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2.6. Internationalization

This section includes information on language support under Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.
Input Methods
SCIM (Smart Common Input Method) has replaced IIIMF as the input method system for Asian and other languages in this release. The default GTK Input Method Module for SCIM is provided by scim-bridge; in Qt, it is provided by scim-qtimm.
Below are the default trigger hotkeys for different languages:
  • All languages: Ctrl-Space
  • Japanese: Zenkaku-Hankaku or Alt-`
  • Korean: Shift-Space
If SCIM is installed, it runs by default for all users.
After installing or removing SCIM engine packages, it is recommended to start a new desktop session in order for the changes to be reflected in the SCIM language menu.
Language Installation
To enable additional language support for some Asian languages, you need to install the necessary language support packages. Below is a list of these languages and the command you need to run (as root) to install their corresponding language support packages:
  • Assamese — yum install fonts-bengali m17n-db-assamese scim-m17n
  • Bengali — yum install fonts-bengali m17n-db-bengali scim-m17n
  • Chinese — yum install fonts-chinese scim-chewing scim-pinyin scim-tables-chinese
  • Gujarati — yum install fonts-gujarati m17n-db-gujarati scim-m17n
  • Hindi — yum install fonts-hindi m17n-db-hindi scim-m17n
  • Japanese — yum install fonts-japanese scim-anthy
  • Kannada — yum install fonts-kannada m17n-db-kannada scim-m17n
  • Korean — yum install fonts-korean scim-hangul
  • Malayalam — yum install fonts-malayalam m17n-db-malayalam scim-m17n
  • Marathi — yum install fonts-hindi m17n-db-marathi scim-m17n
  • Oriya — yum install fonts-oriya m17n-db-oriya scim-m17n
  • Punjabi — yum install fonts-punjabi m17n-db-punjabi scim-m17n
  • Sinhala — yum install fonts-sinhala m17n-db-sinhala scim-m17n
  • Tamil — yum install fonts-tamil m17n-db-tamil scim-m17n
  • Telugu — yum install fonts-telugu m17n-db-telugu scim-m17n
It is also recommended that you install scim-bridge-gtk and scim-qtimm when enabling additional language support. The scim-bridge-gtk package prevents possible binary conflicts with third-party applications linked against older versions of libstdc++.
Note that additional language support packs are also available for OpenOffice (openoffice.org-langpack-<language code>_<locale>) and KDE (kde-i18n-<language>). These packages can also be installed through yum.
im-chooser
A new user configuration tool called im-chooser has been added, which allows you to easily disable or enable the usage of input methods on your desktop. So if SCIM is installed but you do not wish to run it on your desktop, you can disable it using im-chooser.
xinputrc
At X startup, xinput.sh now sources ~/.xinputrc or /etc/X11/xinit/xinputrc instead of searching config files under ~/.xinput.d/ or /etc/xinit/xinput.d/.
Pango Support in Firefox
Firefox in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 is built with Pango, which provides better support for certain scripts, such as Indic and some CJK scripts.
To disable the use of Pango, set MOZ_DISABLE_PANGO=1 in your environment before launching Firefox.
Fonts
Support is now available for synthetic emboldening of fonts that do not have a bold face.
New fonts for Chinese have been added: AR PL ShanHeiSun Uni (uming.ttf) and AR PL ZenKai Uni (ukai.ttf). The default font is AR PL ShanHeiSun Uni, which contains embedded bitmaps. If you prefer outline glyphs, add the following section to your ~/.font.conf file:
<fontconfig>
  <match target="font">
    <test name="family" compare="eq">
      <string>AR PL ShanHeiSun Uni</string>
    </test>
    <edit name="embeddedbitmap" mode="assign">
      <bool>false</bool>
    </edit>
  </match>
</fontconfig>
gtk2 IM submenu
The Gtk2 context menu IM submenu no longer appears by default. You can enable it on the command line with the following command:
gconftool-2 --type bool --set '/desktop/gnome/interface/show_input_method_menu' true
Support for text installation on CJK
CJK (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean) rendering support has been removed from the Anaconda text installation. The text installation method is being deprecated in the long term, as the GUI installation, VNC and kickstart methods are preferred.
gtk+ deprecation
The following packages are deprecated and scheduled for removal in Red Hat Enterprise Linux:
  • gtk+
  • gdk-pixbuf
  • glib
These packages are being deprecated in favor of the gtk2 stack, which offers better functionality particularly in terms of internationalization and font handling.
CJK input on console
If you need to display Chinese, Japanese, or Korean text on the console, you need to set up a framebuffer; afterwards, install bogl-bterm, and run bterm on the framebuffer.