A UPG is created whenever a new user is added to the system. A UPG has the same name as the user for which it was created and that user is the only member of the UPG.
UPGs make it safe to set default permissions for a newly created file or directory which allow both the user and that user's group to make modifications to the file or directory.
The setting which determines what permissions are applied to a newly created file or directory is called a umask and is configured in the
/etc/bashrc file. Traditionally on UNIX systems, the
umask is set to
022, which allows only the user who created the file or directory to make modifications. Under this scheme, all other users, including members of the creator's group, are not allowed to make any modifications. However, under the UPG scheme, this "group protection" is not necessary since every user has their own private group.
Many IT organizations like to create a group for each major project and then assign people to the group if they need to access that project's files. Using this traditional scheme, managing files has been difficult; when someone creates a file, it is associated with the primary group to which they belong. When a single person works on multiple projects, it is difficult to associate the right files with the right group. Using the UPG scheme, however, groups are automatically assigned to files created within a directory with the setgid bit set. The setgid bit makes managing group projects that share a common directory very simple because any files a user creates within the directory are owned by the group which owns the directory.
Lets say, for example, that a group of people work on files in the
/usr/lib/emacs/site-lisp/ directory. Some people are trusted to modify the directory, but certainly not everyone is trusted. First create an
emacs group, as in the following command:
To associate the contents of the directory with the
emacs group, type:
chown -R root.emacs
Now, it is possible to add the proper users to the group with the
/usr/bin/gpasswd -a <username> emacs
To allow users to create files within the directory, use the following command:
When a user creates a new file, it is assigned the group of the user's default private group. Next, set the setgid bit, which assigns everything created in the directory the same group permission as the directory itself (
emacs). Use the following command:
chmod 2775 /usr/lib/emacs/site-lisp
At this point, because each user's default umask is 002, all members of the
emacs group can create and edit files in the
/usr/lib/emacs/site-lisp/ directory without the administrator having to change file permissions every time users write new files.