188.8.131.52.4. Additional Match Option Modules
Additional match options are available through modules loaded by the
To use a match option module, load the module by name using the
-m <module-name>, where <module-name> is the name of the module.
Many modules are available by default. You can also create modules to provide additional functionality.
The following is a partial list of the most commonly used modules:
limitmodule — Places limits on how many packets are matched to a particular rule.When used in conjunction with the
limitmodule can prevent a flood of matching packets from filling up the system log with repetitive messages or using up system resources.Refer to Section 184.108.40.206, “Target Options” for more information about the
limitmodule enables the following options:
--limit— Sets the maximum number of matches for a particular time period, specified as a
<value>/<period>pair. For example, using
--limit 5/hourallows five rule matches per hour.Periods can be specified in seconds, minutes, hours, or days.If a number and time modifier are not used, the default value of
--limit-burst— Sets a limit on the number of packets able to match a rule at one time.This option is specified as an integer and should be used in conjunction with the
--limitoption.If no value is specified, the default value of five (5) is assumed.
statemodule — Enables state matching.The
statemodule enables the following options:
--state— match a packet with the following connection states:
These connection states can be used in combination with one another by separating them with commas, such as
ESTABLISHED— The matching packet is associated with other packets in an established connection. You need to accept this state if you want to maintain a connection between a client and a server.
INVALID— The matching packet cannot be tied to a known connection.
NEW— The matching packet is either creating a new connection or is part of a two-way connection not previously seen. You need to accept this state if you want to allow new connections to a service.
RELATED— The matching packet is starting a new connection related in some way to an existing connection. An example of this is FTP, which uses one connection for control traffic (port 21), and a separate connection for data transfer (port 20).
-m state --state INVALID,NEW.
macmodule — Enables hardware MAC address matching.The
macmodule enables the following option:
--mac-source— Matches a MAC address of the network interface card that sent the packet. To exclude a MAC address from a rule, place an exclamation point character (
!) after the
Refer to the
iptables man page for more match options available through modules.