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Data Grid Server Guide

Red Hat Data Grid 8.3

Deploy, secure, and manage Data Grid Server deployments

Red Hat Customer Content Services

Abstract

Install and configure Data Grid Server deployments.

Red Hat Data Grid

Data Grid is a high-performance, distributed in-memory data store.

Schemaless data structure
Flexibility to store different objects as key-value pairs.
Grid-based data storage
Designed to distribute and replicate data across clusters.
Elastic scaling
Dynamically adjust the number of nodes to meet demand without service disruption.
Data interoperability
Store, retrieve, and query data in the grid from different endpoints.

Data Grid documentation

Documentation for Data Grid is available on the Red Hat customer portal.

Data Grid downloads

Access the Data Grid Software Downloads on the Red Hat customer portal.

Note

You must have a Red Hat account to access and download Data Grid software.

Making open source more inclusive

Red Hat is committed to replacing problematic language in our code, documentation, and web properties. We are beginning with these four terms: master, slave, blacklist, and whitelist. Because of the enormity of this endeavor, these changes will be implemented gradually over several upcoming releases. For more details, see our CTO Chris Wright’s message.

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Note

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Chapter 1. Getting started with Data Grid Server

Quickly set up Data Grid Server and learn the basics.

Ansible collection

Automate installation of Data Grid clusters with our Ansible collection that optionally includes Keycloak caches and cross-site replication configuration. The Ansible collection also lets you inject Data Grid caches into the static configuration for each server instance during installation.

The Ansible collection for Data Grid is available from the Red Hat Automation Hub.

1.1. Data Grid Server requirements

Data Grid Server requires a Java Virtual Machine. See the Data Grid Supported Configurations for details on supported versions.

1.2. Downloading Data Grid Server distributions

The Data Grid Server distribution is an archive of Java libraries (JAR files) and configuration files.

Procedure

  1. Access the Red Hat customer portal.
  2. Download Red Hat Data Grid 8.3 Server from the software downloads section.
  3. Run the md5sum or sha256sum command with the server download archive as the argument, for example:

    sha256sum jboss-datagrid-${version}-server.zip
  4. Compare with the MD5 or SHA-256 checksum value on the Data Grid Software Details page.

Reference

1.3. Installing Data Grid Server

Install the Data Grid Server distribution on a host system.

Prerequisites

  • Download a Data Grid Server distribution archive.

Procedure

  • Use any appropriate tool to extract the Data Grid Server archive to the host filesystem.
unzip redhat-datagrid-8.3.1-server.zip

The resulting directory is your $RHDG_HOME.

1.4. Starting Data Grid Server

Run Data Grid Server instances in a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) on any supported host.

Prerequisites

  • Download and install the server distribution.

Procedure

  1. Open a terminal in $RHDG_HOME.
  2. Start Data Grid Server instances with the server script.

    Linux
    bin/server.sh
    Microsoft Windows
    bin\server.bat

Data Grid Server is running successfully when it logs the following messages:

ISPN080004: Protocol SINGLE_PORT listening on 127.0.0.1:11222
ISPN080034: Server '...' listening on http://127.0.0.1:11222
ISPN080001: Data Grid Server <version> started in <mm>ms

Verification

  1. Open 127.0.0.1:11222/console/ in any browser.
  2. Enter your credentials at the prompt and continue to Data Grid Console.

1.5. Passing Data Grid Server configuration at startup

Specify custom configuration when you start Data Grid Server.

Data Grid Server can parse multiple configuration files that you overlay on startup with the --server-config argument. You can use as many configuration overlay files as required, in any order. Configuration overlay files:

  • Must be valid Data Grid configuration and contain the root server element or field.
  • Do not need to be full configuration as long as your combination of overlay files results in a full configuration.
Important

Data Grid Server does not detect conflicting configuration between overlay files. Each overlay file overwrites any conflicting configuration in the preceding configuration.

Note

If you pass cache configuration to Data Grid Server on startup it does not dynamically create those cache across the cluster. You must manually propagate caches to each node.

Additionally, cache configuration that you pass to Data Grid Server on startup must include the infinispan and cache-container elements.

Prerequisites

  • Download and install the server distribution.
  • Add custom server configuration to the server/conf directory of your Data Grid Server installation.

Procedure

  1. Open a terminal in $RHDG_HOME.
  2. Specify one or more configuration files with the --server-config= or -c argument, for example:

    bin/server.sh -c infinispan.xml -c datasources.yaml -c security-realms.json

1.6. Creating and modifying Data Grid users

Add Data Grid user credentials and assign permissions to control access to data.

Data Grid server installations use a property realm to authenticate users for the Hot Rod and REST endpoints. This means you need to create at least one user before you can access Data Grid.

By default, users also need roles with permissions to access caches and interact with Data Grid resources. You can assign roles to users individually or add users to groups that have role permissions.

You create users and assign roles with the user command in the Data Grid command line interface (CLI).

Tip

Run help user from a CLI session to get complete command details.

1.6.1. Adding credentials

You need an admin user for the Data Grid Console and full control over your Data Grid environment. For this reason you should create a user with admin permissions the first time you add credentials.

Procedure

  1. Open a terminal in $RHDG_HOME.
  2. Create an admin user with the user create command.

    • Add a user assigned to the admin group.

      bin/cli.sh user create myuser -p changeme -g admin
    • Use implicit authorization to gain admin permissions.

      bin/cli.sh user create admin -p changeme
  3. Open user.properties and groups.properties with any text editor to verify users and groups.

    $ cat server/conf/users.properties
    
    #$REALM_NAME=default$
    #$ALGORITHM=encrypted$
    myuser=scram-sha-1\:BYGcIAwvf6b...
    
    $ cat server/conf/groups.properties
    
    myuser=admin

1.6.2. Assigning roles to users

Assign roles to users so they have the correct permissions to access data and modify Data Grid resources.

Procedure

  1. Start a CLI session with an admin user.

    $ bin/cli.sh
  2. Assign the deployer role to "katie".

    [//containers/default]> user roles grant --roles=deployer katie
  3. List roles for "katie".

    [//containers/default]> user roles ls katie
    ["deployer"]

1.6.3. Adding users to groups

Groups let you change permissions for multiple users. You assign a role to a group and then add users to that group. Users inherit permissions from the group role.

Procedure

  1. Start a CLI session with an admin user.
  2. Use the user create command to create a group.

    1. Specify "developers" as the group name with the --groups argument.
    2. Set a username and password for the group.

      In a property realm, a group is a special type of user that also requires a username and password.

      [//containers/default]> user create --groups=developers developers -p changeme
  3. List groups.

    [//containers/default]> user ls --groups
    ["developers"]
  4. Assign the application role to the "developers" group.

    [//containers/default]> user roles grant --roles=application developers
  5. List roles for the "developers" group.

    [//containers/default]> user roles ls developers
    ["application"]
  6. Add existing users, one at a time, to the group as required.

    [//containers/default]> user groups john --groups=developers

1.6.4. User roles and permissions

Data Grid includes a default set of roles that grant users with permissions to access data and interact with Data Grid resources.

ClusterRoleMapper is the default mechanism that Data Grid uses to associate security principals to authorization roles.

Important

ClusterRoleMapper matches principal names to role names. A user named admin gets admin permissions automatically, a user named deployer gets deployer permissions, and so on.

RolePermissionsDescription

admin

ALL

Superuser with all permissions including control of the Cache Manager lifecycle.

deployer

ALL_READ, ALL_WRITE, LISTEN, EXEC, MONITOR, CREATE

Can create and delete Data Grid resources in addition to application permissions.

application

ALL_READ, ALL_WRITE, LISTEN, EXEC, MONITOR

Has read and write access to Data Grid resources in addition to observer permissions. Can also listen to events and execute server tasks and scripts.

observer

ALL_READ, MONITOR

Has read access to Data Grid resources in addition to monitor permissions.

monitor

MONITOR

Can view statistics via JMX and the metrics endpoint.

1.7. Verifying cluster views

Data Grid Server instances on the same network automatically discover each other and form clusters.

Complete this procedure to observe cluster discovery with the MPING protocol in the default TCP stack with locally running Data Grid Server instances. If you want to adjust cluster transport for custom network requirements, see the documentation for setting up Data Grid clusters.

Note

This procedure is intended to demonstrate the principle of cluster discovery and is not intended for production environments. Doing things like specifying a port offset on the command line is not a reliable way to configure cluster transport for production.

Prerequisites

Have one instance of Data Grid Server running.

Procedure

  1. Open a terminal in $RHDG_HOME.
  2. Copy the root directory to server2.

    cp -r server server2
  3. Specify a port offset and the server2 directory.

    bin/server.sh -o 100 -s server2

Verification

You can view cluster membership in the console at 127.0.0.1:11222/console/cluster-membership.

Data Grid also logs the following messages when nodes join clusters:

INFO  [org.infinispan.CLUSTER] (jgroups-11,<server_hostname>)
ISPN000094: Received new cluster view for channel cluster:
[<server_hostname>|3] (2) [<server_hostname>, <server2_hostname>]

INFO  [org.infinispan.CLUSTER] (jgroups-11,<server_hostname>)
ISPN100000: Node <server2_hostname> joined the cluster

1.8. Shutting down Data Grid Server

Stop individually running servers or bring down clusters gracefully.

Procedure

  1. Create a CLI connection to Data Grid.
  2. Shut down Data Grid Server in one of the following ways:

    • Stop all nodes in a cluster with the shutdown cluster command, for example:

      shutdown cluster

      This command saves cluster state to the data folder for each node in the cluster. If you use a cache store, the shutdown cluster command also persists all data in the cache.

    • Stop individual server instances with the shutdown server command and the server hostname, for example:

      shutdown server <my_server01>
Important

The shutdown server command does not wait for rebalancing operations to complete, which can lead to data loss if you specify multiple hostnames at the same time.

Tip

Run help shutdown for more details about using the command.

Verification

Data Grid logs the following messages when you shut down servers:

ISPN080002: Data Grid Server stopping
ISPN000080: Disconnecting JGroups channel cluster
ISPN000390: Persisted state, version=<$version> timestamp=YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SS
ISPN080003: Data Grid Server stopped

1.8.1. Data Grid cluster restarts

When you bring Data Grid clusters back online after shutting them down, you should wait for the cluster to be available before adding or removing nodes or modifying cluster state.

If you shutdown clustered nodes with the shutdown server command, you must restart each server in reverse order.
For example, if you shutdown server1 and then shutdown server2, you should first start server2 and then start server1.

If you shutdown a cluster with the shutdown cluster command, clusters become fully operational only after all nodes rejoin.
You can restart nodes in any order but the cluster remains in DEGRADED state until all nodes that were joined before shutdown are running.

1.9. Data Grid Server installation directory structure

Data Grid Server uses the following folders on the host filesystem under $RHDG_HOME:

├── bin
├── boot
├── docs
├── lib
├── server
└── static
Tip

See the Data Grid Server README for descriptions of the each folder in your $RHDG_HOME directory as well as system properties you can use to customize the filesystem.

1.9.1. Server root directory

Apart from resources in the bin and docs folders, the only folder under $RHDG_HOME that you should interact with is the server root directory, which is named server by default.

You can create multiple nodes under the same $RHDG_HOME directory or in different directories, but each Data Grid Server instance must have its own server root directory. For example, a cluster of 5 nodes could have the following server root directories on the filesystem:

├── server
├── server1
├── server2
├── server3
└── server4

Each server root directory should contain the following folders:

├── server
│   ├── conf
│   ├── data
│   ├── lib
│   └── log

server/conf

Holds infinispan.xml configuration files for a Data Grid Server instance.

Data Grid separates configuration into two layers:

Dynamic
Create mutable cache configurations for data scalability.
Data Grid Server permanently saves the caches you create at runtime along with the cluster state that is distributed across nodes. Each joining node receives a complete cluster state that Data Grid Server synchronizes across all nodes whenever changes occur.
Static
Add configuration to infinispan.xml for underlying server mechanisms such as cluster transport, security, and shared datasources.

server/data

Provides internal storage that Data Grid Server uses to maintain cluster state.

Important

Never directly delete or modify content in server/data.

Modifying files such as caches.xml while the server is running can cause corruption. Deleting content can result in an incorrect state, which means clusters cannot restart after shutdown.

server/lib

Contains extension JAR files for custom filters, custom event listeners, JDBC drivers, custom ServerTask implementations, and so on.

server/log

Holds Data Grid Server log files.

Chapter 2. Network interfaces and socket bindings

Expose Data Grid Server through a network interface by binding it to an IP address. You can then configure endpoints to use the interface so Data Grid Server can handle requests from remote client applications.

2.1. Network interfaces

Data Grid Server multiplexes endpoints to a single TCP/IP port and automatically detects protocols of inbound client requests. You can configure how Data Grid Server binds to network interfaces to listen for client requests.

Internet Protocol (IP) address

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <!-- Selects a specific IPv4 address, which can be public, private, or loopback. This is the default network interface for Data Grid Server. -->
  <interfaces>
    <interface name="public">
      <inet-address value="${infinispan.bind.address:127.0.0.1}"/>
    </interface>
  </interfaces>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "interfaces": [{
      "name": "public",
      "inet-address": {
        "value": "127.0.0.1"
      }
    }]
  }
}

YAML

server:
  interfaces:
    - name: "public"
      inetAddress:
        value: "127.0.0.1"

Loopback address

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <!-- Selects an IP address in an IPv4 or IPv6 loopback address block. -->
  <interfaces>
    <interface name="public">
      <loopback/>
    </interface>
  </interfaces>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "interfaces": [{
      "name": "public",
      "loopback": null
    }]
  }
}

YAML

server:
  interfaces:
    - name: "public"
      loopback: ~

Non-loopback address

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <!-- Selects an IP address in an IPv4 or IPv6 non-loopback address block. -->
  <interfaces>
    <interface name="public">
      <non-loopback/>
    </interface>
  </interfaces>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "interfaces": [{
      "name": "public",
      "non_loopback": null
    }]
  }
}

YAML

server:
  interfaces:
    - name: "public"
      nonLoopback: ~

Any address

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <!-- Uses the `INADDR_ANY` wildcard address which means Data Grid Server listens for inbound client requests on all interfaces. -->
  <interfaces>
    <interface name="public">
      <any-address/>
    </interface>
  </interfaces>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "interfaces": [{
      "name": "public",
      "any_address": null
    }]
  }
}

YAML

server:
  interfaces:
    - name: "public"
      anyAddress: ~

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <!-- Selects a link-local IP address in an IPv4 or IPv6 address block. -->
  <interfaces>
    <interface name="public">
      <link-local/>
    </interface>
  </interfaces>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "interfaces": [{
      "name": "public",
      "link_local": null
    }]
  }
}

YAML

server:
  interfaces:
    - name: "public"
      linkLocal: ~

Site local

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <!-- Selects a site-local (private) IP address in an IPv4 or IPv6 address block. -->
  <interfaces>
    <interface name="public">
      <site-local/>
    </interface>
  </interfaces>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "interfaces": [{
      "name": "public",
      "site_local": null
    }]
  }
}

YAML

server:
  interfaces:
    - name: "public"
      siteLocal: ~

2.1.1. Match and fallback strategies

Data Grid Server can enumerate all network interfaces on the host system and bind to an interface, host, or IP address that matches a value, which can include regular expressions for additional flexibility.

Match host

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <!-- Selects an IP address that is assigned to a matching host name. -->
  <interfaces>
    <interface name="public">
      <match-host value="my_host_name"/>
    </interface>
  </interfaces>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "interfaces": [{
      "name": "public",
      "match-host": {
        "value": "my_host_name"
      }
    }]
  }
}

YAML

server:
  interfaces:
    - name: "public"
      matchHost:
        value: "my_host_name"

Match interface

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <!--Selects an IP address assigned to a matching network interface. -->
  <interfaces>
    <interface name="public">
      <match-interface value="eth0"/>
    </interface>
  </interfaces>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "interfaces": [{
      "name": "public",
      "match-interface": {
        "value": "eth0"
      }
    }]
  }
}

YAML

server:
  interfaces:
    - name: "public"
      matchInterface:
        value: "eth0"

Match address

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <!-- Selects an IP address that matches a regular expression. -->
  <interfaces>
    <interface name="public">
      <match-address value="132\..*"/>
    </interface>
  </interfaces>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "interfaces": [{
      "name": "public",
      "match-address": {
        "value": "132\\..*"
      }
    }]
  }
}

YAML

server:
  interfaces:
    - name: "public"
      matchAddress:
        value: "127\\..*"

Fallback

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <!-- Includes multiple strategies that Data Grid Server tries in the declared order until it finds a match. -->
  <interfaces>
    <interface name="public">
      <match-host value="my_host_name"/>
      <match-address value="132\..*"/>
      <any-address/>
    </interface>
  </interfaces>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "interfaces": [{
      "name": "public",
      "match-host": {
        "value": "my_host_name"
      },
      "match-address": {
        "value": "132\\..*"
      },
      "any_address": null
    }]
  }
}

YAML

server:
  interfaces:
    - name: "public"
      matchHost:
        value: "my_host_name"
      matchAddress:
        value: "132\\..*"
      anyAddress: ~

2.2. Socket bindings

Socket bindings map endpoint connectors to network interfaces and ports. By default, Data Grid Server includes a socket binding configuration that listens on the localhost interface, 127.0.0.1, at port 11222 for the REST and Hot Rod endpoints. If you enable the Memcached endpoint, the default socket bindings configure Data Grid Server to bind to port 11221.

Default socket bindings

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <socket-bindings default-interface="public"
                   port-offset="${infinispan.socket.binding.port-offset:0}">
    <socket-binding name="default"
                    port="${infinispan.bind.port:11222}"/>
    <socket-binding name="memcached"
                    port="11221"/>
  </socket-bindings>
</server>

Configuration element or attributeDescription

socket-bindings

Root element that contains all network interfaces and ports to which Data Grid Server endpoints can bind and listen for client connections.

default-interface

Declare the network interface that Data Grid Server listens on by default.

port-offset

Specifies the offset that Data Grid Server applies to port declarations for socket bindings.

socket-binding

Configures Data Grid Server to bind to a port on a network interface.

Custom socket binding declarations

The following example configuration adds an interface declaration named "private" and a socket-binding declaration that binds Data Grid Server to the private IP address:

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <interfaces>
    <interface name="public">
      <inet-address value="${infinispan.bind.address:127.0.0.1}"/>
    </interface>
    <interface name="private">
      <inet-address value="10.1.2.3"/>
    </interface>
  </interfaces>

  <socket-bindings default-interface="public"
                   port-offset="${infinispan.socket.binding.port-offset:0}">
    <socket-binding name="private_binding"
                    interface="private"
                    port="49152"/>
  </socket-bindings>

  <endpoints socket-binding="private_binding"
             security-realm="default"/>
</server>

JSON

{
	"server": {
		"interfaces": [{
			"name": "private",
			"inet-address": {
				"value": "10.1.2.3"
			}
		}, {
			"name": "public",
			"inet-address": {
				"value": "127.0.0.1"
			}
		}],
		"socket-bindings": {
			"port-offset": "0",
			"default-interface": "public",
			"socket-binding": [{
				"name": "private_binding",
				"port": "1234",
				"interface": "private"
			}]
		},
		"endpoints": {
			"endpoint": {
				"socket-binding": "private_binding",
				"security-realm": "default"
			}
		}
	}
}

YAML

server:
  interfaces:
    - name: "private"
      inetAddress:
        value: "10.1.2.3"
    - name: "public"
      inetAddress:
        value: "127.0.0.1"
  socketBindings:
    portOffset: "0"
    defaultInterface: "public"
    socketBinding:
      - name: "private_binding"
        port: "49152"
        interface: "private"
  endpoints:
    endpoint:
      socketBinding: "private_binding"
      securityRealm: "default"

2.3. Changing the bind address for Data Grid Server

Data Grid Server binds to a network IP address to listen for inbound client connections on the Hot Rod and REST endpoints. You can specify that IP address directly in your Data Grid Server configuration or when starting server instances.

Prerequisites

  • Have at least one Data Grid Server installation.

Procedure

Specify the IP address to which Data Grid Server binds in one of the following ways:

  • Open your Data Grid Server configuration and set the value for the inet-address element, for example:

    <server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
      <interfaces>
        <interface name="custom">
          <inet-address value="${infinispan.bind.address:192.0.2.0}"/>
        </interface>
      </interfaces>
    </server>
  • Use the -b option or the infinispan.bind.address system property.

    Linux

    bin/server.sh -b 192.0.2.0

    Windows

    bin\server.bat -b 192.0.2.0

2.3.1. Listening on all addresses

If you specify the 0.0.0.0 meta-address, or INADDR_ANY, as the bind address in your Data Grid Server configuration, it listens for incoming client connections on all available network interfaces.

Client intelligence

Configuring Data Grid to listen on all addresses affects how it provides Hot Rod clients with cluster topology. If there are multiple interfaces to which Data Grid Server binds, then it sends a list of IP addresses for each interface.

For example, a cluster where each server node binds to:

  • 10.0.0.0/8 subnet
  • 192.168.0.0/16 subnet
  • 127.0.0.1 loopback

Hot Rod clients receive IP addresses for server nodes that belong to the interface through which the clients connect. If a client connects to 192.168.0.0, for example, it does not receive any cluster topology details for nodes that listen on 10.0.0.0.

Netmask override

Kubernetes, and some other environments, divide the IP address space into subnets and use those different subnets as a single network. For example, 10.129.2.100/23 and 10.129.4.100/23 are in different subnets but belong to the 10.0.0.0/8 network.

For this reason, Data Grid Server overrides netmasks that the host system provides with netmasks that follow IANA conventions for private and reserved networks:

  • IPv4: 10.0.0.0/8, 192.168.0.0/16, 172.16.0.0/12, 169.254.0.0/16 and 240.0.0.0/4
  • IPv6: fc00::/7 and fe80::/10

See RFC 1918 for IPv4 or RFC 4193 and RFC 3513 for IPv6.

Note

You can optionally configure the Hot Rod connector to use the netmask that the host system provides for interfaces with the network-prefix-override attribute in your Data Grid Server configuration.

2.4. Data Grid Server ports and protocols

Data Grid Server provides network endpoints that allow client access with different protocols.

PortProtocolDescription

11222

TCP

Hot Rod and REST

11221

TCP

Memcached (disabled by default)

Single port

Data Grid Server exposes multiple protocols through a single TCP port, 11222. Handling multiple protocols with a single port simplifies configuration and reduces management complexity when deploying Data Grid clusters. Using a single port also enhances security by minimizing the attack surface on the network.

Data Grid Server handles HTTP/1.1, HTTP/2, and Hot Rod protocol requests from clients via the single port in different ways.

HTTP/1.1 upgrade headers

Client requests can include the HTTP/1.1 upgrade header field to initiate HTTP/1.1 connections with Data Grid Server. Client applications can then send the Upgrade: protocol header field, where protocol is a server endpoint.

Application-Layer Protocol Negotiation (ALPN)/Transport Layer Security (TLS)

Client requests include Server Name Indication (SNI) mappings for Data Grid Server endpoints to negotiate protocols over a TLS connection.

Note

Applications must use a TLS library that supports the ALPN extension. Data Grid uses WildFly OpenSSL bindings for Java.

Automatic Hot Rod detection

Client requests that include Hot Rod headers automatically route to Hot Rod endpoints.

2.4.1. Configuring network firewalls for Data Grid traffic

Adjust firewall rules to allow traffic between Data Grid Server and client applications.

Procedure

On Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) workstations, for example, you can allow traffic to port 11222 with firewalld as follows:

# firewall-cmd --add-port=11222/tcp --permanent
success
# firewall-cmd --list-ports | grep 11222
11222/tcp

To configure firewall rules that apply across a network, you can use the nftables utility.

2.5. Specifying port offsets

Configure port offsets for multiple Data Grid Server instances on the same host. The default port offset is 0.

Procedure

Use the -o switch with the Data Grid CLI or the infinispan.socket.binding.port-offset system property to set port offsets.

For example, start a server instance with an offset of 100 as follows. With the default configuration, this results in the Data Grid server listening on port 11322.

Linux
bin/server.sh -o 100
Windows
bin\server.bat -o 100

Chapter 3. Data Grid Server endpoints

Data Grid Server endpoints provide client access to the cache manager over Hot Rod and REST protocols.

3.1. Data Grid Server endpoints

3.1.1. Hot Rod

Hot Rod is a binary TCP client-server protocol designed to provide faster data access and improved performance in comparison to text-based protocols.

Data Grid provides Hot Rod client libraries in Java, C++, C#, Node.js and other programming languages.

Topology state transfer

Data Grid uses topology caches to provide clients with cluster views. Topology caches contain entries that map internal JGroups transport addresses to exposed Hot Rod endpoints.

When client send requests, Data Grid servers compare the topology ID in request headers with the topology ID from the cache. Data Grid servers send new topology views if client have older topology IDs.

Cluster topology views allow Hot Rod clients to immediately detect when nodes join and leave, which enables dynamic load balancing and failover.

In distributed cache modes, the consistent hashing algorithm also makes it possible to route Hot Rod client requests directly to primary owners.

3.1.2. REST

Data Grid exposes a RESTful interface that allows HTTP clients to access data, monitor and maintain clusters, and perform administrative operations.

You can use standard HTTP load balancers to provide clients with load balancing and failover capabilities. However, HTTP load balancers maintain static cluster views and require manual updates when cluster topology changes occur.

3.1.3. Memcached

Data Grid provides an implementation of the Memcached text protocol for remote client access.

Important

The Memcached endpoint is deprecated and planned for removal in a future release.

The Data Grid Memcached endpoint supports clustering with replicated and distributed cache modes.

There are some Memcached client implementations, such as the Cache::Memcached Perl client, that can offer load balancing and failover detection capabilities with static lists of Data Grid server addresses that require manual updates when cluster topology changes occur.

3.1.4. Comparison of endpoint protocols

 Hot RodHTTP / REST

Topology-aware

Y

N

Hash-aware

Y

N

Encryption

Y

Y

Authentication

Y

Y

Conditional ops

Y

Y

Bulk ops

Y

N

Transactions

Y

N

Listeners

Y

N

Query

Y

Y

Execution

Y

N

Cross-site failover

Y

N

3.1.5. Hot Rod client compatibility with Data Grid Server

Data Grid Server allows you to connect Hot Rod clients with different versions. For instance during a migration or upgrade to your Data Grid cluster, the Hot Rod client version might be a lower Data Grid version than Data Grid Server.

Tip

Data Grid recommends using the latest Hot Rod client version to benefit from the most recent capabilities and security enhancements.

Data Grid 8 and later

Hot Rod protocol version 3.x automatically negotiates the highest version possible for clients with Data Grid Server.

Data Grid 7.3 and earlier

Clients that use a Hot Rod protocol version that is higher than the Data Grid Server version must set the infinispan.client.hotrod.protocol_version property.

3.2. Configuring Data Grid Server endpoints

Control how Hot Rod and REST endpoints bind to sockets and use security realm configuration. You can also configure multiple endpoints and disable administrative capabilities.

Note

Each unique endpoint configuration must include both a Hot Rod connector and a REST connector. Data Grid Server implicitly includes the hotrod-connector and rest-connector elements, or fields, in an endpoint configuration. You should only add these elements to custom configuration to specify authentication mechanisms for endpoints.

Prerequisites

  • Add socket bindings and security realms to your Data Grid Server configuration.

Procedure

  1. Open your Data Grid Server configuration for editing.
  2. Wrap multiple endpoint configurations with the endpoints element.
  3. Specify the socket binding that the endpoint uses with the socket-binding attribute.
  4. Specify the security realm that the endpoint uses with the security-realm attribute.
  5. Disable administrator access with the admin="false" attribute, if required.

    With this configuration users cannot access Data Grid Console or the Command Line Interface (CLI) from the endpoint.

  6. Save the changes to your configuration.

Multiple endpoint configuration

The following Data Grid Server configuration creates endpoints on separate socket bindings with dedicated security realms:

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <endpoints>
    <endpoint socket-binding="public"
              security-realm="application-realm"
              admin="false">
    </endpoint>
    <endpoint socket-binding="private"
              security-realm="management-realm">
    </endpoint>
  </endpoints>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "endpoints": [{
      "socket-binding": "private",
      "security-realm": "private-realm"
    }, {
      "socket-binding": "public",
      "security-realm": "default",
      "admin": "false"
    }]
  }
}

YAML

server:
  endpoints:
   - socketBinding: public
     securityRealm: application-realm
     admin: false
   - socketBinding: private
     securityRealm: management-realm

3.3. Endpoint connectors

Connectors configure Hot Rod and REST endpoints to use socket bindings and security realms.

Default endpoint configuration

<endpoints socket-binding="default" security-realm="default"/>

Configuration element or attributeDescription

endpoints

Wraps endpoint connector configuration.

endpoint

Declares a Data Grid Server endpoint that configures Hot Rod and REST connectors to use a socket binding and security realm.

hotrod-connector

Includes the Hot Rod endpoint in the endpoint configuration.

rest-connector

Includes the Hot Rod endpoint in the endpoint configuration.

memcached-connector

Configures the Memcached endpoint and is disabled by default.

Additional resources

3.4. Endpoint IP address filtering rules

Data Grid Server endpoints can use filtering rules that control whether clients can connect based on their IP addresses. Data Grid Server applies filtering rules in order until it finds a match for the client IP address.

A CIDR block is a compact representation of an IP address and its associated network mask. CIDR notation specifies an IP address, a slash ('/') character, and a decimal number. The decimal number is the count of leading 1 bits in the network mask. The number can also be thought of as the width, in bits, of the network prefix. The IP address in CIDR notation is always represented according to the standards for IPv4 or IPv6.

The address can denote a specific interface address, including a host identifier, such as 10.0.0.1/8, or it can be the beginning address of an entire network interface range using a host identifier of 0, as in 10.0.0.0/8 or 10/8.

For example:

  • 192.168.100.14/24 represents the IPv4 address 192.168.100.14 and its associated network prefix 192.168.100.0, or equivalently, its subnet mask 255.255.255.0, which has 24 leading 1-bits.
  • the IPv4 block 192.168.100.0/22 represents the 1024 IPv4 addresses from 192.168.100.0 to 192.168.103.255.
  • the IPv6 block 2001:db8::/48 represents the block of IPv6 addresses from 2001:db8:0:0:0:0:0:0 to 2001:db8:0:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff.
  • ::1/128 represents the IPv6 loopback address. Its prefix length is 128 which is the number of bits in the address.

IP address filter configuration

In the following configuration, Data Grid Server accepts connections only from addresses in the 192.168.0.0/16 and 10.0.0.0/8 CIDR blocks. Data Grid Server rejects all other connections.

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <endpoints>
    <endpoint socket-binding="default" security-realm="default">
      <ip-filter>
        <accept from="192.168.0.0/16"/>
        <accept from="10.0.0.0/8"/>
        <reject from="/0"/>
      </ip-filter>
    </endpoint>
  </endpoints>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "endpoints": {
      "endpoint": {
        "socket-binding": "default",
        "security-realm": "default",
        "ip-filter": {
          "accept-from": ["192.168.0.0/16", "10.0.0.0/8"],
          "reject-from": "/0"
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

YAML

server:
  endpoints:
    endpoint:
      socketBinding: "default"
      securityRealm: "default"
      ipFilter:
        acceptFrom: ["192.168.0.0/16","10.0.0.0/8"]
        rejectFrom: "/0"

3.5. Inspecting and modifying rules for filtering IP addresses

Configure IP address filtering rules on Data Grid Server endpoints to accept or reject connections based on client address.

Prerequisites

  • Install Data Grid Command Line Interface (CLI).

Procedure

  1. Create a CLI connection to Data Grid Server.
  2. Inspect and modify the IP filter rules server connector ipfilter command as required.

    1. List all IP filtering rules active on a connector across the cluster:

      server connector ipfilter ls endpoint-default
    2. Set IP filtering rules across the cluster.

      Note

      This command replaces any existing rules.

      server connector ipfilter set endpoint-default --rules=ACCEPT/192.168.0.0/16,REJECT/10.0.0.0/8`
    3. Remove all IP filtering rules on a connector across the cluster.

      server connector ipfilter clear endpoint-default

Chapter 4. Endpoint authentication mechanisms

Data Grid Server can use custom SASL and HTTP authentication mechanisms for Hot Rod and REST endpoints.

4.1. Data Grid Server authentication

Authentication restricts user access to endpoints as well as the Data Grid Console and Command Line Interface (CLI).

Data Grid Server includes a "default" security realm that enforces user authentication. Default authentication uses a property realm with user credentials stored in the server/conf/users.properties file. Data Grid Server also enables security authorization by default so you must assign users with permissions stored in the server/conf/groups.properties file.

Tip

Use the user create command with the Command Line Interface (CLI) to add users and assign permissions. Run user create --help for examples and more information.

4.2. Configuring Data Grid Server authentication mechanisms

You can explicitly configure Hot Rod and REST endpoints to use specific authentication mechanisms. Configuring authentication mechanisms is required only if you need to explicitly override the default mechanisms for a security realm.

Note

Each endpoint section in your configuration must include hotrod-connector and rest-connector elements or fields. For example, if you explicitly declare a hotrod-connector you must also declare a rest-connector even if it does not configure an authentication mechanism.

Prerequisites

  • Add security realms to your Data Grid Server configuration as required.

Procedure

  1. Open your Data Grid Server configuration for editing.
  2. Add an endpoint element or field and specify the security realm that it uses with the security-realm attribute.
  3. Add a hotrod-connector element or field to configure the Hot Rod endpoint.

    1. Add an authentication element or field.
    2. Specify SASL authentication mechanisms for the Hot Rod endpoint to use with the sasl mechanisms attribute.
    3. If applicable, specify SASL quality of protection settings with the qop attribute.
    4. Specify the Data Grid Server identity with the server-name attribute if necessary.
  4. Add a rest-connector element or field to configure the REST endpoint.

    1. Add an authentication element or field.
    2. Specify HTTP authentication mechanisms for the REST endpoint to use with the mechanisms attribute.
  5. Save the changes to your configuration.

Authentication mechanism configuration

The following configuration specifies SASL mechanisms for the Hot Rod endpoint to use for authentication:

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <endpoints>
    <endpoint socket-binding="default"
              security-realm="my-realm">
      <hotrod-connector>
        <authentication>
           <sasl mechanisms="SCRAM-SHA-512 SCRAM-SHA-384 SCRAM-SHA-256
                             SCRAM-SHA-1 DIGEST-SHA-512 DIGEST-SHA-384
                             DIGEST-SHA-256 DIGEST-SHA DIGEST-MD5 PLAIN"
                 server-name="infinispan"
                 qop="auth"/>
        </authentication>
      </hotrod-connector>
      <rest-connector>
        <authentication mechanisms="DIGEST BASIC"/>
      </rest-connector>
    </endpoint>
  </endpoints>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "endpoints": {
      "endpoint": {
        "socket-binding": "default",
        "security-realm": "my-realm",
        "hotrod-connector": {
          "authentication": {
            "security-realm": "default",
            "sasl": {
              "server-name": "infinispan",
              "mechanisms": ["SCRAM-SHA-512", "SCRAM-SHA-384", "SCRAM-SHA-256", "SCRAM-SHA-1", "DIGEST-SHA-512", "DIGEST-SHA-384", "DIGEST-SHA-256", "DIGEST-SHA", "DIGEST-MD5", "PLAIN"],
              "qop": ["auth"]
            }
          }
        },
        "rest-connector": {
          "authentication": {
            "mechanisms": ["DIGEST", "BASIC"],
            "security-realm": "default"
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

YAML

server:
  endpoints:
    endpoint:
      socketBinding: "default"
      securityRealm: "my-realm"
      hotrodConnector:
        authentication:
          securityRealm: "default"
          sasl:
            serverName: "infinispan"
            mechanisms:
              - "SCRAM-SHA-512"
              - "SCRAM-SHA-384"
              - "SCRAM-SHA-256"
              - "SCRAM-SHA-1"
              - "DIGEST-SHA-512"
              - "DIGEST-SHA-384"
              - "DIGEST-SHA-256"
              - "DIGEST-SHA"
              - "DIGEST-MD5"
              - "PLAIN"
            qop:
              - "auth"
      restConnector:
        authentication:
          mechanisms:
            - "DIGEST"
            - "BASIC"
          securityRealm: "default"

4.2.1. Disabling authentication

In local development environments or on isolated networks you can configure Data Grid to allow unauthenticated client requests. When you disable user authentication you should also disable authorization in your Data Grid security configuration.

Procedure

  1. Open your Data Grid Server configuration for editing.
  2. Remove the security-realm attribute from the endpoints element or field.
  3. Remove any authorization elements from the security configuration for the cache-container and each cache configuration.
  4. Save the changes to your configuration.

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <endpoints socket-binding="default"/>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "endpoints": {
      "endpoint": {
        "socket-binding": "default"
      }
    }
  }
}

YAML

server:
  endpoints:
    endpoint:
      socketBinding: "default"

4.3. Data Grid Server authentication mechanisms

Data Grid Server automatically configures endpoints with authentication mechanisms that match your security realm configuration. For example, if you add a Kerberos security realm then Data Grid Server enables the GSSAPI and GS2-KRB5 authentication mechanisms for the Hot Rod endpoint.

Hot Rod endpoints

Data Grid Server enables the following SASL authentication mechanisms for Hot Rod endpoints when your configuration includes the corresponding security realm:

Security realmSASL authentication mechanism

Property realms and LDAP realms

SCRAM-*, DIGEST-*, SCRAM-*

Token realms

OAUTHBEARER

Trust realms

EXTERNAL

Kerberos identities

GSSAPI, GS2-KRB5

SSL/TLS identities

PLAIN

REST endpoints

Data Grid Server enables the following HTTP authentication mechanisms for REST endpoints when your configuration includes the corresponding security realm:

Security realmHTTP authentication mechanism

Property realms and LDAP realms

DIGEST

Token realms

BEARER_TOKEN

Trust realms

CLIENT_CERT

Kerberos identities

SPNEGO

SSL/TLS identities

BASIC

4.3.1. SASL authentication mechanisms

Data Grid Server supports the following SASL authentications mechanisms with Hot Rod endpoints:

Authentication mechanismDescriptionSecurity realm typeRelated details

PLAIN

Uses credentials in plain-text format. You should use PLAIN authentication with encrypted connections only.

Property realms and LDAP realms

Similar to the BASIC HTTP mechanism.

DIGEST-*

Uses hashing algorithms and nonce values. Hot Rod connectors support DIGEST-MD5, DIGEST-SHA, DIGEST-SHA-256, DIGEST-SHA-384, and DIGEST-SHA-512 hashing algorithms, in order of strength.

Property realms and LDAP realms

Similar to the Digest HTTP mechanism.

SCRAM-*

Uses salt values in addition to hashing algorithms and nonce values. Hot Rod connectors support SCRAM-SHA, SCRAM-SHA-256, SCRAM-SHA-384, and SCRAM-SHA-512 hashing algorithms, in order of strength.

Property realms and LDAP realms

Similar to the Digest HTTP mechanism.

GSSAPI

Uses Kerberos tickets and requires a Kerberos Domain Controller. You must add a corresponding kerberos server identity in the realm configuration. In most cases, you also specify an ldap-realm to provide user membership information.

Kerberos realms

Similar to the SPNEGO HTTP mechanism.

GS2-KRB5

Uses Kerberos tickets and requires a Kerberos Domain Controller. You must add a corresponding kerberos server identity in the realm configuration. In most cases, you also specify an ldap-realm to provide user membership information.

Kerberos realms

Similar to the SPNEGO HTTP mechanism.

EXTERNAL

Uses client certificates.

Trust store realms

Similar to the CLIENT_CERT HTTP mechanism.

OAUTHBEARER

Uses OAuth tokens and requires a token-realm configuration.

Token realms

Similar to the BEARER_TOKEN HTTP mechanism.

4.3.2. SASL quality of protection (QoP)

If SASL mechanisms support integrity and privacy protection (QoP) settings, you can add them to your Hot Rod endpoint configuration with the qop attribute.

QoP settingDescription

auth

Authentication only.

auth-int

Authentication with integrity protection.

auth-conf

Authentication with integrity and privacy protection.

4.3.3. SASL policies

SASL policies provide fine-grain control over Hot Rod authentication mechanisms.

Tip

Data Grid cache authorization restricts access to caches based on roles and permissions. Configure cache authorization and then set <no-anonymous value=false /> to allow anonymous login and delegate access logic to cache authorization.

PolicyDescriptionDefault value

forward-secrecy

Use only SASL mechanisms that support forward secrecy between sessions. This means that breaking into one session does not automatically provide information for breaking into future sessions.

false

pass-credentials

Use only SASL mechanisms that require client credentials.

false

no-plain-text

Do not use SASL mechanisms that are susceptible to simple plain passive attacks.

false

no-active

Do not use SASL mechanisms that are susceptible to active, non-dictionary, attacks.

false

no-dictionary

Do not use SASL mechanisms that are susceptible to passive dictionary attacks.

false

no-anonymous

Do not use SASL mechanisms that accept anonymous logins.

true

SASL policy configuration

In the following configuration the Hot Rod endpoint uses the GSSAPI mechanism for authentication because it is the only mechanism that complies with all SASL policies:

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <endpoints>
    <endpoint socket-binding="default"
              security-realm="default">
      <hotrod-connector>
        <authentication>
          <sasl mechanisms="PLAIN DIGEST-MD5 GSSAPI EXTERNAL"
                server-name="infinispan"
                qop="auth"
                policy="no-active no-plain-text"/>
        </authentication>
      </hotrod-connector>
      <rest-connector/>
    </endpoint>
  </endpoints>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "endpoints" : {
      "endpoint" : {
        "socket-binding" : "default",
        "security-realm" : "default",
        "hotrod-connector" : {
          "authentication" : {
            "sasl" : {
              "server-name" : "infinispan",
              "mechanisms" : [ "PLAIN","DIGEST-MD5","GSSAPI","EXTERNAL" ],
              "qop" : [ "auth" ],
              "policy" : [ "no-active","no-plain-text" ]
            }
          }
        },
        "rest-connector" : ""
      }
    }
  }
}

YAML

server:
  endpoints:
    endpoint:
      socketBinding: "default"
      securityRealm: "default"
      hotrodConnector:
        authentication:
          sasl:
            serverName: "infinispan"
            mechanisms:
              - "PLAIN"
              - "DIGEST-MD5"
              - "GSSAPI"
              - "EXTERNAL"
            qop:
              - "auth"
            policy:
              - "no-active"
              - "no-plain-text"
      restConnector: ~

4.3.4. HTTP authentication mechanisms

Data Grid Server supports the following HTTP authentication mechanisms with REST endpoints:

Authentication mechanismDescriptionSecurity realm typeRelated details

BASIC

Uses credentials in plain-text format. You should use BASIC authentication with encrypted connections only.

Property realms and LDAP realms

Corresponds to the Basic HTTP authentication scheme and is similar to the PLAIN SASL mechanism.

DIGEST

Uses hashing algorithms and nonce values. REST connectors support SHA-512, SHA-256 and MD5 hashing algorithms.

Property realms and LDAP realms

Corresponds to the Digest HTTP authentication scheme and is similar to DIGEST-* SASL mechanisms.

SPNEGO

Uses Kerberos tickets and requires a Kerberos Domain Controller. You must add a corresponding kerberos server identity in the realm configuration. In most cases, you also specify an ldap-realm to provide user membership information.

Kerberos realms

Corresponds to the Negotiate HTTP authentication scheme and is similar to the GSSAPI and GS2-KRB5 SASL mechanisms.

BEARER_TOKEN

Uses OAuth tokens and requires a token-realm configuration.

Token realms

Corresponds to the Bearer HTTP authentication scheme and is similar to OAUTHBEARER SASL mechanism.

CLIENT_CERT

Uses client certificates.

Trust store realms

Similar to the EXTERNAL SASL mechanism.

Chapter 5. Security realms

Security realms integrate Data Grid Server deployments with the network protocols and infrastructure in your environment that control access and verify user identities.

5.1. Creating security realms

Add security realms to Data Grid Server configuration to control access to deployments. You can add one or more security realm to your configuration.

Note

When you add security realms to your configuration, Data Grid Server automatically enables the matching authentication mechanisms for the Hot Rod and REST endpoints.

Prerequisites

  • Add socket bindings to your Data Grid Server configuration as required.
  • Create keystores, or have a PEM file, to configure the security realm with TLS/SSL encryption.

    Data Grid Server can also generate keystores at startup.

  • Provision the resources or services that the security realm configuration relies on.
    For example, if you add a token realm, you need to provision OAuth services.

This procedure demonstrates how to configure multiple property realms. Before you begin, you need to create properties files that add users and assign permissions with the Command Line Interface (CLI). Use the user create commands as follows:

user create <username> -p <changeme> -g <role> \
     --users-file=application-users.properties \
     --groups-file=application-groups.properties

user create <username> -p <changeme> -g <role> \
     --users-file=management-users.properties \
     --groups-file=management-groups.properties
Tip

Run user create --help for examples and more information.

Note

Adding credentials to a properties realm with the CLI creates the user only on the server instance to which you are connected. You must manually synchronize credentials in a properties realm to each node in the cluster.

Procedure

  1. Open your Data Grid Server configuration for editing.
  2. Use the security-realms element in the security configuration to contain create multiple security realms.
  3. Add a security realm with the security-realm element and give it a unique name with the name attribute.

    To follow the example, create one security realm named application-realm and another named management-realm.

  4. Provide the TLS/SSL identify for Data Grid Server with the server-identities element and configure a keystore as required.
  5. Specify the type of security realm by adding one the following elements or fields:

    • properties-realm
    • ldap-realm
    • token-realm
    • truststore-realm
  6. Specify properties for the type of security realm you are configuring as appropriate.

    To follow the example, specify the *.properties files you created with the CLI using the path attribute on the user-properties and group-properties elements or fields.

  7. If you add multiple different types of security realm to your configuration, include the distributed-realm element or field so that Data Grid Server uses the realms in combination with each other.
  8. Configure Data Grid Server endpoints to use the security realm with the with the security-realm attribute.
  9. Save the changes to your configuration.

Multiple property realms

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <security>
    <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="application-realm">
        <properties-realm groups-attribute="Roles">
          <user-properties path="application-users.properties"/>
          <group-properties path="application-groups.properties"/>
        </properties-realm>
      </security-realm>
      <security-realm name="management-realm">
        <properties-realm groups-attribute="Roles">
          <user-properties path="management-users.properties"/>
          <group-properties path="management-groups.properties"/>
        </properties-realm>
      </security-realm>
    </security-realms>
  </security>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "security": {
      "security-realms": [{
        "name": "management-realm",
        "properties-realm": {
          "groups-attribute": "Roles",
          "user-properties": {
            "digest-realm-name": "management-realm",
            "path": "management-users.properties"
          },
          "group-properties": {
            "path": "management-groups.properties"
          }
        }
      }, {
        "name": "application-realm",
        "properties-realm": {
          "groups-attribute": "Roles",
          "user-properties": {
            "digest-realm-name": "application-realm",
            "path": "application-users.properties"
          },
          "group-properties": {
            "path": "application-groups.properties"
          }
        }
      }]
    }
  }
}

YAML

server:
  security:
    securityRealms:
      - name: "management-realm"
        propertiesRealm:
          groupsAttribute: "Roles"
          userProperties:
            digestRealmName: "management-realm"
            path: "management-users.properties"
          groupProperties:
            path: "management-groups.properties"
      - name: "application-realm"
        propertiesRealm:
          groupsAttribute: "Roles"
          userProperties:
            digestRealmName: "application-realm"
            path: "application-users.properties"
          groupProperties:
            path: "application-groups.properties"

5.2. Setting up Kerberos identities

Add Kerberos identities to a security realm in your Data Grid Server configuration to use keytab files that contain service principal names and encrypted keys, derived from Kerberos passwords.

Prerequisites

  • Have Kerberos service account principals.
Note

keytab files can contain both user and service account principals. However, Data Grid Server uses service account principals only which means it can provide identity to clients and allow clients to authenticate with Kerberos servers.

In most cases, you create unique principals for the Hot Rod and REST endpoints. For example, if you have a "datagrid" server in the "INFINISPAN.ORG" domain you should create the following service principals:

  • hotrod/datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG identifies the Hot Rod service.
  • HTTP/datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG identifies the REST service.

Procedure

  1. Create keytab files for the Hot Rod and REST services.

    Linux
    ktutil
    ktutil:  addent -password -p datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG -k 1 -e aes256-cts
    Password for datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG: [enter your password]
    ktutil:  wkt http.keytab
    ktutil:  quit
    Microsoft Windows
    ktpass -princ HTTP/datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG -pass * -mapuser INFINISPAN\USER_NAME
    ktab -k http.keytab -a HTTP/datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG
  2. Copy the keytab files to the server/conf directory of your Data Grid Server installation.
  3. Open your Data Grid Server configuration for editing.
  4. Add a server-identities definition to the Data Grid server security realm.
  5. Specify the location of keytab files that provide service principals to Hot Rod and REST connectors.
  6. Name the Kerberos service principals.
  7. Save the changes to your configuration.

Kerberos identity configuration

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <security>
    <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="kerberos-realm">
        <server-identities>
          <!-- Specifies a keytab file that provides a Kerberos identity. -->
          <!-- Names the Kerberos service principal for the Hot Rod endpoint. -->
          <!-- The required="true" attribute specifies that the keytab file must be present when the server starts. -->
          <kerberos keytab-path="hotrod.keytab"
                    principal="hotrod/datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG"
                    required="true"/>
          <!-- Specifies a keytab file and names the Kerberos service principal for the REST endpoint. -->
          <kerberos keytab-path="http.keytab"
                    principal="HTTP/localhost@INFINISPAN.ORG"
                    required="true"/>
        </server-identities>
      </security-realm>
    </security-realms>
  </security>
  <endpoints>
    <endpoint socket-binding="default"
              security-realm="kerberos-realm">
     <hotrod-connector>
        <authentication>
           <sasl server-name="datagrid"
                 server-principal="hotrod/datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG"/>
        </authentication>
     </hotrod-connector>
     <rest-connector>
       <authentication server-principal="HTTP/localhost@INFINISPAN.ORG"/>
     </rest-connector>
   </endpoint>
  </endpoints>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "security": {
      "security-realms": [{
        "name": "kerberos-realm",
        "server-identities": [{
          "kerberos": {
            "principal": "hotrod/datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG",
            "keytab-path": "hotrod.keytab",
            "required": true
          },
          "kerberos": {
            "principal": "HTTP/localhost@INFINISPAN.ORG",
            "keytab-path": "http.keytab",
            "required": true
          }
        }]
      }]
    },
    "endpoints": {
      "endpoint": {
        "socket-binding": "default",
        "security-realm": "kerberos-realm",
        "hotrod-connector": {
          "authentication": {
            "security-realm": "kerberos-realm",
            "sasl": {
              "server-name": "datagrid",
              "server-principal": "hotrod/datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG"
            }
          }
        },
        "rest-connector": {
          "authentication": {
            "server-principal": "HTTP/localhost@INFINISPAN.ORG"
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

YAML

server:
  security:
    securityRealms:
      - name: "kerberos-realm"
        serverIdentities:
          - kerberos:
              principal: "hotrod/datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG"
              keytabPath: "hotrod.keytab"
              required: "true"
          - kerberos:
              principal: "HTTP/localhost@INFINISPAN.ORG"
              keytabPath: "http.keytab"
              required: "true"
  endpoints:
    endpoint:
      socketBinding: "default"
      securityRealm: "kerberos-realm"
      hotrodConnector:
        authentication:
          sasl:
            serverName: "datagrid"
            serverPrincipal: "hotrod/datagrid@INFINISPAN.ORG"
      restConnector:
        authentication:
          securityRealm: "kerberos-realm"
          serverPrincipal" : "HTTP/localhost@INFINISPAN.ORG"

5.3. Property realms

Property realms use property files to define users and groups.

  • users.properties contains Data Grid user credentials. Passwords can be pre-digested with the DIGEST-MD5 and DIGEST authentication mechanisms.
  • groups.properties associates users with roles and permissions.
Note

Properties files contain headers that associate them with security realms in Data Grid Server configuration.

users.properties

myuser=a_password
user2=another_password

groups.properties

myuser=supervisor,reader,writer
user2=supervisor

Property realm configuration

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <security>
    <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="default">
        <!-- groups-attribute configures the "groups.properties" file to contain security authorization roles. -->
        <properties-realm groups-attribute="Roles">
          <user-properties path="users.properties"
                           relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path"
                           plain-text="true"/>
          <group-properties path="groups.properties"
                            relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path"/>
        </properties-realm>
      </security-realm>
    </security-realms>
  </security>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "security": {
      "security-realms": [{
        "name": "default",
        "properties-realm": {
          "groups-attribute": "Roles",
          "user-properties": {
            "digest-realm-name": "default",
            "path": "users.properties",
            "relative-to": "infinispan.server.config.path",
            "plain-text": true
          },
          "group-properties": {
            "path": "groups.properties",
            "relative-to": "infinispan.server.config.path"
          }
        }
      }]
    }
  }
}

YAML

server:
  security:
    securityRealms:
      - name: "default"
        propertiesRealm:
          # groupsAttribute configures the "groups.properties" file
          # to contain security authorization roles.
          groupsAttribute: "Roles"
          userProperties:
            digestRealmName: "default"
            path: "users.properties"
            relative-to: 'infinispan.server.config.path'
            plainText: "true"
          groupProperties:
            path: "groups.properties"
            relative-to: 'infinispan.server.config.path'

5.4. LDAP realms

LDAP realms connect to LDAP servers, such as OpenLDAP, Red Hat Directory Server, Apache Directory Server, or Microsoft Active Directory, to authenticate users and obtain membership information.

Note

LDAP servers can have different entry layouts, depending on the type of server and deployment. It is beyond the scope of this document to provide examples for all possible configurations.

Important

The principal for LDAP connections must have necessary privileges to perform LDAP queries and access specific attributes.

As an alternative to verifying user credentials with the direct-verification attribute, you can specify an LDAP attribute that validates passwords with the user-password-mapper element.

Note

You cannot use endpoint authentication mechanisms that perform hashing with the direct-verification attribute.

Because Active Directory does not expose the password attribute you can use the direct-verification attribute only and not the user-password-mapper element. As a result you must use the BASIC authentication mechanism with the REST endpoint and PLAIN with the Hot Rod endpoint to integrate with Active Directory Server. A more secure alternative is to use Kerberos, which allows the SPNEGO, GSSAPI, and GS2-KRB5 authentication mechanisms.

The rdn-identifier attribute specifies an LDAP attribute that finds the user entry based on a provided identifier, which is typically a username; for example, the uid or sAMAccountName attribute. Add search-recursive="true" to the configuration to search the directory recursively. By default, the search for the user entry uses the (rdn_identifier={0}) filter. Specify a different filter with the filter-name attribute.

The attribute-mapping element retrieves all the groups of which the user is a member. There are typically two ways in which membership information is stored:

  • Under group entries that usually have class groupOfNames in the member attribute. In this case, you can use an attribute filter as in the preceding example configuration. This filter searches for entries that match the supplied filter, which locates groups with a member attribute equal to the user’s DN. The filter then extracts the group entry’s CN as specified by from, and adds it to the user’s Roles.
  • In the user entry in the memberOf attribute. In this case you should use an attribute reference such as the following:

    <attribute-reference reference="memberOf" from="cn" to="Roles" />

    This reference gets all memberOf attributes from the user’s entry, extracts the CN as specified by from, and adds them to the user’s Roles.

LDAP realm configuration

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <security>
    <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="ldap-realm">
        <!-- Specifies connection properties. -->
        <ldap-realm url="ldap://my-ldap-server:10389"
                    principal="uid=admin,ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org"
                    credential="strongPassword"
                    connection-timeout="3000"
                    read-timeout="30000"
                    connection-pooling="true"
                    referral-mode="ignore"
                    page-size="30"
                    direct-verification="true">
          <!-- Defines how principals are mapped to LDAP entries. -->
          <identity-mapping rdn-identifier="uid"
                            search-dn="ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org"
                            search-recursive="false">
            <!-- Retrieves all the groups of which the user is a member. -->
            <attribute-mapping>
              <attribute from="cn" to="Roles"
                         filter="(&amp;(objectClass=groupOfNames)(member={1}))"
                         filter-dn="ou=Roles,dc=infinispan,dc=org"/>
            </attribute-mapping>
          </identity-mapping>
        </ldap-realm>
      </security-realm>
    </security-realms>
  </security>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "security": {
      "security-realms": [{
        "name": "ldap-realm",
        "ldap-realm": {
          "url": "ldap://my-ldap-server:10389",
          "principal": "uid=admin,ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org",
          "credential": "strongPassword",
          "connection-timeout": "3000",
          "read-timeout": "30000",
          "connection-pooling": "true",
          "referral-mode": "ignore",
          "page-size": "30",
          "direct-verification": "true",
          "identity-mapping": {
            "rdn-identifier": "uid",
            "search-dn": "ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org",
            "search-recursive": "false",
            "attribute-mapping": [{
              "from": "cn",
              "to": "Roles",
              "filter": "(&(objectClass=groupOfNames)(member={1}))",
              "filter-dn": "ou=Roles,dc=infinispan,dc=org"
            }]
          }
        }
      }]
    }
  }
}

YAML

server:
  security:
    securityRealms:
      - name: ldap-realm
        ldapRealm:
          url: 'ldap://my-ldap-server:10389'
          principal: 'uid=admin,ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org'
          credential: strongPassword
          connectionTimeout': '3000'
          readTimeout': '30000'
          connectionPooling': true
          referralMode': ignore
          pageSize': '30'
          directVerification': true
          identityMapping:
            rdnIdentifier: uid
            searchDn: 'ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org'
            searchRecursive: false
            attributeMapping:
              - filter: '(&(objectClass=groupOfNames)(member={1}))'
                filterDn: 'ou=Roles,dc=infinispan,dc=org'
                from: cn
                to: Roles

5.4.1. LDAP realm principal re-writing

SASL authentication mechanisms such as GSSAPI, GS2-KRB5 and Negotiate include a username that needs to be cleaned up before you can use it to search LDAP directories.

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <security>
    <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="ldap-realm">
        <ldap-realm url="ldap://${org.infinispan.test.host.address}:10389"
                    principal="uid=admin,ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org"
                    credential="strongPassword">
          <name-rewriter>
            <!-- Defines a rewriter that extracts the username from the principal using a regular expression. -->
            <regex-principal-transformer name="domain-remover"
                                         pattern="(.*)@INFINISPAN\.ORG"
                                         replacement="$1"/>
          </name-rewriter>
          <identity-mapping rdn-identifier="uid"
                            search-dn="ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org">
            <attribute-mapping>
              <attribute from="cn" to="Roles"
                         filter="(&amp;(objectClass=groupOfNames)(member={1}))"
                         filter-dn="ou=Roles,dc=infinispan,dc=org"/>
            </attribute-mapping>
            <user-password-mapper from="userPassword"/>
          </identity-mapping>
        </ldap-realm>
      </security-realm>
    </security-realms>
  </security>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "security": {
      "security-realms": [{
        "name": "ldap-realm",
        "ldap-realm": {
          "principal": "uid=admin,ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org",
          "url": "ldap://${org.infinispan.test.host.address}:10389",
          "credential": "strongPassword",
          "name-rewriter": {
            "regex-principal-transformer": {
              "pattern": "(.*)@INFINISPAN\\.ORG",
              "replacement": "$1"
            }
          },
          "identity-mapping": {
            "rdn-identifier": "uid",
            "search-dn": "ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org",
            "attribute-mapping": {
              "attribute": {
                "filter": "(&(objectClass=groupOfNames)(member={1}))",
                "filter-dn": "ou=Roles,dc=infinispan,dc=org",
                "from": "cn",
                "to": "Roles"
              }
            },
            "user-password-mapper": {
              "from": "userPassword"
            }
          }
        }
      }]
    }
  }
}

YAML

server:
  security:
    securityRealms:
      - name: "ldap-realm"
        ldapRealm:
          principal: "uid=admin,ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org"
          url: "ldap://${org.infinispan.test.host.address}:10389"
          credential: "strongPassword"
          nameRewriter:
            regexPrincipalTransformer:
              pattern: (.*)@INFINISPAN\.ORG
              replacement: "$1"
          identityMapping:
            rdnIdentifier: "uid"
            searchDn: "ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org"
            attributeMapping:
              attribute:
                filter: "(&(objectClass=groupOfNames)(member={1}))"
                filterDn: "ou=Roles,dc=infinispan,dc=org"
                from: "cn"
                to: "Roles"
            userPasswordMapper:
              from: "userPassword"

5.5. Token realms

Token realms use external services to validate tokens and require providers that are compatible with RFC-7662 (OAuth2 Token Introspection), such as Red Hat SSO.

Token realm configuration

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <security>
    <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="token-realm">
        <!-- Specifies the URL of the authentication server. -->
        <token-realm name="token"
                     auth-server-url="https://oauth-server/auth/">
          <!-- Specifies the URL of the token introspection endpoint. -->
          <oauth2-introspection introspection-url="https://oauth-server/auth/realms/infinispan/protocol/openid-connect/token/introspect"
                                client-id="infinispan-server"
                                client-secret="1fdca4ec-c416-47e0-867a-3d471af7050f"/>
        </token-realm>
      </security-realm>
    </security-realms>
  </security>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "security": {
      "security-realms": [{
        "name": "token-realm",
        "token-realm": {
          "auth-server-url": "https://oauth-server/auth/",
          "oauth2-introspection": {
            "client-id": "infinispan-server",
            "client-secret": "1fdca4ec-c416-47e0-867a-3d471af7050f",
            "introspection-url": "https://oauth-server/auth/realms/infinispan/protocol/openid-connect/token/introspect"
          }
        }
      }]
    }
  }
}

YAML

server:
  security:
    securityRealms:
      - name: token-realm
        tokenRealm:
          authServerUrl: 'https://oauth-server/auth/'
          oauth2Introspection:
            clientId: infinispan-server
            clientSecret: '1fdca4ec-c416-47e0-867a-3d471af7050f'
            introspectionUrl: 'https://oauth-server/auth/realms/infinispan/protocol/openid-connect/token/introspect'

5.6. Trust store realms

Trust store realms use certificates, or certificates chains, that verify Data Grid Server and client identities when they negotiate connections.

Keystores
Contain server certificates that provide a Data Grid Server identity to clients. If you configure a keystore with server certificates, Data Grid Server encrypts traffic using industry standard SSL/TLS protocols.
Trust stores
Contain client certificates, or certificate chains, that clients present to Data Grid Server. Client trust stores are optional and allow Data Grid Server to perform client certificate authentication.

Client certificate authentication

You must add the require-ssl-client-auth="true" attribute to the endpoint configuration if you want Data Grid Server to validate or authenticate client certificates.

Trust store realm configuration

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <security>
    <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="trust-store-realm">
        <server-identities>
          <ssl>
            <!-- Provides an SSL/TLS identity with a keystore that contains server certificates. -->
            <keystore path="server.p12"
                      relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path"
                      keystore-password="secret"
                      alias="server"/>
            <!-- Configures a trust store that contains client certificates or part of a certificate chain. -->
            <truststore path="trust.p12"
                        relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path"
                        password="secret"/>
          </ssl>
        </server-identities>
        <!-- Authenticates client certificates against the trust store. If you configure this, the trust store must contain the public certificates for all clients. -->
        <truststore-realm/>
      </security-realm>
    </security-realms>
  </security>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "security": {
      "security-realms": [{
        "name": "trust-store-realm",
        "server-identities": {
          "ssl": {
            "keystore": {
              "path": "server.p12",
              "relative-to": "infinispan.server.config.path",
              "keystore-password": "secret",
              "alias": "server"
            },
            "truststore": {
              "path": "trust.p12",
              "relative-to": "infinispan.server.config.path",
              "password": "secret"
            }
          }
        },
        "truststore-realm": {}
      }]
    }
  }
}

YAML

server:
  security:
    securityRealms:
      - name: "trust-store-realm"
        serverIdentities:
          ssl:
            keystore:
              path: "server.p12"
              relative-to: "infinispan.server.config.path"
              keystore-password: "secret"
              alias: "server"
            truststore:
              path: "trust.p12"
              relative-to: "infinispan.server.config.path"
              password: "secret"
        truststoreRealm: ~

5.7. Distributed security realms

Distributed realms combine multiple different types of security realms. When users attempt to access the Hot Rod or REST endpoints, Data Grid Server uses each security realm in turn until it finds one that can perform the authentication.

Distributed realm configuration

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <security>
    <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="distributed-realm">
        <ldap-realm url="ldap://my-ldap-server:10389"
                    principal="uid=admin,ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org"
                    credential="strongPassword">
          <identity-mapping rdn-identifier="uid"
                            search-dn="ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org"
                            search-recursive="false">
            <attribute-mapping>
              <attribute from="cn" to="Roles"
                         filter="(&amp;(objectClass=groupOfNames)(member={1}))"
                         filter-dn="ou=Roles,dc=infinispan,dc=org"/>
            </attribute-mapping>
          </identity-mapping>
        </ldap-realm>
        <properties-realm groups-attribute="Roles">
          <user-properties path="users.properties"
                           relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path"/>
          <group-properties path="groups.properties"
                            relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path"/>
        </properties-realm>
        <distributed-realm/>
      </security-realm>
    </security-realms>
  </security>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "security": {
      "security-realms": [{
        "name": "distributed-realm",
        "ldap-realm": {
          "principal": "uid=admin,ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org",
          "url": "ldap://my-ldap-server:10389",
          "credential": "strongPassword",
          "identity-mapping": {
            "rdn-identifier": "uid",
            "search-dn": "ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org",
            "search-recursive": false,
            "attribute-mapping": {
              "attribute": {
                "filter": "(&(objectClass=groupOfNames)(member={1}))",
                "filter-dn": "ou=Roles,dc=infinispan,dc=org",
                "from": "cn",
                "to": "Roles"
              }
            }
          }
        },
        "properties-realm": {
          "groups-attribute": "Roles",
          "user-properties": {
            "digest-realm-name": "distributed-realm",
            "path": "users.properties"
          },
          "group-properties": {
            "path": "groups.properties"
          }
        },
        "distributed-realm": {}
      }]
    }
  }
}

YAML

server:
  security:
    securityRealms:
      - name: "distributed-realm"
        ldapRealm:
          principal: "uid=admin,ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org"
          url: "ldap://my-ldap-server:10389"
          credential: "strongPassword"
          identityMapping:
            rdnIdentifier: "uid"
            searchDn: "ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org"
            searchRecursive: "false"
            attributeMapping:
              attribute:
                filter: "(&(objectClass=groupOfNames)(member={1}))"
                filterDn: "ou=Roles,dc=infinispan,dc=org"
                from: "cn"
                to: "Roles"
        propertiesRealm:
          groupsAttribute: "Roles"
          userProperties:
            digestRealmName: "distributed-realm"
            path: "users.properties"
          groupProperties:
            path: "groups.properties"
        distributedRealm: ~

Chapter 6. Configuring TLS/SSL encryption

You can secure Data Grid Server connections using SSL/TLS encryption by configuring a keystore that contains public and private keys for Data Grid. You can also configure client certificate authentication if you require mutual TLS.

6.1. Configuring Data Grid Server keystores

Add keystores to Data Grid Server and configure it to present SSL/TLS certificates that verify its identity to clients. If a security realm contains TLS/SSL identities, it encrypts any connections to Data Grid Server endpoints that use that security realm.

Prerequisites

  • Create a keystore that contains certificates, or certificate chains, for Data Grid Server.

Data Grid Server supports the following keystore formats: JKS, JCEKS, PKCS12/PFX and PEM. BKS, BCFKS, and UBER are also supported if the Bouncy Castle library is present.

Important

In production environments, server certificates should be signed by a trusted Certificate Authority, either Root or Intermediate CA.

Tip

You can use PEM files as keystores if they contain both of the following:

  • A private key in PKCS#1 or PKCS#8 format.
  • One or more certificates.

You should also configure PEM file keystores with an empty password (password="").

Procedure

  1. Open your Data Grid Server configuration for editing.
  2. Add the keystore that contains SSL/TLS identities for Data Grid Server to the $RHDG_HOME/server/conf directory.
  3. Add a server-identities definition to the Data Grid Server security realm.
  4. Specify the keystore file name with the path attribute.
  5. Provide the keystore password and certificate alias with the keystore-password and alias attributes.
  6. Save the changes to your configuration.

Next steps

Configure clients with a trust store so they can verify SSL/TLS identities for Data Grid Server.

Keystore configuration

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <security>
    <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="default">
        <server-identities>
          <ssl>
            <!-- Adds a keystore that contains server certificates that provide SSL/TLS identities to clients. -->
            <keystore path="server.p12"
                      relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path"
                      password="secret"
                      alias="my-server"/>
          </ssl>
        </server-identities>
      </security-realm>
    </security-realms>
  </security>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "security": {
      "security-realms": [{
        "name": "default",
        "server-identities": {
          "ssl": {
            "keystore": {
              "alias": "my-server",
              "path": "server.p12",
              "password": "secret"
            }
          }
        }
      }]
    }
  }
}

YAML

server:
  security:
    securityRealms:
      - name: "default"
        serverIdentities:
          ssl:
            keystore:
              alias: "my-server"
              path: "server.p12"
              password: "secret"

6.1.1. Generating Data Grid Server keystores

Configure Data Grid Server to automatically generate keystores at startup.

Important

Automatically generated keystores:

  • Should not be used in production environments.
  • Are generated whenever necessary; for example, while obtaining the first connection from a client.
  • Contain certificates that you can use directly in Hot Rod clients.

Procedure

  1. Open your Data Grid Server configuration for editing.
  2. Include the generate-self-signed-certificate-host attribute for the keystore element in the server configuration.
  3. Specify a hostname for the server certificate as the value.
  4. Save the changes to your configuration.
Generated keystore configuration

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <security>
    <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="generated-keystore">
        <server-identities>
          <ssl>
            <!-- Generates a keystore that includes a self-signed certificate with the specified hostname. -->
            <keystore path="server.p12"
                      relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path"
                      password="secret"
                      alias="server"
                      generate-self-signed-certificate-host="localhost"/>
          </ssl>
        </server-identities>
      </security-realm>
    </security-realms>
  </security>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "security": {
      "security-realms": [{
        "name": "generated-keystore",
        "server-identities": {
          "ssl": {
            "keystore": {
              "alias": "server",
              "generate-self-signed-certificate-host": "localhost",
              "path": "server.p12",
              "password": "secret"
            }
          }
        }
      }]
    }
  }
}

YAML

server:
  security:
    securityRealms:
      - name: "generated-keystore"
        serverIdentities:
          ssl:
            keystore:
              alias: "server"
              generateSelfSignedCertificateHost: "localhost"
              path: "server.p12"
              password: "secret"

6.1.2. Configuring TLS versions and cipher suites

When using SSL/TLS encryption to secure your deployment, you can configure Data Grid Server to use specific versions of the TLS protocol as well as specific cipher suites within the protocol.

Procedure

  1. Open your Data Grid Server configuration for editing.
  2. Add the engine element to the SSL configuration for Data Grid Server.
  3. Configure Data Grid to use one or more TLS versions with the enabled-protocols attribute.

    Data Grid Server supports TLS version 1.2 and 1.3 by default. If appropriate you can set TLSv1.3 only to restrict the security protocol for client connections. Data Grid does not recommend enabling TLSv1.1 because it is an older protocol with limited support and provides weak security. You should never enable any version of TLS older than 1.1.

    Warning

    If you modify the SSL engine configuration for Data Grid Server you must explicitly configure TLS versions with the enabled-protocols attribute. Omitting the enabled-protocols attribute allows any TLS version.

    <engine enabled-protocols="TLSv1.3 TLSv1.2" />
  4. Configure Data Grid to use one or more cipher suites with the enabled-ciphersuites attribute.

    You must ensure that you set a cipher suite that supports any protocol features you plan to use; for example HTTP/2 ALPN.

  5. Save the changes to your configuration.
SSL engine configuration

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <security>
    <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="default">
        <server-identities>
          <ssl>
            <keystore path="server.p12"
                      relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path"
                      password="secret"
                      alias="server"/>
            <!-- Configures Data Grid Server to use specific TLS versions and cipher suites. -->
            <engine enabled-protocols="TLSv1.3"
                    enabled-ciphersuites="TLS_AES_256_GCM_SHA384,TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256"/>
          </ssl>
        </server-identities>
      </security-realm>
    </security-realms>
  </security>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "security": {
      "security-realms": [{
        "name": "default",
        "server-identities": {
          "ssl": {
            "keystore": {
              "alias": "server",
              "path": "server.p12",
              "password": "secret"
            },
            "engine": {
              "enabled-protocols": ["TLSv1.3"],
              "enabled-ciphersuites": "TLS_AES_256_GCM_SHA384,TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256"
            }
          }
        }
      }]
    }
  }
}

YAML

server:
  security:
    securityRealms:
      - name: "default"
        serverIdentities:
          ssl:
            keystore:
              alias: "server"
              path: "server.p12"
              password: "secret"
            engine:
              enabledProtocols:
                - "TLSv1.3"
              enabledCiphersuites: "TLS_AES_256_GCM_SHA384,TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256"

6.2. Configuring Data Grid Server on a system with FIPS 140-2 compliant cryptography

It is possible to configure Data Grid Server to present SSL/TLS certificates that verify its identity to clients. If a security realm contains TLS/SSL identities, it encrypts any connections to Data Grid Server endpoints that use that security realm.

Prerequisites

  • A system in FIPS mode. Execute fips-mode-setup --check to ensure it is enabled.
  • A correctly initialized NSS database.
  • A JDK installation with the java.security file configured to enable the SunPKCS11 provider pointing to the NSS database and the SSL provider initialized with the SunPKCS11-nss-fips argument.
  • A certificate installed in the NSS database.
Note

The OpenSSL provider requires a private key, but it is not possible to retrieve a private key from the PKCS11 store. FIPS does not allow the export of unencrypted keys from FIPS compliant cryptographic module. Therefore it is not possible to use the OpenSSL provider for TLS when in FIPS mode. Start the server with the -Dorg.infinispan.openssl=false argument to disable OpenSSL.

Procedure

  1. Open your Data Grid Server configuration for editing.
  2. Add a server-identities definition to the Data Grid Server security realm.
  3. Specify the PKCS11 keystore with the SunPKCS11-NSS-FIPS provider.
  4. Save the changes to your configuration.

Keystore configuration

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
   <security>
      <security-realms>
         <security-realm name="default">
            <server-identities>
               <ssl>
                  <!-- Adds a keystore that reads certificates from the NSS database. -->
                  <keystore provider="SunPKCS11-NSS-FIPS" type="PKCS11"/>
               </ssl>
            </server-identities>
         </security-realm>
      </security-realms>
   </security>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "security": {
      "security-realms": [{
        "name": "default",
        "server-identities": {
          "ssl": {
            "keystore": {
              "provider": "SunPKCS11-NSS-FIPS",
              "type": "PKCS11"
            }
          }
        }
      }]
    }
  }
}

YAML

server:
  security:
    securityRealms:
      - name: "default"
        serverIdentities:
          ssl:
            keystore:
              provider: "SunPKCS11-NSS-FIPS"
              type: "PKCS11"

6.3. Configuring client certificate authentication

Configure Data Grid Server to use mutual TLS to secure client connections.

You can configure Data Grid to verify client identities from certificates in a trust store in two ways:

  • Require a trust store that contains only the signing certificate, which is typically a Certificate Authority (CA). Any client that presents a certificate signed by the CA can connect to Data Grid.
  • Require a trust store that contains all client certificates in addition to the signing certificate. Only clients that present a signed certificate that is present in the trust store can connect to Data Grid.
Tip

Alternatively to providing trust stores you can use shared system certificates.

Prerequisites

  • Create a client trust store that contains either the CA certificate or all public certificates.
  • Create a keystore for Data Grid Server and configure an SSL/TLS identity.
Note

PEM files can be used as trust stores provided they contain one or more certificates. These trust stores should be configured with an empty password: password="".

Procedure

  1. Open your Data Grid Server configuration for editing.
  2. Add the require-ssl-client-auth="true" parameter to your endpoints configuration.
  3. Add the client trust store to the $RHDG_HOME/server/conf directory.
  4. Specify the path and password attributes for the truststore element in the Data Grid Server security realm configuration.
  5. Add the <truststore-realm/> element to the security realm if you want Data Grid Server to authenticate each client certificate.
  6. Save the changes to your configuration.

Next steps

  • Set up authorization with client certificates in the Data Grid Server configuration if you control access with security roles and permissions.
  • Configure clients to negotiate SSL/TLS connections with Data Grid Server.

Client certificate authentication configuration

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <security>
    <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="trust-store-realm">
        <server-identities>
          <ssl>
            <!-- Provides an SSL/TLS identity with a keystore that
                 contains server certificates. -->
            <keystore path="server.p12"
                      relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path"
                      keystore-password="secret"
                      alias="server"/>
            <!-- Configures a trust store that contains client certificates
                 or part of a certificate chain. -->
            <truststore path="trust.p12"
                        relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path"
                        password="secret"/>
          </ssl>
        </server-identities>
        <!-- Authenticates client certificates against the trust store. If you configure this, the trust store must contain the public certificates for all clients. -->
        <truststore-realm/>
      </security-realm>
    </security-realms>
  </security>
  <endpoints>
    <endpoint socket-binding="default"
              security-realm="trust-store-realm"
              require-ssl-client-auth="true">
      <hotrod-connector>
        <authentication>
          <sasl mechanisms="EXTERNAL"
                server-name="infinispan"
                qop="auth"/>
        </authentication>
      </hotrod-connector>
      <rest-connector>
        <authentication mechanisms="CLIENT_CERT"/>
      </rest-connector>
    </endpoint>
  </endpoints>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "security": {
      "security-realms": [{
        "name": "trust-store-realm",
        "server-identities": {
          "ssl": {
            "keystore": {
              "path": "server.p12",
              "relative-to": "infinispan.server.config.path",
              "keystore-password": "secret",
              "alias": "server"
            },
            "truststore": {
              "path": "trust.p12",
              "relative-to": "infinispan.server.config.path",
              "password": "secret"
            }
          }
        },
        "truststore-realm": {}
      }]
    },
    "endpoints": [{
      "socket-binding": "default",
      "security-realm": "trust-store-realm",
      "require-ssl-client-auth": "true",
      "connectors": {
        "hotrod": {
          "hotrod-connector": {
            "authentication": {
              "sasl": {
                "mechanisms": "EXTERNAL",
                "server-name": "infinispan",
                "qop": "auth"
              }
            }
          },
          "rest": {
            "rest-connector": {
              "authentication": {
                "mechanisms": "CLIENT_CERT"
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }]
  }
}

YAML

server:
  security:
    securityRealms:
      - name: "trust-store-realm"
        serverIdentities:
          ssl:
            keystore:
              path: "server.p12"
              relative-to: "infinispan.server.config.path"
              keystore-password: "secret"
              alias: "server"
            truststore:
              path: "trust.p12"
              relative-to: "infinispan.server.config.path"
              password: "secret"
        truststoreRealm: ~
  endpoints:
    socketBinding: "default"
    securityRealm: "trust-store-realm"
    requireSslClientAuth: "true"
    connectors:
      - hotrod:
          hotrodConnector:
            authentication:
              sasl:
                mechanisms: "EXTERNAL"
                serverName: "infinispan"
                qop: "auth"
      - rest:
          restConnector:
            authentication:
              mechanisms: "CLIENT_CERT"

Additional resources

6.4. Configuring authorization with client certificates

Enabling client certificate authentication means you do not need to specify Data Grid user credentials in client configuration, which means you must associate roles with the Common Name (CN) field in the client certificate(s).

Prerequisites

  • Provide clients with a Java keystore that contains either their public certificates or part of the certificate chain, typically a public CA certificate.
  • Configure Data Grid Server to perform client certificate authentication.

Procedure

  1. Open your Data Grid Server configuration for editing.
  2. Enable the common-name-role-mapper in the security authorization configuration.
  3. Assign the Common Name (CN) from the client certificate a role with the appropriate permissions.
  4. Save the changes to your configuration.

Client certificate authorization configuration

XML

<infinispan>
  <cache-container name="certificate-authentication" statistics="true">
    <security>
      <authorization>
        <!-- Declare a role mapper that associates the common name (CN) field in client certificate trust stores with authorization roles. -->
        <common-name-role-mapper/>
        <!-- In this example, if a client certificate contains `CN=Client1` then clients with matching certificates get ALL permissions. -->
        <role name="Client1" permissions="ALL"/>
      </authorization>
    </security>
  </cache-container>
</infinispan>

JSON

{
  "infinispan": {
    "cache-container": {
      "name": "certificate-authentication",
      "security": {
        "authorization": {
          "common-name-role-mapper": null,
          "roles": {
            "Client1": {
              "role": {
                "permissions": "ALL"
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

YAML

infinispan:
  cacheContainer:
    name: "certificate-authentication"
    security:
      authorization:
        commonNameRoleMapper: ~
        roles:
          Client1:
            role:
              permissions: "ALL"

Chapter 7. Storing Data Grid Server credentials in keystores

External services require credentials to authenticate with Data Grid Server. To protect sensitive text strings such as passwords, add them to a credential keystore rather than directly in Data Grid Server configuration files.

You can then configure Data Grid Server to decrypt passwords for establishing connections with services such as databases or LDAP directories.

Important

Plain-text passwords in $RHDG_HOME/server/conf are unencrypted. Any user account with read access to the host filesystem can view plain-text passwords.

While credential keystores are password-protected store encrypted passwords, any user account with write access to the host filesystem can tamper with the keystore itself.

To completely secure Data Grid Server credentials, you should grant read-write access only to user accounts that can configure and run Data Grid Server.

7.1. Setting up credential keystores

Create keystores that encrypt credential for Data Grid Server access.

A credential keystore contains at least one alias that is associated with an encrypted password. After you create a keystore, you specify the alias in a connection configuration such as a database connection pool. Data Grid Server then decrypts the password for that alias from the keystore when the service attempts authentication.

You can create as many credential keystores with as many aliases as required.

Procedure

  1. Open a terminal in $RHDG_HOME.
  2. Create a keystore and add credentials to it with the credentials command.

    Tip

    By default, keystores are of type PKCS12. Run help credentials for details on changing keystore defaults.

    The following example shows how to create a keystore that contains an alias of "dbpassword" for the password "changeme". When you create a keystore you also specify a password for the keystore with the -p argument.

    Linux
    bin/cli.sh credentials add dbpassword -c changeme -p "secret1234!"
    Microsoft Windows
    bin\cli.bat credentials add dbpassword -c changeme -p "secret1234!"
  3. Check that the alias is added to the keystore.

    bin/cli.sh credentials ls -p "secret1234!"
    dbpassword
  4. Configure Data Grid to use the credential keystore.

    1. Specify the name and location of the credential keystore in the credential-stores configuration.
    2. Provide the credential keystore and alias in the credential-reference configuration.

      Tip

      Attributes in the credential-reference configuration are optional.

      • store is required only if you have multiple keystores.
      • alias is required only if the keystore contains multiple aliases.

7.2. Credential keystore configuration

This topic provides examples of credential keystores in Data Grid Server configuration.

Credential keystores

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <security>
    <!-- Uses a keystore to manage server credentials. -->
    <credential-stores>
      <!-- Specifies the name and filesystem location of a keystore. -->
      <credential-store name="credentials" path="credentials.pfx">
        <!-- Specifies the password for the credential keystore. -->
        <clear-text-credential clear-text="secret1234!"/>
      </credential-store>
    </credential-stores>
  </security>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "security": {
      "credential-stores": [{
        "name": "credentials",
        "path": "credentials.pfx",
        "clear-text-credential": {
          "clear-text": "secret1234!"
        }
      }]
    }
  }
}

YAML

server:
  security:
    credentialStores:
      - name: credentials
        path: credentials.pfx
        clearTextCredential:
          clearText: "secret1234!"

Datasource connections

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <data-sources>
    <data-source name="postgres"
                 jndi-name="jdbc/postgres">
      <!-- Specifies the database username in the connection factory. -->
      <connection-factory driver="org.postgresql.Driver"
                          username="dbuser"
                          url="${org.infinispan.server.test.postgres.jdbcUrl}">
        <!-- Specifies the credential keystore that contains an encrypted password and the alias for it. -->
        <credential-reference store="credentials"
                              alias="dbpassword"/>
      </connection-factory>
      <connection-pool max-size="10"
                       min-size="1"
                       background-validation="1000"
                       idle-removal="1"
                       initial-size="1"
                       leak-detection="10000"/>
    </data-source>
  </data-sources>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "data-sources": [{
      "name": "postgres",
      "jndi-name": "jdbc/postgres",
      "connection-factory": {
        "driver": "org.postgresql.Driver",
        "username": "dbuser",
        "url": "${org.infinispan.server.test.postgres.jdbcUrl}",
        "credential-reference": {
          "store": "credentials",
          "alias": "dbpassword"
        }
      }
    }]
  }
}

YAML

server:
  dataSources:
    - name: postgres
      jndiName: jdbc/postgres
      connectionFactory:
        driver: org.postgresql.Driver
        username: dbuser
        url: '${org.infinispan.server.test.postgres.jdbcUrl}'
        credentialReference:
          store: credentials
          alias: dbpassword

LDAP connections

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <security>
    <credential-stores>
      <credential-store name="credentials"
                        path="credentials.pfx">
        <clear-text-credential clear-text="secret1234!"/>
      </credential-store>
    </credential-stores>
    <security-realms>
      <security-realm name="default">
        <!-- Specifies the LDAP principal in the connection factory. -->
        <ldap-realm name="ldap"
                    url="ldap://my-ldap-server:10389"
                    principal="uid=admin,ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org">
          <!-- Specifies the credential keystore that contains an encrypted password and the alias for it. -->
          <credential-reference store="credentials"
                                alias="ldappassword"/>
        </ldap-realm>
      </security-realm>
    </security-realms>
  </security>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "security": {
      "credential-stores": [{
        "name": "credentials",
        "path": "credentials.pfx",
        "clear-text-credential": {
          "clear-text": "secret1234!"
        }
      }],
      "security-realms": [{
        "name": "default",
        "ldap-realm": {
          "name": "ldap",
          "url": "ldap://my-ldap-server:10389",
          "principal": "uid=admin,ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org",
          "credential-reference": {
            "store": "credentials",
            "alias": "ldappassword"
          }
        }
      }]
    }
  }
}

YAML

server:
  security:
    credentialStores:
      - name: credentials
        path: credentials.pfx
        clearTextCredential:
          clearText: "secret1234!"
    securityRealms:
      - name: "default"
        ldapRealm:
          name: ldap
          url: 'ldap://my-ldap-server:10389'
          principal: 'uid=admin,ou=People,dc=infinispan,dc=org'
          credentialReference:
            store: credentials
            alias: ldappassword

Chapter 8. Configuring user roles and permissions

Authorization is a security feature that requires users to have certain permissions before they can access caches or interact with Data Grid resources. You assign roles to users that provide different levels of permissions, from read-only access to full, super user privileges.

8.1. Security authorization

Data Grid authorization secures your deployment by restricting user access.

User applications or clients must belong to a role that is assigned with sufficient permissions before they can perform operations on Cache Managers or caches.

For example, you configure authorization on a specific cache instance so that invoking Cache.get() requires an identity to be assigned a role with read permission while Cache.put() requires a role with write permission.

In this scenario, if a user application or client with the io role attempts to write an entry, Data Grid denies the request and throws a security exception. If a user application or client with the writer role sends a write request, Data Grid validates authorization and issues a token for subsequent operations.

Identities

Identities are security Principals of type java.security.Principal. Subjects, implemented with the javax.security.auth.Subject class, represent a group of security Principals. In other words, a Subject represents a user and all groups to which it belongs.

Identities to roles

Data Grid uses role mappers so that security principals correspond to roles, which you assign one or more permissions.

The following image illustrates how security principals correspond to roles:

8.1.1. User roles and permissions

Data Grid includes a default set of roles that grant users with permissions to access data and interact with Data Grid resources.

ClusterRoleMapper is the default mechanism that Data Grid uses to associate security principals to authorization roles.

Important

ClusterRoleMapper matches principal names to role names. A user named admin gets admin permissions automatically, a user named deployer gets deployer permissions, and so on.

RolePermissionsDescription

admin

ALL

Superuser with all permissions including control of the Cache Manager lifecycle.

deployer

ALL_READ, ALL_WRITE, LISTEN, EXEC, MONITOR, CREATE

Can create and delete Data Grid resources in addition to application permissions.

application

ALL_READ, ALL_WRITE, LISTEN, EXEC, MONITOR

Has read and write access to Data Grid resources in addition to observer permissions. Can also listen to events and execute server tasks and scripts.

observer

ALL_READ, MONITOR

Has read access to Data Grid resources in addition to monitor permissions.

monitor

MONITOR

Can view statistics via JMX and the metrics endpoint.

8.1.2. Permissions

Authorization roles have different permissions with varying levels of access to Data Grid. Permissions let you restrict user access to both Cache Managers and caches.

8.1.2.1. Cache Manager permissions

PermissionFunctionDescription

CONFIGURATION

defineConfiguration

Defines new cache configurations.

LISTEN

addListener

Registers listeners against a Cache Manager.

LIFECYCLE

stop

Stops the Cache Manager.

CREATE

createCache, removeCache

Create and remove container resources such as caches, counters, schemas, and scripts.

MONITOR

getStats

Allows access to JMX statistics and the metrics endpoint.

ALL

-

Includes all Cache Manager permissions.

8.1.2.2. Cache permissions

PermissionFunctionDescription

READ

get, contains

Retrieves entries from a cache.

WRITE

put, putIfAbsent, replace, remove, evict

Writes, replaces, removes, evicts data in a cache.

EXEC

distexec, streams

Allows code execution against a cache.

LISTEN

addListener

Registers listeners against a cache.

BULK_READ

keySet, values, entrySet, query

Executes bulk retrieve operations.

BULK_WRITE

clear, putAll

Executes bulk write operations.

LIFECYCLE

start, stop

Starts and stops a cache.

ADMIN

getVersion, addInterceptor*, removeInterceptor, getInterceptorChain, getEvictionManager, getComponentRegistry, getDistributionManager, getAuthorizationManager, evict, getRpcManager, getCacheConfiguration, getCacheManager, getInvocationContextContainer, setAvailability, getDataContainer, getStats, getXAResource

Allows access to underlying components and internal structures.

MONITOR

getStats

Allows access to JMX statistics and the metrics endpoint.

ALL

-

Includes all cache permissions.

ALL_READ

-

Combines the READ and BULK_READ permissions.

ALL_WRITE

-

Combines the WRITE and BULK_WRITE permissions.

Additional resources

8.1.3. Role mappers

Data Grid includes a PrincipalRoleMapper API that maps security Principals in a Subject to authorization roles that you can assign to users.

8.1.3.1. Cluster role mappers

ClusterRoleMapper uses a persistent replicated cache to dynamically store principal-to-role mappings for the default roles and permissions.

By default uses the Principal name as the role name and implements org.infinispan.security.MutableRoleMapper which exposes methods to change role mappings at runtime.

  • Java class: org.infinispan.security.mappers.ClusterRoleMapper
  • Declarative configuration: <cluster-role-mapper />

8.1.3.2. Identity role mappers

IdentityRoleMapper uses the Principal name as the role name.

  • Java class: org.infinispan.security.mappers.IdentityRoleMapper
  • Declarative configuration: <identity-role-mapper />

8.1.3.3. CommonName role mappers

CommonNameRoleMapper uses the Common Name (CN) as the role name if the Principal name is a Distinguished Name (DN).

For example this DN, cn=managers,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com, maps to the managers role.

  • Java class: org.infinispan.security.mappers.CommonRoleMapper
  • Declarative configuration: <common-name-role-mapper />

8.1.3.4. Custom role mappers

Custom role mappers are implementations of org.infinispan.security.PrincipalRoleMapper.

  • Declarative configuration: <custom-role-mapper class="my.custom.RoleMapper" />

8.2. Access control list (ACL) cache

Data Grid caches roles that you grant to users internally for optimal performance. Whenever you grant or deny roles to users, Data Grid flushes the ACL cache to ensure user permissions are applied correctly.

If necessary, you can disable the ACL cache or configure it with the cache-size and cache-timeout attributes.

XML

<infinispan>
  <cache-container name="acl-cache-configuration">
    <security cache-size="1000"
              cache-timeout="300000">
      <authorization/>
    </security>
  </cache-container>
</infinispan>

JSON

{
  "infinispan" : {
    "cache-container" : {
      "name" : "acl-cache-configuration",
      "security" : {
        "cache-size" : "1000",
        "cache-timeout" : "300000",
        "authorization" : {}
      }
    }
  }
}

YAML

infinispan:
  cacheContainer:
    name: "acl-cache-configuration"
    security:
      cache-size: "1000"
      cache-timeout: "300000"
      authorization: ~

8.3. Customizing roles and permissions

You can customize authorization settings in your Data Grid configuration to use role mappers with different combinations of roles and permissions.

Procedure

  1. Declare a role mapper and a set of custom roles and permissions in the Cache Manager configuration.
  2. Configure authorization for caches to restrict access based on user roles.

Custom roles and permissions configuration

XML

<infinispan>
  <cache-container name="custom-authorization">
    <security>
      <authorization>
        <!-- Declare a role mapper that associates a security principal
             to each role. -->
        <identity-role-mapper />
        <!-- Specify user roles and corresponding permissions. -->
        <role name="admin" permissions="ALL" />
        <role name="reader" permissions="READ" />
        <role name="writer" permissions="WRITE" />
        <role name="supervisor" permissions="READ WRITE EXEC"/>
      </authorization>
    </security>
  </cache-container>
</infinispan>

JSON

{
  "infinispan" : {
    "cache-container" : {
      "name" : "custom-authorization",
      "security" : {
        "authorization" : {
          "identity-role-mapper" : null,
          "roles" : {
            "reader" : {
              "role" : {
                "permissions" : "READ"
              }
            },
            "admin" : {
              "role" : {
                "permissions" : "ALL"
              }
            },
            "writer" : {
              "role" : {
                "permissions" : "WRITE"
              }
            },
            "supervisor" : {
              "role" : {
                "permissions" : "READ WRITE EXEC"
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

YAML

infinispan:
  cacheContainer:
    name: "custom-authorization"
    security:
      authorization:
        identityRoleMapper: "null"
        roles:
          reader:
            role:
              permissions: "READ"
          admin:
            role:
              permissions: "ALL"
          writer:
            role:
              permissions: "WRITE"
          supervisor:
            role:
              permissions: "READ WRITE EXEC"

8.4. Configuring caches with security authorization

Use authorization in your cache configuration to restrict user access. Before they can read or write cache entries, or create and delete caches, users must have a role with a sufficient level of permission.

Prerequisites

  • Ensure the authorization element is included in the security section of the cache-container configuration.

    Data Grid enables security authorization in the Cache Manager by default and provides a global set of roles and permissions for caches.

  • If necessary, declare custom roles and permissions in the Cache Manager configuration.

Procedure

  1. Open your cache configuration for editing.
  2. Add the authorization element to caches to restrict user access based on their roles and permissions.
  3. Save the changes to your configuration.

Authorization configuration

The following configuration shows how to use implicit authorization configuration with default roles and permissions:

XML

<distributed-cache>
  <security>
    <!-- Inherit authorization settings from the cache-container. --> <authorization/>
  </security>
</distributed-cache>

JSON

{
  "distributed-cache": {
    "security": {
      "authorization": {
        "enabled": true
      }
    }
  }
}

YAML

distributedCache:
  security:
    authorization:
      enabled: true

Custom roles and permissions

XML

<distributed-cache>
  <security>
    <authorization roles="admin supervisor"/>
  </security>
</distributed-cache>

JSON

{
  "distributed-cache": {
    "security": {
      "authorization": {
        "enabled": true,
        "roles": ["admin","supervisor"]
      }
    }
  }
}

YAML

distributedCache:
  security:
    authorization:
      enabled: true
      roles: ["admin","supervisor"]

8.5. Disabling security authorization

In local development environments you can disable authorization so that users do not need roles and permissions. Disabling security authorization means that any user can access data and interact with Data Grid resources.

Procedure

  1. Open your Data Grid configuration for editing.
  2. Remove any authorization elements from the security configuration for the Cache Manager.
  3. Remove any authorization configuration from your caches.
  4. Save the changes to your configuration.

Chapter 9. Enabling and configuring Data Grid statistics and JMX monitoring

Data Grid can provide Cache Manager and cache statistics as well as export JMX MBeans.

9.1. Enabling statistics in remote caches

Data Grid Server automatically enables statistics for the default cache manager. However, you must explicitly enable statistics for your caches.

Procedure

  1. Open your Data Grid configuration for editing.
  2. Add the statistics attribute or field and specify true as the value.
  3. Save and close your Data Grid configuration.

Remote cache statistics

XML

<distributed-cache statistics="true" />

JSON

{
  "distributed-cache": {
    "statistics": "true"
  }
}

YAML

distributedCache:
  statistics: true

9.2. Enabling Hot Rod client statistics

Hot Rod Java clients can provide statistics that include remote cache and near-cache hits and misses as well as connection pool usage.

Procedure

  1. Open your Hot Rod Java client configuration for editing.
  2. Set true as the value for the statistics property or invoke the statistics().enable() methods.
  3. Export JMX MBeans for your Hot Rod client with the jmx and jmx_domain properties or invoke the jmxEnable() and jmxDomain() methods.
  4. Save and close your client configuration.

Hot Rod Java client statistics

ConfigurationBuilder

ConfigurationBuilder builder = new ConfigurationBuilder();
builder.statistics().enable()
         .jmxEnable()
         .jmxDomain("my.domain.org")
       .addServer()
         .host("127.0.0.1")
         .port(11222);
RemoteCacheManager remoteCacheManager = new RemoteCacheManager(builder.build());

hotrod-client.properties

infinispan.client.hotrod.statistics = true
infinispan.client.hotrod.jmx = true
infinispan.client.hotrod.jmx_domain = my.domain.org

9.3. Configuring Data Grid metrics

Data Grid generates metrics that are compatible with the MicroProfile Metrics API.

  • Gauges provide values such as the average number of nanoseconds for write operations or JVM uptime.
  • Histograms provide details about operation execution times such as read, write, and remove times.

By default, Data Grid generates gauges when you enable statistics but you can also configure it to generate histograms.

Procedure

  1. Open your Data Grid configuration for editing.
  2. Add the metrics element or object to the cache container.
  3. Enable or disable gauges with the gauges attribute or field.
  4. Enable or disable histograms with the histograms attribute or field.
  5. Save and close your client configuration.

Metrics configuration

XML

<infinispan>
  <cache-container statistics="true">
    <metrics gauges="true"
             histograms="true" />
  </cache-container>
</infinispan>

JSON

{
  "infinispan" : {
    "cache-container" : {
      "statistics" : "true",
      "metrics" : {
        "gauges" : "true",
        "histograms" : "true"
      }
    }
  }
}

YAML

infinispan:
  cacheContainer:
    statistics: "true"
    metrics:
      gauges: "true"
      histograms: "true"

Verification

Data Grid Server exposes statistics through the metrics endpoint. You can collect metrics with any monitoring tool that supports the OpenMetrics format, such as Prometheus.

Data Grid metrics are provided at the vendor scope. Metrics related to the JVM are provided in the base scope.

You can retrieve metrics from Data Grid Server as follows:

$ curl -v http://localhost:11222/metrics

To retrieve metrics in MicroProfile JSON format, do the following:

$ curl --header "Accept: application/json" http://localhost:11222/metrics

Additional resources

9.4. Registering JMX MBeans

Data Grid can register JMX MBeans that you can use to collect statistics and perform administrative operations. You must also enable statistics otherwise Data Grid provides 0 values for all statistic attributes in JMX MBeans.

Procedure

  1. Open your Data Grid configuration for editing.
  2. Add the jmx element or object to the cache container and specify true as the value for the enabled attribute or field.
  3. Add the domain attribute or field and specify the domain where JMX MBeans are exposed, if required.
  4. Save and close your client configuration.

JMX configuration

XML

<infinispan>
  <cache-container statistics="true">
    <jmx enabled="true"
         domain="example.com"/>
  </cache-container>
</infinispan>

JSON

{
  "infinispan" : {
    "cache-container" : {
      "statistics" : "true",
      "jmx" : {
        "enabled" : "true",
        "domain" : "example.com"
      }
    }
  }
}

YAML

infinispan:
  cacheContainer:
    statistics: "true"
    jmx:
      enabled: "true"
      domain: "example.com"

9.4.1. Enabling JMX remote ports

Provide unique remote JMX ports to expose Data Grid MBeans through connections in JMXServiceURL format.

Note

Data Grid Server does not expose JMX remotely via the single port endpoint. If you want to remotely access Data Grid Server via JMX you must enable a remote port.

Procedure

  • Pass the following system properties to Data Grid at startup:

    -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote
    -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.port=9999

9.4.2. Data Grid MBeans

Data Grid exposes JMX MBeans that represent manageable resources.

org.infinispan:type=Cache
Attributes and operations available for cache instances.
org.infinispan:type=CacheManager
Attributes and operations available for cache managers, including Data Grid cache and cluster health statistics.

For a complete list of available JMX MBeans along with descriptions and available operations and attributes, see the Data Grid JMX Components documentation.

Additional resources

9.4.3. Registering MBeans in custom MBean servers

Data Grid includes an MBeanServerLookup interface that you can use to register MBeans in custom MBeanServer instances.

Prerequisites

  • Create an implementation of MBeanServerLookup so that the getMBeanServer() method returns the custom MBeanServer instance.
  • Configure Data Grid to register JMX MBeans.

Procedure

  1. Open your Data Grid configuration for editing.
  2. Add the mbean-server-lookup attribute or field to the JMX configuration for the cache manager.
  3. Specify fully qualified name (FQN) of your MBeanServerLookup implementation.
  4. Save and close your client configuration.
JMX MBean server lookup configuration

XML

<infinispan>
  <cache-container statistics="true">
    <jmx enabled="true"
         domain="example.com"
         mbean-server-lookup="com.example.MyMBeanServerLookup"/>
  </cache-container>
</infinispan>

JSON

{
  "infinispan" : {
    "cache-container" : {
      "statistics" : "true",
      "jmx" : {
        "enabled" : "true",
        "domain" : "example.com",
        "mbean-server-lookup" : "com.example.MyMBeanServerLookup"
      }
    }
  }
}

YAML

infinispan:
  cacheContainer:
    statistics: "true"
    jmx:
      enabled: "true"
      domain: "example.com"
      mbeanServerLookup: "com.example.MyMBeanServerLookup"

Chapter 10. Adding managed datasources to Data Grid Server

Optimize connection pooling and performance for JDBC database connections by adding managed datasources to your Data Grid Server configuration.

10.1. Configuring managed datasources

Create managed datasources as part of your Data Grid Server configuration to optimize connection pooling and performance for JDBC database connections. You can then specify the JDNI name of the managed datasources in your caches, which centralizes JDBC connection configuration for your deployment.

Prerequisites

  • Copy database drivers to the server/lib directory in your Data Grid Server installation.

Procedure

  1. Open your Data Grid Server configuration for editing.
  2. Add a new data-source to the data-sources section.
  3. Uniquely identify the datasource with the name attribute or field.
  4. Specify a JNDI name for the datasource with the jndi-name attribute or field.

    Tip

    You use the JNDI name to specify the datasource in your JDBC cache store configuration.

  5. Set true as the value of the statistics attribute or field to enable statistics for the datasource through the /metrics endpoint.
  6. Provide JDBC driver details that define how to connect to the datasource in the connection-factory section.

    1. Specify the name of the database driver with the driver attribute or field.
    2. Specify the JDBC connection url with the url attribute or field.
    3. Specify credentials with the username and password attributes or fields.
    4. Provide any other configuration as appropriate.
  7. Define how Data Grid Server nodes pool and reuse connections with connection pool tuning properties in the connection-pool section.
  8. Save the changes to your configuration.

Verification

Use the Data Grid Command Line Interface (CLI) to test the datasource connection, as follows:

  1. Start a CLI session.

    bin/cli.sh
  2. List all datasources and confirm the one you created is available.

    server datasource ls
  3. Test a datasource connection.

    server datasource test my-datasource

Managed datasource configuration

XML

<server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
  <data-sources>
     <!-- Defines a unique name for the datasource and JNDI name that you
          reference in JDBC cache store configuration.
          Enables statistics for the datasource, if required. -->
     <data-source name="ds"
                  jndi-name="jdbc/postgres"
                  statistics="true">
        <!-- Specifies the JDBC driver that creates connections. -->
        <connection-factory driver="org.postgresql.Driver"
                            url="jdbc:postgresql://localhost:5432/postgres"
                            username="postgres"
                            password="changeme">
           <!-- Sets optional JDBC driver-specific connection properties. -->
           <connection-property name="name">value</connection-property>
        </connection-factory>
        <!-- Defines connection pool tuning properties. -->
        <connection-pool initial-size="1"
                         max-size="10"
                         min-size="3"
                         background-validation="1000"
                         idle-removal="1"
                         blocking-timeout="1000"
                         leak-detection="10000"/>
     </data-source>
  </data-sources>
</server>

JSON

{
  "server": {
    "data-sources": [{
      "name": "ds",
      "jndi-name": "jdbc/postgres",
      "statistics": true,
      "connection-factory": {
        "driver": "org.postgresql.Driver",
        "url": "jdbc:postgresql://localhost:5432/postgres",
        "username": "postgres",
        "password": "changeme",
        "connection-properties": {
          "name": "value"
        }
      },
      "connection-pool": {
        "initial-size": 1,
        "max-size": 10,
        "min-size": 3,
        "background-validation": 1000,
        "idle-removal": 1,
        "blocking-timeout": 1000,
        "leak-detection": 10000
      }
    }]
  }
}

YAML

server:
  dataSources:
    - name: ds
      jndiName: 'jdbc/postgres'
      statistics: true
      connectionFactory:
        driver: "org.postgresql.Driver"
        url: "jdbc:postgresql://localhost:5432/postgres"
        username: "postgres"
        password: "changeme"
        connectionProperties:
          name: value
      connectionPool:
        initialSize: 1
        maxSize: 10
        minSize: 3
        backgroundValidation: 1000
        idleRemoval: 1
        blockingTimeout: 1000
        leakDetection: 10000

10.2. Configuring caches with JNDI names

When you add a managed datasource to Data Grid Server you can add the JNDI name to a JDBC-based cache store configuration.

Prerequisites

  • Configure Data Grid Server with a managed datasource.

Procedure

  1. Open your cache configuration for editing.
  2. Add the data-source element or field to the JDBC-based cache store configuration.
  3. Specify the JNDI name of the managed datasource as the value of the jndi-url attribute.
  4. Configure the JDBC-based cache stores as appropriate.
  5. Save the changes to your configuration.

JNDI name in cache configuration

XML

<distributed-cache>
  <persistence>
    <jdbc:string-keyed-jdbc-store>
      <!-- Specifies the JNDI name of a managed datasource on Data Grid Server. -->
      <jdbc:data-source jndi-url="jdbc/postgres"/>
      <jdbc:string-keyed-table drop-on-exit="true" create-on-start="true" prefix="TBL">
        <jdbc:id-column name="ID" type="VARCHAR(255)"/>
        <jdbc:data-column name="DATA" type="BYTEA"/>
        <jdbc:timestamp-column name="TS" type="BIGINT"/>
        <jdbc:segment-column name="S" type="INT"/>
      </jdbc:string-keyed-table>
    </jdbc:string-keyed-jdbc-store>
  </persistence>
</distributed-cache>

JSON

{
  "distributed-cache": {
    "persistence": {
      "string-keyed-jdbc-store": {
        "data-source": {
          "jndi-url": "jdbc/postgres"
          },
        "string-keyed-table": {
          "prefix": "TBL",
          "drop-on-exit": true,
          "create-on-start": true,
          "id-column": {
            "name": "ID",
            "type": "VARCHAR(255)"
          },
          "data-column": {
            "name": "DATA",
            "type": "BYTEA"
          },
          "timestamp-column": {
            "name": "TS",
            "type": "BIGINT"
          },
          "segment-column": {
            "name": "S",
            "type": "INT"
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

YAML

distributedCache:
  persistence:
    stringKeyedJdbcStore:
      dataSource:
        jndi-url: "jdbc/postgres"
      stringKeyedTable:
        prefix: "TBL"
        dropOnExit: true
        createOnStart: true
        idColumn:
          name: "ID"
          type: "VARCHAR(255)"
        dataColumn:
          name: "DATA"
          type: "BYTEA"
        timestampColumn:
          name: "TS"
          type: "BIGINT"
        segmentColumn:
          name: "S"
          type: "INT"

10.3. Connection pool tuning properties

You can tune JDBC connection pools for managed datasources in your Data Grid Server configuration.

PropertyDescription

initial-size

Initial number of connections the pool should hold.

max-size

Maximum number of connections in the pool.

min-size

Minimum number of connections the pool should hold.

blocking-timeout

Maximum time in milliseconds to block while waiting for a connection before throwing an exception. This will never throw an exception if creating a new connection takes an inordinately long period of time. Default is 0 meaning that a call will wait indefinitely.

background-validation

Time in milliseconds between background validation runs. A duration of 0 means that this feature is disabled.

validate-on-acquisition

Connections idle for longer than this time, specified in milliseconds, are validated before being acquired (foreground validation). A duration of 0 means that this feature is disabled.

idle-removal

Time in minutes a connection has to be idle before it can be removed.

leak-detection

Time in milliseconds a connection has to be held before a leak warning.

Chapter 11. Setting up Data Grid cluster transport

Data Grid requires a transport layer so nodes can automatically join and leave clusters. The transport layer also enables Data Grid nodes to replicate or distribute data across the network and perform operations such as re-balancing and state transfer.

11.1. Default JGroups stacks

Data Grid provides default JGroups stack files, default-jgroups-*.xml, in the default-configs directory inside the infinispan-core-13.0.10.Final-redhat-00001.jar file.

You can find this JAR file in the $RHDG_HOME/lib directory.

File nameStack nameDescription

default-jgroups-udp.xml

udp

Uses UDP for transport and UDP multicast for discovery. Suitable for larger clusters (over 100 nodes) or if you are using replicated caches or invalidation mode. Minimizes the number of open sockets.

default-jgroups-tcp.xml

tcp

Uses TCP for transport and the MPING protocol for discovery, which uses UDP multicast. Suitable for smaller clusters (under 100 nodes) only if you are using distributed caches because TCP is more efficient than UDP as a point-to-point protocol.

default-jgroups-kubernetes.xml

kubernetes

Uses TCP for transport and DNS_PING for discovery. Suitable for Kubernetes and Red Hat OpenShift nodes where UDP multicast is not always available.

default-jgroups-ec2.xml

ec2

Uses TCP for transport and NATIVE_S3_PING for discovery. Suitable for Amazon EC2 nodes where UDP multicast is not available. Requires additional dependencies.

default-jgroups-google.xml

google

Uses TCP for transport and GOOGLE_PING2 for discovery. Suitable for Google Cloud Platform nodes where UDP multicast is not available. Requires additional dependencies.

default-jgroups-azure.xml

azure

Uses TCP for transport and AZURE_PING for discovery. Suitable for Microsoft Azure nodes where UDP multicast is not available. Requires additional dependencies.

Additional resources

11.2. Cluster discovery protocols

Data Grid supports different protocols that allow nodes to automatically find each other on the network and form clusters.

There are two types of discovery mechanisms that Data Grid can use:

  • Generic discovery protocols that work on most networks and do not rely on external services.
  • Discovery protocols that rely on external services to store and retrieve topology information for Data Grid clusters.
    For instance the DNS_PING protocol performs discovery through DNS server records.
Note

Running Data Grid on hosted platforms requires using discovery mechanisms that are adapted to network constraints that individual cloud providers impose.

11.2.1. PING

PING, or UDPPING is a generic JGroups discovery mechanism that uses dynamic multicasting with the UDP protocol.

When joining, nodes send PING requests to an IP multicast address to discover other nodes already in the Data Grid cluster. Each node responds to the PING request with a packet that contains the address of the coordinator node and its own address. C=coordinator’s address and A=own address. If no nodes respond to the PING request, the joining node becomes the coordinator node in a new cluster.

PING configuration example

<PING num_discovery_runs="3"/>

Additional resources

11.2.2. TCPPING

TCPPING is a generic JGroups discovery mechanism that uses a list of static addresses for cluster members.

With TCPPING, you manually specify the IP address or hostname of each node in the Data Grid cluster as part of the JGroups stack, rather than letting nodes discover each other dynamically.

TCPPING configuration example

<TCP bind_port="7800" />
<TCPPING timeout="3000"
         initial_hosts="${jgroups.tcpping.initial_hosts:hostname1[port1],hostname2[port2]}"
          port_range="0"
          num_initial_members="3"/>

Additional resources

11.2.3. MPING

MPING uses IP multicast to discover the initial membership of Data Grid clusters.

You can use MPING to replace TCPPING discovery with TCP stacks and use multicasing for discovery instead of static lists of initial hosts. However, you can also use MPING with UDP stacks.

MPING configuration example

<MPING mcast_addr="${jgroups.mcast_addr:228.6.7.8}"
       mcast_port="${jgroups.mcast_port:46655}"
       num_discovery_runs="3"
       ip_ttl="${jgroups.udp.ip_ttl:2}"/>

Additional resources

11.2.4. TCPGOSSIP

Gossip routers provide a centralized location on the network from which your Data Grid cluster can retrieve addresses of other nodes.

You inject the address (IP:PORT) of the Gossip router into Data Grid nodes as follows:

  1. Pass the address as a system property to the JVM; for example, -DGossipRouterAddress="10.10.2.4[12001]".
  2. Reference that system property in the JGroups configuration file.

Gossip router configuration example

<TCP bind_port="7800" />
<TCPGOSSIP timeout="3000"
           initial_hosts="${GossipRouterAddress}"
           num_initial_members="3" />

Additional resources

11.2.5. JDBC_PING

JDBC_PING uses shared databases to store information about Data Grid clusters. This protocol supports any database that can use a JDBC connection.

Nodes write their IP addresses to the shared database so joining nodes can find the Data Grid cluster on the network. When nodes leave Data Grid clusters, they delete their IP addresses from the shared database.

JDBC_PING configuration example

<JDBC_PING connection_url="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/database_name"
           connection_username="user"
           connection_password="password"
           connection_driver="com.mysql.jdbc.Driver"/>

Important

Add the appropriate JDBC driver to the classpath so Data Grid can use JDBC_PING.

Additional resources

11.2.6. DNS_PING

JGroups DNS_PING queries DNS servers to discover Data Grid cluster members in Kubernetes environments such as OKD and Red Hat OpenShift.

DNS_PING configuration example

<dns.DNS_PING dns_query="myservice.myproject.svc.cluster.local" />

Additional resources

11.2.7. Cloud discovery protocols

Data Grid includes default JGroups stacks that use discovery protocol implementations that are specific to cloud providers.

Discovery protocolDefault stack fileArtifactVersion

NATIVE_S3_PING

default-jgroups-ec2.xml

org.jgroups.aws.s3:native-s3-ping

1.0.0.Final

GOOGLE_PING2

default-jgroups-google.xml

org.jgroups.google:jgroups-google

1.0.0.Final

AZURE_PING

default-jgroups-azure.xml

org.jgroups.azure:jgroups-azure

1.3.0.Final

Providing dependencies for cloud discovery protocols

To use NATIVE_S3_PING, GOOGLE_PING2, or AZURE_PING cloud discovery protocols, you need to provide dependent libraries to Data Grid.

Procedure

  1. Download the artifact JAR file and all dependencies.
  2. Add the artifact JAR file and all dependencies to the $RHDG_HOME/server/lib directory of your Data Grid Server installation.

    For more details see the Downloading artifacts for JGroups cloud discover protocols for Data Grid Server (Red Hat knowledgebase article)

You can then configure the cloud discovery protocol as part of a JGroups stack file or with system properties.

11.3. Using the default JGroups stacks

Data Grid uses JGroups protocol stacks so nodes can send each other messages on dedicated cluster channels.

Data Grid provides preconfigured JGroups stacks for UDP and TCP protocols. You can use these default stacks as a starting point for building custom cluster transport configuration that is optimized for your network requirements.

Procedure

Do one of the following to use one of the default JGroups stacks:

  • Use the stack attribute in your infinispan.xml file.

    <infinispan>
      <cache-container default-cache="replicatedCache">
        <!-- Use the default UDP stack for cluster transport. -->
        <transport cluster="${infinispan.cluster.name}"
                   stack="udp"
                   node-name="${infinispan.node.name:}"/>
      </cache-container>
    </infinispan>
  • Use the cluster-stack argument to set the JGroups stack file when Data Grid Server starts:

    bin/server.sh --cluster-stack=udp

Verification

Data Grid logs the following message to indicate which stack it uses:

[org.infinispan.CLUSTER] ISPN000078: Starting JGroups channel cluster with stack udp

Additional resources

11.4. Customizing JGroups stacks

Adjust and tune properties to create a cluster transport configuration that works for your network requirements.

Data Grid provides attributes that let you extend the default JGroups stacks for easier configuration. You can inherit properties from the default stacks while combining, removing, and replacing other properties.

Procedure

  1. Create a new JGroups stack declaration in your infinispan.xml file.
  2. Add the extends attribute and specify a JGroups stack to inherit properties from.
  3. Use the stack.combine attribute to modify properties for protocols configured in the inherited stack.
  4. Use the stack.position attribute to define the location for your custom stack.
  5. Specify the stack name as the value for the stack attribute in the transport configuration.

    For example, you might evaluate using a Gossip router and symmetric encryption with the default TCP stack as follows:

    <infinispan>
      <jgroups>
        <!-- Creates a custom JGroups stack named "my-stack". -->
        <!-- Inherits properties from the default TCP stack. -->
        <stack name="my-stack" extends="tcp">
          <!-- Uses TCPGOSSIP as the discovery mechanism instead of MPING -->
          <TCPGOSSIP initial_hosts="${jgroups.tunnel.gossip_router_hosts:localhost[12001]}"
                 stack.combine="REPLACE"
                 stack.position="MPING" />
          <!-- Removes the FD_SOCK protocol from the stack. -->
          <FD_SOCK stack.combine="REMOVE"/>
          <!-- Modifies the timeout value for the VERIFY_SUSPECT protocol. -->
          <VERIFY_SUSPECT timeout="2000"/>
          <!-- Adds SYM_ENCRYPT to the stack after VERIFY_SUSPECT. -->
          <SYM_ENCRYPT sym_algorithm="AES"
                       keystore_name="mykeystore.p12"
                       keystore_type="PKCS12"
                       store_password="changeit"
                       key_password="changeit"
                       alias="myKey"
                       stack.combine="INSERT_AFTER"
                       stack.position="VERIFY_SUSPECT" />
        </stack>
        <cache-container name="default" statistics="true">
          <!-- Uses "my-stack" for cluster transport. -->
          <transport cluster="${infinispan.cluster.name}"
                     stack="my-stack"
                     node-name="${infinispan.node.name:}"/>
       </cache-container>
      </jgroups>
    </infinispan>
  6. Check Data Grid logs to ensure it uses the stack.

    [org.infinispan.CLUSTER] ISPN000078: Starting JGroups channel cluster with stack my-stack

Reference

11.4.1. Inheritance attributes

When you extend a JGroups stack, inheritance attributes let you adjust protocols and properties in the stack you are extending.

  • stack.position specifies protocols to modify.
  • stack.combine uses the following values to extend JGroups stacks:

    ValueDescription

    COMBINE

    Overrides protocol properties.

    REPLACE

    Replaces protocols.

    INSERT_AFTER

    Adds a protocol into the stack after another protocol. Does not affect the protocol that you specify as the insertion point.

    Protocols in JGroups stacks affect each other based on their location in the stack. For example, you should put a protocol such as NAKACK2 after the SYM_ENCRYPT or ASYM_ENCRYPT protocol so that NAKACK2 is secured.

    INSERT_BEFORE

    Inserts a protocols into the stack before another protocol. Affects the protocol that you specify as the insertion point.

    REMOVE

    Removes protocols from the stack.

11.5. Using JGroups system properties

Pass system properties to Data Grid at startup to tune cluster transport.

Procedure

  • Use -D<property-name>=<property-value> arguments to set JGroups system properties as required.

For example, set a custom bind port and IP address as follows:

bin/server.sh -Djgroups.bind.port=1234 -Djgroups.bind.address=192.0.2.0

11.5.1. Cluster transport properties

Use the following properties to customize JGroups cluster transport.

System PropertyDescriptionDefault ValueRequired/Optional

jgroups.bind.address

Bind address for cluster transport.

SITE_LOCAL

Optional

jgroups.bind.port

Bind port for the socket.

7800

Optional

jgroups.mcast_addr

IP address for multicast, both discovery and inter-cluster communication. The IP address must be a valid "class D" address that is suitable for IP multicast.

228.6.7.8

Optional

jgroups.mcast_port

Port for the multicast socket.

46655

Optional

jgroups.ip_ttl

Time-to-live (TTL) for IP multicast packets. The value defines the number of network hops a packet can make before it is dropped.

2

Optional

jgroups.thread_pool.min_threads

Minimum number of threads for the thread pool.

0

Optional

jgroups.thread_pool.max_threads

Maximum number of threads for the thread pool.

200

Optional

jgroups.join_timeout

Maximum number of milliseconds to wait for join requests to succeed.

2000

Optional

jgroups.thread_dumps_threshold

Number of times a thread pool needs to be full before a thread dump is logged.

10000

Optional

11.5.2. System properties for cloud discovery protocols

Use the following properties to configure JGroups discovery protocols for hosted platforms.

11.5.2.1. Amazon EC2

System properties for configuring NATIVE_S3_PING.

System PropertyDescriptionDefault ValueRequired/Optional

jgroups.s3.region_name

Name of the Amazon S3 region.

No default value.

Optional

jgroups.s3.bucket_name

Name of the Amazon S3 bucket. The name must exist and be unique.

No default value.

Optional

11.5.2.2. Google Cloud Platform

System properties for configuring GOOGLE_PING2.

System PropertyDescriptionDefault ValueRequired/Optional

jgroups.google.bucket_name

Name of the Google Compute Engine bucket. The name must exist and be unique.

No default value.

Required

11.5.2.3. Azure

System properties for AZURE_PING.

System PropertyDescriptionDefault ValueRequired/Optional

jboss.jgroups.azure_ping.storage_account_name

Name of the Azure storage account. The name must exist and be unique.

No default value.

Required

jboss.jgroups.azure_ping.storage_access_key

Name of the Azure storage access key.

No default value.

Required

jboss.jgroups.azure_ping.container

Valid DNS name of the container that stores ping information.

No default value.

Required

11.5.2.4. OpenShift

System properties for DNS_PING.

System PropertyDescriptionDefault ValueRequired/Optional

jgroups.dns.query

Sets the DNS record that returns cluster members.

No default value.

Required

11.6. Using inline JGroups stacks

You can insert complete JGroups stack definitions into infinispan.xml files.

Procedure

  • Embed a custom JGroups stack declaration in your infinispan.xml file.

    <infinispan>
      <!-- Contains one or more JGroups stack definitions. -->
      <jgroups>
        <!-- Defines a custom JGroups stack named "prod". -->
        <stack name="prod">
          <TCP bind_port="7800" port_range="30" recv_buf_size="20000000" send_buf_size="640000"/>
          <MPING break_on_coord_rsp="true"
                 mcast_addr="${jgroups.mping.mcast_addr:228.2.4.6}"
                 mcast_port="${jgroups.mping.mcast_port:43366}"
                 num_discovery_runs="3"
                 ip_ttl="${jgroups.udp.ip_ttl:2}"/>
          <MERGE3 />
          <FD_SOCK />
          <FD_ALL timeout="3000" interval="1000" timeout_check_interval="1000" />
          <VERIFY_SUSPECT timeout="1000" />
          <pbcast.NAKACK2 use_mcast_xmit="false" xmit_interval="200" xmit_table_num_rows="50"
                          xmit_table_msgs_per_row="1024" xmit_table_max_compaction_time="30000" />
          <UNICAST3 conn_close_timeout="5000" xmit_interval="200" xmit_table_num_rows="50"
                    xmit_table_msgs_per_row="1024" xmit_table_max_compaction_time="30000" />
          <pbcast.STABLE desired_avg_gossip="2000" max_bytes="1M" />
          <pbcast.GMS print_local_addr="false" join_timeout="${jgroups.join_timeout:2000}" />
          <UFC max_credits="4m" min_threshold="0.40" />
          <MFC max_credits="4m" min_threshold="0.40" />
          <FRAG3 />
        </stack>
      </jgroups>
      <cache-container default-cache="replicatedCache">
        <!-- Uses "prod" for cluster transport. -->
        <transport cluster="${infinispan.cluster.name}"
               stack="prod"
               node-name="${infinispan.node.name:}"/>
      </cache-container>
    </infinispan>

11.7. Using external JGroups stacks

Reference external files that define custom JGroups stacks in infinispan.xml files.

Procedure

  1. Add custom JGroups stack files to the $RHDG_HOME/server/conf directory.

    Alternatively you can specify an absolute path when you declare the external stack file.

  2. Reference the external stack file with the stack-file element.

    <infinispan>
      <jgroups>
         <!-- Creates a "prod-tcp" stack that references an external file. -->
         <stack-file name="prod-tcp" path="prod-jgroups-tcp.xml"/>
      </jgroups>
      <cache-container default-cache="replicatedCache">
        <!-- Use the "prod-tcp" stack for cluster transport. -->
        <transport stack="prod-tcp" />
        <replicated-cache name="replicatedCache"/>
      </cache-container>
      <!-- Cache configuration goes here. -->
    </infinispan>

11.8. Encrypting cluster transport

Secure cluster transport so that nodes communicate with encrypted messages. You can also configure Data Grid clusters to perform certificate authentication so that only nodes with valid identities can join.

11.8.1. Securing cluster transport with TLS identities

Add SSL/TLS identities to a Data Grid Server security realm and use them to secure cluster transport. Nodes in the Data Grid Server cluster then exchange SSL/TLS certificates to encrypt JGroups messages, including RELAY messages if you configure cross-site replication.

Prerequisites

  • Install a Data Grid Server cluster.

Procedure

  1. Create a TLS keystore that contains a single certificate to identify Data Grid Server.

    You can also use a PEM file if it contains a private key in PKCS#1 or PKCS#8 format, a certificate, and has an empty password: password="".

    Note

    If the certificate in the keystore is not signed by a public certificate authority (CA) then you must also create a trust store that contains either the signing certificate or the public key.

  2. Add the keystore to the $RHDG_HOME/server/conf directory.
  3. Add the keystore to a new security realm in your Data Grid Server configuration.

    Important

    You should create dedicated keystores and security realms so that Data Grid Server endpoints do not use the same security realm as cluster transport.

    <server xmlns="urn:infinispan:server:13.0">
      <security>
        <security-realms>
          <security-realm name="cluster-transport">
            <server-identities>
              <ssl>
                <!-- Adds a keystore that contains a certificate that provides SSL/TLS identity to encrypt cluster transport. -->
                <keystore path="server.pfx"
                          relative-to="infinispan.server.config.path"
                          password="secret"
                          alias="server"/>
              </ssl>
            </server-identities>
          </security-realm>
        </security-realms>
      </security>
    </server>
  4. Configure cluster transport to use the security realm by specifying the name of the security realm with the server:security-realm attribute.

    <infinispan>
      <cache-container>
        <transport server:security-realm="cluster-transport"/>
      </cache-container>
    </infinispan>

Verification

When you start Data Grid Server, the following log message indicates that the cluster is using the security realm for cluster transport:

[org.infinispan.SERVER] ISPN080060: SSL Transport using realm <security_realm_name>

11.8.2. JGroups encryption protocols

To secure cluster traffic, you can configure Data Grid nodes to encrypt JGroups message payloads with secret keys.

Data Grid nodes can obtain secret keys from either:

  • The coordinator node (asymmetric encryption).
  • A shared keystore (symmetric encryption).

Retrieving secret keys from coordinator nodes

You configure asymmetric encryption by adding the ASYM_ENCRYPT protocol to a JGroups stack in your Data Grid configuration. This allows Data Grid clusters to generate and distribute secret keys.

Important

When using asymmetric encryption, you should also provide keystores so that nodes can perform certificate authentication and securely exchange secret keys. This protects your cluster from man-in-the-middle (MitM) attacks.

Asymmetric encryption secures cluster traffic as follows:

  1. The first node in the Data Grid cluster, the coordinator node, generates a secret key.
  2. A joining node performs certificate authentication with the coordinator to mutually verify identity.
  3. The joining node requests the secret key from the coordinator node. That request includes the public key for the joining node.
  4. The coordinator node encrypts the secret key with the public key and returns it to the joining node.
  5. The joining node decrypts and installs the secret key.
  6. The node joins the cluster, encrypting and decrypting messages with the secret key.

Retrieving secret keys from shared keystores

You configure symmetric encryption by adding the SYM_ENCRYPT protocol to a JGroups stack in your Data Grid configuration. This allows Data Grid clusters to obtain secret keys from keystores that you provide.

  1. Nodes install the secret key from a keystore on the Data Grid classpath at startup.
  2. Node join clusters, encrypting and decrypting messages with the secret key.

Comparison of asymmetric and symmetric encryption

ASYM_ENCRYPT with certificate authentication provides an additional layer of encryption in comparison with SYM_ENCRYPT. You provide keystores that encrypt the requests to coordinator nodes for the secret key. Data Grid automatically generates that secret key and handles cluster traffic, while letting you specify when to generate secret keys. For example, you can configure clusters to generate new secret keys when nodes leave. This ensures that nodes cannot bypass certificate authentication and join with old keys.

SYM_ENCRYPT, on the other hand, is faster than ASYM_ENCRYPT because nodes do not need to exchange keys with the cluster coordinator. A potential drawback to SYM_ENCRYPT is that there is no configuration to automatically generate new secret keys when cluster membership changes. Users are responsible for generating and distributing the secret keys that nodes use to encrypt cluster traffic.

11.8.3. Securing cluster transport with asymmetric encryption

Configure Data Grid clusters to generate and distribute secret keys that encrypt JGroups messages.

Procedure

  1. Create a keystore with certificate chains that enables Data Grid to verify node identity.
  2. Place the keystore on the classpath for each node in the cluster.

    For Data Grid Server, you put the keystore in the $RHDG_HOME directory.

  3. Add the SSL_KEY_EXCHANGE and ASYM_ENCRYPT protocols to a JGroups stack in your Data Grid configuration, as in the following example:

    <infinispan>
      <jgroups>
        <!-- Creates a secure JGroups stack named "encrypt-tcp" that extends the default TCP stack. -->
        <stack name="encrypt-tcp" extends="tcp">
          <!-- Adds a keystore that nodes use to perform certificate authentication. -->
          <!-- Uses the stack.combine and stack.position attributes to insert SSL_KEY_EXCHANGE into the default TCP stack after VERIFY_SUSPECT. -->
          <SSL_KEY_EXCHANGE keystore_name="mykeystore.jks"
                            keystore_password="changeit"
                            stack.combine="INSERT_AFTER"
                            stack.position="VERIFY_SUSPECT"/>
          <!-- Configures ASYM_ENCRYPT -->
          <!-- Uses the stack.combine and stack.position attributes to insert ASYM_ENCRYPT into the default TCP stack before pbcast.NAKACK2. -->
          <!-- The use_external_key_exchange = "true" attribute configures nodes to use the `SSL_KEY_EXCHANGE` protocol for certificate authentication. -->
          <ASYM_ENCRYPT asym_keylength="2048"
                        asym_algorithm="RSA"
                        change_key_on_coord_leave = "false"
                        change_key_on_leave = "false"
                        use_external_key_exchange = "true"
                        stack.combine="INSERT_BEFORE"
                        stack.position="pbcast.NAKACK2"/>
        </stack>
      </jgroups>
      <cache-container name="default" statistics="true">
        <!-- Configures the cluster to use the JGroups stack. -->
        <transport cluster="${infinispan.cluster.name}"
                   stack="encrypt-tcp"
                   node-name="${infinispan.node.name:}"/>
      </cache-container>
    </infinispan>

Verification

When you start your Data Grid cluster, the following log message indicates that the cluster is using the secure JGroups stack:

[org.infinispan.CLUSTER] ISPN000078: Starting JGroups channel cluster with stack <encrypted_stack_name>

Data Grid nodes can join the cluster only if they use ASYM_ENCRYPT and can obtain the secret key from the coordinator node. Otherwise the following message is written to Data Grid logs:

[org.jgroups.protocols.ASYM_ENCRYPT] <hostname>: received message without encrypt header from <hostname>; dropping it

Additional resources

11.8.4. Securing cluster transport with symmetric encryption

Configure Data Grid clusters to encrypt JGroups messages with secret keys from keystores that you provide.

Procedure

  1. Create a keystore that contains a secret key.
  2. Place the keystore on the classpath for each node in the cluster.

    For Data Grid Server, you put the keystore in the $RHDG_HOME directory.

  3. Add the SYM_ENCRYPT protocol to a JGroups stack in your Data Grid configuration.
<infinispan>
  <jgroups>
    <!-- Creates a secure JGroups stack named "encrypt-tcp" that extends the default TCP stack. -->
    <stack name="encrypt-tcp" extends="tcp">
      <!-- Adds a keystore from which nodes obtain secret keys. -->
      <!-- Uses the stack.combine and stack.position attributes to insert SYM_ENCRYPT into the default TCP stack after VERIFY_SUSPECT. -->
      <SYM_ENCRYPT keystore_name="myKeystore.p12"
                   keystore_type="PKCS12"
                   store_password="changeit"
                   key_password="changeit"
                   alias="myKey"
                   stack.combine="INSERT_AFTER"
                   stack.position="VERIFY_SUSPECT"/>
    </stack>
  </jgroups>
  <cache-container name="default" statistics="true">
    <!-- Configures the cluster to use the JGroups stack. -->
    <transport cluster="${infinispan.cluster.name}"
               stack="encrypt-tcp"
               node-name="${infinispan.node.name:}"/>
  </cache-container>
</infinispan>

Verification

When you start your Data Grid cluster, the following log message indicates that the cluster is using the secure JGroups stack:

[org.infinispan.CLUSTER] ISPN000078: Starting JGroups channel cluster with stack <encrypted_stack_name>

Data Grid nodes can join the cluster only if they use SYM_ENCRYPT and can obtain the secret key from the shared keystore. Otherwise the following message is written to Data Grid logs:

[org.jgroups.protocols.SYM_ENCRYPT] <hostname>: received message without encrypt header from <hostname>; dropping it

Additional resources

11.9. TCP and UDP ports for cluster traffic

Data Grid uses the following ports for cluster transport messages:

Default PortProtocolDescription

7800

TCP/UDP

JGroups cluster bind port

46655

UDP

JGroups multicast

Cross-site replication

Data Grid uses the following ports for the JGroups RELAY2 protocol:

7900
For Data Grid clusters running on OpenShift.
7800
If using UDP for traffic between nodes and TCP for traffic between clusters.
7801
If using TCP for traffic between nodes and TCP for traffic between clusters.

Chapter 12. Creating remote caches

When you create remote caches at runtime, Data Grid Server synchronizes your configuration across the cluster so that all nodes have a copy. For this reason you should always create remote caches dynamically with the following mechanisms:

  • Data Grid Console
  • Data Grid Command Line Interface (CLI)
  • Hot Rod or HTTP clients

12.1. Default Cache Manager

Data Grid Server provides a default Cache Manager that controls the lifecycle of remote caches. Starting Data Grid Server automatically instantiates the Cache Manager so you can create and delete remote caches and other resources like Protobuf schema.

After you start Data Grid Server and add user credentials, you can view details about the Cache Manager and get cluster information from Data Grid Console.

  • Open 127.0.0.1:11222 in any browser.

You can also get information about the Cache Manager through the Command Line Interface (CLI) or REST API:

CLI

Run the describe command in the default container.

[//containers/default]> describe
REST
Open 127.0.0.1:11222/rest/v2/cache-managers/default/ in any browser.

Default Cache Manager configuration

XML

<infinispan>
  <!-- Creates a Cache Manager named "default" and enables metrics. -->
  <cache-container name="default"
                   statistics="true">
     <!-- Adds cluster transport that uses the default JGroups TCP stack. -->
     <transport cluster="${infinispan.cluster.name:cluster}"
                stack="${infinispan.cluster.stack:tcp}"
                node-name="${infinispan.node.name:}"/>
     <!-- Requires user permission to access caches and perform operations. -->
     <security>
        <authorization/>
     </security>
  </cache-container>
</infinispan>

JSON

{
  "infinispan" : {
    "jgroups" : {
      "transport" : "org.infinispan.remoting.transport.jgroups.JGroupsTransport"
    },
    "cache-container" : {
      "name" : "default",
      "statistics" : "true",
      "transport" : {
        "cluster" : "cluster",
        "node-name" : "",
        "stack" : "tcp"
      },
      "security" : {
        "authorization" : {}
      }
    }
  }
}

YAML

infinispan:
  jgroups:
    transport: "org.infinispan.remoting.transport.jgroups.JGroupsTransport"
  cacheContainer:
    name: "default"
    statistics: "true"
    transport:
      cluster: "cluster"
      nodeName: ""
      stack: "tcp"
    security:
      authorization: ~

12.2. Creating caches with Data Grid Console

Use Data Grid Console to create remote caches in an intuitive visual interface from any web browser.

Prerequisites

  • Create a Data Grid user with admin permissions.
  • Start at least one Data Grid Server instance.
  • Have a Data Grid cache configuration.

Procedure

  1. Open 127.0.0.1:11222/console/ in any browser.
  2. Select Create Cache and follow the steps as Data Grid Console guides you through the process.

12.3. Creating remote caches with the Data Grid CLI

Use the Data Grid Command Line Interface (CLI) to add remote caches on Data Grid Server.

Prerequisites

  • Create a Data Grid user with admin permissions.
  • Start at least one Data Grid Server instance.
  • Have a Data Grid cache configuration.

Procedure

  1. Start the CLI and enter your credentials when prompted.

    bin/cli.sh
  2. Use the create cache command to create remote caches.

    For example, create a cache named "mycache" from a file named mycache.xml as follows:

    create cache --file=mycache.xml mycache

Verification

  1. List all remote caches with the ls command.

    ls caches
    mycache
  2. View cache configuration with the describe command.

    describe caches/mycache

12.4. Creating remote caches from Hot Rod clients

Use the Data Grid Hot Rod API to create remote caches on Data Grid Server from Java, C++, .NET/C{hash}, JS clients and more.

This procedure shows you how to use Hot Rod Java clients that create remote caches on first access. You can find code examples for other Hot Rod clients in the Data Grid Tutorials.

Prerequisites

  • Create a Data Grid user with admin permissions.
  • Start at least one Data Grid Server instance.
  • Have a Data Grid cache configuration.

Procedure

  • Invoke the remoteCache() method as part of your the ConfigurationBuilder.
  • Set the configuration or configuration_uri properties in the hotrod-client.properties file on your classpath.

ConfigurationBuilder

File file = new File("path/to/infinispan.xml")
ConfigurationBuilder builder = new ConfigurationBuilder();
builder.remoteCache("another-cache")
       .configuration("<distributed-cache name=\"another-cache\"/>");
builder.remoteCache("my.other.cache")
       .configurationURI(file.toURI());

hotrod-client.properties

infinispan.client.hotrod.cache.another-cache.configuration=<distributed-cache name=\"another-cache\"/>
infinispan.client.hotrod.cache.[my.other.cache].configuration_uri=file:///path/to/infinispan.xml

Important

If the name of your remote cache contains the . character, you must enclose it in square brackets when using hotrod-client.properties files.

12.5. Creating remote caches with the REST API

Use the Data Grid REST API to create remote caches on Data Grid Server from any suitable HTTP client.

Prerequisites

  • Create a Data Grid user with admin permissions.
  • Start at least one Data Grid Server instance.
  • Have a Data Grid cache configuration.

Procedure

  • Invoke POST requests to /rest/v2/caches/<cache_name> with cache configuration in the payload.

Chapter 13. Running scripts and tasks on Data Grid Server

Add tasks and scripts to Data Grid Server deployments for remote execution from the Command Line Interface (CLI) and Hot Rod or REST clients. You can implement tasks as custom Java classes or define scripts in languages such as JavaScript.

13.1. Adding tasks to Data Grid Server deployments

Add your custom server task classes to Data Grid Server.

Prerequisites

  • Stop Data Grid Server if it is running.

    Data Grid Server does not support runtime deployment of custom classes.

Procedure

  1. Add a META-INF/services/org.infinispan.tasks.ServerTask file that contains the fully qualified names of server tasks, for example:

    example.HelloTask
  2. Package your server task implementation in a JAR file.
  3. Copy the JAR file to the $RHDG_HOME/server/lib directory of your Data Grid Server installation.
  4. Add your classes to the deserialization allow list in your Data Grid configuration. Alternatively set the allow list using system properties.

13.1.1. Data Grid Server tasks

Data Grid Server tasks are classes that extend the org.infinispan.tasks.ServerTask interface and generally include the following method calls:

setTaskContext()
Allows access to execution context information including task parameters, cache references on which tasks are executed, and so on. In most cases, implementations store this information locally and use it when tasks are actually executed.
getName()
Returns unique names for tasks. Clients invoke tasks with these names.
getExecutionMode()

Returns the execution mode for tasks.

  • TaskExecutionMode.ONE_NODE only the node that handles the request executes the script. Although scripts can still invoke clustered operations.
  • TaskExecutionMode.ALL_NODES Data Grid uses clustered executors to run scripts across nodes. For example, server tasks that invoke stream processing need to be executed on a single node because stream processing is distributed to all nodes.
call()
Computes a result. This method is defined in the java.util.concurrent.Callable interface and is invoked with server tasks.
Important

Server task implementations must adhere to service loader pattern requirements. For example, implementations must have a zero-argument constructors.

The following HelloTask class implementation provides an example task that has one parameter:

package example;

import org.infinispan.tasks.ServerTask;
import org.infinispan.tasks.TaskContext;

public class HelloTask implements ServerTask<String> {

   private TaskContext ctx;

   @Override
   public void setTaskContext(TaskContext ctx) {
      this.ctx = ctx;
   }

   @Override
   public String call() throws Exception {
      String name = (String) ctx.getParameters().get().get("name");
      return "Hello " + name;
   }

   @Override
   public String getName() {
      return "hello-task";
   }

}

13.2. Adding scripts to Data Grid Server deployments

Use the command line interface to add scripts to Data Grid Server.

Prerequisites

Data Grid Server stores scripts in the ___script_cache cache. If you enable cache authorization, users must have CREATE permissions to add to ___script_cache.

Assign users the deployer role at minimum if you use default authorization settings.

Procedure

  1. Define scripts as required.

    For example, create a file named multiplication.js that runs on a single Data Grid server, has two parameters, and uses JavaScript to multiply a given value:

    // mode=local,language=javascript
    multiplicand * multiplier
  2. Create a CLI connection to Data Grid.
  3. Use the task command to upload scripts, as in the following example:

    task upload --file=multiplication.js multiplication
  4. Verify that your scripts are available.

    ls tasks
    multiplication

13.2.1. Data Grid Server scripts

Data Grid Server scripting is based on the javax.script API and is compatible with any JVM-based ScriptEngine implementation.

Hello world

The following is a simple example that runs on a single Data Grid server, has one parameter, and uses JavaScript:

// mode=local,language=javascript,parameters=[greetee]
"Hello " + greetee

When you run the preceding script, you pass a value for the greetee parameter and Data Grid returns "Hello ${value}".

13.2.1.1. Script metadata

Metadata provides additional information about scripts that Data Grid Server uses when running scripts.

Script metadata are property=value pairs that you add to comments in the first lines of scripts, such as the following example:

// name=test, language=javascript
// mode=local, parameters=[a,b,c]
  • Use comment styles that match the scripting language (//, ;;, #).
  • Separate property=value pairs with commas.
  • Separate values with single (') or double (") quote characters.

Table 13.1. Metadata Properties

PropertyDescription

mode

Defines the execution mode and has the following values:

local only the node that handles the request executes the script. Although scripts can still invoke clustered operations.

distributed Data Grid uses clustered executors to run scripts across nodes.

language

Specifies the ScriptEngine that executes the script.

extension

Specifies filename extensions as an alternative method to set the ScriptEngine.

role

Specifies roles that users must have to execute scripts.

parameters

Specifies an array of valid parameter names for this script. Invocations which specify parameters not included in this list cause exceptions.

datatype

Optionally sets the MediaType (MIME type) for storing data as well as parameter and return values. This property is useful for remote clients that support particular data formats only.

Currently you can set only text/plain; charset=utf-8 to use the String UTF-8 format for data.

13.2.1.2. Script bindings

Data Grid exposes internal objects as bindings for script execution.

BindingDescription

cache

Specifies the cache against which the script is run.

marshaller

Specifies the marshaller to use for serializing data to the cache.

cacheManager

Specifies the cacheManager for the cache.

scriptingManager

Specifies the instance of the script manager that runs the script. You can use this binding to run other scripts from a script.

13.2.1.3. Script parameters

Data Grid lets you pass named parameters as bindings for running scripts.

Parameters are name,value pairs, where name is a string and value is any value that the marshaller can interpret.

The following example script has two parameters, multiplicand and multiplier. The script takes the value of multiplicand and multiplies it with the value of multiplier.

// mode=local,language=javascript
multiplicand * multiplier

When you run the preceding script, Data Grid responds with the result of the expression evaluation.

13.2.2. Programmatically Creating Scripts

Add scripts with the Hot Rod RemoteCache interface as in the following example:

RemoteCache<String, String> scriptCache = cacheManager.getCache("___script_cache");
scriptCache.put("multiplication.js",
  "// mode=local,language=javascript\n" +
  "multiplicand * multiplier\n");

13.3. Running scripts and tasks

Use the command line interface to run tasks and scripts on Data Grid Server deployments. Alternatively you can execute scripts and tasks from Hot Rod clients.

Prerequisites

  • Add scripts or tasks to Data Grid Server.

Procedure

  1. Create a CLI connection to Data Grid.
  2. Use the task command to run tasks and scripts, as in the following examples:

    • Execute a script named multiplier.js and specify two parameters:

      task exec multiplier.js -Pmultiplicand=10 -Pmultiplier=20
      200.0
    • Execute a task named @@cache@names to retrieve a list of all available caches:

      task exec @@cache@names
      ["___protobuf_metadata","mycache","___script_cache"]

Programmatic execution

  • Call the execute() method to run scripts with the Hot Rod RemoteCache interface, as in the following examples:

Script execution

RemoteCache<String, Integer> cache = cacheManager.getCache();
// Create parameters for script execution.
Map<String, Object> params = new HashMap<>();
params.put("multiplicand", 10);
params.put("multiplier", 20);
// Run the script with the parameters.
Object result = cache.execute("multiplication.js", params);

Task execution

// Add configuration for a locally running server.
ConfigurationBuilder builder = new ConfigurationBuilder();
builder.addServer().host("127.0.0.1").port(11222);

// Connect to the server.
RemoteCacheManager cacheManager = new RemoteCacheManager(builder.build());

// Retrieve the remote cache.
RemoteCache<String, String> cache = cacheManager.getCache();

// Create task parameters.
Map<String, String> parameters = new HashMap<>();
parameters.put("name", "developer");

// Run the server task.
String greet = cache.execute("hello-task", parameters);
System.out.println(greet);

Chapter 14. Configuring Data Grid Server logging

Data Grid Server uses Apache Log4j 2 to provide configurable logging mechanisms that capture details about the environment and record cache operations for troubleshooting purposes and root cause analysis.

14.1. Data Grid Server log files

Data Grid writes server logs to the following files in the $RHDG_HOME/server/log directory:

server.log
Messages in human readable format, including boot logs that relate to the server startup.
Data Grid creates this file when you start the server.
server.log.json
Messages in JSON format that let you parse and analyze Data Grid logs.
Data Grid creates this file when you enable the JSON-FILE appender.

14.1.1. Configuring Data Grid Server logs

Data Grid uses Apache Log4j technology to write server log messages. You can configure server logs in the log4j2.xml file.

Procedure

  1. Open $RHDG_HOME/server/conf/log4j2.xml with any text editor.
  2. Change server logging as appropriate.
  3. Save and close log4j2.xml.

Additional resources

14.1.2. Log levels

Log levels indicate the nature and severity of messages.

Log levelDescription

TRACE

Fine-grained debug messages, capturing the flow of individual requests through the application.

DEBUG

Messages for general debugging, not related to an individual request.

INFO

Messages about the overall progress of applications, including lifecycle events.

WARN

Events that can lead to error or degrade performance.

ERROR

Error conditions that might prevent operations or activities from being successful but do not prevent applications from running.

FATAL

Events that could cause critical service failure and application shutdown.

In addition to the levels of individual messages presented above, the configuration allows two more values: ALL to include all messages, and OFF to exclude all messages.

14.1.3. Data Grid logging categories

Data Grid provides categories for INFO, WARN, ERROR, FATAL level messages that organize logs by functional area.

org.infinispan.CLUSTER
Messages specific to Data Grid clustering that include state transfer operations, rebalancing events, partitioning, and so on.
org.infinispan.CONFIG
Messages specific to Data Grid configuration.
org.infinispan.CONTAINER
Messages specific to the data container that include expiration and eviction operations, cache listener notifications, transactions, and so on.
org.infinispan.PERSISTENCE
Messages specific to cache loaders and stores.
org.infinispan.SECURITY
Messages specific to Data Grid security.
org.infinispan.SERVER
Messages specific to Data Grid servers.
org.infinispan.XSITE
Messages specific to cross-site replication operations.

14.1.4. Log appenders

Log appenders define how Data Grid Server records log messages.

CONSOLE
Write log messages to the host standard out (stdout) or standard error (stderr) stream.
Uses the org.apache.logging.log4j.core.appender.ConsoleAppender class by default.
FILE
Write log messages to a file.
Uses the org.apache.logging.log4j.core.appender.RollingFileAppender class by default.
JSON-FILE
Write log messages to a file in JSON format.
Uses the org.apache.logging.log4j.core.appender.RollingFileAppender class by default.

14.1.5. Log pattern formatters

The CONSOLE and FILE appenders use a PatternLayout to format the log messages according to a pattern.

An example is the default pattern in the FILE appender:
%d{yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss,SSS} %-5p (%t) [%c{1}] %m%throwable%n

  • %d{yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss,SSS} adds the current time and date.
  • %-5p specifies the log level, aligned to the right.
  • %t adds the name of the current thread.
  • %c{1} adds the short name of the logging category.
  • %m adds the log message.
  • %throwable adds the exception stack trace.
  • %n adds a new line.

Patterns are fully described in the PatternLayout documentation .

14.1.6. Enabling the JSON log handler

Data Grid Server provides a log handler to write messages in JSON format.

Prerequisites

  • Stop Data Grid Server if it is running.
    You cannot dynamically enable log handlers.

Procedure

  1. Open $RHDG_HOME/server/conf/log4j2.xml with any text editor.
  2. Uncomment the JSON-FILE appender and comment out the FILE appender:

    <!--<AppenderRef ref="FILE"/>-->
    <AppenderRef ref="JSON-FILE"/>
  3. Optionally configure the JSON appender and JSON layout as required.
  4. Save and close log4j2.xml.

When you start Data Grid, it writes each log message as a JSON map in the following file:
$RHDG_HOME/server/log/server.log.json

Additional resources

14.2. Access logs

Access logs record all inbound client requests for Hot Rod and REST endpoints to files in the $RHDG_HOME/server/log directory.

org.infinispan.HOTROD_ACCESS_LOG
Logging category that writes Hot Rod access messages to a hotrod-access.log file.
org.infinispan.REST_ACCESS_LOG
Logging category that writes REST access messages to a rest-access.log file.

14.2.1. Enabling access logs

To record Hot Rod and REST endpoint access messages, you need to enable the logging categories in log4j2.xml.

Procedure

  1. Open $RHDG_HOME/server/conf/log4j2.xml with any text editor.
  2. Change the level for the org.infinispan.HOTROD_ACCESS_LOG and org.infinispan.REST_ACCESS_LOG logging categories to TRACE.
  3. Save and close log4j2.xml.
<Logger name="org.infinispan.HOTROD_ACCESS_LOG" additivity="false" level="TRACE">
   <AppenderRef ref="HR-ACCESS-FILE"/>
</Logger>

14.2.2. Access log properties

The default format for access logs is as follows:

%X{address} %X{user} [%d{dd/MMM/yyyy:HH:mm:ss Z}] &quot;%X{method} %m
%X{protocol}&quot; %X{status} %X{requestSize} %X{responseSize} %X{duration}%n

The preceding format creates log entries such as the following:

127.0.0.1 - [DD/MM/YYYY:HH:MM:SS +0000] "PUT /rest/v2/caches/default/key HTTP/1.1" 404 5 77 10

Logging properties use the %X{name} notation and let you modify the format of access logs. The following are the default logging properties:

PropertyDescription

address

Either the X-Forwarded-For header or the client IP address.

user

Principal name, if using authentication.

method

Method used. PUT, GET, and so on.

protocol

Protocol used. HTTP/1.1, HTTP/2, HOTROD/2.9, and so on.

status

An HTTP status code for the REST endpoint. OK or an exception for the Hot Rod endpoint.

requestSize

Size, in bytes, of the request.

responseSize

Size, in bytes, of the response.

duration

Number of milliseconds that the server took to handle the request.

Tip

Use the header name prefixed with h: to log headers that were included in requests; for example, %X{h:User-Agent}.

14.3. Audit logs

Audit logs let you track changes to your Data Grid Server deployment so you know when changes occur and which users make them. Enable and configure audit logging to record server configuration events and administrative operations.

org.infinispan.AUDIT
Logging category that writes security audit messages to an audit.log file in the $RHDG_HOME/server/log directory.

14.3.1. Enabling audit logging

To record security audit messages, you need to enable the logging category in log4j2.xml.

Procedure

  1. Open $RHDG_HOME/server/conf/log4j2.xml with any text editor.
  2. Change the level for the org.infinispan.AUDIT logging category to INFO.
  3. Save and close log4j2.xml.
<!-- Set to INFO to enable audit logging -->
<Logger name="org.infinispan.AUDIT" additivity="false" level="INFO">
   <AppenderRef ref="AUDIT-FILE"/>
</Logger>

14.3.2. Configuring audit logging appenders

Apache Log4j provides different appenders that you can use to send audit messages to a destination other than the default log file. For instance, if you want to send audit logs to a syslog daemon, JDBC database, or Apache Kafka server, you can configure an appender in log4j2.xml.

Procedure

  1. Open $RHDG_HOME/server/conf/log4j2.xml with any text editor.
  2. Comment or remove the default AUDIT-FILE rolling file appender.

    <!--RollingFile name="AUDIT-FILE"
      ...
    </RollingFile-->
  3. Add the desired logging appender for audit messages.

    For example, you could add a logging appender for a Kafka server as follows:

    <Kafka name="AUDIT-KAFKA" topic="audit">
      <PatternLayout pattern="%date %message"/>
      <Property name="bootstrap.servers">localhost:9092</Property>
    </Kafka>
  4. Save and close log4j2.xml.

Additional resources

14.3.3. Using custom audit logging implementations

You can create custom implementations of the org.infinispan.security.AuditLogger API if configuring Log4j appenders does not meet your needs.

Prerequisites

  • Implement org.infinispan.security.AuditLogger as required and package it in a JAR file.

Procedure

  1. Add your JAR to the server/lib directory in your Data Grid Server installation.
  2. Specify the fully qualified class name of your custom audit logger as the value for the audit-logger attribute on the authorization element in your cache container security configuration.

    For example, the following configuration defines my.package.CustomAuditLogger as the class for logging audit messages:

    <infinispan>
       <cache-container>
          <security>
             <authorization audit-logger="my.package.CustomAuditLogger"/>
          </security>
       </cache-container>
    </infinispan>

Chapter 15. Performing rolling upgrades for Data Grid Server clusters

Perform rolling upgrades of your Data Grid clusters to change between versions without downtime or data loss and migrate data over the Hot Rod protocol.

15.1. Setting up target Data Grid clusters

Create a cluster that uses the Data Grid version to which you plan to upgrade and then connect the source cluster to the target cluster using a remote cache store.

Prerequisites

  • Install Data Grid Server nodes with the desired version for your target cluster.
Important

Ensure the network properties for the target cluster do not overlap with those for the source cluster. You should specify unique names for the target and source clusters in the JGroups transport configuration. Depending on your environment you can also use different network interfaces and port offsets to separate the target and source clusters.

Procedure

  1. Create a remote cache store configuration, in JSON format, that allows the target cluster to connect to the source cluster.

    Remote cache stores on the target cluster use the Hot Rod protocol to retrieve data from the source cluster.

    {
      "remote-store": {
        "cache": "myCache",
        "shared": true,
        "raw-values": true,
        "security": {
          "authentication": {
            "digest": {
              "username": "username",
              "password": "changeme",
              "realm": "default"
            }
          }
        },
        "remote-server": [
          {
            "host": "127.0.0.1",
            "port": 12222
          }
        ]
      }
    }
  2. Use the Data Grid Command Line Interface (CLI) or REST API to add the remote cache store configuration to the target cluster so it can connect to the source cluster.

    • CLI: Use the migrate cluster connect command on the target cluster.

      [//containers/default]> migrate cluster connect -c myCache --file=remote-store.json
    • REST API: Invoke a POST request that includes the remote store configuration in the payload with the rolling-upgrade/source-connection method.

      POST /v2/caches/myCache/rolling-upgrade/source-connection
  3. Repeat the preceding step for each cache that you want to migrate.
  4. Switch clients over to the target cluster, so it starts handling all requests.

    1. Update client configuration with the location of the target cluster.
    2. Restart clients.

15.2. Synchronizing data to target clusters

When you set up a target Data Grid cluster and connect it to a source cluster, the target cluster can handle client requests using a remote cache store and load data on demand. To completely migrate data to the target cluster, so you can decommission the source cluster, you can synchronize data. This operation reads data from the source cluster and writes it to the target cluster. Data migrates to all nodes in the target cluster in parallel, with each node receiving a subset of the data. You must perform the synchronization for each cache that you want to migrate to the target cluster.

Prerequisites

  • Set up a target cluster with the appropriate Data Grid version.

Procedure

  1. Start synchronizing each cache that you want to migrate to the target cluster with the Data Grid Command Line Interface (CLI) or REST API.

    • CLI: Use the migrate cluster synchronize command.

      migrate cluster synchronize -c myCache
    • REST API: Use the ?action=sync-data parameter with a POST request.

      POST /v2/caches/myCache?action=sync-data

      When the operation completes, Data Grid responds with the total number of entries copied to the target cluster.

  2. Disconnect each node in the target cluster from the source cluster.

    • CLI: Use the migrate cluster disconnect command.

      migrate cluster disconnect -c myCache
    • REST API: Invoke a DELETE request.

      DELETE /v2/caches/myCache/rolling-upgrade/source-connection

Next steps

After you synchronize all data from the source cluster, the rolling upgrade process is complete. You can now decommission the source cluster.

Chapter 16. Troubleshooting Data Grid Server deployments

Gather diagnostic information about Data Grid Server deployments and perform troubleshooting steps to resolve issues.

16.1. Getting diagnostic reports from Data Grid Server

Data Grid Server provides aggregated reports in tar.gz archives that contain diagnostic information about server instances and host systems. The report provides details about CPU, memory, open files, network sockets and routing, threads, in addition to configuration and log files.

Procedure

  1. Create a CLI connection to Data Grid Server.
  2. Use the server report command to download a tar.gz archive:

    server report
    Downloaded report 'infinispan-<hostname>-<timestamp>-report.tar.gz'

    The command responds with the name of the report, as in the following example:

    Downloaded report 'infinispan-<hostname>-<timestamp>-report.tar.gz'
  3. Move the tar.gz file to a suitable location on your filesystem.
  4. Extract the tar.gz file with any archiving tool.

16.2. Changing Data Grid Server logging configuration at runtime

Modify the logging configuration for Data Grid Server at runtime to temporarily adjust logging to troubleshoot issues and perform root cause analysis.

Modifying the logging configuration through the CLI is a runtime-only operation, which means that changes:

  • Are not saved to the log4j2.xml file. Restarting server nodes or the entire cluster resets the logging configuration to the default properties in the log4j2.xml file.
  • Apply only to the nodes in the cluster when you invoke the CLI. Nodes that join the cluster after you change the logging configuration use the default properties.

Procedure

  1. Create a CLI connection to Data Grid Server.
  2. Use the logging to make the required adjustments.

    • List all appenders defined on the server:

      logging list-appenders

      The command provides a JSON response such as the following:

      {
        "STDOUT" : {
          "name" : "STDOUT"
        },
        "JSON-FILE" : {
          "name" : "JSON-FILE"
        },
        "HR-ACCESS-FILE" : {
          "name" : "HR-ACCESS-FILE"
        },
        "FILE" : {
          "name" : "FILE"
        },
        "REST-ACCESS-FILE" : {
          "name" : "REST-ACCESS-FILE"
        }
      }
    • List all logger configurations defined on the server:

      logging list-loggers

      The command provides a JSON response such as the following:

      [ {
        "name" : "",
        "level" : "INFO",
        "appenders" : [ "STDOUT", "FILE" ]
      }, {
        "name" : "org.infinispan.HOTROD_ACCESS_LOG",
        "level" : "INFO",
        "appenders" : [ "HR-ACCESS-FILE" ]
      }, {
        "name" : "com.arjuna",
        "level" : "WARN",
        "appenders" : [ ]
      }, {
        "name" : "org.infinispan.REST_ACCESS_LOG",
        "level" : "INFO",
        "appenders" : [ "REST-ACCESS-FILE" ]
      } ]
    • Add and modify logger configurations with the set subcommand

      For example, the following command sets the logging level for the org.infinispan package to DEBUG:

      logging set --level=DEBUG org.infinispan
    • Remove existing logger configurations with the remove subcommand.

      For example, the following command removes the org.infinispan logger configuration, which means the root configuration is used instead:

      logging remove org.infinispan

16.3. Gathering resource statistics from the CLI

You can inspect server-collected statistics for some Data Grid Server resources with the stats command.

Use the stats command either from the context of a resource that provides statistics (containers, caches) or with a path to such a resource:

stats

+

{
  "statistics_enabled" : true,
  "number_of_entries" : 0,
  "hit_ratio" : 0.0,
  "read_write_ratio" : 0.0,
  "time_since_start" : 0,
  "time_since_reset" : 49,
  "current_number_of_entries" : 0,
  "current_number_of_entries_in_memory" : 0,
  "total_number_of_entries" : 0,
  "off_heap_memory_used" : 0,
  "data_memory_used" : 0,
  "stores" : 0,
  "retrievals" : 0,
  "hits" : 0,
  "misses" : 0,
  "remove_hits" : 0,
  "remove_misses" : 0,
  "evictions" : 0,
  "average_read_time" : 0,
  "average_read_time_nanos" : 0,
  "average_write_time" : 0,
  "average_write_time_nanos" : 0,
  "average_remove_time" : 0,
  "average_remove_time_nanos" : 0,
  "required_minimum_number_of_nodes" : -1
}
stats /containers/default/caches/mycache

+

{
  "time_since_start" : -1,
  "time_since_reset" : -1,
  "current_number_of_entries" : -1,
  "current_number_of_entries_in_memory" : -1,
  "total_number_of_entries" : -1,
  "off_heap_memory_used" : -1,
  "data_memory_used" : -1,
  "stores" : -1,
  "retrievals" : -1,
  "hits" : -1,
  "misses" : -1,
  "remove_hits" : -1,
  "remove_misses" : -1,
  "evictions" : -1,
  "average_read_time" : -1,
  "average_read_time_nanos" : -1,
  "average_write_time" : -1,
  "average_write_time_nanos" : -1,
  "average_remove_time" : -1,
  "average_remove_time_nanos" : -1,
  "required_minimum_number_of_nodes" : -1
}

16.4. Accessing cluster health via REST

Get Data Grid cluster health via the REST API.

Procedure

  • Invoke a GET request to retrieve cluster health.

    GET /rest/v2/cache-managers/{cacheManagerName}/health

Data Grid responds with a JSON document such as the following:

{
    "cluster_health":{
        "cluster_name":"ISPN",
        "health_status":"HEALTHY",
        "number_of_nodes":2,
        "node_names":[
            "NodeA-36229",
            "NodeB-28703"
        ]
    },
    "cache_health":[
        {
            "status":"HEALTHY",
            "cache_name":"___protobuf_metadata"
        },
        {
            "status":"HEALTHY",
            "cache_name":"cache2"
        },
        {
            "status":"HEALTHY",
            "cache_name":"mycache"
        },
        {
            "status":"HEALTHY",
            "cache_name":"cache1"
        }
    ]
}
Tip

Get cache manager status as follows:

GET /rest/v2/cache-managers/{cacheManagerName}/health/status

Reference

See the REST v2 (version 2) API documentation for more information.

16.5. Accessing cluster health via JMX

Retrieve Data Grid cluster health statistics via JMX.

Procedure

  1. Connect to Data Grid server using any JMX capable tool such as JConsole and navigate to the following object:

    org.infinispan:type=CacheManager,name="default",component=CacheContainerHealth
  2. Select available MBeans to retrieve cluster health statistics.

Chapter 17. Reference

17.1. Data Grid Server 8.3.1 Readme

Information about Data Grid Server 13.0.10.Final-redhat-00001 distribution.

17.1.1. Requirements

Data Grid Server requires JDK 11 or later.

17.1.2. Starting servers

Use the server script to run Data Grid Server instances.

Unix / Linux

$RHDG_HOME/bin/server.sh

Windows

$RHDG_HOME\bin\server.bat

Tip

Include the --help or -h option to view command arguments.

17.1.3. Stopping servers

Use the shutdown command with the CLI to perform a graceful shutdown.

Alternatively, enter Ctrl-C from the terminal to interrupt the server process or kill it via the TERM signal.

17.1.4. Configuration

Server configuration extends Data Grid configuration with the following server-specific elements:

cache-container
Defines cache containers for managing cache lifecycles.
endpoints
Enables and configures endpoint connectors for client protocols.
security
Configures endpoint security realms.
socket-bindings
Maps endpoint connectors to interfaces and ports.

The default configuration file is $RHDG_HOME/server/conf/infinispan.xml.

Use different configuration files with the -c argument, as in the following example that starts a server without clustering capabilities:

Unix / Linux

$RHDG_HOME/bin/server.sh -c infinispan-local.xml

Windows

$RHDG_HOME\bin\server.bat -c infinispan-local.xml

17.1.5. Bind address

Data Grid Server binds to the loopback IP address localhost on your network by default.

Use the -b argument to set a different IP address, as in the following example that binds to all network interfaces:

Unix / Linux

$RHDG_HOME/bin/server.sh -b 0.0.0.0

Windows

$RHDG_HOME\bin\server.bat -b 0.0.0.0

17.1.6. Bind port

Data Grid Server listens on port 11222 by default.

Use the -p argument to set an alternative port:

Unix / Linux

$RHDG_HOME/bin/server.sh -p 30000

Windows

$RHDG_HOME\bin\server.bat -p 30000

17.1.7. Clustering address

Data Grid Server configuration defines cluster transport so multiple instances on the same network discover each other and automatically form clusters.

Use the -k argument to change the IP address for cluster traffic:

Unix / Linux

$RHDG_HOME/bin/server.sh -k 192.168.1.100

Windows

$RHDG_HOME\bin\server.bat -k 192.168.1.100

17.1.8. Cluster stacks

JGroups stacks configure the protocols for cluster transport. Data Grid Server uses the tcp stack by default.

Use alternative cluster stacks with the -j argument, as in the following example that uses UDP for cluster transport:

Unix / Linux

$RHDG_HOME/bin/server.sh -j udp

Windows

$RHDG_HOME\bin\server.bat -j udp

17.1.9. Authentication

Data Grid Server requires authentication.

Create a username and password with the CLI as follows:

Unix / Linux

$RHDG_HOME/bin/cli.sh user create username -p "qwer1234!"

Windows

$RHDG_HOME\bin\cli.bat user create username -p "qwer1234!"

17.1.10. Server home directory

Data Grid Server uses infinispan.server.home.path to locate the contents of the server distribution on the host filesystem.

The server home directory, referred to as $RHDG_HOME, contains the following folders:

├── bin
├── boot
├── docs
├── lib
├── server
└── static
FolderDescription

/bin

Contains scripts to start servers and CLI.

/boot

Contains JAR files to boot servers.

/docs

Provides configuration examples, schemas, component licenses, and other resources.

/lib

Contains JAR files that servers require internally.
Do not place custom JAR files in this folder.

/server

Provides a root folder for Data Grid Server instances.

/static

Contains static resources for Data Grid Console.

17.1.11. Server root directory

Data Grid Server uses infinispan.server.root.path to locate configuration files and data for Data Grid Server instances.

You can create multiple server root folders in the same directory or in different directories and then specify the locations with the -s or --server-root argument, as in the following example:

Unix / Linux

$RHDG_HOME/bin/server.sh -s server2

Windows

$RHDG_HOME\bin\server.bat -s server2

Each server root directory contains the following folders:

├── server
│   ├── conf
│   ├── data
│   ├── lib
│   └── log
FolderDescriptionSystem property override

/server/conf

Contains server configuration files.

infinispan.server.config.path

/server/data

Contains data files organized by container name.

infinispan.server.data.path

/server/lib

Contains server extension files.
This directory is scanned recursively and used as a classpath.

infinispan.server.lib.path
Separate multiple paths with the following delimiters:
: on Unix / Linux
; on Windows

/server/log

Contains server log files.

infinispan.server.log.path

17.1.12. Logging

Configure Data Grid Server logging with the log4j2.xml file in the server/conf folder.

Use the --logging-config=<path_to_logfile> argument to use custom paths, as follows:

Unix / Linux

$RHDG_HOME/bin/server.sh --logging-config=/path/to/log4j2.xml

Tip

To ensure custom paths take effect, do not use the ~ shortcut.

Windows

$RHDG_HOME\bin\server.bat --logging-config=path\to\log4j2.xml

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