4.31. firefox

Updated firefox packages that fix one bug are now available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.
The firefox packages provides an open source web browser, Mozilla Firefox.

Bug Fix

BZ#871568
The "out-of-process plug-ins" feature was previously disabled for wrapped plug-ins by default. This could cause Firefox to terminate unexpectedly when accessing a page that contained a flash object and the flash plug-in and the nswrapperplugin plug-in viewer were installed. To resolve this problem, the "out-of-process plug-ins" feature has been enabled for the wrapped plug-ins. Firefox no longer crashes in this scenario.
All users of firefox are advised to upgrade to these updated packages, which fix this bug.
Updated firefox packages that fix multiple security issues are now available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and 6.
The Red Hat Security Response Team has rated this update as having critical security impact. Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) base score, which gives a detailed severity rating, is available for each vulnerability from the CVE link(s) associated with each description below.
Mozilla Firefox is an open source web browser. XULRunner provides the XUL Runtime environment for Mozilla Firefox.
A web page containing malicious content could cause Firefox to crash or, potentially, execute arbitrary code with the privileges of the user running Firefox. (CVE-2012-1970, CVE-2012-1972, CVE-2012-1973, CVE-2012-1974, CVE-2012-1975, CVE-2012-1976, CVE-2012-3956, CVE-2012-3957, CVE-2012-3958, CVE-2012-3959, CVE-2012-3960, CVE-2012-3961, CVE-2012-3962, CVE-2012-3963, CVE-2012-3964)

Security Fixes

CVE-2012-3969, CVE-2012-3970
A web page containing a malicious Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) image file could cause Firefox to crash or, potentially, execute arbitrary code with the privileges of the user running Firefox.
CVE-2012-3967, CVE-2012-3968
Two flaws were found in the way Firefox rendered certain images using WebGL. A web page containing malicious content could cause Firefox to crash or, under certain conditions, possibly execute arbitrary code with the privileges of the user running Firefox.
CVE-2012-3966
A flaw was found in the way Firefox decoded embedded bitmap images in Icon Format (ICO) files. A web page containing a malicious ICO file could cause Firefox to crash or, under certain conditions, possibly execute arbitrary code with the privileges of the user running Firefox. (CVE-2012-3966)
CVE-2012-3980
A flaw was found in the way the "eval" command was handled by the Firefox Web Console. Running "eval" in the Web Console while viewing a web page containing malicious content could possibly cause Firefox to execute arbitrary code with the privileges of the user running Firefox.
CVE-2012-3972
An out-of-bounds memory read flaw was found in the way Firefox used the format-number feature of XSLT (Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations). A web page containing malicious content could possibly cause an information leak, or cause Firefox to crash.
CVE-2012-3976
It was found that the SSL certificate information for a previously visited site could be displayed in the address bar while the main window displayed a new page. This could lead to phishing attacks as attackers could use this flaw to trick users into believing they are viewing a trusted site.
CVE-2012-3978
A flaw was found in the location object implementation in Firefox. Malicious content could use this flaw to possibly allow restricted content to be loaded.
For technical details regarding these flaws, refer to the Mozilla security advisories for Firefox 10.0.7 ESR.
Red Hat would like to thank the Mozilla project for reporting these issues. Upstream acknowledges Gary Kwong, Christian Holler, Jesse Ruderman, John Schoenick, Vladimir Vukicevic, Daniel Holbert, Abhishek Arya, Frédéric Hoguin, miaubiz, Arthur Gerkis, Nicolas Grégoire, Mark Poticha, moz_bug_r_a4, and Colby Russell as the original reporters of these issues.
All Firefox users should upgrade to these updated packages, which contain Firefox version 10.0.7 ESR, which corrects these issues. After installing the update, Firefox must be restarted for the changes to take effect.
Updated firefox packages that address security issues, fix bugs, add enhancements, and upgrade Firefox to version 10.0, are now available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and 6.
Mozilla Firefox is an open source web browser. XULRunner provides the XUL Runtime environment for Mozilla Firefox.
For technical details regarding these flaws, refer to the Mozilla security advisories for Firefox 10.0.
The firefox packages have been upgraded from version 3.6.26 to version 10.0.1, which provides a number of bug fixes and enhancements over the previous version. (BZ#789048, BZ#786872)
These updated firefox packages include numerous bug fixes and enhancements. Space precludes documenting these changes in this advisory. For details concerning these changes, refer to the Firefox release notes.

Bug Fix

BZ#794721, BZ#789051
Previously, with the xulrunner-5.0-2.el6 package installed, the yelp plug-in failed to start and returned the "Could not initialize gecko!" error message. Now, the updated yelp package has been provided and yelp works as expected in the described scenario.
Important: Firefox 10 is not completely backwards-compatible with all Mozilla add-ons and Firefox plug-ins that worked with Firefox 3.6. Firefox 10 checks compatibility on first-launch, and, depending on the individual configuration and the installed add-ons and plug-ins, may disable said Add-ons and plug-ins, or attempt to check for updates and upgrade them. Add-ons and plug-ins may have to be manually updated.
All Firefox users should upgrade to these updated packages, which contain Firefox version 10. After installing the update, Firefox must be restarted for the changes to take effect.
Updated firefox packages that fix multiple security issues and three bugs are now available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and 6.
The Red Hat Security Response Team has rated this update as having critical security impact. Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) base score, which gives a detailed severity rating, is available for each vulnerability from the CVE link(s) associated with each description below.
Mozilla Firefox is an open source web browser.
CVE-2012-0461, CVE-2012-0462, CVE-2012-0464
Several flaws were found in the processing of malformed web content. A web page containing malicious content could cause Firefox to crash or, potentially, execute arbitrary code with the privileges of the user running Firefox.
CVE-2012-0456, CVE-2012-0457
Two flaws were found in the way Firefox parsed certain Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) image files. A web page containing a malicious SVG image file could cause an information leak, or cause Firefox to crash or, potentially, execute arbitrary code with the privileges of the user running Firefox.
CVE-2012-0455
A flaw could allow a malicious site to bypass intended restrictions, possibly leading to a cross-site scripting (XSS) attack if a user were tricked into dropping a "javascript:" link onto a frame.
CVE-2012-0458
It was found that the home page could be set to a "javascript:" link. If a user were tricked into setting such a home page by dragging a link to the home button, it could cause Firefox to repeatedly crash, eventually leading to arbitrary code execution with the privileges of the user running Firefox.
CVE-2012-0459
A flaw was found in the way Firefox parsed certain web content containing "cssText". A web page containing malicious content could cause Firefox to crash or, potentially, execute arbitrary code with the privileges of the user running Firefox.
CVE-2012-0460
It was found that by using the DOM fullscreen API, untrusted content could bypass the mozRequestFullscreen security protections. A web page containing malicious web content could exploit this API flaw to cause user interface spoofing.
CVE-2012-0451
A flaw was found in the way Firefox handled pages with multiple Content Security Policy (CSP) headers. This could lead to a cross-site scripting attack if used in conjunction with a website that has a header injection flaw.
For technical details regarding these flaws, refer to the Mozilla security advisories for Firefox 10.0.3 ESR.

Bug Fixes

BZ#729632
When using the Traditional Chinese locale (zh-TW), a segmentation fault sometimes occurred when closing Firefox.
BZ#784048
Inputting any text in the Web Console (Tools -> Web Developer -> Web Console) caused Firefox to crash.
BZ#799042
The java-1.6.0-ibm-plugin and java-1.6.0-sun-plugin packages require the "/usr/lib/mozilla/plugins/" directory on 32-bit systems, and the "/usr/lib64/mozilla/plugins/" directory on 64-bit systems. These directories are created by the xulrunner package; however, they were missing from the xulrunner package provided by the RHEA-2012:0327 update. Therefore, upgrading to RHEA-2012:0327 removed those directories, causing dependency errors when attempting to install the java-1.6.0-ibm-plugin or java-1.6.0-sun-plugin package. With this update, xulrunner once again creates the plugins directory. This issue did not affect users of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
All Firefox users should upgrade to these updated packages, which contain Firefox version 10.0.3 ESR, which corrects these issues. After installing the update, Firefox must be restarted for the changes to take effect.
Updated firefox packages that fix multiple security issues are now available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and 6.
The Red Hat Security Response Team has rated this update as having critical security impact. Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) base score, which gives a detailed severity rating, is available for each vulnerability from the CVE link(s) associated with each description below.
Mozilla Firefox is an open source web browser. XULRunner provides the XUL Runtime environment for Mozilla Firefox.

Security Fixes

CVE-2011-3062
A flaw was found in Sanitiser for OpenType (OTS), used by Firefox to help prevent potential exploits in malformed OpenType fonts. A web page containing malicious content could cause Firefox to crash or, under certain conditions, possibly execute arbitrary code with the privileges of the user running Firefox.
CVE-2012-0467, CVE-2012-0468, CVE-2012-0469
A web page containing malicious content could cause Firefox to crash or, potentially, execute arbitrary code with the privileges of the user running Firefox.
CVE-2012-0470
A web page containing a malicious Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) image file could cause Firefox to crash or, potentially, execute arbitrary code with the privileges of the user running Firefox.
CVE-2012-0472
A flaw was found in the way Firefox used its embedded Cairo library to render certain fonts. A web page containing malicious content could cause Firefox to crash or, under certain conditions, possibly execute arbitrary code with the privileges of the user running Firefox.
CVE-2012-0478
A flaw was found in the way Firefox rendered certain images using WebGL. A web page containing malicious content could cause Firefox to crash or, under certain conditions, possibly execute arbitrary code with the privileges of the user running Firefox.
CVE-2012-0471
A cross-site scripting (XSS) flaw was found in the way Firefox handled certain multibyte character sets. A web page containing malicious content could cause Firefox to run JavaScript code with the permissions of a different website.
CVE-2012-0473
A flaw was found in the way Firefox rendered certain graphics using WebGL. A web page containing malicious content could cause Firefox to crash.
CVE-2012-0474
A flaw in Firefox allowed the address bar to display a different website than the one the user was visiting. An attacker could use this flaw to conceal a malicious URL, possibly tricking a user into believing they are viewing a trusted site, or allowing scripts to be loaded from the attacker's site, possibly leading to cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks.
CVE-2012-0477
A flaw was found in the way Firefox decoded the ISO-2022-KR and ISO-2022-CN character sets. A web page containing malicious content could cause Firefox to run JavaScript code with the permissions of a different website.
CVE-2012-0479
A flaw was found in the way Firefox handled RSS and Atom feeds. Invalid RSS or Atom content loaded over HTTPS caused Firefox to display the address of said content in the location bar, but not the content in the main window. The previous content continued to be displayed. An attacker could use this flaw to perform phishing attacks, or trick users into thinking they are visiting the site reported by the location bar, when the page is actually content controlled by an attacker.
For technical details regarding these flaws, refer to the Mozilla security advisories for Firefox 10.0.4 ESR.
Red Hat would like to thank the Mozilla project for reporting these issues. Upstream acknowledges Mateusz Jurczyk of the Google Security Team as the original reporter of CVE-2011-3062; Aki Helin from OUSPG as the original reporter of CVE-2012-0469; Atte Kettunen from OUSPG as the original reporter of CVE-2012-0470; wushi of team509 via iDefense as the original reporter of CVE-2012-0472; Ms2ger as the original reporter of CVE-2012-0478; Anne van Kesteren of Opera Software as the original reporter of CVE-2012-0471; Matias Juntunen as the original reporter of CVE-2012-0473; Jordi Chancel and Eddy Bordi, and Chris McGowen as the original reporters of CVE-2012-0474; Masato Kinugawa as the original reporter of CVE-2012-0477; and Jeroen van der Gun as the original reporter of CVE-2012-0479.
Updated firefox packages that fix multiple security issues are now available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and 6.
The Red Hat Security Response Team has rated this update as having critical security impact. Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) base score, which gives a detailed severity rating, is available for each vulnerability from the CVE link(s) associated with each description below.
Mozilla Firefox is an open source web browser. XULRunner provides the XUL Runtime environment for Mozilla Firefox.

Security Fixes

CVE-2011-3101, CVE-2012-1937, CVE-2012-1938, CVE-2012-1939, CVE-2012-1940, CVE-2012-1941, CVE-2012-1946, CVE-2012-1947
Several flaws were found in the processing of malformed web content. A web page containing malicious content could cause Firefox to crash or, potentially, execute arbitrary code with the privileges of the user running Firefox.
CVE-2012-1944
Note: CVE-2011-3101 only affected users of certain NVIDIA display drivers with graphics cards that have hardware acceleration enabled.
It was found that the Content Security Policy (CSP) implementation in Firefox no longer blocked Firefox inline event handlers. A remote attacker could use this flaw to possibly bypass a web application's intended restrictions, if that application relied on CSP to protect against flaws such as cross-site scripting (XSS).
CVE-2012-1945
If a web server hosted HTML files that are stored on a Microsoft Windows share, or a Samba share, loading such files with Firefox could result in Windows shortcut files (.lnk) in the same share also being loaded. An attacker could use this flaw to view the contents of local files and directories on the victim's system. This issue also affected users opening HTML files from Microsoft Windows shares, or Samba shares, that are mounted on their systems.
For technical details regarding these flaws, refer to the Mozilla security advisories for Firefox 10.0.5 ESR.
Red Hat would like to thank the Mozilla project for reporting these issues. Upstream acknowledges Ken Russell of Google as the original reporter of CVE-2011-3101; Igor Bukanov, Olli Pettay, Boris Zbarsky, and Jesse Ruderman as the original reporters of CVE-2012-1937; Jesse Ruderman, Igor Bukanov, Bill McCloskey, Christian Holler, Andrew McCreight, and Brian Bondy as the original reporters of CVE-2012-1938; Christian Holler as the original reporter of CVE-2012-1939; security researcher Abhishek Arya of Google as the original reporter of CVE-2012-1940, CVE-2012-1941, and CVE-2012-1947; security researcher Arthur Gerkis as the original reporter of CVE-2012-1946; security researcher Adam Barth as the original reporter of CVE-2012-1944; and security researcher Paul Stone as the original reporter of CVE-2012-1945.
All Firefox users should upgrade to these updated packages, which contain Firefox version 10.0.5 ESR, which corrects these issues. After installing the update, Firefox must be restarted for the changes to take effect.
Updated firefox packages that fix several security issues and one bug are now available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and 6.
The Red Hat Security Response Team has rated this update as having critical security impact. Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) base score, which gives a detailed severity rating, is available for each vulnerability from the CVE link(s) associated with each description below.
Mozilla Firefox is an open source web browser. XULRunner provides the XUL Runtime environment for Mozilla Firefox.

Security Fixes

CVE-2012-3982, CVE-2012-3988, CVE-2012-3990, CVE-2012-3995, CVE-2012-4179, CVE-2012-4180, CVE-2012-4181, CVE-2012-4182, CVE-2012-4183, CVE-2012-4185, CVE-2012-4186, CVE-2012-4187, CVE-2012-4188
Several flaws were found in the processing of malformed web content. A web page containing malicious content could cause Firefox to crash or, potentially, execute arbitrary code with the privileges of the user running Firefox.
CVE-2012-3986, CVE-2012-3991
Two flaws in Firefox could allow a malicious website to bypass intended restrictions, possibly leading to information disclosure, or Firefox executing arbitrary code. Note that the information disclosure issue could possibly be combined with other flaws to achieve arbitrary code execution.
CVE-2012-1956, CVE-2012-3992, CVE-2012-3994
Multiple flaws were found in the location object implementation in Firefox. Malicious content could be used to perform cross-site scripting attacks, script injection, or spoofing attacks.
CVE-2012-3993, CVE-2012-4184
Two flaws were found in the way Chrome Object Wrappers were implemented. Malicious content could be used to perform cross-site scripting attacks or cause Firefox to execute arbitrary code.
For technical details regarding these flaws, refer to the Mozilla security advisories for Firefox 10.0.8 ESR.
Red Hat would like to thank the Mozilla project for reporting these issues. Upstream acknowledges Christian Holler, Jesse Ruderman, Soroush Dalili, miaubiz, Abhishek Arya, Atte Kettunen, Johnny Stenback, Alice White, moz_bug_r_a4, and Mariusz Mlynski as the original reporters of these issues.

Bug Fix

BZ#809571, BZ#816234
In certain environments, storing personal Firefox configuration files (~/.mozilla/) on an NFS share, such as when your home directory is on a NFS share, led to Firefox functioning incorrectly, for example, navigation buttons not working as expected, and bookmarks not saving. This update adds a new configuration option, storage.nfs_filesystem, that can be used to resolve this issue.

If you experience this issue:

1) Start Firefox.
2) Type "about:config" (without quotes) into the URL bar and press the Enter key.
3) If prompted with "This might void your warranty!", click the "I'll be careful, I promise!" button.
4) Right-click in the Preference Name list. In the menu that opens, select New -> Boolean.
5) Type "storage.nfs_filesystem" (without quotes) for the preference name and then click the OK button.
6) Select "true" for the boolean value and then press the OK button.
All Firefox users should upgrade to these updated packages, which contain Firefox version 10.0.8 ESR, which corrects these issues. After installing the update, Firefox must be restarted for the changes to take effect.
Updated firefox packages that fix multiple security issues are now available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and 6.
The Red Hat Security Response Team has rated this update as having critical security impact. Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) base score, which gives a detailed severity rating, is available for each vulnerability from the CVE link(s) associated with each description below.
Mozilla Firefox is an open source web browser. XULRunner provides the XUL Runtime environment for Mozilla Firefox.

Security Fix

CVE-2012-4194, CVE-2012-4195, CVE-2012-4196
Multiple flaws were found in the location object implementation in Firefox. Malicious content could be used to perform cross-site scripting attacks, bypass the same-origin policy, or cause Firefox to execute arbitrary code.
For technical details regarding these flaws, refer to the Mozilla security advisories for Firefox 10.0.10 ESR.
Red Hat would like to thank the Mozilla project for reporting these issues. Upstream acknowledges Mariusz Mlynski, moz_bug_r_a4, and Antoine Delignat-Lavaud as the original reporters of these issues.
All Firefox users should upgrade to these updated packages, which contain Firefox version 10.0.10 ESR, which corrects these issues. After installing the update, Firefox must be restarted for the changes to take effect.
Updated firefox packages that fix several security issues are now available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and 6.
The Red Hat Security Response Team has rated this update as having critical security impact. Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) base score, which gives a detailed severity rating, is available for each vulnerability from the CVE link(s) associated with each description below.
Mozilla Firefox is an open source web browser. XULRunner provides the XUL Runtime environment for Mozilla Firefox.

Security Fixes

CVE-2012-4214, CVE-2012-4215, CVE-2012-4216, CVE-2012-5829, CVE-2012-5830, CVE-2012-5833, CVE-2012-5835, CVE-2012-5839, CVE-2012-5840, CVE-2012-5842
Several flaws were found in the processing of malformed web content. A web page containing malicious content could cause Firefox to crash or, potentially, execute arbitrary code with the privileges of the user running Firefox.
CVE-2012-4202
A buffer overflow flaw was found in the way Firefox handled GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) images. A web page containing a malicious GIF image could cause Firefox to crash or, possibly, execute arbitrary code with the privileges of the user running Firefox.
CVE-2012-4210
A flaw was found in the way the Style Inspector tool in Firefox handled certain Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). Running the tool (Tools -> Web Developer -> Inspect) on malicious CSS could result in the execution of HTML and CSS content with chrome privileges.
CVE-2012-4207
A flaw was found in the way Firefox decoded the HZ-GB-2312 character encoding. A web page containing malicious content could cause Firefox to run JavaScript code with the permissions of a different website.
CVE-2012-4209
A flaw was found in the location object implementation in Firefox. Malicious content could possibly use this flaw to allow restricted content to be loaded by plug-ins.
CVE-2012-5841
A flaw was found in the way cross-origin wrappers were implemented. Malicious content could use this flaw to perform cross-site scripting attacks.
CVE-2012-4201
A flaw was found in the evalInSandbox implementation in Firefox. Malicious content could use this flaw to perform cross-site scripting attacks.
For technical details regarding these flaws, refer to the Mozilla security advisories for Firefox 10.0.11 ESR.
Red Hat would like to thank the Mozilla project for reporting these issues. Upstream acknowledges Abhishek Arya, miaubiz, Jesse Ruderman, Andrew McCreight, Bob Clary, Kyle Huey, Atte Kettunen, Mariusz Mlynski, Masato Kinugawa, Bobby Holley, and moz_bug_r_a4 as the original reporters of these issues.
All Firefox users should upgrade to these updated packages, which contain Firefox version 10.0.11 ESR, which corrects these issues. After installing the update, Firefox must be restarted for the changes to take effect.
Updated firefox packages that fix multiple security issues are now available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and 6.
The Red Hat Security Response Team has rated this update as having critical security impact. Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) base score, which gives a detailed severity rating, is available for each vulnerability from the CVE link(s) associated with each description below.
Mozilla Firefox is an open source web browser. XULRunner provides the XUL Runtime environment for Mozilla Firefox.

Security Fixes

CVE-2012-1948, CVE-2012-1951, CVE-2012-1952, CVE-2012-1953, CVE-2012-1954, CVE-2012-1958, CVE-2012-1962, CVE-2012-1967
A web page containing malicious content could cause Firefox to crash or, potentially, execute arbitrary code with the privileges of the user running Firefox.
CVE-2012-1959
A malicious web page could bypass same-compartment security wrappers (SCSW) and execute arbitrary code with chrome privileges.
CVE-2012-1966
A flaw in the context menu functionality in Firefox could allow a malicious website to bypass intended restrictions and allow a cross-site scripting attack.
CVE-2012-1950
A page different to that in the address bar could be displayed when dragging and dropping to the address bar, possibly making it easier for a malicious site or user to perform a phishing attack.
CVE-2012-1955
A flaw in the way Firefox called history.forward and history.back could allow an attacker to conceal a malicious URL, possibly tricking a user into believing they are viewing a trusted site.
CVE-2012-1957
A flaw in a parser utility class used by Firefox to parse feeds (such as RSS) could allow an attacker to execute arbitrary JavaScript with the privileges of the user running Firefox. This issue could have affected other browser components or add-ons that assume the class returns sanitized input.
CVE-2012-1961
A flaw in the way Firefox handled X-Frame-Options headers could allow a malicious website to perform a clickjacking attack.
CVE-2012-1963
A flaw in the way Content Security Policy (CSP) reports were generated by Firefox could allow a malicious web page to steal a victim's OAuth 2.0 access tokens and OpenID credentials.
CVE-2012-1964
A flaw in the way Firefox handled certificate warnings could allow a man-in-the-middle attacker to create a crafted warning, possibly tricking a user into accepting an arbitrary certificate as trusted.
CVE-2012-1965
A flaw in the way Firefox handled feed:javascript URLs could allow output filtering to be bypassed, possibly leading to a cross-site scripting attack.

Bug Fix

BZ#838879
The nss update RHBA-2012:0337 for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and 6 introduced a mitigation for the CVE-2011-3389 flaw. For compatibility reasons, it remains disabled by default in the nss packages. This update makes Firefox enable the mitigation by default. It can be disabled by setting the NSS_SSL_CBC_RANDOM_IV environment variable to 0 before launching Firefox.
For technical details regarding these flaws, refer to the Mozilla security advisories for Firefox 10.0.6 ESR.
Red Hat would like to thank the Mozilla project for reporting these issues. Upstream acknowledges Benoit Jacob, Jesse Ruderman, Christian Holler, Bill McCloskey, Abhishek Arya, Arthur Gerkis, Bill Keese, moz_bug_r_a4, Bobby Holley, Code Audit Labs, Mariusz Mlynski, Mario Heiderich, Frédéric Buclin, Karthikeyan Bhargavan, Matt McCutchen, Mario Gomes, and Soroush Dalili as the original reporters of these issues.
All Firefox users should upgrade to these updated packages, which contain Firefox version 10.0.6 ESR, which corrects these issues. After installing the update, Firefox must be restarted for the changes to take effect.