “Creating the NFS Cluster”.
  2. Configure an ext4 file system mounted on the LVM logical volume my_lv on the shared storage for the nodes in the cluster, as described in Section 3.2, “Configuring an LVM Volume with an ext4 File System”.
  3. Configure an NFS share on the shared storage on the LVM logical volume, as described in Section 3.3, “NFS Share Setup”.
  4. Ensure that only the cluster is capable of activating the LVM volume group that contains the logical volume my_lv, and that the volume group will not be activated outside of the cluster on startup, as described in Section 3.4, “Exclusive Activation of a Volume Group in a Cluster”.
  5. Create the cluster resources as described in Section 3.5, “Configuring the Cluster Resources”.
  6. Test the NFS server you have configured, as described in Section 3.6, “Testing the Resource Configuration”.

3.1. Creating the NFS Cluster

Use the following procedure to install and create the NFS cluster.
  1. Install the cluster software on nodes z1.example.com and z2.example.com, using the procedure provided in Section 1.1, “Cluster Software Installation”.
  2. Create the two-node cluster that consists of z1.example.com and z2.example.com, using the procedure provided in Section 1.2, “Cluster Creation”. As in that example procedure, this use case names the cluster my_cluster.
  3. Configure fencing devices for each node of the cluster, using the procedure provided in Section 1.3, “Fencing Configuration”. This example configures fencing using two ports of the APC power switch with a host name of zapc.example.com.

3.2. Configuring an LVM Volume with an ext4 File System

This use case requires that you create an LVM logical volume on storage that is shared between the nodes of the cluster.
The following procedure creates an LVM logical volume and then creates an ext4 file system on that volume. In this example, the shared partition /dev/sdb1 is used to store the LVM physical volume from which the LVM logical volume will be created.

Note

LVM volumes and the corresponding partitions and devices used by cluster nodes must be connected to the cluster nodes only.
Since the /dev/sdb1 partition is storage that is shared, you perform this procedure on one node only,
  1. Create an LVM physical volume on partition /dev/sdb1.
    [root@z1 ~]# pvcreate /dev/sdb1
      Physical volume "/dev/sdb1" successfully created
    
  2. Create the volume group my_vg that consists of the physical volume /dev/sdb1.
    [root@z1 ~]# vgcreate my_vg /dev/sdb1
      Volume group "my_vg" successfully created
    
  3. Create a logical volume using the volume group my_vg.
    [root@z1 ~]# lvcreate -L450 -n my_lv my_vg
      Rounding up size to full physical extent 452.00 MiB
      Logical volume "my_lv" created
    
    You can use the lvs command to display the logical volume.
    [root@z1 ~]# lvs
      LV      VG      Attr      LSize   Pool Origin Data%  Move Log Copy%  Convert
      my_lv   my_vg   -wi-a---- 452.00m
      ...
    
  4. Create an ext4 file system on the logical volume my_lv.
    [root@z1 ~]# mkfs.ext4 /dev/my_vg/my_lv
    mke2fs 1.42.7 (21-Jan-2013)
    Filesystem label=
    OS type: Linux
    ...
    

3.3. NFS Share Setup

The following procedure configures the NFS share for the NFS daemon failover. You need to perform this procedure on only one node in the cluster.
  1. Create the /nfsshare directory.
    [root@z1 ~]# mkdir /nfsshare
  2. Mount the ext4 file system that you created in Section 3.2, “Configuring an LVM Volume with an ext4 File System” on the /nfsshare directory.
    [root@z1 ~]# mount /dev/my_vg/my_lv /nfsshare
  3. Create an exports directory tree on the /nfsshare directory.
    [root@z1 ~]# mkdir -p /nfsshare/exports
    [root@z1 ~]# mkdir -p /nfsshare/exports/export1
    [root@z1 ~]# mkdir -p /nfsshare/exports/export2
  4. Place files in the exports directory for the NFS clients to access. For this example, we are creating test files named clientdatafile1 and clientdatafile2.
    [root@z1 ~]# touch /nfsshare/exports/export1/clientdatafile1
    [root@z1 ~]# touch /nfsshare/exports/export2/clientdatafile2
  5. Unmount the ext4 file system and deactivate the LVM volume group.
    [root@z1 ~]# umount /dev/my_vg/my_lv
    [root@z1 ~]# vgchange -an my_vg

3.4. Exclusive Activation of a Volume Group in a Cluster

The following procedure configures the LVM volume group in a way that will ensure that only the cluster is capable of activating the volume group, and that the volume group will not be activated outside of the cluster on startup. If the volume group is activated by a system outside of the cluster, there is a risk of corrupting the volume group's metadata.
This procedure modifies the volume_list entry in the /etc/lvm/lvm.conf configuration file. Volume groups listed in the volume_list entry are allowed to automatically activate on the local node outside of the cluster manager's control. Volume groups related to the node's local root and home directories should be included in this list. All volume groups managed by the cluster manager must be excluded from the volume_list entry. Note that this procedure does not require the use of clvmd.
Perform the following procedure on each node in the cluster.
  1. Execute the following command to ensure that locking_type is set to 1 and that use_lvmetad is set to 0 in the /etc/lvm/lvm.conf file. This command also disables and stops any lvmetad processes immediately.
    # lvmconf --enable-halvm --services --startstopservices
  2. Determine which volume groups are currently configured on your local storage with the following command. This will output a list of the currently-configured volume groups. If you have space allocated in separate volume groups for root and for your home directory on this node, you will see those volumes in the output, as in this example.
    # vgs --noheadings -o vg_name
      my_vg        
      rhel_home
      rhel_root
    
  3. Add the volume groups other than my_vg (the volume group you have just defined for the cluster) as entries to volume_list in the /etc/lvm/lvm.conf configuration file. For example, if you have space allocated in separate volume groups for root and for your home directory, you would uncomment the volume_list line of the lvm.conf file and add these volume groups as entries to volume_list as follows:
    volume_list = [ "rhel_root", "rhel_home" ]
    

    Note

    If no local volume groups are present on a node to be activated outside of the cluster manager, you must still initialize the volume_list entry as volume_list = [].
  4. Rebuild the initramfs boot image to guarantee that the boot image will not try to activate a volume group controlled by the cluster. Update the initramfs device with the following command. This command may take up to a minute to complete.
    # dracut -H -f /boot/initramfs-$(uname -r).img $(uname -r)
  5. Reboot the node.

    Note

    If you have installed a new Linux kernel since booting the node on which you created the boot image, the new initrd image will be for the kernel that was running when you created it and not for the new kernel that is running when you reboot the node. You can ensure that the correct initrd device is in use by running the uname -r command before and after the reboot to determine the kernel release that is running. If the releases are not the same, update the initrd file after rebooting with the new kernel and then reboot the node.
  6. When the node has rebooted, check whether the cluster services have started up again on that node by executing the pcs cluster status command on that node. If this yields the message Error: cluster is not currently running on this node then enter the following command.
    # pcs cluster start
    Alternately, you can wait until you have rebooted each node in the cluster and start cluster services on all of the nodes in the cluster with the following command.
    # pcs cluster start --all

3.5. Configuring the Cluster Resources

This section provides the procedure for configuring the cluster resources for this use case.

Note

It is recommended that when you create a cluster resource with the pcs resource create, you execute the pcs status command immediately afterwards to verify that the resource is running. Note that if you have not configured a fencing device for your cluster, as described in Section 1.3, “Fencing Configuration”, by default the resources do not start.
If you find that the resources you configured are not running, you can run the pcs resource debug-start resource command to test the resource configuration. This starts the service outside of the cluster’s control and knowledge. At the point the configured resources are running again, run pcs resource cleanup resource to make the cluster aware of the updates. For information on the pcs resource debug-start command, see the High Availability Add-On Reference manual.
The following procedure configures the system resources. To ensure these resources all run on the same node, they are configured as part of the resource group nfsgroup. The resources will start in the order in which you add them to the group, and they will stop in the reverse order in which they are added to the group. Run this procedure from one node of the cluster only.
  1. The following command creates the LVM resource named my_lvm. This command specifies the exclusive=true parameter to ensure that only the cluster is capable of activating the LVM logical volume. Because the resource group nfsgroup does not yet exist, this command creates the resource group.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs resource create my_lvm LVM volgrpname=my_vg \
    exclusive=true --group nfsgroup
    Check the status of the cluster to verify that the resource is running.
    root@z1 ~]#  pcs status
    Cluster name: my_cluster
    Last updated: Thu Jan  8 11:13:17 2015
    Last change: Thu Jan  8 11:13:08 2015
    Stack: corosync
    Current DC: z2.example.com (2) - partition with quorum
    Version: 1.1.12-a14efad
    2 Nodes configured
    3 Resources configured
    
    Online: [ z1.example.com z2.example.com ]
    
    Full list of resources:
     myapc  (stonith:fence_apc_snmp):       Started z1.example.com
     Resource Group: nfsgroup
         my_lvm     (ocf::heartbeat:LVM):   Started z1.example.com
    
    PCSD Status:
      z1.example.com: Online
      z2.example.com: Online
    
    Daemon Status:
      corosync: active/enabled
      pacemaker: active/enabled
      pcsd: active/enabled
    
  2. Configure a Filesystem resource for the cluster.

    Note

    You can specify mount options as part of the resource configuration for a Filesystem resource with the options=options parameter. Run the pcs resource describe Filesystem command for full configuration options.
    The following command configures an ext4 Filesystem resource named nfsshare as part of the nfsgroup resource group. This file system uses the LVM volume group and ext4 file system you created in Section 3.2, “Configuring an LVM Volume with an ext4 File System” and will be mounted on the /nfsshare directory you created in Section 3.3, “NFS Share Setup”.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs resource create nfsshare Filesystem \
    device=/dev/my_vg/my_lv directory=/nfsshare \
    fstype=ext4 --group nfsgroup
    Verify that the my_lvm and nfsshare resources are running.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs status
    ...
    Full list of resources:
     myapc  (stonith:fence_apc_snmp):       Started z1.example.com
     Resource Group: nfsgroup
         my_lvm     (ocf::heartbeat:LVM):   Started z1.example.com
         nfsshare   (ocf::heartbeat:Filesystem):    Started z1.example.com
    ...
    
  3. Create the nfsserver resource named nfs-daemon part of the resource group nfsgroup.

    Note

    The nfsserver resource allows you to specify an nfs_shared_infodir parameter, which is a directory that NFS daemons will use to store NFS-related stateful information. It is recommended that this attribute be set to a subdirectory of one of the Filesystem resources you created in this collection of exports. This ensures that the NFS daemons are storing their stateful information on a device that will become available to another node if this resource group should need to relocate. In this example, /nfsshare is the shared-storage directory managed by the Filesystem resource, /nfsshare/exports/export1 and /nfsshare/exports/export2 are the export directories, and /nfsshare/nfsinfo is the shared-information directory for the nfsserver resource.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs resource create nfs-daemon nfsserver \
    nfs_shared_infodir=/nfsshare/nfsinfo nfs_no_notify=true \
    --group nfsgroup
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs status
    ...
    
  4. Add the exportfs resources to export the /nfsshare/exports directory. These resources are part of the resource group nfsgroup. This builds a virtual directory for NFSv4 clients. NFSv3 clients can access these exports as well.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs resource create nfs-root exportfs \
    clientspec=192.168.122.0/255.255.255.0 \
    options=rw,sync,no_root_squash \
    directory=/nfsshare/exports \
    fsid=0 --group nfsgroup
    
    [root@z1 ~]# # pcs resource create nfs-export1 exportfs \
    clientspec=192.168.122.0/255.255.255.0 \
    options=rw,sync,no_root_squash directory=/nfsshare/exports/export1 \
    fsid=1 --group nfsgroup
    
    [root@z1 ~]# # pcs resource create nfs-export2 exportfs \
    clientspec=192.168.122.0/255.255.255.0 \
    options=rw,sync,no_root_squash directory=/nfsshare/exports/export2 \
    fsid=2 --group nfsgroup
  5. Add the floating IP address resource that NFS clients will use to access the NFS share. The floating IP address that you specify requires a reverse DNS lookup or it must be specified in the /etc/hosts on all nodes in the cluster. This resource is part of the resource group nfsgroup. For this example deployment, we are using 192.168.122.200 as the floating IP address.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs resource create nfs_ip IPaddr2 \
    ip=192.168.122.200 cidr_netmask=24 --group nfsgroup
  6. Add an nfsnotify resource for sending NFSv3 reboot notifications once the entire NFS deployment has initialized. This resource is part of the resource group nfsgroup.

    Note

    For the NFS notification to be processed correctly, the floating IP address must have a host name associated with it that is consistent on both the NFS servers and the NFS client.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs resource create nfs-notify nfsnotify \
    source_host=192.168.122.200 --group nfsgroup
After creating the resources and the resource constraints, you can check the status of the cluster. Note that all resources are running on the same node.
[root@z1 ~]# pcs status
...
Full list of resources:
 myapc  (stonith:fence_apc_snmp):       Started z1.example.com
 Resource Group: nfsgroup
     my_lvm     (ocf::heartbeat:LVM):   Started z1.example.com
     nfsshare   (ocf::heartbeat:Filesystem):    Started z1.example.com
     nfs-daemon (ocf::heartbeat:nfsserver):     Started z1.example.com 
     nfs-root   (ocf::heartbeat:exportfs):      Started z1.example.com
     nfs-export1        (ocf::heartbeat:exportfs):      Started z1.example.com
     nfs-export2        (ocf::heartbeat:exportfs):      Started z1.example.com
     nfs_ip     (ocf::heartbeat:IPaddr2):       Started  z1.example.com
     nfs-notify (ocf::heartbeat:nfsnotify):     Started z1.example.com
...

3.6. Testing the Resource Configuration

You can validate your system configuration with the following procedure. You should be able to mount the exported file system with either NFSv3 or NFSv4.
  1. On a node outside of the cluster, residing in the same network as the deployment, verify that the NFS share can be seen by mounting the NFS share. For this example, we are using the 192.168.122.0/24 network.
    # showmount -e 192.168.122.200
    Export list for 192.168.122.200:
    /nfsshare/exports/export1 192.168.122.0/255.255.255.0
    /nfsshare/exports         192.168.122.0/255.255.255.0
    /nfsshare/exports/export2 192.168.122.0/255.255.255.0
    
  2. To verify that you can mount the NFS share with NFSv4, mount the NFS share to a directory on the client node. After mounting, verify that the contents of the export directories are visible. Unmount the share after testing.
    # mkdir nfsshare
    # mount -o "vers=4" 192.168.122.200:export1 nfsshare
    # ls nfsshare
    clientdatafile1
    # umount nfsshare
  3. Verify that you can mount the NFS share with NFSv3. After mounting, verify that the test file clientdatafile1 is visible. Unlike NFSv4, since NFSV3 does not use the virtual file system, you must mount a specific export. Unmount the share after testing.
    # mkdir nfsshare
    # mount -o "vers=3" 192.168.122.200:/nfsshare/exports/export2 nfsshare
    # ls nfsshare
        clientdatafile2
    # umount nfsshare
  4. To test for failover, perform the following steps.
    1. On a node outside of the cluster, mount the NFS share and verify access to the clientdatafile1 we created in Section 3.3, “NFS Share Setup”.
      # mkdir nfsshare
      # mount -o "vers=4" 192.168.122.200:export1 nfsshare
      # ls nfsshare
      clientdatafile1
      
    2. From a node within the cluster, determine which node in the cluster is running nfsgroup. In this example, nfsgroup is running on z1.example.com.
      [root@z1 ~]# pcs status
      ...
      Full list of resources:
       myapc  (stonith:fence_apc_snmp):       Started z1.example.com
       Resource Group: nfsgroup
           my_lvm     (ocf::heartbeat:LVM):   Started z1.example.com
           nfsshare   (ocf::heartbeat:Filesystem):    Started z1.example.com
           nfs-daemon (ocf::heartbeat:nfsserver):     Started z1.example.com 
           nfs-root   (ocf::heartbeat:exportfs):      Started z1.example.com
           nfs-export1        (ocf::heartbeat:exportfs):      Started z1.example.com
           nfs-export2        (ocf::heartbeat:exportfs):      Started z1.example.com
           nfs_ip     (ocf::heartbeat:IPaddr2):       Started  z1.example.com
           nfs-notify (ocf::heartbeat:nfsnotify):     Started z1.example.com
      ...
      
    3. From a node within the cluster, put the node that is running nfsgroup in standby mode.
      [root@z1 ~]#pcs cluster standby z1.example.com
    4. Verify that nfsgroup successfully starts on the other cluster node.
      [root@z1 ~]# pcs status
      ...
      Full list of resources:
       Resource Group: nfsgroup
           my_lvm     (ocf::heartbeat:LVM):   Started z2.example.com
           nfsshare   (ocf::heartbeat:Filesystem):    Started z2.example.com
           nfs-daemon (ocf::heartbeat:nfsserver):     Started z2.example.com 
           nfs-root   (ocf::heartbeat:exportfs):      Started z2.example.com
           nfs-export1        (ocf::heartbeat:exportfs):      Started z2.example.com
           nfs-export2        (ocf::heartbeat:exportfs):      Started z2.example.com
           nfs_ip     (ocf::heartbeat:IPaddr2):       Started  z2.example.com
           nfs-notify (ocf::heartbeat:nfsnotify):     Started z2.example.com
      ...
      
    5. From the node outside the cluster on which you have mounted the NFS share, verify that this outside node still continues to have access to the test file within the NFS mount.
      # ls nfsshare
      clientdatafile1
      
      Service will be lost briefly for the client during the failover briefly but the client should recover in with no user intervention. By default, clients using NFSv4 may take up to 90 seconds to recover the mount; this 90 seconds represents the NFSv4 file lease grace period observed by the server on startup. NFSv3 clients should recover access to the mount in a matter of a few seconds.
    6. From a node within the cluster, remove the node that was initially running running nfsgroup from standby mode. This will not in itself move the cluster resources back to this node.
      [root@z1 ~]# pcs cluster unstandby z1.example.com

Chapter 4. An active/active Samba Server in a Red Hat High Availability Cluster (Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.4 and Later)

As of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.4 release, the Red Hat High Availability Add-On provides support for running Samba in an active/active cluster configuration using Pacemaker. This chapter describes how to configure a highly available active/active Samba server on a two-node Red Hat Enterprise Linux High Availability Add-On cluster using shared storage. The procedure uses pcs to configure Pacemaker cluster resources.
This use case requires that your system include the following components:
  • Two nodes, which will be used to create the cluster running Clustered Samba. In this example, the nodes used are z1.example.com and z2.example.com which have IP address of 192.168.1.151 and 192.168.1.152.
  • A power fencing device for each node of the cluster. This example uses two ports of the APC power switch with a host name of zapc.example.com.
  • Shared storage for the nodes in the cluster, using iSCSI or Fibre Channel.
Configuring a highly available active/active Samba server on a two-node Red Hat Enterprise Linux High Availability Add-On cluster requires that you perform the following steps.
  1. Create the cluster that will export the Samba shares and configure fencing for each node in the cluster, as described in Section 4.1, “Creating the Cluster”.
  2. Configure a gfs2 file system mounted on the clustered LVM logical volume my_clv on the shared storage for the nodes in the cluster, as described in Section 4.2, “Configuring a Clustered LVM Volume with a GFS2 File System”.
  3. Configure Samba on each node in the cluster, Section 4.3, “Configuring Samba”.
  4. Create the Samba cluster resources as described in Section 4.4, “Configuring the Samba Cluster Resources”.
  5. Test the Samba share you have configured, as described in Section 4.5, “Testing the Resource Configuration”.

4.1. Creating the Cluster

Use the following procedure to install and create the cluster to use for the Samba service:
  1. Install the cluster software on nodes z1.example.com and z2.example.com, using the procedure provided in Section 1.1, “Cluster Software Installation”.
  2. Create the two-node cluster that consists of z1.example.com and z2.example.com, using the procedure provided in Section 1.2, “Cluster Creation”. As in that example procedure, this use case names the cluster my_cluster.
  3. Configure fencing devices for each node of the cluster, using the procedure provided in Section 1.3, “Fencing Configuration”. This example configures fencing using two ports of the APC power switch with a host name of zapc.example.com.

4.2. Configuring a Clustered LVM Volume with a GFS2 File System

This use case requires that you create a clustered LVM logical volume on storage that is shared between the nodes of the cluster.
This section describes how to create a clustered LVM logical volume with a GFS2 file system on that volume. In this example, the shared partition /dev/vdb is used to store the LVM physical volume from which the LVM logical volume will be created.

Note

LVM volumes and the corresponding partitions and devices used by cluster nodes must be connected to the cluster nodes only.
Before starting this procedure, install the lvm2-cluster and gfs2-utils packages, which are part of the Resilient Storage channel, on both nodes of the cluster.
# yum install lvm2-cluster gfs2-utils
Since the /dev/vdb partition is storage that is shared, you perform this procedure on one node only,
  1. Set the global Pacemaker parameter no_quorum_policy to freeze. This prevents the entire cluster from being fenced every time quorum is lost. For further information on setting this policy, see Global File System 2.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs property set no-quorum-policy=freeze
  2. Set up a dlm resource. This is a required dependency for the clvmd service and the GFS2 file system.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs resource create dlm ocf:pacemaker:controld op monitor interval=30s on-fail=fence clone interleave=true ordered=true
  3. Set up clvmd as a cluster resource.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs resource create clvmd ocf:heartbeat:clvm op monitor interval=30s on-fail=fence clone interleave=true ordered=true
    Note that the ocf:heartbeat:clvm resource agent, as part of the start procedure, sets the locking_type parameter in the /etc/lvm/lvm.conf file to 3 and disables the lvmetad daemon.
  4. Set up clvmd and dlm dependency and start up order. The clvmd resource must start after the dlm resource and must run on the same node as the dlm resource.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs constraint order start dlm-clone then clvmd-clone
    Adding dlm-clone clvmd-clone (kind: Mandatory) (Options: first-action=start then-action=start)
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs constraint colocation add clvmd-clone with dlm-clone
  5. Verify that the dlm and clvmd resources are running on all nodes.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs status
    ...
    Full list of resources:
    ...
     Clone Set: dlm-clone [dlm]
         Started: [ z1 z2 ]
     Clone Set: clvmd-clone [clvmd]
         Started: [ z1 z2 ]
    
  6. Create the clustered logical volume
    [root@z1 ~]# pvcreate /dev/vdb
    [root@z1 ~]# vgcreate -Ay -cy cluster_vg /dev/vdb
    [root@z1 ~]# lvcreate -L4G -n cluster_lv cluster_vg
  7. Optionally, to verify that the volume was created successfully you can use the lvs command to display the logical volume.
    [root@z1 ~]# lvs
      LV         VG         Attr       LSize ...
      cluster_lv cluster_vg -wi-ao---- 4.00g
      ...
    
  8. Format the volume with a GFS2 file system. In this example, my_cluster is the cluster name. This example specifies -j 2 to indicate two journals because the number of journals you configure must equal the number of nodes in the cluster.
    [root@z1 ~]# mkfs.gfs2 -p lock_dlm -j 2 -t my_cluster:samba /dev/cluster_vg/cluster_lv
  9. Create a Filesystem resource, which configures Pacemaker to mount and manage the file system. This example creates a Filesystem resource named fs, and creates the /mnt/gfs2share on both nodes of the cluster.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs resource create fs ocf:heartbeat:Filesystem device="/dev/cluster_vg/cluster_lv" directory="/mnt/gfs2share" fstype="gfs2" --clone
  10. Configure a dependency and a startup order for the GFS2 file system and the clvmd service. GFS2 must start after clvmd and must run on the same node as clvmd.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs constraint order start clvmd-clone then fs-clone
    Adding clvmd-clone fs-clone (kind: Mandatory) (Options: first-action=start then-action=start)
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs constraint colocation add fs-clone with clvmd-clone
  11. Verify that the GFS2 file system is mounted as expected.
    [root@z1 ~]# mount |grep /mnt/gfs2share
    /dev/mapper/cluster_vg-cluster_lv on /mnt/gfs2share type gfs2 (rw,noatime,seclabel)
    

4.3. Configuring Samba

The following procedure initializes the Samba environment and configures Samba on the cluster nodes.
  1. On both nodes of the cluster, perform the following steps:
    1. Install the samba, ctdb, and cifs-utils packages.
      # yum install samba ctdb cifs-utils
    2. If you are running the firewalld daemon, run the following commands to enable the ports that are required by the ctdb and samba services.
      # firewall-cmd --add-service=ctdb --permanent
      # firewall-cmd --add-service=samba --permanent
      # firewall-cmd --reload
    3. Enter the following commands to ensure that these daemons are not running and do not start at bootup. Note that not all of these daemons may be present or running on your system.
      # systemctl disable ctdb
      # systemctl disable smb
      # systemctl disable nmb
      # systemctl disable winbind
      # systemctl stop ctdb
      # systemctl stop smb
      # systemctl stop nmb
      # systemctl stop winbind
    4. In the /etc/samba/smb.conf file, configure the Samba server and set up the [public] share definition. For example:
      # cat << END > /etc/samba/smb.conf
      [global]
      netbios name = linuxserver
      workgroup = WORKGROUP
      server string = Public File Server
      security = user
      map to guest = bad user
      guest account = smbguest
      clustering = yes
      ctdbd socket = /tmp/ctdb.socket
      [public]
      path = /mnt/gfs2share/public
      guest ok = yes
      read only = no
      END
      For information on configuring Samba as a standalone server, as in this example, as well as information on verifying the smb.conf file with the testparm utility, see the File and Print Servers section of the System Administrator's Guide
    5. Add the IP address of the cluster nodes to the /etc/ctdb/nodes file.
      # cat << END > /etc/ctdb/nodes
      192.168.1.151
      192.168.1.152
      END
    6. For load balancing between the nodes of the cluster, you can add two or more IP addresses that can be used to access the Samba shares exported by this cluster to the /etc/ctdb/public_addresses file. These are the IP addresses that you should configure in DNS for the name of the Samba server and are the addresses that SMB clients will connect to. Configure the name of the Samba server as one DNS type A record with multiple IP addresses and let round-robin DNS distribute the clients across the nodes of the cluster.
      For this example, the DNS entry linuxserver.example.com has been defined with both the addresses listed under the /etc/ctdb/public_addresses file. With this in place, DNS will distribute the Samba clients across the cluster nodes in a round-robin fashion. Please note that when implementing this scenario, the DNS entries should match your needs.
      Add the IP addresses that can be used to access the Samba shares exported by this cluster to the /etc/ctdb/public_addresses file.
      # cat << END > /etc/ctdb/public_addresses
      192.168.1.201/24 eth0
      192.168.1.202/24 eth0
      END
    7. Create a Samba group, then add a local user for the public test share directory, setting the previously created group as the primary group.
      # groupadd smbguest
      # adduser smbguest -g smbguest
    8. Make sure that the SELinux context are correct in the CTDB-related directories.
      # mkdir /var/ctdb/
      # chcon -Rv -u system_u -r object_r -t ctdbd_var_lib_t /var/ctdb/
      changing security context of ‘/var/ctdb/’
      # chcon -Rv -u system_u -r object_r -t ctdbd_var_lib_t /var/lib/ctdb/
      changing security context of ‘/var/lib/ctdb/’
      
  2. On one node of the cluster, perform the following steps:
    1. Set up the directories for the CTDB lock file and public share.
      [root@z1 ~]# mkdir -p /mnt/gfs2share/ctdb/
      [root@z1 ~]# mkdir -p /mnt/gfs2share/public/
    2. Update the SELinux contexts on the GFS2 share.
      [root@z1 ~]# chown smbguest:smbguest /mnt/gfs2share/public/
      [root@z1 ~]# chmod 755 /mnt/gfs2share/public/
      [root@z1 ~]# chcon -Rv -t ctdbd_var_run_t /mnt/gfs2share/ctdb/
      changing security context of ‘/mnt/gfs2share/ctdb/’
      [root@z1 ~]# chcon -Rv -u system_u -r object_r -t samba_share_t /mnt/gfs2share/public/
      changing security context of ‘/mnt/gfs2share/public’
      

4.4. Configuring the Samba Cluster Resources

This section provides the procedure for configuring the Samba cluster resources for this use case.
The following procedure creates a snapshot of the cluster's cib file named samba.cib and adds the resources to that test file rather then configuring them directly on the running cluster. After the resources and constraints are configured, the procedure pushes the contents of samba.cib to the running cluster configuration file.
On one node of the cluster, run the following procedure.
  1. Create a snapshot of the cib file, which is the cluster configuration file.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs cluster cib samba.cib
  2. Create the CTDB resource to be used by Samba. Create this resource as a cloned resource so that it will run on both cluster nodes.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs -f samba.cib resource create ctdb ocf:heartbeat:CTDB \
    ctdb_recovery_lock="/mnt/gfs2share/ctdb/ctdb.lock" \
    ctdb_dbdir=/var/ctdb ctdb_socket=/tmp/ctdb.socket \
    ctdb_logfile=/var/log/ctdb.log \
    op monitor interval=10 timeout=30 op start timeout=90 \
    op stop timeout=100 --clone
  3. Create the cloned Samba server.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs -f samba.cib resource create samba systemd:smb --clone
  4. Create the colocation and order constraints for the cluster resources. The startup order is Filesystem resource, CTDB resource, then Samba resource.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs -f samba.cib constraint order fs-clone then ctdb-clone
    Adding fs-clone ctdb-clone (kind: Mandatory) (Options: first-action=start then-action=start)
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs -f samba.cib constraint order ctdb-clone then samba-clone
    Adding ctdb-clone samba-clone (kind: Mandatory) (Options: first-action=start then-action=start)
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs -f samba.cib constraint colocation add ctdb-clone with fs-clone
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs -f samba.cib constraint colocation add samba-clone with ctdb-clone
  5. Push the content of the cib snapshot to the cluster.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs cluster cib-push samba.cib
    CIB updated
    
  6. Check the status of the cluster to verify that the resource is running.
    Note that in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.4 it can take a couple of minutes for CTDB to start Samba, export the shares, and stabilize. If you check the cluster status before this process has completed, you may see a message that the CTDB status call failed. Once this process has completed, you can clear this message from the display by running the pcs resource cleanup ctdb-clone command.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs status
    Cluster name: my_cluster
    Stack: corosync
    Current DC: z1.example.com (version 1.1.16-12.el7_4.2-94ff4df) - partition with quorum
    Last updated: Thu Oct 19 18:17:07 2017
    Last change: Thu Oct 19 18:16:50 2017 by hacluster via crmd on z1.example.com
    
    2 nodes configured
    11 resources configured
    
    Online: [ z1.example.com z2.example.com ]
    
    Full list of resources:
    
     myapc  (stonith:fence_apc_snmp):       Started z1.example.com
     Clone Set: dlm-clone [dlm]
         Started: [ z1.example.com z2.example.com ]
     Clone Set: clvmd-clone [clvmd]
         Started: [ z1.example.com z2.example.com ]
     Clone Set: fs-clone [fs]
         Started: [ z1.example.com z2.example.com ]
     Clone Set: ctdb-clone [ctdb]
         Started: [ z1.example.com z2.example.com ]
     Clone Set: samba-clone [samba]
         Started: [ z1.example.com z2.example.com ]
    

    Note

    If you find that the resources you configured are not running, you can run the pcs resource debug-start resource command to test the resource configuration. This starts the service outside of the cluster’s control and knowledge. If the configured resources are running again, run pcs resource cleanup resource to make the cluster aware of the updates. For information on the pcs resource debug-start command, see the Enabling, Disabling, and Banning Cluster Resources section in the High Availability Add-On Reference manual.

4.5. Testing the Resource Configuration

If the Samba configuration was successful, you should be able to mount the Samba share on a node in the cluster. The following example procedure mounts a Samba share.
  1. Add an existing user in the cluster node to the smbpasswd file and assign a password. In the following example, there is an existing user smbuser.
    [root@z1 ~]# smbpasswd -a smbuser
    New SMB password:
    Retype new SMB password:
    Added user smbuser
    
  2. Mount the Samba share:
    [root@z1 ~]# mkdir /mnt/sambashare
    [root@z1 ~]# mount -t cifs -o user=smbuser //198.162.1.151/public /mnt/sambashare
    Password for smbuser@//198.162.1.151/public:  ********
    
  3. Check whether the file system is mounted:
    [root@z1 ~]# mount | grep /mnt/sambashare
    //198.162.1.151/public on /mnt/sambashare type cifs (rw,relatime,vers=1.0,cache=strict,username=smbuser,domain=LINUXSERVER,uid=0,noforceuid,gid=0,noforcegid,addr=10.37.167.205,unix,posixpaths,serverino,mapposix,acl,rsize=1048576,wsize=65536,echo_interval=60,actimeo=1)
    
To check for Samba recovery, perform the following procedure.
  1. Manually stop the CTDB resource with the following command:
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs resource debug-stop ctdb
  2. After you stop the resource, the system should recover the service. Check the cluster status with the pcs status command. You should see that the ctdb-clone resource has started, but you will also see a ctdb_monitor failure.
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs status
    ...
    Clone Set: ctdb-clone [ctdb]
         Started: [ z1.example.com z2.example.com ]
    ...
    Failed Actions:
    * ctdb_monitor_10000 on z1.example.com 'unknown error' (1): call=126, status=complete, exitreason='CTDB status call failed: connect() failed, errno=111',
        last-rc-change='Thu Oct 19 18:39:51 2017', queued=0ms, exec=0ms
    ...
    
    To clear this error from the status, enter the following command on one of the cluster nodes:
    [root@z1 ~]# pcs resource cleanup ctdb-clone

Appendix A. Revision History

Revision History
Revision 6-1Wed Aug 7 2019Steven Levine
Preparing document for 7.7 GA publication.
Revision 5-2Thu Oct 4 2018Steven Levine
Preparing document for 7.6 GA publication.
Revision 4-2Wed Mar 14 2018Steven Levine
Preparing document for 7.5 GA publication.
Revision 4-1Thu Dec 14 2017Steven Levine
Preparing document for 7.5 Beta publication.
Revision 3-4Wed Aug 16 2017Steven Levine
Updated version for 7.4.
Revision 3-3Wed Jul 19 2017Steven Levine
Document version for 7.4 GA publication.
Revision 3-1Wed May 10 2017Steven Levine
Preparing document for 7.4 Beta publication.
Revision 2-6Mon Apr 17 2017Steven Levine
Update for 7.3
Revision 2-4Mon Oct 17 2016Steven Levine
Version for 7.3 GA publication.
Revision 2-3Fri Aug 12 2016Steven Levine
Preparing document for 7.3 Beta publication.
Revision 1.2-3Mon Nov 9 2015Steven Levine
Preparing document for 7.2 GA publication.
Revision 1.2-2Tue Aug 18 2015Steven Levine
Preparing document for 7.2 Beta publication.
Revision 1.1-19Mon Feb 16 2015Steven Levine
Version for 7.1 GA release
Revision 1.1-10Thu Dec 11 2014Steven Levine
Version for 7.1 Beta release
Revision 0.1-33Mon Jun 2 2014Steven Levine
Version for 7.0 GA release

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