B.4. Sample lvm.conf File

The following is a sample lvm.conf configuration file. Your configuration file may differ slightly from this one.

Note

You can generate an lvm.conf file with all of the default values set and with the comments included by running the following command:
lvmconfig --type default --withcomments

# This is an example configuration file for the LVM2 system.
# It contains the default settings that would be used if there was no
# /etc/lvm/lvm.conf file.
#
# Refer to 'man lvm.conf' for further information including the file layout.
#
# To put this file in a different directory and override /etc/lvm set
# the environment variable LVM_SYSTEM_DIR before running the tools.
#
# N.B. Take care that each setting only appears once if uncommenting
# example settings in this file.

# This section allows you to set the way the configuration settings are handled.
config {

    # If enabled, any LVM2 configuration mismatch is reported.
    # This implies checking that the configuration key is understood
    # by LVM2 and that the value of the key is of a proper type.
    # If disabled, any configuration mismatch is ignored and default
    # value is used instead without any warning (a message about the
    # configuration key not being found is issued in verbose mode only).
    checks = 1

    # If enabled, any configuration mismatch aborts the LVM2 process.
    abort_on_errors = 0

    # Directory where LVM looks for configuration profiles.
    profile_dir = "/etc/lvm/profile"
}

# This section allows you to configure which block devices should
# be used by the LVM system.
devices {

    # Where do you want your volume groups to appear ?
    dir = "/dev"

    # An array of directories that contain the device nodes you wish
    # to use with LVM2.
    scan = [ "/dev" ]

    # If set, the cache of block device nodes with all associated symlinks
    # will be constructed out of the existing udev database content.
    # This avoids using and opening any inapplicable non-block devices or
    # subdirectories found in the device directory. This setting is applied
    # to udev-managed device directory only, other directories will be scanned
    # fully. LVM2 needs to be compiled with udev support for this setting to
    # take effect. N.B. Any device node or symlink not managed by udev in
    # udev directory will be ignored with this setting on.
    obtain_device_list_from_udev = 1

    # If several entries in the scanned directories correspond to the
    # same block device and the tools need to display a name for device,
    # all the pathnames are matched against each item in the following
    # list of regular expressions in turn and the first match is used.
    # preferred_names = [ ]

    # Try to avoid using undescriptive /dev/dm-N names, if present.
    preferred_names = [ "^/dev/mpath/", "^/dev/mapper/mpath", "^/dev/[hs]d" ]

    # A filter that tells LVM2 to only use a restricted set of devices.
    # The filter consists of an array of regular expressions.  These
    # expressions can be delimited by a character of your choice, and
    # prefixed with either an 'a' (for accept) or 'r' (for reject).
    # The first expression found to match a device name determines if
    # the device will be accepted or rejected (ignored).  Devices that
    # don't match any patterns are accepted.

    # Be careful if there there are symbolic links or multiple filesystem 
    # entries for the same device as each name is checked separately against
    # the list of patterns.  The effect is that if the first pattern in the 
    # list to match a name is an 'a' pattern for any of the names, the device
    # is accepted; otherwise if the first pattern in the list to match a name
    # is an 'r' pattern for any of the names it is rejected; otherwise it is
    # accepted.

    # Don't have more than one filter line active at once: only one gets used.

    # Run vgscan after you change this parameter to ensure that
    # the cache file gets regenerated (see below).
    # If it doesn't do what you expect, check the output of 'vgscan -vvvv'.


    # By default we accept every block device:
    filter = [ "a/.*/" ]

    # Exclude the cdrom drive
    # filter = [ "r|/dev/cdrom|" ]

    # When testing I like to work with just loopback devices:
    # filter = [ "a/loop/", "r/.*/" ]

    # Or maybe all loops and ide drives except hdc:
    # filter =[ "a|loop|", "r|/dev/hdc|", "a|/dev/ide|", "r|.*|" ]

    # Use anchors if you want to be really specific
    # filter = [ "a|^/dev/hda8$|", "r/.*/" ]

    # Since "filter" is often overridden from command line, it is not suitable
    # for system-wide device filtering (udev rules, lvmetad). To hide devices
    # from LVM-specific udev processing and/or from lvmetad, you need to set
    # global_filter. The syntax is the same as for normal "filter"
    # above. Devices that fail the global_filter are not even opened by LVM.

    # global_filter = []

    # The results of the filtering are cached on disk to avoid
    # rescanning dud devices (which can take a very long time).
    # By default this cache is stored in the /etc/lvm/cache directory
    # in a file called '.cache'.
    # It is safe to delete the contents: the tools regenerate it.
    # (The old setting 'cache' is still respected if neither of
    # these new ones is present.)
    # N.B. If obtain_device_list_from_udev is set to 1 the list of
    # devices is instead obtained from udev and any existing .cache
    # file is removed.
    cache_dir = "/etc/lvm/cache"
    cache_file_prefix = ""

    # You can turn off writing this cache file by setting this to 0.
    write_cache_state = 1

    # Advanced settings.

    # List of pairs of additional acceptable block device types found 
    # in /proc/devices with maximum (non-zero) number of partitions.
    # types = [ "fd", 16 ]

    # If sysfs is mounted (2.6 kernels) restrict device scanning to 
    # the block devices it believes are valid.
    # 1 enables; 0 disables.
    sysfs_scan = 1

    # By default, LVM2 will ignore devices used as component paths
    # of device-mapper multipath devices.
    # 1 enables; 0 disables.
    multipath_component_detection = 1

    # By default, LVM2 will ignore devices used as components of
    # software RAID (md) devices by looking for md superblocks.
    # 1 enables; 0 disables.
    md_component_detection = 1

    # By default, if a PV is placed directly upon an md device, LVM2
    # will align its data blocks with the md device's stripe-width.
    # 1 enables; 0 disables.
    md_chunk_alignment = 1

    # Default alignment of the start of a data area in MB.  If set to 0,
    # a value of 64KB will be used.  Set to 1 for 1MiB, 2 for 2MiB, etc.
    # default_data_alignment = 1

    # By default, the start of a PV's data area will be a multiple of
    # the 'minimum_io_size' or 'optimal_io_size' exposed in sysfs.
    # - minimum_io_size - the smallest request the device can perform
    #   w/o incurring a read-modify-write penalty (e.g. MD's chunk size)
    # - optimal_io_size - the device's preferred unit of receiving I/O
    #   (e.g. MD's stripe width)
    # minimum_io_size is used if optimal_io_size is undefined (0).
    # If md_chunk_alignment is enabled, that detects the optimal_io_size.
    # This setting takes precedence over md_chunk_alignment.
    # 1 enables; 0 disables.
    data_alignment_detection = 1

    # Alignment (in KB) of start of data area when creating a new PV.
    # md_chunk_alignment and data_alignment_detection are disabled if set.
    # Set to 0 for the default alignment (see: data_alignment_default)
    # or page size, if larger.
    data_alignment = 0

    # By default, the start of the PV's aligned data area will be shifted by
    # the 'alignment_offset' exposed in sysfs.  This offset is often 0 but
    # may be non-zero; e.g.: certain 4KB sector drives that compensate for
    # windows partitioning will have an alignment_offset of 3584 bytes
    # (sector 7 is the lowest aligned logical block, the 4KB sectors start
    # at LBA -1, and consequently sector 63 is aligned on a 4KB boundary).
    # But note that pvcreate --dataalignmentoffset will skip this detection.
    # 1 enables; 0 disables.
    data_alignment_offset_detection = 1

    # If, while scanning the system for PVs, LVM2 encounters a device-mapper
    # device that has its I/O suspended, it waits for it to become accessible.
    # Set this to 1 to skip such devices.  This should only be needed
    # in recovery situations.
    ignore_suspended_devices = 0

    # During each LVM operation errors received from each device are counted.
    # If the counter of a particular device exceeds the limit set here, no
    # further I/O is sent to that device for the remainder of the respective
    # operation. Setting the parameter to 0 disables the counters altogether.
    disable_after_error_count = 0

    # Allow use of pvcreate --uuid without requiring --restorefile.
    require_restorefile_with_uuid = 1

    # Minimum size (in KB) of block devices which can be used as PVs.
    # In a clustered environment all nodes must use the same value.
    # Any value smaller than 512KB is ignored.

    # Ignore devices smaller than 2MB such as floppy drives.
    pv_min_size = 2048

    # The original built-in setting was 512 up to and including version 2.02.84.
    # pv_min_size = 512

    # Issue discards to a logical volumes's underlying physical volume(s) when
    # the logical volume is no longer using the physical volumes' space (e.g.
    # lvremove, lvreduce, etc).  Discards inform the storage that a region is
    # no longer in use.  Storage that supports discards advertise the protocol
    # specific way discards should be issued by the kernel (TRIM, UNMAP, or
    # WRITE SAME with UNMAP bit set).  Not all storage will support or benefit
    # from discards but SSDs and thinly provisioned LUNs generally do.  If set
    # to 1, discards will only be issued if both the storage and kernel provide
    # support.
    # 1 enables; 0 disables.
    issue_discards = 0
}

# This section allows you to configure the way in which LVM selects
# free space for its Logical Volumes.
allocation {

    # When searching for free space to extend an LV, the "cling"
    # allocation policy will choose space on the same PVs as the last
    # segment of the existing LV.  If there is insufficient space and a
    # list of tags is defined here, it will check whether any of them are
    # attached to the PVs concerned and then seek to match those PV tags
    # between existing extents and new extents.
    # Use the special tag "@*" as a wildcard to match any PV tag.
 
    # Example: LVs are mirrored between two sites within a single VG.
    # PVs are tagged with either @site1 or @site2 to indicate where
    # they are situated.

    # cling_tag_list = [ "@site1", "@site2" ]
    # cling_tag_list = [ "@*" ]

    # Changes made in version 2.02.85 extended the reach of the 'cling'
    # policies to detect more situations where data can be grouped
    # onto the same disks.  Set this to 0 to revert to the previous
    # algorithm.
    maximise_cling = 1

    # Set to 1 to guarantee that mirror logs will always be placed on 
    # different PVs from the mirror images.  This was the default
    # until version 2.02.85.
    mirror_logs_require_separate_pvs = 0

    # Set to 1 to guarantee that thin pool metadata will always
    # be placed on different PVs from the pool data.
    thin_pool_metadata_require_separate_pvs = 0

    # Specify the minimal chunk size (in KB) for thin pool volumes.
    # Use of the larger chunk size may improve perfomance for plain
    # thin volumes, however using them for snapshot volumes is less efficient,
    # as it consumes more space and takes extra time for copying.
    # When unset, lvm tries to estimate chunk size starting from 64KB
    # Supported values are in range from 64 to 1048576.
    # thin_pool_chunk_size = 64

    # Specify discards behavior of the thin pool volume.
    # Select one of  "ignore", "nopassdown", "passdown"
    # thin_pool_discards = "passdown"

    # Set to 0, to disable zeroing of thin pool data chunks before their
    # first use.
    # N.B. zeroing larger thin pool chunk size degrades performance.
    # thin_pool_zero = 1
}

# This section that allows you to configure the nature of the
# information that LVM2 reports.
log {

    # Controls the messages sent to stdout or stderr.
    # There are three levels of verbosity, 3 being the most verbose.
    verbose = 0

    # Set to 1 to suppress all non-essential messages from stdout.
    # This has the same effect as -qq.
    # When this is set, the following commands still produce output:
    # dumpconfig, lvdisplay, lvmdiskscan, lvs, pvck, pvdisplay, 
    # pvs, version, vgcfgrestore -l, vgdisplay, vgs.
    # Non-essential messages are shifted from log level 4 to log level 5
    # for syslog and lvm2_log_fn purposes.
    # Any 'yes' or 'no' questions not overridden by other arguments
    # are suppressed and default to 'no'.
    silent = 0

    # Should we send log messages through syslog?
    # 1 is yes; 0 is no.
    syslog = 1

    # Should we log error and debug messages to a file?
    # By default there is no log file.
    #file = "/var/log/lvm2.log"

    # Should we overwrite the log file each time the program is run?
    # By default we append.
    overwrite = 0

    # What level of log messages should we send to the log file and/or syslog?
    # There are 6 syslog-like log levels currently in use - 2 to 7 inclusive.
    # 7 is the most verbose (LOG_DEBUG).
    level = 0

    # Format of output messages
    # Whether or not (1 or 0) to indent messages according to their severity
    indent = 1

    # Whether or not (1 or 0) to display the command name on each line output
    command_names = 0

    # A prefix to use before the message text (but after the command name,
    # if selected).  Default is two spaces, so you can see/grep the severity
    # of each message.
    prefix = "  "

    # To make the messages look similar to the original LVM tools use:
    #   indent = 0
    #   command_names = 1
    #   prefix = " -- "

    # Set this if you want log messages during activation.
    # Don't use this in low memory situations (can deadlock).
    # activation = 0

    # Some debugging messages are assigned to a class and only appear
    # in debug output if the class is listed here.
    # Classes currently available:
    #   memory, devices, activation, allocation, lvmetad, metadata, cache,
    #   locking
    # Use "all" to see everything.
    debug_classes = [ "memory", "devices", "activation", "allocation",
		      "lvmetad", "metadata", "cache", "locking" ]
}

# Configuration of metadata backups and archiving.  In LVM2 when we
# talk about a 'backup' we mean making a copy of the metadata for the
# *current* system.  The 'archive' contains old metadata configurations.
# Backups are stored in a human readeable text format.
backup {

    # Should we maintain a backup of the current metadata configuration ?
    # Use 1 for Yes; 0 for No.
    # Think very hard before turning this off!
    backup = 1

    # Where shall we keep it ?
    # Remember to back up this directory regularly!
    backup_dir = "/etc/lvm/backup"

    # Should we maintain an archive of old metadata configurations.
    # Use 1 for Yes; 0 for No.
    # On by default.  Think very hard before turning this off.
    archive = 1

    # Where should archived files go ?
    # Remember to back up this directory regularly!
    archive_dir = "/etc/lvm/archive"

    # What is the minimum number of archive files you wish to keep ?
    retain_min = 10

    # What is the minimum time you wish to keep an archive file for ?
    retain_days = 30
}

# Settings for the running LVM2 in shell (readline) mode.
shell {

    # Number of lines of history to store in ~/.lvm_history
    history_size = 100
}


# Miscellaneous global LVM2 settings
global {
    # The file creation mask for any files and directories created.
    # Interpreted as octal if the first digit is zero.
    umask = 077

    # Allow other users to read the files
    #umask = 022

    # Enabling test mode means that no changes to the on disk metadata
    # will be made.  Equivalent to having the -t option on every
    # command.  Defaults to off.
    test = 0

    # Default value for --units argument
    units = "h"

    # Since version 2.02.54, the tools distinguish between powers of
    # 1024 bytes (e.g. KiB, MiB, GiB) and powers of 1000 bytes (e.g.
    # KB, MB, GB).
    # If you have scripts that depend on the old behaviour, set this to 0
    # temporarily until you update them.
    si_unit_consistency = 1

    # Whether or not to communicate with the kernel device-mapper.
    # Set to 0 if you want to use the tools to manipulate LVM metadata 
    # without activating any logical volumes.
    # If the device-mapper kernel driver is not present in your kernel
    # setting this to 0 should suppress the error messages.
    activation = 1

    # If we can't communicate with device-mapper, should we try running 
    # the LVM1 tools?
    # This option only applies to 2.4 kernels and is provided to help you
    # switch between device-mapper kernels and LVM1 kernels.
    # The LVM1 tools need to be installed with .lvm1 suffices
    # e.g. vgscan.lvm1 and they will stop working after you start using
    # the new lvm2 on-disk metadata format.
    # The default value is set when the tools are built.
    # fallback_to_lvm1 = 0

    # The default metadata format that commands should use - "lvm1" or "lvm2".
    # The command line override is -M1 or -M2.
    # Defaults to "lvm2".
    # format = "lvm2"

    # Location of proc filesystem
    proc = "/proc"

    # Type of locking to use. Defaults to local file-based locking (1).
    # Turn locking off by setting to 0 (dangerous: risks metadata corruption
    # if LVM2 commands get run concurrently).
    # Type 2 uses the external shared library locking_library.
    # Type 3 uses built-in clustered locking.
    # Type 4 uses read-only locking which forbids any operations that might 
    # change metadata.
    locking_type = 1

    # Set to 0 to fail when a lock request cannot be satisfied immediately.
    wait_for_locks = 1

    # If using external locking (type 2) and initialisation fails,
    # with this set to 1 an attempt will be made to use the built-in
    # clustered locking.
    # If you are using a customised locking_library you should set this to 0.
    fallback_to_clustered_locking = 1

    # If an attempt to initialise type 2 or type 3 locking failed, perhaps
    # because cluster components such as clvmd are not running, with this set
    # to 1 an attempt will be made to use local file-based locking (type 1).
    # If this succeeds, only commands against local volume groups will proceed.
    # Volume Groups marked as clustered will be ignored.
    fallback_to_local_locking = 1

    # Local non-LV directory that holds file-based locks while commands are
    # in progress.  A directory like /tmp that may get wiped on reboot is OK.
    locking_dir = "/var/lock/lvm"

    # Whenever there are competing read-only and read-write access requests for
    # a volume group's metadata, instead of always granting the read-only
    # requests immediately, delay them to allow the read-write requests to be
    # serviced.  Without this setting, write access may be stalled by a high
    # volume of read-only requests.
    # NB. This option only affects locking_type = 1 viz. local file-based
    # locking.
    prioritise_write_locks = 1

    # Other entries can go here to allow you to load shared libraries
    # e.g. if support for LVM1 metadata was compiled as a shared library use
    #   format_libraries = "liblvm2format1.so" 
    # Full pathnames can be given.

    # Search this directory first for shared libraries.
    #   library_dir = "/lib"

    # The external locking library to load if locking_type is set to 2.
    #   locking_library = "liblvm2clusterlock.so"

    # Treat any internal errors as fatal errors, aborting the process that
    # encountered the internal error. Please only enable for debugging.
    abort_on_internal_errors = 0

    # Check whether CRC is matching when parsed VG is used multiple times.
    # This is useful to catch unexpected internal cached volume group
    # structure modification. Please only enable for debugging.
    detect_internal_vg_cache_corruption = 0

    # If set to 1, no operations that change on-disk metadata will be permitted.
    # Additionally, read-only commands that encounter metadata in need of repair
    # will still be allowed to proceed exactly as if the repair had been 
    # performed (except for the unchanged vg_seqno).
    # Inappropriate use could mess up your system, so seek advice first!
    metadata_read_only = 0

    # 'mirror_segtype_default' defines which segtype will be used when the
    # shorthand '-m' option is used for mirroring.  The possible options are:
    #
    # "mirror" - The original RAID1 implementation provided by LVM2/DM.  It is
    # 	         characterized by a flexible log solution (core, disk, mirrored)
    #		 and by the necessity to block I/O while reconfiguring in the
    #		 event of a failure.
    #
    #		 There is an inherent race in the dmeventd failure handling
    #		 logic with snapshots of devices using this type of RAID1 that
    #		 in the worst case could cause a deadlock.
    #		   Ref: https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=817130#c10
    #
    # "raid1"  - This implementation leverages MD's RAID1 personality through
    # 	       	 device-mapper.  It is characterized by a lack of log options.
    #		 (A log is always allocated for every device and they are placed
    #		 on the same device as the image - no separate devices are
    #		 required.)  This mirror implementation does not require I/O
    #		 to be blocked in the kernel in the event of a failure.
    #		 This mirror implementation is not cluster-aware and cannot be
    #		 used in a shared (active/active) fashion in a cluster.
    #
    # Specify the '--type <mirror|raid1>' option to override this default
    # setting.
    mirror_segtype_default = "mirror"

    # 'raid10_segtype_default' determines the segment types used by default
    # when the '--stripes/-i' and '--mirrors/-m' arguments are both specified
    # during the creation of a logical volume.
    # Possible settings include:
    #
    # "raid10" - This implementation leverages MD's RAID10 personality through
    #            device-mapper.
    #
    # "mirror" - LVM will layer the 'mirror' and 'stripe' segment types.  It
    #            will do this by creating a mirror on top of striped sub-LVs;
    #            effectively creating a RAID 0+1 array.  This is suboptimal
    #            in terms of providing redunancy and performance.  Changing to
    #            this setting is not advised.
    # Specify the '--type <raid10|mirror>' option to override this default
    # setting.
    raid10_segtype_default = "mirror"

    # The default format for displaying LV names in lvdisplay was changed 
    # in version 2.02.89 to show the LV name and path separately.
    # Previously this was always shown as /dev/vgname/lvname even when that
    # was never a valid path in the /dev filesystem.
    # Set to 1 to reinstate the previous format.
    #
    # lvdisplay_shows_full_device_path = 0

    # Whether to use (trust) a running instance of lvmetad. If this is set to
    # 0, all commands fall back to the usual scanning mechanisms. When set to 1
    # *and* when lvmetad is running (it is not auto-started), the volume group
    # metadata and PV state flags are obtained from the lvmetad instance and no
    # scanning is done by the individual commands. In a setup with lvmetad,
    # lvmetad udev rules *must* be set up for LVM to work correctly. Without
    # proper udev rules, all changes in block device configuration will be
    # *ignored* until a manual 'pvscan --cache' is performed.
    #
    # If lvmetad has been running while use_lvmetad was 0, it MUST be stopped
    # before changing use_lvmetad to 1 and started again afterwards.
    use_lvmetad = 0

    # Full path of the utility called to check that a thin metadata device
    # is in a state that allows it to be used.
    # Each time a thin pool needs to be activated or after it is deactivated
    # this utility is executed. The activation will only proceed if the utility
    # has an exit status of 0.
    # Set to "" to skip this check.  (Not recommended.)
    # The thin tools are available as part of the device-mapper-persistent-data
    # package from https://github.com/jthornber/thin-provisioning-tools.
    #
    # thin_check_executable = "/usr/sbin/thin_check"

    # Array of string options passed with thin_check command. By default,
    # option "-q" is for quiet output.
    # With thin_check version 2.1 or newer you can add "--ignore-non-fatal-errors"
    # to let it pass through ignoreable errors and fix them later.
    #
    # thin_check_options = [ "-q" ]

    # Full path of the utility called to repair a thin metadata device
    # is in a state that allows it to be used.
    # Each time a thin pool needs repair this utility is executed.
    # See thin_check_executable how to obtain binaries.
    #
    # thin_repair_executable = "/usr/sbin/thin_repair"

    # Array of extra string options passed with thin_repair command.
    # thin_repair_options = [ "" ]

    # Full path of the utility called to dump thin metadata content.
    # See thin_check_executable how to obtain binaries.
    #
    # thin_dump_executable = "/usr/sbin/thin_dump"

    # If set, given features are not used by thin driver.
    # This can be helpful not just for testing, but i.e. allows to avoid
    # using problematic implementation of some thin feature.
    # Features:
    #   block_size
    #   discards
    #   discards_non_power_2
    #   external_origin
    #   metadata_resize
    #
    # thin_disabled_features = [ "discards", "block_size" ]
}

activation {
    # Set to 1 to perform internal checks on the operations issued to
    # libdevmapper.  Useful for debugging problems with activation.
    # Some of the checks may be expensive, so it's best to use this
    # only when there seems to be a problem.
    checks = 0

    # Set to 0 to disable udev synchronisation (if compiled into the binaries).
    # Processes will not wait for notification from udev.
    # They will continue irrespective of any possible udev processing
    # in the background.  You should only use this if udev is not running
    # or has rules that ignore the devices LVM2 creates.
    # The command line argument --nodevsync takes precedence over this setting.
    # If set to 1 when udev is not running, and there are LVM2 processes
    # waiting for udev, run 'dmsetup udevcomplete_all' manually to wake them up.
    udev_sync = 1

    # Set to 0 to disable the udev rules installed by LVM2 (if built with
    # --enable-udev_rules). LVM2 will then manage the /dev nodes and symlinks
    # for active logical volumes directly itself.
    # N.B. Manual intervention may be required if this setting is changed
    # while any logical volumes are active.
    udev_rules = 1

    # Set to 1 for LVM2 to verify operations performed by udev. This turns on
    # additional checks (and if necessary, repairs) on entries in the device
    # directory after udev has completed processing its events. 
    # Useful for diagnosing problems with LVM2/udev interactions.
    verify_udev_operations = 0

    # If set to 1 and if deactivation of an LV fails, perhaps because
    # a process run from a quick udev rule temporarily opened the device,
    # retry the operation for a few seconds before failing.
    retry_deactivation = 1

    # How to fill in missing stripes if activating an incomplete volume.
    # Using "error" will make inaccessible parts of the device return
    # I/O errors on access.  You can instead use a device path, in which 
    # case, that device will be used to in place of missing stripes.
    # But note that using anything other than "error" with mirrored 
    # or snapshotted volumes is likely to result in data corruption.
    missing_stripe_filler = "error"

    # The linear target is an optimised version of the striped target
    # that only handles a single stripe.  Set this to 0 to disable this
    # optimisation and always use the striped target.
    use_linear_target = 1

    # How much stack (in KB) to reserve for use while devices suspended
    # Prior to version 2.02.89 this used to be set to 256KB
    reserved_stack = 64

    # How much memory (in KB) to reserve for use while devices suspended
    reserved_memory = 8192

    # Nice value used while devices suspended
    process_priority = -18

    # If volume_list is defined, each LV is only activated if there is a
    # match against the list.
    #
    #   "vgname" and "vgname/lvname" are matched exactly.
    #   "@tag" matches any tag set in the LV or VG.
    #   "@*" matches if any tag defined on the host is also set in the LV or VG
    #
    # If any host tags exist but volume_list is not defined, a default
    # single-entry list containing "@*" is assumed.
    #
    # volume_list = [ "vg1", "vg2/lvol1", "@tag1", "@*" ]

    # If auto_activation_volume_list is defined, each LV that is to be
    # activated with the autoactivation option (--activate ay/-a ay) is
    # first checked against the list. There are two scenarios in which
    # the autoactivation option is used:
    #
    #   - automatic activation of volumes based on incoming PVs. If all the
    #     PVs making up a VG are present in the system, the autoactivation
    #     is triggered. This requires lvmetad (global/use_lvmetad=1) and udev
    #     to be running. In this case, "pvscan --cache -aay" is called
    #     automatically without any user intervention while processing
    #     udev events. Please, make sure you define auto_activation_volume_list
    #     properly so only the volumes you want and expect are autoactivated.
    #
    #   - direct activation on command line with the autoactivation option.
    #     In this case, the user calls "vgchange --activate ay/-a ay" or
    #     "lvchange --activate ay/-a ay" directly.
    #
    # By default, the auto_activation_volume_list is not defined and all
    # volumes will be activated either automatically or by using --activate ay/-a ay.
    #
    # N.B. The "activation/volume_list" is still honoured in all cases so even
    # if the VG/LV passes the auto_activation_volume_list, it still needs to
    # pass the volume_list for it to be activated in the end.

    # If auto_activation_volume_list is defined but empty, no volumes will be
    # activated automatically and --activate ay/-a ay will do nothing.
    #
    # auto_activation_volume_list = []

    # If auto_activation_volume_list is defined and it's not empty, only matching
    # volumes will be activated either automatically or by using --activate ay/-a ay.
    #
    #   "vgname" and "vgname/lvname" are matched exactly.
    #   "@tag" matches any tag set in the LV or VG.
    #   "@*" matches if any tag defined on the host is also set in the LV or VG
    #
    # auto_activation_volume_list = [ "vg1", "vg2/lvol1", "@tag1", "@*" ]

    # If read_only_volume_list is defined, each LV that is to be activated 
    # is checked against the list, and if it matches, it as activated
    # in read-only mode.  (This overrides '--permission rw' stored in the
    # metadata.)
    #
    #   "vgname" and "vgname/lvname" are matched exactly.
    #   "@tag" matches any tag set in the LV or VG.
    #   "@*" matches if any tag defined on the host is also set in the LV or VG
    #
    # read_only_volume_list = [ "vg1", "vg2/lvol1", "@tag1", "@*" ]

    # Each LV can have an 'activation skip' flag stored persistently against it.
    # During activation, this flag is used to decide whether such an LV is skipped.
    # The 'activation skip' flag can be set during LV creation and by default it
    # is automatically set for thin snapshot LVs. The 'auto_set_activation_skip'
    # enables or disables this automatic setting of the flag while LVs are created.
    # auto_set_activation_skip = 1

    # For RAID or 'mirror' segment types, 'raid_region_size' is the
    # size (in kiB) of each:
    # - synchronization operation when initializing
    # - each copy operation when performing a 'pvmove' (using 'mirror' segtype)
    # This setting has replaced 'mirror_region_size' since version 2.02.99
    raid_region_size = 512

    # Setting to use when there is no readahead value stored in the metadata.
    #
    # "none" - Disable readahead.
    # "auto" - Use default value chosen by kernel.
    readahead = "auto"

    # 'raid_fault_policy' defines how a device failure in a RAID logical
    # volume is handled.  This includes logical volumes that have the following
    # segment types: raid1, raid4, raid5*, and raid6*.
    #
    # In the event of a failure, the following policies will determine what
    # actions are performed during the automated response to failures (when
    # dmeventd is monitoring the RAID logical volume) and when 'lvconvert' is
    # called manually with the options '--repair' and '--use-policies'.
    #
    # "warn"	- Use the system log to warn the user that a device in the RAID
    # 		  logical volume has failed.  It is left to the user to run
    #		  'lvconvert --repair' manually to remove or replace the failed
    #		  device.  As long as the number of failed devices does not
    #		  exceed the redundancy of the logical volume (1 device for
    #		  raid4/5, 2 for raid6, etc) the logical volume will remain
    #		  usable.
    #
    # "allocate" - Attempt to use any extra physical volumes in the volume
    # 		  group as spares and replace faulty devices.
    #
    raid_fault_policy = "warn"

    # 'mirror_image_fault_policy' and 'mirror_log_fault_policy' define
    # how a device failure affecting a mirror (of "mirror" segment type) is
    # handled.  A mirror is composed of mirror images (copies) and a log.
    # A disk log ensures that a mirror does not need to be re-synced
    # (all copies made the same) every time a machine reboots or crashes.
    #
    # In the event of a failure, the specified policy will be used to determine
    # what happens. This applies to automatic repairs (when the mirror is being
    # monitored by dmeventd) and to manual lvconvert --repair when
    # --use-policies is given.
    #
    # "remove" - Simply remove the faulty device and run without it.  If
    #            the log device fails, the mirror would convert to using
    #            an in-memory log.  This means the mirror will not
    #            remember its sync status across crashes/reboots and
    #            the entire mirror will be re-synced.  If a
    #            mirror image fails, the mirror will convert to a
    #            non-mirrored device if there is only one remaining good
    #            copy.
    #
    # "allocate" - Remove the faulty device and try to allocate space on
    #            a new device to be a replacement for the failed device.
    #            Using this policy for the log is fast and maintains the
    #            ability to remember sync state through crashes/reboots.
    #            Using this policy for a mirror device is slow, as it
    #            requires the mirror to resynchronize the devices, but it
    #            will preserve the mirror characteristic of the device.
    #            This policy acts like "remove" if no suitable device and
    #            space can be allocated for the replacement.
    #
    # "allocate_anywhere" - Not yet implemented. Useful to place the log device
    #            temporarily on same physical volume as one of the mirror
    #            images. This policy is not recommended for mirror devices
    #            since it would break the redundant nature of the mirror. This
    #            policy acts like "remove" if no suitable device and space can
    #            be allocated for the replacement.

    mirror_log_fault_policy = "allocate"
    mirror_image_fault_policy = "remove"

    # 'snapshot_autoextend_threshold' and 'snapshot_autoextend_percent' define
    # how to handle automatic snapshot extension. The former defines when the
    # snapshot should be extended: when its space usage exceeds this many
    # percent. The latter defines how much extra space should be allocated for
    # the snapshot, in percent of its current size.
    #
    # For example, if you set snapshot_autoextend_threshold to 70 and
    # snapshot_autoextend_percent to 20, whenever a snapshot exceeds 70% usage,
    # it will be extended by another 20%. For a 1G snapshot, using up 700M will
    # trigger a resize to 1.2G. When the usage exceeds 840M, the snapshot will
    # be extended to 1.44G, and so on.
    #
    # Setting snapshot_autoextend_threshold to 100 disables automatic
    # extensions. The minimum value is 50 (A setting below 50 will be treated
    # as 50).

    snapshot_autoextend_threshold = 100
    snapshot_autoextend_percent = 20

    # 'thin_pool_autoextend_threshold' and 'thin_pool_autoextend_percent' define
    # how to handle automatic pool extension. The former defines when the
    # pool should be extended: when its space usage exceeds this many
    # percent. The latter defines how much extra space should be allocated for
    # the pool, in percent of its current size.
    #
    # For example, if you set thin_pool_autoextend_threshold to 70 and
    # thin_pool_autoextend_percent to 20, whenever a pool exceeds 70% usage,
    # it will be extended by another 20%. For a 1G pool, using up 700M will
    # trigger a resize to 1.2G. When the usage exceeds 840M, the pool will
    # be extended to 1.44G, and so on.
    #
    # Setting thin_pool_autoextend_threshold to 100 disables automatic
    # extensions. The minimum value is 50 (A setting below 50 will be treated
    # as 50).

    thin_pool_autoextend_threshold = 100
    thin_pool_autoextend_percent = 20

    # While activating devices, I/O to devices being (re)configured is
    # suspended, and as a precaution against deadlocks, LVM2 needs to pin
    # any memory it is using so it is not paged out.  Groups of pages that
    # are known not to be accessed during activation need not be pinned
    # into memory.  Each string listed in this setting is compared against
    # each line in /proc/self/maps, and the pages corresponding to any
    # lines that match are not pinned.  On some systems locale-archive was
    # found to make up over 80% of the memory used by the process.
    # mlock_filter = [ "locale/locale-archive", "gconv/gconv-modules.cache" ]

    # Set to 1 to revert to the default behaviour prior to version 2.02.62
    # which used mlockall() to pin the whole process's memory while activating
    # devices.
    use_mlockall = 0

    # Monitoring is enabled by default when activating logical volumes.
    # Set to 0 to disable monitoring or use the --ignoremonitoring option.
    monitoring = 1

    # When pvmove or lvconvert must wait for the kernel to finish
    # synchronising or merging data, they check and report progress
    # at intervals of this number of seconds.  The default is 15 seconds.
    # If this is set to 0 and there is only one thing to wait for, there
    # are no progress reports, but the process is awoken immediately the
    # operation is complete.
    polling_interval = 15
}


####################
# Advanced section #
####################

# Metadata settings
#
# metadata {
    # Default number of copies of metadata to hold on each PV.  0, 1 or 2.
    # You might want to override it from the command line with 0 
    # when running pvcreate on new PVs which are to be added to large VGs.

    # pvmetadatacopies = 1

    # Default number of copies of metadata to maintain for each VG.
    # If set to a non-zero value, LVM automatically chooses which of
    # the available metadata areas to use to achieve the requested
    # number of copies of the VG metadata.  If you set a value larger
    # than the the total number of metadata areas available then
    # metadata is stored in them all.
    # The default value of 0 ("unmanaged") disables this automatic
    # management and allows you to control which metadata areas
    # are used at the individual PV level using 'pvchange
    # --metadataignore y/n'.

    # vgmetadatacopies = 0

    # Approximate default size of on-disk metadata areas in sectors.
    # You should increase this if you have large volume groups or
    # you want to retain a large on-disk history of your metadata changes.

    # pvmetadatasize = 255

    # List of directories holding live copies of text format metadata.
    # These directories must not be on logical volumes!
    # It's possible to use LVM2 with a couple of directories here,
    # preferably on different (non-LV) filesystems, and with no other 
    # on-disk metadata (pvmetadatacopies = 0). Or this can be in
    # addition to on-disk metadata areas.
    # The feature was originally added to simplify testing and is not
    # supported under low memory situations - the machine could lock up.
    #
    # Never edit any files in these directories by hand unless you
    # you are absolutely sure you know what you are doing! Use
    # the supplied toolset to make changes (e.g. vgcfgrestore).

    # dirs = [ "/etc/lvm/metadata", "/mnt/disk2/lvm/metadata2" ]
#}

# Event daemon
#
dmeventd {
    # mirror_library is the library used when monitoring a mirror device.
    #
    # "libdevmapper-event-lvm2mirror.so" attempts to recover from
    # failures.  It removes failed devices from a volume group and
    # reconfigures a mirror as necessary. If no mirror library is
    # provided, mirrors are not monitored through dmeventd.

    mirror_library = "libdevmapper-event-lvm2mirror.so"

    # snapshot_library is the library used when monitoring a snapshot device.
    #
    # "libdevmapper-event-lvm2snapshot.so" monitors the filling of
    # snapshots and emits a warning through syslog when the use of
    # the snapshot exceeds 80%. The warning is repeated when 85%, 90% and
    # 95% of the snapshot is filled.

    snapshot_library = "libdevmapper-event-lvm2snapshot.so"

    # thin_library is the library used when monitoring a thin device.
    #
    # "libdevmapper-event-lvm2thin.so" monitors the filling of
    # pool and emits a warning through syslog when the use of
    # the pool exceeds 80%. The warning is repeated when 85%, 90% and
    # 95% of the pool is filled.

    thin_library = "libdevmapper-event-lvm2thin.so"

    # Full path of the dmeventd binary.
    #
    # executable = "/sbin/dmeventd"
}