6.3. Red Hat Enterprise Linux-Specific Information
The following sections describe the various features specific to Red Hat Enterprise Linux that relate to the administration of user accounts and associated resources.
6.3.1. User Accounts, Groups, and Permissions
Under Red Hat Enterprise Linux, a user can log into the system and use any applications or files they are permitted to access after a normal user account is created. Red Hat Enterprise Linux determines whether or not a user or group can access these resources based on the permissions assigned to them.
There are three different permissions for files, directories, and applications. These permissions are used to control the kinds of access allowed. Different one-character symbols are used to describe each permission in a directory listing. The following symbols are used:
r— Indicates that a given category of user can read a file.
w— Indicates that a given category of user can write to a file.
x— Indicates that a given category of user can execute the contents of a file.
A fourth symbol (
-) indicates that no access is permitted.
Each of the three permissions are assigned to three different categories of users. The categories are:
- owner — The owner of the file or application.
- group — The group that owns the file or application.
- everyone — All users with access to the system.
As stated earlier, it is possible to view the permissions for a file by invoking a long format listing with the command
ls -l. For example, if the user
juan creates an executable file named
foo, the output of the command
ls -l foo would appear like this:
-rwxrwxr-x 1 juan juan 0 Sep 26 12:25 foo
The permissions for this file are listed at the start of the line, beginning with
rwx. This first set of symbols define owner access — in this example, the owner
juan has full access, and may read, write, and execute the file. The next set of
rwx symbols define group access (again, with full access), while the last set of symbols define the types of access permitted for all other users. Here, all other users may read and execute the file, but may not modify it in any way.
One important point to keep in mind regarding permissions and user accounts is that every application run on Red Hat Enterprise Linux runs in the context of a specific user. Typically, this means that if user
juan launches an application, the application runs using user
juan's context. However, in some cases the application may need a more privileged level of access in order to accomplish a task. Such applications include those that edit system settings or log in users. For this reason, special permissions have been created.
There are three such special permissions within Red Hat Enterprise Linux. They are:
- setuid — used only for binary files (applications), this permission indicates that the file is to be executed with the permissions of the owner of the file, and not with the permissions of the user executing the file (which is the case without setuid). This is indicated by the character
sin the place of the
xin the owner category. If the owner of the file does not have execute permissions, a capital
Sreflects this fact.
- setgid — used primarily for binary files (applications), this permission indicates that the file is executed with the permissions of the group owning the file and not with the permissions of the group of the user executing the file (which is the case without setgid).If applied to a directory, all files created within the directory are owned by the group owning the directory, and not by the group of the user creating the file. The setgid permission is indicated by the character
sin place of the
xin the group category. If the group owning the file or directory does not have execute permissions, a capital
Sreflects this fact.
- sticky bit — used primarily on directories, this bit dictates that a file created in the directory can be removed only by the user that created the file. It is indicated by the character
tin place of the
xin the everyone category. If the everyone category does not have execute permissions, the
Tis capitalized to reflect this fact.Under Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the sticky bit is set by default on the
/tmp/directory for exactly this reason.
22.214.171.124. Usernames and UIDs, Groups and GIDs
In Red Hat Enterprise Linux, user account and group names are primarily for peoples' convenience. Internally, the system uses numeric identifiers. For users, this identifier is known as a UID, while for groups the identifier is known as a GID. Programs that make user or group information available to users translate the UID/GID values into their more human-readable counterparts.
UIDs and GIDs must be globally unique within your organization if you intend to share files and resources over a network. Otherwise, whatever access controls you put in place may fail to work properly, as they are based on UIDs and GIDs, not usernames and group names.
Specifically, if the
/etc/group files on a file server and a user's workstation differ in the UIDs or GIDs they contain, improper application of permissions can lead to security issues.
For example, if user
juan has a UID of 500 on a desktop computer, files
juan creates on a file server will be created with owner UID 500. However, if user
bob logs in locally to the file server (or even some other computer), and
bob's account also has a UID of 500,
bob will have full access to
juan's files, and vice versa.
Therefore, UID and GID collisions are to be avoided at all costs.
There are two instances where the actual numeric value of a UID or GID has any specific meaning. A UID and GID of zero (0) are used for the
root user, and are treated specially by Red Hat Enterprise Linux — all access is automatically granted.
The second instance is that UIDs and GIDs below 500 are reserved for system use. Unlike UID/GID zero (0), UIDs and GIDs below 500 are not treated specially by Red Hat Enterprise Linux. However, these UIDs/GIDs are never to be assigned to a user, as it is likely that some system component either currently uses or will use these UIDs/GIDs at some point in the future. For more information on these standard users and groups, see the chapter titled Users and Groups in the Reference Guide.
When new user accounts are added using the standard Red Hat Enterprise Linux user creation tools, the new user accounts are assigned the first available UID and GID starting at 500. The next new user account is assigned UID/GID 501, followed by UID/GID 502, and so on.
A brief overview of the various user creation tools available under Red Hat Enterprise Linux occurs later in this chapter. But before reviewing these tools, the next section reviews the files Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses to define system accounts and groups.