Chapter 6. Other methods for creating and executing DRL rules

As an alternative to creating and managing DRL rules within the Business Central interface, you can create DRL rule files externally as part of a Maven or Java project using Red Hat CodeReady Studio or another integrated development environment (IDE). These standalone projects can then be integrated as knowledge JAR (KJAR) dependencies in existing Red Hat Decision Manager projects in Business Central. The DRL files in your standalone project must contain at a minimum the required package specification, import lists, and rule definitions. Any other DRL components, such as global variables and functions, are optional. All data objects related to a DRL rule must be included with your standalone DRL project or deployment.

You can also use executable rule models in your Maven or Java projects to provide a Java-based representation of a rule set for execution at build time. The executable model is a more efficient alternative to the standard asset packaging in Red Hat Decision Manager and enables KIE containers and KIE bases to be created more quickly, especially when you have large lists of DRL (Drools Rule Language) files and other Red Hat Decision Manager assets.

6.1. Creating and executing DRL rules in Red Hat CodeReady Studio

You can use Red Hat CodeReady Studio to create DRL files with rules and integrate the files with your Red Hat Decision Manager decision service. This method of creating DRL rules is helpful if you already use Red Hat CodeReady Studio for your decision service and want to continue with the same workflow. If you do not already use this method, then the Business Central interface of Red Hat Decision Manager is recommended for creating DRL files and other rule assets.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. In the Red Hat CodeReady Studio, click FileNewProject.
  2. In the New Project window that opens, select DroolsDrools Project and click Next.
  3. Click the second icon to Create a project and populate it with some example files to help you get started quickly. Click Next.
  4. Enter a Project name and select the Maven radio button as the project building option. The GAV values are generated automatically. You can update these values as needed for your project:

    • Group ID: com.sample
    • Artifact ID: my-project
    • Version: 1.0.0-SNAPSHOT
  5. Click Finish to create the project.

    This configuration sets up a basic project structure, class path, and sample rules. The following is an overview of the project structure:

    my-project
     `-- src/main/java
        | `-- com.sample
        |    `-- DecisionTableTest.java
        |    `-- DroolsTest.java
        |    `-- ProcessTest.java
        |
     `-- src/main/resources
        | `-- dtables
        |    `-- Sample.xls
        | `-- process
        |    `-- sample.bpmn
        | `-- rules
        |    `-- Sample.drl
        | `-- META-INF
        |
     `-- JRE System Library
        |
     `-- Maven Dependencies
        |
     `-- Drools Library
        |
     `-- src
        |
     `-- target
        |
     `-- pom.xml

    Notice the following elements:

    • A Sample.drl rule file in the src/main/resources directory, containing an example Hello World and GoodBye rules.
    • A DroolsTest.java file under the src/main/java directory in the com.sample package. The DroolsTest class can be used to execute the Sample.drl rule.
    • The Drools Library directory, which acts as a custom class path containing JAR files necessary for execution.

    You can edit the existing Sample.drl file and DroolsTest.java files with new configurations as needed, or create new rule and object files. In this procedure, you are creating a new rule and new Java objects.

  6. Create a Java object on which the rule or rules will operate.

    In this example, a Person.java file is created in my-project/src/main/java/com.sample. The Person class contains getter and setter methods to set and retrieve the first name, last name, hourly rate, and the wage of a person:

      public class Person {
        private String firstName;
        private String lastName;
        private Integer hourlyRate;
        private Integer wage;
    
        public String getFirstName() {
          return firstName;
        }
    
        public void setFirstName(String firstName) {
          this.firstName = firstName;
        }
    
        public String getLastName() {
          return lastName;
        }
    
        public void setLastName(String lastName) {
          this.lastName = lastName;
        }
    
        public Integer getHourlyRate() {
          return hourlyRate;
        }
    
        public void setHourlyRate(Integer hourlyRate) {
          this.hourlyRate = hourlyRate;
        }
    
        public Integer getWage(){
          return wage;
        }
    
        public void setWage(Integer wage){
          this.wage = wage;
        }
      }
  7. Click FileSave to save the file.
  8. Create a rule file in .drl format in my-project/src/main/resources/rules. The DRL file must contain at a minimum a package specification, an import list of data objects to be used by the rule or rules, and one or more rules with when conditions and then actions.

    The following Wage.drl file contains a Wage rule that imports the Person class, calculates the wage and hourly rate values, and displays a message based on the result:

    package com.sample;
    
    import com.sample.Person;
    
    dialect "java"
    
    rule "Wage"
      when
        Person(hourlyRate * wage > 100)
        Person(name : firstName, surname : lastName)
      then
        System.out.println("Hello" + " " + name + " " + surname + "!");
        System.out.println("You are rich!");
    end
  9. Click FileSave to save the file.
  10. Create a main class and save it to the same directory as the Java object that you created. The main class will load the KIE base and execute rules.

    Note

    You can also add the main() method and Person class within a single Java object file, similar to the DroolsTest.java sample file.

  11. In the main class, add the required import statements to import KIE services, a KIE container, and a KIE session. Then load the KIE base, insert facts, and execute the rule from the main() method that passes the fact model to the rule.

    In this example, a RulesTest.java file is created in my-project/src/main/java/com.sample with the required imports and main() method:

    package com.sample;
    
    import org.kie.api.KieServices;
    import org.kie.api.runtime.KieContainer;
    import org.kie.api.runtime.KieSession;
    
    public class RulesTest {
      public static final void main(String[] args) {
        try {
          // Load the KIE base:
          KieServices ks = KieServices.Factory.get();
          KieContainer kContainer = ks.getKieClasspathContainer();
          KieSession kSession = kContainer.newKieSession();
    
          // Set up the fact model:
          Person p = new Person();
          p.setWage(12);
          p.setFirstName("Tom");
          p.setLastName("Summers");
          p.setHourlyRate(10);
    
          // Insert the person into the session:
          kSession.insert(p);
    
          // Fire all rules:
          kSession.fireAllRules();
          kSession.dispose();
        }
    
        catch (Throwable t) {
          t.printStackTrace();
        }
      }
    }
  12. Click FileSave to save the file.
  13. After you create and save all DRL assets in your project, right-click your project folder and select Run AsJava Application to build the project. If the project build fails, address any problems described in the Problems tab of the lower window in CodeReady Studio, and try again to validate the project until the project builds.
If the Run AsJava Application option is not available

If Java Application is not an option when you right-click your project and select Run As, then go to Run AsRun Configurations, right-click Java Application, and click New. Then in the Main tab, browse for and select your Project and the associated Main class. Click Apply and then click Run to test the project. The next time you right-click your project folder, the Java Application option will appear.

To integrate the new rule assets with an existing project in Red Hat Decision Manager, you can compile the new project as a knowledge JAR (KJAR) and add it as a dependency in the pom.xml file of the project in Business Central. To access the project pom.xml file in Business Central, you can select any existing asset in the project and then in the Project Explorer menu on the left side of the screen, click the Customize View gear icon and select Repository Viewpom.xml.

6.2. Creating and executing DRL rules using Java

You can use Java objects to create DRL files with rules and integrate the objects with your Red Hat Decision Manager decision service. This method of creating DRL rules is helpful if you already use external Java objects for your decision service and want to continue with the same workflow. If you do not already use this method, then the Business Central interface of Red Hat Decision Manager is recommended for creating DRL files and other rule assets.

Procedure

  1. Create a Java object on which the rule or rules will operate.

    In this example, a Person.java file is created in a directory my-project. The Person class contains getter and setter methods to set and retrieve the first name, last name, hourly rate, and the wage of a person:

      public class Person {
        private String firstName;
        private String lastName;
        private Integer hourlyRate;
        private Integer wage;
    
        public String getFirstName() {
          return firstName;
        }
    
        public void setFirstName(String firstName) {
          this.firstName = firstName;
        }
    
        public String getLastName() {
          return lastName;
        }
    
        public void setLastName(String lastName) {
          this.lastName = lastName;
        }
    
        public Integer getHourlyRate() {
          return hourlyRate;
        }
    
        public void setHourlyRate(Integer hourlyRate) {
          this.hourlyRate = hourlyRate;
        }
    
        public Integer getWage(){
          return wage;
        }
    
        public void setWage(Integer wage){
          this.wage = wage;
        }
      }
  2. Create a rule file in .drl format under the my-project directory. The DRL file must contain at a minimum a package specification (if applicable), an import list of data objects to be used by the rule or rules, and one or more rules with when conditions and then actions.

    The following Wage.drl file contains a Wage rule that calculates the wage and hourly rate values and displays a message based on the result:

    package com.sample;
    
    import com.sample.Person;
    
    dialect "java"
    
    rule "Wage"
      when
        Person(hourlyRate * wage > 100)
        Person(name : firstName, surname : lastName)
      then
        System.out.println("Hello" + " " + name + " " + surname + "!");
        System.out.println("You are rich!");
    end
  3. Create a main class and save it to the same directory as the Java object that you created. The main class will load the KIE base and execute rules.
  4. In the main class, add the required import statements to import KIE services, a KIE container, and a KIE session. Then load the KIE base, insert facts, and execute the rule from the main() method that passes the fact model to the rule.

    In this example, a RulesTest.java file is created in my-project with the required imports and main() method:

    import org.kie.api.KieServices;
    import org.kie.api.runtime.KieContainer;
    import org.kie.api.runtime.KieSession;
    
    public class RulesTest {
      public static final void main(String[] args) {
        try {
          // Load the KIE base:
          KieServices ks = KieServices.Factory.get();
          KieContainer kContainer = ks.getKieClasspathContainer();
          KieSession kSession = kContainer.newKieSession();
    
          // Set up the fact model:
          Person p = new Person();
          p.setWage(12);
          p.setFirstName("Tom");
          p.setLastName("Summers");
          p.setHourlyRate(10);
    
          // Insert the person into the session:
          kSession.insert(p);
    
          // Fire all rules:
          kSession.fireAllRules();
          kSession.dispose();
        }
    
        catch (Throwable t) {
          t.printStackTrace();
        }
      }
    }
  5. Download the Red Hat Decision Manager 7.8.0 Source Distribution ZIP file from the Red Hat Customer Portal and extract it under my-project/dm-engine-jars/.
  6. In the my-project/META-INF directory, create a kmodule.xml metadata file with the following content:

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <kmodule xmlns="http://www.drools.org/xsd/kmodule">
    </kmodule>

    This kmodule.xml file is a KIE module descriptor that selects resources to KIE bases and configures sessions. This file enables you to define and configure one or more KIE bases, and to include DRL files from specific packages in a specific KIE base. You can also create one or more KIE sessions from each KIE base.

    The following example shows a more advanced kmodule.xml file:

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <kmodule xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.drools.org/xsd/kmodule">
      <kbase name="KBase1" default="true" eventProcessingMode="cloud" equalsBehavior="equality" declarativeAgenda="enabled" packages="org.domain.pkg1">
        <ksession name="KSession1_1" type="stateful" default="true" />
        <ksession name="KSession1_2" type="stateful" default="true" beliefSystem="jtms" />
      </kbase>
      <kbase name="KBase2" default="false" eventProcessingMode="stream" equalsBehavior="equality" declarativeAgenda="enabled" packages="org.domain.pkg2, org.domain.pkg3" includes="KBase1">
        <ksession name="KSession2_1" type="stateless" default="true" clockType="realtime">
          <fileLogger file="debugInfo" threaded="true" interval="10" />
          <workItemHandlers>
            <workItemHandler name="name" type="new org.domain.WorkItemHandler()" />
          </workItemHandlers>
          <listeners>
            <ruleRuntimeEventListener type="org.domain.RuleRuntimeListener" />
            <agendaEventListener type="org.domain.FirstAgendaListener" />
            <agendaEventListener type="org.domain.SecondAgendaListener" />
            <processEventListener type="org.domain.ProcessListener" />
          </listeners>
        </ksession>
      </kbase>
    </kmodule>

    This example defines two KIE bases. Two KIE sessions are instantiated from the KBase1 KIE base, and one KIE session from KBase2. The KIE session from KBase2 is a stateless KIE session, which means that data from a previous invocation of the KIE session (the previous session state) is discarded between session invocations. Specific packages of rule assets are included with both KIE bases. When you specify packages in this way, you must organize your DRL files in a folder structure that reflects the specified packages.

  7. After you create and save all DRL assets in your Java object, navigate to the my-project directory in the command line and run the following command to build your Java files. Replace RulesTest.java with the name of your Java main class.

    javac -classpath "./dm-engine-jars/*:." RulesTest.java

    If the build fails, address any problems described in the command line error messages and try again to validate the Java object until the object passes.

  8. After your Java files build successfully, run the following command to execute the rules locally. Replace RulesTest with the prefix of your Java main class.

    java -classpath "./dm-engine-jars/*:." RulesTest
  9. Review the rules to ensure that they executed properly, and address any needed changes in the Java files.

To integrate the new rule assets with an existing project in Red Hat Decision Manager, you can compile the new Java project as a knowledge JAR (KJAR) and add it as a dependency in the pom.xml file of the project in Business Central. To access the project pom.xml file in Business Central, you can select any existing asset in the project and then in the Project Explorer menu on the left side of the screen, click the Customize View gear icon and select Repository Viewpom.xml.

6.3. Creating and executing DRL rules using Maven

You can use Maven archetypes to create DRL files with rules and integrate the archetypes with your Red Hat Decision Manager decision service. This method of creating DRL rules is helpful if you already use external Maven archetypes for your decision service and want to continue with the same workflow. If you do not already use this method, then the Business Central interface of Red Hat Decision Manager is recommended for creating DRL files and other rule assets.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to a directory where you want to create a Maven archetype and run the following command:

    mvn archetype:generate -DgroupId=com.sample.app -DartifactId=my-app -DarchetypeArtifactId=maven-archetype-quickstart -DinteractiveMode=false

    This creates a directory my-app with the following structure:

    my-app
    |-- pom.xml
    `-- src
        |-- main
        |   `-- java
        |       `-- com
        |           `-- sample
        |               `-- app
        |                   `-- App.java
        `-- test
            `-- java
                `-- com
                    `-- sample
                        `-- app
                            `-- AppTest.java

    The my-app directory contains the following key components:

    • A src/main directory for storing the application sources
    • A src/test directory for storing the test sources
    • A pom.xml file with the project configuration
  2. Create a Java object on which the rule or rules will operate within the Maven archetype.

    In this example, a Person.java file is created in the directory my-app/src/main/java/com/sample/app. The Person class contains getter and setter methods to set and retrieve the first name, last name, hourly rate, and the wage of a person:

    package com.sample.app;
    
      public class Person {
    
        private String firstName;
        private String lastName;
        private Integer hourlyRate;
        private Integer wage;
    
        public String getFirstName() {
          return firstName;
        }
    
        public void setFirstName(String firstName) {
          this.firstName = firstName;
        }
    
        public String getLastName() {
          return lastName;
        }
    
        public void setLastName(String lastName) {
          this.lastName = lastName;
        }
    
        public Integer getHourlyRate() {
          return hourlyRate;
        }
    
        public void setHourlyRate(Integer hourlyRate) {
          this.hourlyRate = hourlyRate;
        }
    
        public Integer getWage(){
          return wage;
        }
    
        public void setWage(Integer wage){
          this.wage = wage;
        }
      }
  3. Create a rule file in .drl format in my-app/src/main/resources/rules. The DRL file must contain at a minimum a package specification, an import list of data objects to be used by the rule or rules, and one or more rules with when conditions and then actions.

    The following Wage.drl file contains a Wage rule that imports the Person class, calculates the wage and hourly rate values, and displays a message based on the result:

    package com.sample.app;
    
    import com.sample.app.Person;
    
    dialect "java"
    
    rule "Wage"
      when
        Person(hourlyRate * wage > 100)
        Person(name : firstName, surname : lastName)
      then
        System.out.println("Hello " + name + " " + surname + "!");
        System.out.println("You are rich!");
    end
  4. In the my-app/src/main/resources/META-INF directory, create a kmodule.xml metadata file with the following content:

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <kmodule xmlns="http://www.drools.org/xsd/kmodule">
    </kmodule>

    This kmodule.xml file is a KIE module descriptor that selects resources to KIE bases and configures sessions. This file enables you to define and configure one or more KIE bases, and to include DRL files from specific packages in a specific KIE base. You can also create one or more KIE sessions from each KIE base.

    The following example shows a more advanced kmodule.xml file:

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <kmodule xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.drools.org/xsd/kmodule">
      <kbase name="KBase1" default="true" eventProcessingMode="cloud" equalsBehavior="equality" declarativeAgenda="enabled" packages="org.domain.pkg1">
        <ksession name="KSession1_1" type="stateful" default="true" />
        <ksession name="KSession1_2" type="stateful" default="true" beliefSystem="jtms" />
      </kbase>
      <kbase name="KBase2" default="false" eventProcessingMode="stream" equalsBehavior="equality" declarativeAgenda="enabled" packages="org.domain.pkg2, org.domain.pkg3" includes="KBase1">
        <ksession name="KSession2_1" type="stateless" default="true" clockType="realtime">
          <fileLogger file="debugInfo" threaded="true" interval="10" />
          <workItemHandlers>
            <workItemHandler name="name" type="new org.domain.WorkItemHandler()" />
          </workItemHandlers>
          <listeners>
            <ruleRuntimeEventListener type="org.domain.RuleRuntimeListener" />
            <agendaEventListener type="org.domain.FirstAgendaListener" />
            <agendaEventListener type="org.domain.SecondAgendaListener" />
            <processEventListener type="org.domain.ProcessListener" />
          </listeners>
        </ksession>
      </kbase>
    </kmodule>

    This example defines two KIE bases. Two KIE sessions are instantiated from the KBase1 KIE base, and one KIE session from KBase2. The KIE session from KBase2 is a stateless KIE session, which means that data from a previous invocation of the KIE session (the previous session state) is discarded between session invocations. Specific packages of rule assets are included with both KIE bases. When you specify packages in this way, you must organize your DRL files in a folder structure that reflects the specified packages.

  5. In the my-app/pom.xml configuration file, specify the libraries that your application requires. Provide the Red Hat Decision Manager dependencies as well as the group ID, artifact ID, and version (GAV) of your application.

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    <groupId>com.sample.app</groupId>
    <artifactId>my-app</artifactId>
    <version>1.0.0</version>
    <repositories>
      <repository>
        <id>jboss-ga-repository</id>
        <url>http://maven.repository.redhat.com/ga/</url>
      </repository>
    </repositories>
    <dependencies>
      <dependency>
        <groupId>org.drools</groupId>
        <artifactId>drools-compiler</artifactId>
        <version>VERSION</version>
      </dependency>
      <dependency>
        <groupId>org.kie</groupId>
        <artifactId>kie-api</artifactId>
        <version>VERSION</version>
      </dependency>
      <dependency>
        <groupId>junit</groupId>
        <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
        <version>4.11</version>
        <scope>test</scope>
      </dependency>
    </dependencies>
    </project>

    For information about Maven dependencies and the BOM (Bill of Materials) in Red Hat Decision Manager, see What is the mapping between Red Hat Decision Manager and Maven library version?.

  6. Use the testApp method in my-app/src/test/java/com/sample/app/AppTest.java to test the rule. The AppTest.java file is created by Maven by default.
  7. In the AppTest.java file, add the required import statements to import KIE services, a KIE container, and a KIE session. Then load the KIE base, insert facts, and execute the rule from the testApp() method that passes the fact model to the rule.

    import org.kie.api.KieServices;
    import org.kie.api.runtime.KieContainer;
    import org.kie.api.runtime.KieSession;
    
    public void testApp() {
    
      // Load the KIE base:
      KieServices ks = KieServices.Factory.get();
      KieContainer kContainer = ks.getKieClasspathContainer();
      KieSession kSession = kContainer.newKieSession();
    
      // Set up the fact model:
      Person p = new Person();
      p.setWage(12);
      p.setFirstName("Tom");
      p.setLastName("Summers");
      p.setHourlyRate(10);
    
      // Insert the person into the session:
      kSession.insert(p);
    
      // Fire all rules:
      kSession.fireAllRules();
      kSession.dispose();
    }
  8. After you create and save all DRL assets in your Maven archetype, navigate to the my-app directory in the command line and run the following command to build your files:

    mvn clean install

    If the build fails, address any problems described in the command line error messages and try again to validate the files until the build is successful.

  9. After your files build successfully, run the following command to execute the rules locally. Replace com.sample.app with your package name.

    mvn exec:java -Dexec.mainClass="com.sample.app"
  10. Review the rules to ensure that they executed properly, and address any needed changes in the files.

To integrate the new rule assets with an existing project in Red Hat Decision Manager, you can compile the new Maven project as a knowledge JAR (KJAR) and add it as a dependency in the pom.xml file of the project in Business Central. To access the project pom.xml file in Business Central, you can select any existing asset in the project and then in the Project Explorer menu on the left side of the screen, click the Customize View gear icon and select Repository Viewpom.xml.