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33.2. Single-User Mode

Single-user mode provides a Linux environment for a single user that allows you to recover your system from problems that cannot be resolved in networked multi-user environment. You do not need an external boot device to be able to boot into single-user mode, and you can switch into it directly while the system is running. To switch into single-user mode on the running system, issue the following command from the command line:
~]# init 1
In single-user mode, the system boots with your local file systems mounted, many important services running, and a usable maintenance shell that allows you to perform many of the usual system commands. Therefore, single-user mode is mostly useful for resolving problems when the system boots but does not function properly or you cannot log into it.


The single-user mode automatically tries to mount your local file systems. Booting to single-user mode could result in loss of data if any of your local file systems cannot be successfully mounted.
To boot into single-user mode follow this procedure:

Procedure 33.2. Booting into Single-User Mode

  1. At the GRUB boot screen, press any key to enter the GRUB interactive menu.
  2. Select Red Hat Enterprise Linux with the version of the kernel that you want to boot and press the a to append the line.
  3. Type single as a separate word at the end of the line and press Enter to exit GRUB edit mode. Alternatively, you can type 1 instead of single.