Chapter 3. The Cache API

3.1. The Cache interface

Red Hat Data Grid’s Caches are manipulated through the Cache interface.

A Cache exposes simple methods for adding, retrieving and removing entries, including atomic mechanisms exposed by the JDK’s ConcurrentMap interface. Based on the cache mode used, invoking these methods will trigger a number of things to happen, potentially even including replicating an entry to a remote node or looking up an entry from a remote node, or potentially a cache store.

Note

For simple usage, using the Cache API should be no different from using the JDK Map API, and hence migrating from simple in-memory caches based on a Map to Red Hat Data Grid’s Cache should be trivial.

3.1.1. Performance Concerns of Certain Map Methods

Certain methods exposed in Map have certain performance consequences when used with Red Hat Data Grid, such as size() , values() , keySet() and entrySet() . Specific methods on the keySet, values and entrySet are fine for use please see their Javadoc for further details.

Attempting to perform these operations globally would have large performance impact as well as become a scalability bottleneck. As such, these methods should only be used for informational or debugging purposes only.

It should be noted that using certain flags with the withFlags method can mitigate some of these concerns, please check each method’s documentation for more details.

3.1.2. Mortal and Immortal Data

Further to simply storing entries, Red Hat Data Grid’s cache API allows you to attach mortality information to data. For example, simply using put(key, value) would create an immortal entry, i.e., an entry that lives in the cache forever, until it is removed (or evicted from memory to prevent running out of memory). If, however, you put data in the cache using put(key, value, lifespan, timeunit) , this creates a mortal entry, i.e., an entry that has a fixed lifespan and expires after that lifespan.

In addition to lifespan , Red Hat Data Grid also supports maxIdle as an additional metric with which to determine expiration. Any combination of lifespans or maxIdles can be used.

3.1.3. Expiration and Mortal Data

See Expiration for more information about using mortal data with Red Hat Data Grid.

3.1.4. putForExternalRead operation

Red Hat Data Grid’s Cache class contains a different 'put' operation called putForExternalRead . This operation is particularly useful when Red Hat Data Grid is used as a temporary cache for data that is persisted elsewhere. Under heavy read scenarios, contention in the cache should not delay the real transactions at hand, since caching should just be an optimization and not something that gets in the way.

To achieve this, putForExternalRead acts as a put call that only operates if the key is not present in the cache, and fails fast and silently if another thread is trying to store the same key at the same time. In this particular scenario, caching data is a way to optimise the system and it’s not desirable that a failure in caching affects the on-going transaction, hence why failure is handled differently. putForExternalRead is considered to be a fast operation because regardless of whether it’s successful or not, it doesn’t wait for any locks, and so returns to the caller promptly.

To understand how to use this operation, let’s look at basic example. Imagine a cache of Person instances, each keyed by a PersonId , whose data originates in a separate data store. The following code shows the most common pattern of using putForExternalRead within the context of this example:

// Id of the person to look up, provided by the application
PersonId id = ...;

// Get a reference to the cache where person instances will be stored
Cache<PersonId, Person> cache = ...;

// First, check whether the cache contains the person instance
// associated with with the given id
Person cachedPerson = cache.get(id);

if (cachedPerson == null) {
   // The person is not cached yet, so query the data store with the id
   Person person = dataStore.lookup(id);

   // Cache the person along with the id so that future requests can
   // retrieve it from memory rather than going to the data store
   cache.putForExternalRead(id, person);
} else {
   // The person was found in the cache, so return it to the application
   return cachedPerson;
}

Please note that putForExternalRead should never be used as a mechanism to update the cache with a new Person instance originating from application execution (i.e. from a transaction that modifies a Person’s address). When updating cached values, please use the standard put operation, otherwise the possibility of caching corrupt data is likely.

3.2. The AdvancedCache interface

In addition to the simple Cache interface, Red Hat Data Grid offers an AdvancedCache interface, geared towards extension authors. The AdvancedCache offers the ability to inject custom interceptors, access certain internal components and to apply flags to alter the default behavior of certain cache methods. The following code snippet depicts how an AdvancedCache can be obtained:

AdvancedCache advancedCache = cache.getAdvancedCache();

3.2.1. Flags

Flags are applied to regular cache methods to alter the behavior of certain methods. For a list of all available flags, and their effects, see the Flag enumeration. Flags are applied using AdvancedCache.withFlags() . This builder method can be used to apply any number of flags to a cache invocation, for example:

advancedCache.withFlags(Flag.CACHE_MODE_LOCAL, Flag.SKIP_LOCKING)
   .withFlags(Flag.FORCE_SYNCHRONOUS)
   .put("hello", "world");

3.2.2. Custom Interceptors

The AdvancedCache interface also offers advanced developers a mechanism with which to attach custom interceptors. Custom interceptors allow developers to alter the behavior of the cache API methods, and the AdvancedCache interface allows developers to attach these interceptors programmatically, at run-time. See the AdvancedCache Javadocs for more details.

For more information on writing custom interceptors, see Custom Interceptors.

3.3. Listeners and Notifications

Red Hat Data Grid offers a listener API, where clients can register for and get notified when events take place. This annotation-driven API applies to 2 different levels: cache level events and cache manager level events.

Events trigger a notification which is dispatched to listeners. Listeners are simple POJO s annotated with @Listener and registered using the methods defined in the Listenable interface.

Note

Both Cache and CacheManager implement Listenable, which means you can attach listeners to either a cache or a cache manager, to receive either cache-level or cache manager-level notifications.

For example, the following class defines a listener to print out some information every time a new entry is added to the cache:

@Listener
public class PrintWhenAdded {

  @CacheEntryCreated
  public void print(CacheEntryCreatedEvent event) {
    System.out.println("New entry " + event.getKey() + " created in the cache");
  }

}

For more comprehensive examples, please see the Javadocs for @Listener.

3.3.1. Cache-level notifications

Cache-level events occur on a per-cache basis, and by default are only raised on nodes where the events occur. Note in a distributed cache these events are only raised on the owners of data being affected. Examples of cache-level events are entries being added, removed, modified, etc. These events trigger notifications to listeners registered to a specific cache.

Please see the Javadocs on the org.infinispan.notifications.cachelistener.annotation package for a comprehensive list of all cache-level notifications, and their respective method-level annotations.

Note

Please refer to the Javadocs on the org.infinispan.notifications.cachelistener.annotation package for the list of cache-level notifications available in Red Hat Data Grid.

3.3.1.1. Cluster Listeners

The cluster listeners should be used when it is desirable to listen to the cache events on a single node.

To do so all that is required is set to annotate your listener as being clustered.

@Listener (clustered = true)
public class MyClusterListener { .... }

There are some limitations to cluster listeners from a non clustered listener.

  1. A cluster listener can only listen to @CacheEntryModified, @CacheEntryCreated, @CacheEntryRemoved and @CacheEntryExpired events. Note this means any other type of event will not be listened to for this listener.
  2. Only the post event is sent to a cluster listener, the pre event is ignored.

3.3.1.2. Event filtering and conversion

All applicable events on the node where the listener is installed will be raised to the listener. It is possible to dynamically filter what events are raised by using a KeyFilter (only allows filtering on keys) or CacheEventFilter (used to filter for keys, old value, old metadata, new value, new metadata, whether command was retried, if the event is before the event (ie. isPre) and also the command type).

The example here shows a simple KeyFilter that will only allow events to be raised when an event modified the entry for the key Only Me.

public class SpecificKeyFilter implements KeyFilter<String> {
    private final String keyToAccept;

    public SpecificKeyFilter(String keyToAccept) {
      if (keyToAccept == null) {
        throw new NullPointerException();
      }
      this.keyToAccept = keyToAccept;
    }

    boolean accept(String key) {
      return keyToAccept.equals(key);
    }
}

...
cache.addListener(listener, new SpecificKeyFilter("Only Me"));
...

This can be useful when you want to limit what events you receive in a more efficient manner.

There is also a CacheEventConverter that can be supplied that allows for converting a value to another before raising the event. This can be nice to modularize any code that does value conversions.

Note

The mentioned filters and converters are especially beneficial when used in conjunction with a Cluster Listener. This is because the filtering and conversion is done on the node where the event originated and not on the node where event is listened to. This can provide benefits of not having to replicate events across the cluster (filter) or even have reduced payloads (converter).

3.3.1.3. Initial State Events

When a listener is installed it will only be notified of events after it is fully installed.

It may be desirable to get the current state of the cache contents upon first registration of listener by having an event generated of type @CacheEntryCreated for each element in the cache. Any additionally generated events during this initial phase will be queued until appropriate events have been raised.

Note

This only works for clustered listeners at this time. ISPN-4608 covers adding this for non clustered listeners.

3.3.1.4. Duplicate Events

It is possible in a non transactional cache to receive duplicate events. This is possible when the primary owner of a key goes down while trying to perform a write operation such as a put.

Red Hat Data Grid internally will rectify the put operation by sending it to the new primary owner for the given key automatically, however there are no guarantees in regards to if the write was first replicated to backups. Thus more than 1 of the following write events (CacheEntryCreatedEvent, CacheEntryModifiedEvent & CacheEntryRemovedEvent) may be sent on a single operation.

If more than one event is generated Red Hat Data Grid will mark the event that it was generated by a retried command to help the user to know when this occurs without having to pay attention to view changes.

@Listener
public class MyRetryListener {
  @CacheEntryModified
  public void entryModified(CacheEntryModifiedEvent event) {
    if (event.isCommandRetried()) {
      // Do something
    }
  }
}

Also when using a CacheEventFilter or CacheEventConverter the EventType contains a method isRetry to tell if the event was generated due to retry.

3.3.2. Cache manager-level notifications

Cache manager-level events occur on a cache manager. These too are global and cluster-wide, but involve events that affect all caches created by a single cache manager. Examples of cache manager-level events are nodes joining or leaving a cluster, or caches starting or stopping.

Please see the Javadocs on the org.infinispan.notifications.cachemanagerlistener.annotation package for a comprehensive list of all cache manager-level notifications, and their respective method-level annotations.

3.3.3. Synchronicity of events

By default, all notifications are dispatched in the same thread that generates the event. This means that you must write your listener such that it does not block or do anything that takes too long, as it would prevent the thread from progressing. Alternatively, you could annotate your listener as asynchronous , in which case a separate thread pool will be used to dispatch the notification and prevent blocking the event originating thread. To do this, simply annotate your listener such:

@Listener (sync = false)
public class MyAsyncListener { .... }

3.3.3.1. Asynchronous thread pool

To tune the thread pool used to dispatch such asynchronous notifications, use the <listener-executor /> XML element in your configuration file.

3.4. Asynchronous API

In addition to synchronous API methods like Cache.put() , Cache.remove() , etc., Red Hat Data Grid also has an asynchronous, non-blocking API where you can achieve the same results in a non-blocking fashion.

These methods are named in a similar fashion to their blocking counterparts, with "Async" appended.  E.g., Cache.putAsync() , Cache.removeAsync() , etc.  These asynchronous counterparts return a Future containing the actual result of the operation.

For example, in a cache parameterized as Cache<String, String>, Cache.put(String key, String value) returns a String. Cache.putAsync(String key, String value) would return a Future<String>.

3.4.1. Why use such an API?

Non-blocking APIs are powerful in that they provide all of the guarantees of synchronous communications - with the ability to handle communication failures and exceptions - with the ease of not having to block until a call completes.  This allows you to better harness parallelism in your system.  For example:

Set<Future<?>> futures = new HashSet<Future<?>>();
futures.add(cache.putAsync(key1, value1)); // does not block
futures.add(cache.putAsync(key2, value2)); // does not block
futures.add(cache.putAsync(key3, value3)); // does not block

// the remote calls for the 3 puts will effectively be executed
// in parallel, particularly useful if running in distributed mode
// and the 3 keys would typically be pushed to 3 different nodes
// in the cluster

// check that the puts completed successfully
for (Future<?> f: futures) f.get();

3.4.2. Which processes actually happen asynchronously?

There are 4 things in Red Hat Data Grid that can be considered to be on the critical path of a typical write operation. These are, in order of cost:

  • network calls
  • marshalling
  • writing to a cache store (optional)
  • locking

As of Red Hat Data Grid 4.0, using the async methods will take the network calls and marshalling off the critical path.  For various technical reasons, writing to a cache store and acquiring locks, however, still happens in the caller’s thread.  In future, we plan to take these offline as well.  See this developer mail list thread about this topic.

3.4.3. Notifying futures

Strictly, these methods do not return JDK Futures, but rather a sub-interface known as a NotifyingFuture .  The main difference is that you can attach a listener to a NotifyingFuture such that you could be notified when the future completes.  Here is an example of making use of a notifying future:

FutureListener futureListener = new FutureListener() {

   public void futureDone(Future future) {
      try {
         future.get();
      } catch (Exception e) {
         // Future did not complete successfully
         System.out.println("Help!");
      }
   }
};
     
cache.putAsync("key", "value").attachListener(futureListener);

3.4.4. Further reading

The Javadocs on the Cache interface has some examples on using the asynchronous API, as does this article by Manik Surtani introducing the API.

3.5. Invocation Flags

An important aspect of getting the most of Red Hat Data Grid is the use of per-invocation flags in order to provide specific behaviour to each particular cache call. By doing this, some important optimizations can be implemented potentially saving precious time and network resources. One of the most popular usages of flags can be found right in Cache API, underneath the putForExternalRead() method which is used to load an Red Hat Data Grid cache with data read from an external resource. In order to make this call efficient, Red Hat Data Grid basically calls a normal put operation passing the following flags: FAIL_SILENTLY , FORCE_ASYNCHRONOUS , ZERO_LOCK_ACQUISITION_TIMEOUT

What Red Hat Data Grid is doing here is effectively saying that when putting data read from external read, it will use an almost-zero lock acquisition time and that if the locks cannot be acquired, it will fail silently without throwing any exception related to lock acquisition. It also specifies that regardless of the cache mode, if the cache is clustered, it will replicate asynchronously and so won’t wait for responses from other nodes. The combination of all these flags make this kind of operation very efficient, and the efficiency comes from the fact this type of putForExternalRead calls are used with the knowledge that client can always head back to a persistent store of some sorts to retrieve the data that should be stored in memory. So, any attempt to store the data is just a best effort and if not possible, the client should try again if there’s a cache miss.

3.5.1. Examples

If you want to use these or any other flags available, which by the way are described in detail the Flag enumeration , you simply need to get hold of the advanced cache and add the flags you need via the withFlags() method call. For example:

Cache cache = ...
cache.getAdvancedCache()
   .withFlags(Flag.SKIP_CACHE_STORE, Flag.CACHE_MODE_LOCAL)
   .put("local", "only");

It’s worth noting that these flags are only active for the duration of the cache operation. If the same flags need to be used in several invocations, even if they’re in the same transaction, withFlags() needs to be called repeatedly. Clearly, if the cache operation is to be replicated in another node, the flags are carried over to the remote nodes as well.

3.5.1.1. Suppressing return values from a put() or remove()

Another very important use case is when you want a write operation such as put() to not return the previous value. To do that, you need to use two flags to make sure that in a distributed environment, no remote lookup is done to potentially get previous value, and if the cache is configured with a cache loader, to avoid loading the previous value from the cache store. You can see these two flags in action in the following example:

Cache cache = ...
cache.getAdvancedCache()
   .withFlags(Flag.SKIP_REMOTE_LOOKUP, Flag.SKIP_CACHE_LOAD)
   .put("local", "only")

For more information, please check the Flag enumeration javadoc.

3.6. Tree API Module

Red Hat Data Grid’s tree API module offers clients the possibility of storing data using a tree-structure like API. This API is similar to the one provided by JBoss Cache, hence the tree module is perfect for those users wanting to migrate their applications from JBoss Cache to Red Hat Data Grid, who want to limit changes their codebase as part of the migration. Besides, it’s important to understand that Red Hat Data Grid provides this tree API much more efficiently than JBoss Cache did, so if you’re a user of the tree API in JBoss Cache, you should consider migrating to Red Hat Data Grid.

3.6.1. What is Tree API about?

The aim of this API is to store information in a hierarchical way. The hierarchy is defined using paths represented as Fqn or fully qualified names , for example: /this/is/a/fqn/path or /another/path . In the hierarchy, there’s a special path called root which represents the starting point of all paths and it’s represented as: /

Each FQN path is represented as a node where users can store data using a key/value pair style API (i.e. a Map). For example, in /persons/john , you could store information belonging to John, for example: surname=Smith, birthdate=05/02/1980…​etc.

Please remember that users should not use root as a place to store data. Instead, users should define their own paths and store data there. The following sections will delve into the practical aspects of this API.

3.6.2. Using the Tree API

3.6.2.1. Dependencies

For your application to use the tree API, you need to import infinispan-tree.jar which can be located in the Red Hat Data Grid binary distributions, or you can simply add a dependency to this module in your pom.xml:

pom.xml

<dependencies>
  ...
  <dependency>
    <groupId>org.infinispan</groupId>
    <artifactId>infinispan-tree</artifactId>
    <version>${version.infinispan}</version>
  </dependency>
  ...
</dependencies>

Replace ${version.infinispan} with the appropriate version of Red Hat Data Grid.

3.6.3. Creating a Tree Cache

The first step to use the tree API is to actually create a tree cache. To do so, you need to create an Red Hat Data Grid Cache as you’d normally do, and using the TreeCacheFactory , create an instance of TreeCache . A very important note to remember here is that the Cache instance passed to the factory must be configured with invocation batching. For example:

import org.infinispan.config.Configuration;
import org.infinispan.tree.TreeCacheFactory;
import org.infinispan.tree.TreeCache;
...
Configuration config = new Configuration();
config.setInvocationBatchingEnabled(true);
Cache cache = new DefaultCacheManager(config).getCache();
TreeCache treeCache = TreeCacheFactory.createTreeCache(cache);

3.6.4. Manipulating data in a Tree Cache

The Tree API effectively provides two ways to interact with the data:

Via TreeCache convenience methods: These methods are located within the TreeCache interface and enable users to store , retrieve , move , remove …​etc data with a single call that takes the Fqn , in String or Fqn format, and the data involved in the call. For example:

treeCache.put("/persons/john", "surname", "Smith");

Or:

import org.infinispan.tree.Fqn;
...
Fqn johnFqn = Fqn.fromString("persons/john");
Calendar calendar = Calendar.getInstance();
calendar.set(1980, 5, 2);
treeCache.put(johnFqn, "birthdate", calendar.getTime()));

Via Node API: It allows finer control over the individual nodes that form the FQN, allowing manipulation of nodes relative to a particular node. For example:

import org.infinispan.tree.Node;
...
TreeCache treeCache = ...
Fqn johnFqn = Fqn.fromElements("persons", "john");
Node<String, Object> john = treeCache.getRoot().addChild(johnFqn);
john.put("surname", "Smith");

Or:

Node persons = treeCache.getRoot().addChild(Fqn.fromString("persons"));
Node<String, Object> john = persons.addChild(Fqn.fromString("john"));
john.put("surname", "Smith");

Or even:

Fqn personsFqn = Fqn.fromString("persons");
Fqn johnFqn = Fqn.fromRelative(personsFqn, Fqn.fromString("john"));
Node<String, Object> john = treeCache.getRoot().addChild(johnFqn);
john.put("surname", "Smith");

A node also provides the ability to access its parent or children . For example:

Node<String, Object> john = ...
Node persons = john.getParent();

Or:

Set<Node<String, Object>> personsChildren = persons.getChildren();

3.6.5. Common Operations

In the previous section, some of the most used operations, such as addition and retrieval, have been shown. However, there are other important operations that are worth mentioning, such as remove:

You can for example remove an entire node, i.e. /persons/john , using:

treeCache.removeNode("/persons/john");

Or remove a child node, i.e. persons that a child of root, via:

treeCache.getRoot().removeChild(Fqn.fromString("persons"));

You can also remove a particular key/value pair in a node:

Node john = treeCache.getRoot().getChild(Fqn.fromElements("persons", "john"));
john.remove("surname");

Or you can remove all data in a node with:

Node john = treeCache.getRoot().getChild(Fqn.fromElements("persons", "john"));
john.clearData();

Another important operation supported by Tree API is the ability to move nodes around in the tree. Imagine we have a node called "john" which is located under root node. The following example is going to show how to we can move "john" node to be under "persons" node:

Current tree structure:

   /persons
   /john

Moving trees from one FQN to another:

Node john = treeCache.getRoot().addChild(Fqn.fromString("john"));
Node persons = treeCache.getRoot().getChild(Fqn.fromString("persons"));
treeCache.move(john.getFqn(), persons.getFqn());

Final tree structure:

   /persons/john

3.6.6. Locking in the Tree API

Understanding when and how locks are acquired when manipulating the tree structure is important in order to maximise the performance of any client application interacting against the tree, while at the same time maintaining consistency.

Locking on the tree API happens on a per node basis. So, if you’re putting or updating a key/value under a particular node, a write lock is acquired for that node. In such case, no write locks are acquired for parent node of the node being modified, and no locks are acquired for children nodes.

If you’re adding or removing a node, the parent is not locked for writing. In JBoss Cache, this behaviour was configurable with the default being that parent was not locked for insertion or removal.

Finally, when a node is moved, the node that’s been moved and any of its children are locked, but also the target node and the new location of the moved node and its children. To understand this better, let’s look at an example:

Imagine you have a hierarchy like this and we want to move c/ to be underneath b/:

        /
      --|--
     /     \
     a     c
     |     |
     b     e
     |
     d

The end result would be something like this:

        /
        |         
        a    
        |    
        b    
      --|--
     /     \
     d     c
           |
           e

To make this move, locks would have been acquired on:

  • /a/b - because it’s the parent underneath which the data will be put
  • /c and /c/e - because they’re the nodes that are being moved
  • /a/b/c and /a/b/c/e - because that’s new target location for the nodes being moved

3.6.7. Listeners for tree cache events

The current Red Hat Data Grid listeners have been designed with key/value store notifications in mind, and hence they do not map to tree cache events correctly. Tree cache specific listeners that map directly to tree cache events (i.e. adding a child…​etc) are desirable but these are not yet available. If you’re interested in this type of listeners, please follow this issue to find out about any progress in this area.

3.7. Encoding

3.7.1. Overview

Encoding is the data conversion operation done by Red Hat Data Grid caches before storing data, and when reading back from storage.

It allows dealing with a certain data format during API calls (map, listeners, stream, etc) while the format effectively stored is different.

The data conversions are handled by instances of org.infinispan.commons.dataconversion.Encoder :

public interface Encoder {

   /**
    * Convert data in the read/write format to the storage format.
    *
    * @param content data to be converted, never null.
    * @return Object in the storage format.
    */
   Object toStorage(Object content);

   /**
    * Convert from storage format to the read/write format.
    *
    * @param content data as stored in the cache, never null.
    * @return data in the read/write format
    */
   Object fromStorage(Object content);

   /**
     * Returns the {@link MediaType} produced by this encoder or null if the storage format is not known.
     */
   MediaType getStorageFormat();
}

3.7.2. Default encoders

Red Hat Data Grid automatically picks the Encoder depending on the cache configuration. The table below shows which internal Encoder is used for several configurations:

ModeConfigurationEncoderDescription

Embedded/Server

Default

IdentityEncoder

Passthrough encoder, no conversion done

Embedded

StorageType.OFF_HEAP

GlobalMarshallerEncoder

Use the Red Hat Data Grid internal marshaller to convert to byte[]. May delegate to the configured marshaller in the cache manager.

Embedded

StorageType.BINARY

BinaryEncoder

Use the Red Hat Data Grid internal marshaller to convert to byte[], except for primitives and String.

Server

StorageType.OFF_HEAP

IdentityEncoder

Store byte[]s directly as received by remote clients

3.7.3. Overriding programmatically

Is is possible to override programmatically the encoding used for both keys and values, by calling the .withEncoding() method variants from AdvancedCache.

Example, consider the following cache configured as OFF_HEAP:

// Read and write POJO, storage will be byte[] since for
// OFF_HEAP the GlobalMarshallerEncoder is used internally:
cache.put(1, new Pojo())
Pojo value = cache.get(1)

// Get the content in its stored format by overriding
// the internal encoder with a no-op encoder (IdentityEncoder)
Cache<?,?> rawContent = cache.getAdvancedCache().withValueEncoding(IdentityEncoder.class)
byte[] marshalled = rawContent.get(1)

The override can be useful if any operation in the cache does not require decoding, such as counting number of entries, or calculating the size of byte[] of an OFF_HEAP cache.

3.7.4. Defining custom Encoders

A custom encoder can be registered in the EncoderRegistry.

Caution

Ensure that the registration is done in every node of the cluster, before starting the caches.

Consider a custom encoder used to compress/decompress with gzip:

public class GzipEncoder implements Encoder {

   @Override
   public Object toStorage(Object content) {
      assert content instanceof String;
      return compress(content.toString());
   }

   @Override
   public Object fromStorage(Object content) {
      assert content instanceof byte[];
      return decompress((byte[]) content);
   }

   private byte[] compress(String str) {
      try (ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
           GZIPOutputStream gis = new GZIPOutputStream(baos)) {
         gis.write(str.getBytes("UTF-8"));
         gis.close();
         return baos.toByteArray();
      } catch (IOException e) {
         throw new RuntimeException("Unabled to compress", e);
      }
   }

   private String decompress(byte[] compressed) {
      try (GZIPInputStream gis = new GZIPInputStream(new ByteArrayInputStream(compressed));
           BufferedReader bf = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(gis, "UTF-8"))) {
         StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder();
         String line;
         while ((line = bf.readLine()) != null) {
            result.append(line);
         }
         return result.toString();
      } catch (IOException e) {
         throw new RuntimeException("Unable to decompress", e);
      }
   }

   @Override
   public MediaType getStorageFormat() {
      return MediaType.parse("application/gzip");
   }

   @Override
   public boolean isStorageFormatFilterable() {
      return false;
   }

   @Override
   public short id() {
      return 10000;
   }
}

It can be registered by:

GlobalComponentRegistry registry = cacheManager.getGlobalComponentRegistry();
EncoderRegistry encoderRegistry = registry.getComponent(EncoderRegistry.class);
encoderRegistry.registerEncoder(new GzipEncoder());

And then be used to write and read data from a cache:

AdvancedCache<String, String> cache = ...

// Decorate cache with the newly registered encoder, without encoding keys (IdentityEncoder)
// but compressing values
AdvancedCache<String, String> compressingCache = (AdvancedCache<String, String>) cache.withEncoding(IdentityEncoder.class, GzipEncoder.class);

// All values will be stored compressed...
compressingCache.put("297931749", "0412c789a37f5086f743255cfa693dd5");

// ... but API calls deals with String
String value = compressingCache.get("297931749");

// Bypassing the value encoder to obtain the value as it is stored
Object value = compressingCache.withEncoding(IdentityEncoder.class).get("297931749");

// value is a byte[] which is the compressed value

3.7.5. MediaType

A Cache can optionally be configured with a org.infinispan.commons.dataconversion.MediaType for keys and values. By describing the data format of the cache, Red Hat Data Grid is able to convert data on the fly during cache operations.

Note

The MediaType configuration is more suitable when storing binary data. When using server mode, it’s common to have a MediaType configured and clients such as REST or Hot Rod reading and writing in different formats.

The data conversion between MediaType formats are handled by instances of org.infinispan.commons.dataconversion.Transcoder

public interface Transcoder {

   /**
    * Transcodes content between two different {@link MediaType}.
    *
    * @param content         Content to transcode.
    * @param contentType     The {@link MediaType} of the content.
    * @param destinationType The target {@link MediaType} to convert.
    * @return the transcoded content.
    */
   Object transcode(Object content, MediaType contentType, MediaType destinationType);

   /**
    * @return all the {@link MediaType} handled by this Transcoder.
    */
   Set<MediaType> getSupportedMediaTypes();
}

3.7.5.1. Configuration

Declarative:

<cache>
   <encoding>
      <key media-type="application/x-java-object; type=java.lang.Integer"/>
      <value media-type="application/xml; charset=UTF-8"/>
   </encoding>
</cache>

Programmatic:

ConfigurationBuilder cfg = new ConfigurationBuilder();

cfg.encoding().key().mediaType("text/plain");
cfg.encoding().value().mediaType("application/json");

3.7.5.2. Overriding the MediaType Programmatically

It’s possible to decorate the Cache with a different MediaType, allowing cache operations to be executed sending and receiving different data formats.

Example:

DefaultCacheManager cacheManager = new DefaultCacheManager();

// The cache will store POJO for keys and values
ConfigurationBuilder cfg = new ConfigurationBuilder();
cfg.encoding().key().mediaType("application/x-java-object");
cfg.encoding().value().mediaType("application/x-java-object");

cacheManager.defineConfiguration("mycache", cfg.build());

Cache<Integer, Person> cache = cacheManager.getCache("mycache");

cache.put(1, new Person("John","Doe"));

// Wraps cache using 'application/x-java-object' for keys but JSON for values
Cache<Integer, byte[]> jsonValuesCache = (Cache<Integer, byte[]>) cache.getAdvancedCache().withMediaType("application/x-java-object", "application/json");

byte[] json = jsonValuesCache.get(1);

Will return the value in JSON format:

{
   "_type":"org.infinispan.sample.Person",
   "name":"John",
   "surname":"Doe"
}
Caution

Most Transcoders are installed when server mode is used; when using library mode, an extra dependency, org.infinispan:infinispan-server-core should be added to the project.

3.7.5.3. Transcoders and Encoders

Usually there will be none or only one data conversion involved in a cache operation:

  • No conversion by default on caches using in embedded or server mode;
  • Encoder based conversion for embedded caches without MediaType configured, but using OFF_HEAP or BINARY;
  • Transcoder based conversion for caches used in server mode with multiple REST and Hot Rod clients sending and receiving data in different formats. Those caches will have MediaType configured describing the storage.

But it’s possible to have both encoders and transcoders being used simultaneously for advanced use cases.

Consider an example, a cache that stores marshalled objects (with jboss marshaller) content but for security reasons a transparent encryption layer should be added in order to avoid storing "plain" data to an external store. Clients should be able to read and write data in multiple formats.

This can be achieved by configuring the cache with the the MediaType that describes the storage regardless of the encoding layer:

ConfigurationBuilder cfg = new ConfigurationBuilder();
cfg.encoding().key().mediaType("application/x-jboss-marshalling");
cfg.encoding().key().mediaType("application/x-jboss-marshalling");

The transparent encryption can be added by decorating the cache with a special Encoder that encrypts/decrypts with storing/retrieving, for example:

public class Scrambler implements Encoder {

   Object toStorage(Object content) {
      // Encrypt data
   }

   Object fromStorage(Object content) {
      // Decrypt data
   }

   MediaType getStorageFormat() {
      return "application/scrambled";
   }

}

To make sure all data written to the cache will be stored encrypted, it’s necessary to decorate the cache with the Encoder above and perform all cache operations in this decorated cache:

Cache<?,?> secureStorageCache = cache.getAdvancedCache().withEncoding(Scrambler.class).put(k,v);

The capability of reading data in multiple formats can be added by decorating the cache with the desired MediaType:

// Obtain a stream of values in XML format from the secure cache
secureStorageCache.getAdvancedCache().withMediaType("application/xml","application/xml").values().stream();

Internally, Red Hat Data Grid will first apply the encoder fromStorage operation to obtain the entries, that will be in "application/x-jboss-marshalling" format and then apply a successive conversion to "application/xml" by using the adequate Transcoder.