virsh capabilities command displays an XML document describing the capabilities of the hypervisor connection and host physical machine. The XML schema displayed has been extended to provide information about the host physical machine CPU model. One of the big challenges in describing a CPU model is that every architecture has a different approach to exposing their capabilities. On x86, the capabilities of a modern CPU are exposed via the CPUID instruction. Essentially this comes down to a set of 32-bit integers with each bit given a specific meaning. Fortunately AMD and Intel agree on common semantics for these bits. Other hypervisors expose the notion of CPUID masks directly in their guest virtual machine configuration format. However, QEMU/KVM supports far more than just the x86 architecture, so CPUID is clearly not suitable as the canonical configuration format. QEMU ended up using a scheme which combines a CPU model name string, with a set of named options. On x86, the CPU model maps to a baseline CPUID mask, and the options can be used to then toggle bits in the mask on or off. libvirt decided to follow this lead and uses a combination of a model name and options.
It is not practical to have a database listing all known CPU models, so libvirt has a small list of baseline CPU model names. It chooses the one that shares the greatest number of CPUID bits with the actual host physical machine CPU and then lists the remaining bits as named features. Notice that libvirt does not display which features the baseline CPU contains. This might seem like a flaw at first, but as will be explained in this section, it is not actually necessary to know this information.