220.127.116.11. Access Control
Access control is one area where file systems differ dramatically. Some file systems have no clear-cut access control model, while others are much more sophisticated. In general terms, most modern day file systems combine two components into a cohesive access control methodology:
- User identification
- Permitted action list
User identification means that the file system (and the underlying operating system) must first be capable of uniquely identifying individual users. This makes it possible to have full accountability with respect to any operations on the file system level. Another often-helpful feature is that of user groups -- creating ad-hoc collections of users. Groups are most often used by organizations where users may be members of one or more projects. Another feature that some file systems support is the creation of generic identifiers that can be assigned to one or more users.
Next, the file system must be capable of maintaining lists of actions that are permitted (or not permitted) against each file. The most commonly-tracked actions are:
- Reading the file
- Writing the file
- Executing the file
Various file systems may extend the list to include other actions such as deleting, or even the ability to make changes related to a file's access control.