In most cases, GRUB will be installed and configured during the initial installation process, unless you used a Kickstart file and specifically disabled this behavior. The installed system should therefore be prepared to boot into your desktop environment or a command line, depending on your package selection. However, in certain cases it is possible that the system's GRUB configuration becomes corrupted and the system will no longer be able to boot. This section describes how to fix such problems.
When troubleshooting GRUB
, keep in mind thatthe grub
package does not automatically update the system boot loader when the package is updated using Yum
. Therefore, updating the package will not automatically update the actual boot loader on your system. To work around this problem, use the
command manually every time after the package is updated. See Section E.3, “Installing GRUB”
for details about the command.
GRUB cannot construct a software RAID. Therefore, the
/boot directory must reside on a single, specific disk partition. The
/boot directory cannot be striped across multiple disks, as in a level 0 RAID. To use a level 0 RAID on your system, place
/boot on a separate partition outside the RAID.
Similarly, because the
directory must reside on a single, specific disk partition, GRUB
cannot boot the system if the disk holding that partition fails or is removed from the system. This is true even if the disk is mirrored in a level 1 RAID. The following Red Hat Knowledgebase article describes how to make the system bootable from another disk in the mirrored set: https://access.redhat.com/site/articles/7094
Note that these issues apply only to RAID that is implemented in software, where the individual disks that make up the array are still visible as individual disks on the system. These issues do not apply to hardware RAID where multiple disks are represented as a single device.
The exact steps to fix a broken GRUB
configuration will vary depending on what kind of problem there is. The GNU GRUB Manual
offers a list of all possible error messages displayed by GRUB
in different stages and their underlying causes. Use the manual for reference.
Once you have determined the cause of the error, you can start fixing it. If you are encountering an error which only appears after you select an entry from the GRUB
menu, then you can use the menu to fix the error temporarily, boot the system, and then fix the error permanently by running the
command to reinstall the boot loader, or by editing the
with a plain text editor. For information about the configuration file structure, see Section E.8, “GRUB Menu Configuration File”
There are two identical files in the GRUB configuration directory:
grub.conf configuration file is loaded first; therefore you should make your changes there. The second file,
menu.lst, will only be loaded if
grub.conf is not found.