Chapter 4. Authoring devfiles

4.1. Authoring devfiles version 1

This section explains the concept of a devfile and how to configure a CodeReady Workspaces workspace by using a devfile of the 1.0 specification.

4.1.1. What is a devfile

A devfile is a file that describes and define a development environment:

  • The source code.
  • The development components, such as browser IDE tools and application runtimes.
  • A list of pre-defined commands.
  • Projects to clone.

A devfiles is a YAML file that CodeReady Workspaces consumes and transforms into a cloud workspace composed of multiple containers. It is possible to store a devfile remotely or locally, in any number of ways, such as:

  • In a git repository, in the root folder, or on a feature branch.
  • On a publicly accessible web server, accessible through HTTP.
  • Locally as a file, and deployed using crwctl.
  • In a collection of devfiles, known as a devfile registry.

When creating a workspace, CodeReady Workspaces uses that definition to initiate everything and run all the containers for the required tools and application runtimes. CodeReady Workspaces also mounts file-system volumes to make source code available to the workspace.

Devfiles can be versioned with the project source code. When there is a need for a workspace to fix an old maintenance branch, the project devfile provides a definition of the workspace with the tools and the exact dependencies to start working on the old branch. Use it to instantiate workspaces on demand.

CodeReady Workspaces maintains the devfile up-to-date with the tools used in the workspace:

  • Elements of the project, such as the path, git location, or branch.
  • Commands to perform daily tasks such as build, run, test, and debug.
  • The runtime environment with its container images needed for the application to run.
  • Che-Theia plug-ins with tools, IDE features, and helpers that a developer would use in the workspace, for example, Git, Java support, SonarLint, and Pull Request.

4.1.2. A minimal devfile

The following is the minimum content required in a devfile:

apiVersion: 1.0.0
metadata:
  name: crw-in-crw-out

For a complete devfile example, see Red Hat CodeReady Workspaces in CodeReady Workspaces devfile.yaml.

Note

A choice of use of the parameter generateName or name is optional, but only one of these parameters has to be chosen by a user and defined. When both attributes are specified, generateName is ignored. See Section 4.1.3, “Generating workspace names”.

metadata:
  generatedName:

or

metadata:
  name:

4.1.3. Generating workspace names

To specify a prefix for automatically generated workspace names, set the generateName parameter in the devfile:

apiVersion: 1.0.0
metadata:
  generateName: crw-

The workspace name will be in the <generateName>YYYYY format (for example, che-2y7kp). Y is random [a-z0-9] character.

The following naming rules apply when creating workspaces:

  • When name is defined, it is used as the workspace name: <name>
  • When only generateName is defined, it is used as the base of the generated name: <generateName>YYYYY
Note

For workspaces created using a factory, defining name or generateName has the same effect. The defined value is used as the name prefix: <name>YYYYY or <generateName>YYYYY. When both generateName and name are defined, generateName takes precedence.

4.1.4. Writing a devfile for a project

This section describes how to create a minimal devfile for your project and how to include more than one projects in a devfile.

4.1.4.1. Preparing a minimal devfile

A minimal devfile sufficient to run a workspace consists of the following parts:

  • Specification version
  • Name

Example of a minimal devfile with no project

apiVersion: 1.0.0
metadata:
  name: minimal-workspace

Without any further configuration, a workspace with the default editor is launched along with its default plug-ins, which are configured on the CodeReady Workspaces Server. Che-Theia is configured as the default editor along with the CodeReady Workspaces Machine Exec plug-in. When launching a workspace within a Git repository using a factory, the project from the given repository and branch is be created by default. The project name then matches the repository name.

Add the following parts for a more functional workspace:

  • List of components: Development components and user runtimes
  • List of projects: Source code repositories
  • List of commands: Actions to manage the workspace components, such as running the development tools, starting the runtime environments, and others

Example of a minimal devfile with a project

apiVersion: 1.0.0
metadata:
  name: petclinic-dev-environment
projects:
  - name: petclinic
    source:
      type: git
      location: 'https://github.com/spring-projects/spring-petclinic.git'
components:
  - type: chePlugin
    id: redhat/java/latest

4.1.4.2. Specifying multiple projects in a devfile

A single devfile can define multiple projects, which are cloned to the desired destination. These projects are created inside a user’s workspace after the workspace is started.

For each project, specify the following:

  • The type of the source repository - this can be .git or .zip. For additional information, see the Devfile reference section.
  • The location of the source repository - an URL to a Git repository or zip archive.
  • Optionally, the directory to which the project is cloned. If none is specified, the default directory is used, which is a directory that matches the project name or project Git repository.

Example of a devfile with two projects

In the following example, the projects frontend and backend act as examples of a user’s projects. Each project is located in a separate repository.

  • The backend project has a specific requirement to be cloned into the src/github.com/<github-organization>/<backend>/ directory under the source root, implicitly defined by the CodeReady Workspaces runtime.
  • The frontend project will be cloned into the <frontend/> directory under the source root.
apiVersion: 1.0.0
metadata:
  name: example-devfile
projects:
- name: <frontend>
  source:
    type: git
    location: https://github.com/<github-organization>/<frontend>.git
- name: <backend>
  clonePath: src/github.com/<github-organization>/<backend>
  source:
    type: git
    location: https://github.com/<github-organization>/<backend>.git

Additional resources

For a detailed explanation of all devfile component assignments and possible values, see:

These sample devfiles are a good source of inspiration:

4.1.5. Devfile reference

This section contains devfile reference and instructions on how to use the various elements that devfiles consist of.

4.1.5.1. Adding schema version to a devfile

Procedure

  • Define the schemaVersion attribute in the devfile:

Example 4.1. Adding schema version to a devfile

schemaVersion: 1.0.0

4.1.5.2. Adding a name to a devfile

Adding a name to a devfile is mandatory. Both name and generateName are optional attributes, but at least one of them must be defined.

Procedure

  1. To specify a static name for the workspace, define the name attribute.

    Adding a static name to a devfile

    schemaVersion: 1.0.0
    metadata:
      name: devfile-sample

  2. To specify a prefix for automatically generated workspace names, define the generateName attribute and don’t define the name attribute. The workspace name will be in the <generateName>YYYYY format, for example, devfile-sample-2y7kp, where Y is a random [a-z0-9] character.

    Adding a generated name to a devfile

    schemaVersion: 1.0.0
    metadata:
      generateName: devfile-sample-

Note

For workspaces created using a factory, defining name or generateName has the same effect. The defined value is used as the name prefix: <name>YYYYY or <generateName>YYYYY. When both generateName and name are defined, generateName takes precedence.

4.1.5.3. Adding projects to a devfile

A devfile is designed to contain one or more projects. A workspace is created to develop those projects. Projects are added in the projects section of devfiles.

Each project in a single devfile must have:

  • Unique name
  • Source specified

Project source consists of two mandatory values: type and location.

type
The kind of project-source provider.
location
The URL of project source.

CodeReady Workspaces supports the following project types:

git
Projects with sources in Git. The location points to a clone link.
github
Same as git but for projects hosted on GitHub only. Use git for projects that do not use GitHub-specific features.
zip
Projects with sources in a ZIP archive. Location points to a ZIP file.
4.1.5.3.1. Project-source type: git
source:
    type: git
    location: https://github.com/eclipse-che/che-server.git
    startPoint: main           1
    tag: 7.34.0
    commitId: 36fe587
    branch: 7.34.x
    sparseCheckoutDir: core  2
1
startPoint: The general value for tag, commitId, and branch. The startPoint, tag, commitId, and branch parameters are mutually exclusive. When more than one is supplied, the following order is used: startPoint, tag, commitId, branch.
2
sparseCheckoutDir: The template for the sparse checkout Git feature. This is useful when only a part of a project, typically a single directory, is needed.

Example 4.2. sparseCheckoutDir parameter settings

  • Set to /my-module/ to create only the root my-module directory (and its content).
  • Omit the leading slash (my-module/) to create all my-module directories that exist in the project. Including, for example, /addons/my-module/.

    The trailing slash indicates that only directories with the given name (including their content) are created.

  • Use wildcards to specify more than one directory name. For example, setting module-* checks out all directories of the given project that start with module-.

For more information, see Sparse checkout in Git documentation.

4.1.5.3.2. Project-source type: zip
source:
    type: zip
    location: http://host.net/path/project-src.zip
4.1.5.3.3. Project clone-path parameter: clonePath

The clonePath parameter specifies the path into which the project is to be cloned. The path must be relative to the /projects/ directory, and it cannot leave the /projects/ directory. The default value is the project name.

Example devfile with projects

apiVersion: 1.0.0
metadata:
  name: my-project-dev
projects:
  - name: my-project-resourse
    clonePath: resources/my-project
    source:
      type: zip
      location: http://host.net/path/project-res.zip
  - name: my-project
    source:
      type: git
      location: https://github.com/my-org/project.git
      branch: develop

4.1.5.4. Adding components to a devfile

Each component in a single devfile must have a unique name.

4.1.5.4.1. Component type: cheEditor

Describes the editor used in the workspace by defining its id. A devfile can only contain one component of the cheEditor type.

components:
  - alias: theia-editor
    type: cheEditor
    id: eclipse/che-theia/next

When cheEditor is missing, a default editor is provided along with its default plug-ins. The default plug-ins are also provided for an explicitly defined editor with the same id as the default one (even if it is a different version). Che-Theia is configured as default editor along with the CodeReady Workspaces Machine Exec plug-in.

To specify that a workspace requires no editor, use the editorFree:true attribute in the devfile attributes.

4.1.5.4.2. Component type: chePlugin

Describes plug-ins in a workspace by defining their id. A devfile is allowed to have multiple chePlugin components.

  components:
   - alias: exec-plugin
     type: chePlugin
     id: eclipse/che-machine-exec-plugin/latest

Both types above use an ID, which is slash-separated publisher, name and version of plug-in from the CodeReady Workspaces Plug-in registry. Note that the CodeReady Workspaces Plug-in registry uses the latest version by default for all plug-ins.

To reference a custom plug-in by ID, build and deploy a custom plug-in registry. See Building custom registry images.

4.1.5.4.3. Specifying an alternative component registry

To specify an alternative registry for the cheEditor and chePlugin component types, use the registryUrl parameter:

  components:
   - alias: exec-plugin
     type: chePlugin
     registryUrl: https://my-customregistry.com
     id: eclipse/che-machine-exec-plugin/latest
4.1.5.4.4. Specifying a component by linking to its descriptor

Rather than using the editor or plug-in id to specify cheEditor or chePlugin, provide a direct link to the component descriptor, typically named as meta.yaml, using the reference field:

  components:
   - alias: exec-plugin
     type: chePlugin
     reference: https://raw.githubusercontent.com.../plugin/1.0.1/meta.yaml

The URL in the reference field must be publicly accessible and should directly point to a fetchable meta.yaml file. URLs that redirect or do not directly point to a meta.yaml file will cause the workspace startup to fail. To learn more about publishing meta.yaml files, see Section 5.4, “Publishing metadata for a VS Code extension”.

Note

It is impossible to mix the id and reference fields in a single component definition; they are mutually exclusive.

4.1.5.4.5. Tuning chePlugin component configuration

A chePlugin component may need to be precisely tuned, and in such case, component preferences can be used. The example shows how to configure JVM using plug-in preferences.

  id: redhat/java/latest
  type: chePlugin
  preferences:
     java.jdt.ls.vmargs: '-noverify -Xmx1G -XX:+UseG1GC -XX:+UseStringDeduplication'

Preferences may also be specified as an array:

  id: redhat/java/latest
  type: chePlugin
  preferences:
     go.lintFlags: ["--enable-all", "--new"]

4.1.5.4.6. Component type: kubernetes

A complex component type that allows to apply configuration from a list of OpenShift components.

The content can be provided through the reference attribute, which points to the file with the component content.

  components:
    - alias: mysql
      type: kubernetes
      reference: petclinic.yaml
      selector:
        app.kubernetes.io/name: mysql
        app.kubernetes.io/component: database
        app.kubernetes.io/part-of: petclinic

Alternatively, to post a devfile with such components to REST API, the contents of the OpenShift List object can be embedded into the devfile using the referenceContent field:

  components:
    - alias: mysql
      type: kubernetes
      reference: petclinic.yaml
      referenceContent: |
           kind: List
           items:
            -
             apiVersion: v1
             kind: Pod
             metadata:
              name: ws
             spec:
              containers:
              ... etc
4.1.5.4.7. Overriding container entrypoints

As with the understood by OpenShift).

There can be more containers in the list (contained in Pods or Pod templates of deployments). To select which containers to apply the entrypoint changes to.

The entrypoints can be defined as follows:

  components:
    - alias: appDeployment
      type: kubernetes
      reference: app-deployment.yaml
      entrypoints:
      - parentName: mysqlServer
        command: ['sleep']
        args: ['infinity']
      - parentSelector:
          app: prometheus
        args: ['-f', '/opt/app/prometheus-config.yaml']

The entrypoints list contains constraints for picking the containers along with the command and args parameters to apply to them. In the example above, the constraint is parentName: mysqlServer, which will cause the command to be applied to all containers defined in any parent object called mysqlServer. The parent object is assumed to be a top level object in the list defined in the referenced file, which is app-deployment.yaml in the example above.

Other types of constraints (and their combinations) are possible:

containerName
the name of the container
parentName
the name of the parent object that (indirectly) contains the containers to override
parentSelector
the set of labels the parent object needs to have

A combination of these constraints can be used to precisely locate the containers inside the referenced OpenShift List.

4.1.5.4.8. Overriding container environment variables

To provision or override entrypoints in a OpenShift component, configure it in the following way:

  components:
    - alias: appDeployment
      type: kubernetes
      reference: app-deployment.yaml
      env:
        - name: ENV_VAR
          value: value

This is useful for temporary content or without access to editing the referenced content. The specified environment variables are provisioned into each init container and containers inside all Pods and Deployments.

4.1.5.4.9. Specifying mount-source option

To specify a project sources directory mount into container(s), use the mountSources parameter:

   components:
      - alias: appDeployment
        type: kubernetes
        reference: app-deployment.yaml
        mountSources: true

If enabled, project sources mounts will be applied to every container of the given component. This parameter is also applicable for chePlugin type components.

4.1.5.4.10. Component type: dockerimage

A component type that allows to define a container image-based configuration of a container in a workspace. The dockerimage type of component brings in custom tools into the workspace. The component is identified by its image.

 components:
   - alias: maven
     type: dockerimage
     image: quay.io/eclipse/che-java11-maven:nightly
     volumes:
       - name: mavenrepo
         containerPath: /root/.m2
     env:
       - name: ENV_VAR
         value: value
     endpoints:
       - name: maven-server
         port: 3101
         attributes:
           protocol: http
           secure: 'true'
           public: 'true'
           discoverable: 'false'
     memoryLimit: 1536M
     memoryRequest: 256M
     command: ['tail']
     args: ['-f', '/dev/null']

Example of a minimal dockerimage component

apiVersion: 1.0.0
metadata:
    name: MyDevfile
components:
    - type: dockerimage
      image: golang
      memoryLimit: 512Mi
      command: ['sleep', 'infinity']

It specifies the type of the component, dockerimage and the image attribute names the image to be used for the component using the usual Docker naming conventions, that is, the above type attribute is equal to docker.io/library/golang:latest.

A dockerimage component has many features that enable augmenting the image with additional resources and information needed for meaningful integration of the tool provided by the image with Red Hat CodeReady Workspaces.

4.1.5.4.11. Mounting project sources

For the dockerimage component to have access to the project sources, you must set the mountSources attribute to true.

apiVersion: 1.0.0
metadata:
    name: MyDevfile
components:
    - type: dockerimage
      image: golang
      memoryLimit: 512Mi
      command: ['sleep', 'infinity']

The sources is mounted on a location stored in the CHE_PROJECTS_ROOT environment variable that is made available in the running container of the image. This location defaults to /projects.

4.1.5.4.12. Container entrypoint

The command attribute of the dockerimage along with other arguments, is used to modify the entrypoint command of the container created from the image. In Red Hat CodeReady Workspaces the container is needed to run indefinitely so that you can connect to it and execute arbitrary commands in it at any time. Because the availability of the sleep command and the support for the infinity argument for it is different and depends on the base image used in the particular images, CodeReady Workspaces cannot insert this behavior automatically on its own. However, you can take advantage of this feature to, for example, start necessary servers with modified configurations, and so on.

4.1.5.4.13. Persistent Storage

Components of any type can specify the custom volumes to be mounted on specific locations within the image. Note that the volume names are shared across all components and therefore this mechanism can also be used to share file systems between components.

Example specifying volumes for dockerimage type:

apiVersion: 1.0.0
metadata:
  name: MyDevfile
components:
  - type: dockerimage
    image: golang
    memoryLimit: 512Mi
    mountSources: true
    command: ['sleep', 'infinity']
    volumes:
      - name: cache
        containerPath: /.cache

Example specifying volumes for cheEditor/chePlugin type:

apiVersion: 1.0.0
metadata:
  name: MyDevfile
components:
  - type: cheEditor
    alias: theia-editor
    id: eclipse/che-theia/next
    env:
    - name: HOME
      value: $(CHE_PROJECTS_ROOT)
    volumes:
    - name: cache
      containerPath: /.cache

Example specifying volumes for kubernetes/openshift type:

apiVersion: 1.0.0
metadata:
  name: MyDevfile
components:
  - type: openshift
    alias: mongo
    reference: mongo-db.yaml
    volumes:
    - name: mongo-persistent-storage
      containerPath: /data/db
4.1.5.4.14. Specifying container memory limit for components

To specify a container(s) memory limit for dockerimage, chePlugin or cheEditor, use the memoryLimit parameter:

  components:
   - alias: exec-plugin
     type: chePlugin
     id: eclipse/che-machine-exec-plugin/latest
     memoryLimit: 1Gi
   - alias: maven
     type: dockerimage
     image: quay.io/eclipse/che-java11-maven:nightly
     memoryLimit: 512M

This limit will be applied to every container of the given component.

For the cheEditor and chePlugin component types, RAM limits can be described in the plug-in descriptor file, typically named meta.yaml.

If none of them are specified, system-wide defaults will be applied (see description of CHE_WORKSPACE_SIDECAR_DEFAULT__MEMORY__LIMIT__MB system property).

4.1.5.4.15. Specifying container memory request for components

To specify a container(s) memory request for dockerimage, chePlugin or cheEditor, use the memoryRequest parameter:

  components:
   - alias: exec-plugin
     type: chePlugin
     id: eclipse/che-machine-exec-plugin/latest
     memoryLimit: 1Gi
     memoryRequest: 512M
   - alias: maven
     type: dockerimage
     image: quay.io/eclipse/che-java11-maven:nightly
     memoryLimit: 512M
     memoryRequest: 256M

This limit will be applied to every container of the given component.

For the cheEditor and chePlugin component types, RAM requests can be described in the plug-in descriptor file, typically named meta.yaml.

If none of them are specified, system-wide defaults are applied (see description of CHE_WORKSPACE_SIDECAR_DEFAULT__MEMORY__REQUEST__MB system property).

4.1.5.4.16. Specifying container CPU limit for components

To specify a container(s) CPU limit for chePlugin, cheEditor or dockerimage use the cpuLimit parameter:

  components:
   - alias: exec-plugin
     type: chePlugin
     id: eclipse/che-machine-exec-plugin/latest
     cpuLimit: 1.5
   - alias: maven
     type: dockerimage
     image: quay.io/eclipse/che-java11-maven:nightly
     cpuLimit: 750m

This limit will be applied to every container of the given component.

For the cheEditor and chePlugin component types, CPU limits can be described in the plug-in descriptor file, typically named meta.yaml.

If none of them are specified, system-wide defaults are applied (see description of CHE_WORKSPACE_SIDECAR_DEFAULT__CPU__LIMIT__CORES system property).

4.1.5.4.17. Specifying container CPU request for components

To specify a container(s) CPU request for chePlugin, cheEditor or dockerimage use the cpuRequest parameter:

  components:
   - alias: exec-plugin
     type: chePlugin
     id: eclipse/che-machine-exec-plugin/latest
     cpuLimit: 1.5
     cpuRequest: 0.225
   - alias: maven
     type: dockerimage
     image: quay.io/eclipse/che-java11-maven:nightly
     cpuLimit: 750m
     cpuRequest: 450m

This limit will be applied to every container of the given component.

For the cheEditor and chePlugin component types, CPU requests can be described in the plug-in descriptor file, typically named meta.yaml.

If none of them are specified, system-wide defaults are applied (see description of CHE_WORKSPACE_SIDECAR_DEFAULT__CPU__REQUEST__CORES system property).

4.1.5.4.18. Environment variables

Red Hat CodeReady Workspaces allows you to configure Docker containers by modifying the environment variables available in component’s configuration. Environment variables are supported by the following component types: dockerimage, chePlugin, cheEditor, kubernetes, openshift. In case component has multiple containers, environment variables will be provisioned to each container.

apiVersion: 1.0.0
metadata:
  name: MyDevfile
components:
  - type: dockerimage
    image: golang
    memoryLimit: 512Mi
    mountSources: true
    command: ['sleep', 'infinity']
    env:
      - name: GOPATH
        value: $(CHE_PROJECTS_ROOT)/go
  - type: cheEditor
    alias: theia-editor
    id: eclipse/che-theia/next
    memoryLimit: 2Gi
    env:
    - name: HOME
      value: $(CHE_PROJECTS_ROOT)
Note
  • The variable expansion works between the environment variables, and it uses the Kubernetes convention for the variable references.
  • The predefined variables are available for use in custom definitions.

The following environment variables are pre-set by the CodeReady Workspaces server:

  • CHE_PROJECTS_ROOT: The location of the projects directory (note that if the component does not mount the sources, the projects will not be accessible).
  • CHE_WORKSPACE_LOGS_ROOT__DIR: The location of the logs common to all the components. If the component chooses to put logs into this directory, the log files are accessible from all other components.
  • CHE_API_INTERNAL: The URL to the CodeReady Workspaces server API endpoint used for communication with the CodeReady Workspaces server.
  • CHE_WORKSPACE_ID: The ID of the current workspace.
  • CHE_WORKSPACE_NAME: The name of the current workspace.
  • CHE_WORKSPACE_NAMESPACE: The CodeReady Workspaces project of the current workspace. This environment variable is the name of the user or organization that the workspace belongs to. Note that this is different from the OpenShift project to which the workspace is deployed.
  • CHE_MACHINE_TOKEN: The token used to authenticate the request against the CodeReady Workspaces server.
  • CHE_MACHINE_AUTH_SIGNATURE__PUBLIC__KEY: The public key used to secure the communication with the CodeReady Workspaces server.
  • CHE_MACHINE_AUTH_SIGNATURE__ALGORITHM: The encryption algorithm used in the secured communication with the CodeReady Workspaces server.

A devfile might need the CHE_PROJECTS_ROOT environment variable to locate the cloned projects in the component’s container. More advanced devfiles might use the CHE_WORKSPACE_LOGS_ROOT__DIR environment variable to read the logs. The environment variables for securely accessing the CodeReady Workspaces server are out of scope for devfiles. These variables are available only to CodeReady Workspaces plug-ins, which use them for advanced use cases.

4.1.5.4.19. Endpoints

Components of any type can specify the endpoints that the Docker image exposes. These endpoints can be made accessible to the users if the CodeReady Workspaces cluster is running using a Kubernetes ingress or an OpenShift route and to the other components within the workspace. You can create an endpoint for your application or database, if your application or database server is listening on a port and you need to be able to directly interact with it yourself or you allow other components to interact with it.

Endpoints have several properties as shown in the following example:

apiVersion: 1.0.0
metadata:
  name: MyDevfile
projects:
  - name: my-go-project
    clonePath: go/src/github.com/acme/my-go-project
    source:
      type: git
      location: https://github.com/acme/my-go-project.git
components:
  - type: dockerimage
    image: golang
    memoryLimit: 512Mi
    mountSources: true
    command: ['sleep', 'infinity']
    env:
      - name: GOPATH
        value: $(CHE_PROJECTS_ROOT)/go
      - name: GOCACHE
        value: /tmp/go-cache
    endpoints:
     - name: web
       port: 8080
       attributes:
         discoverable: false
         public: true
         protocol: http
  - type: dockerimage
    image: postgres
    memoryLimit: 512Mi
    env:
      - name: POSTGRES_USER
        value: user
      - name: POSTGRES_PASSWORD
        value: password
      - name: POSTGRES_DB
        value: database
    endpoints:
      - name: postgres
        port: 5432
        attributes:
          discoverable: true
          public: false

Here, there are two Docker images, each defining a single endpoint. Endpoint is an accessible port that can be made accessible inside the workspace or also publicly (example, from the UI). Each endpoint has a name and port, which is the port on which certain server running inside the container is listening. The following are a few attributes that you can set on the endpoint:

  • discoverable: If an endpoint is discoverable, it means that it can be accessed using its name as the host name within the workspace containers (in the OpenShift terminology, a service is created for it with the provided name). 55
  • public: The endpoint will be accessible outside of the workspace, too (such endpoint can be accessed from the CodeReady Workspaces user interface). Such endpoints are publicized always on port 80 or 443 (depending on whether tls is enabled in CodeReady Workspaces).
  • protocol: For public endpoints the protocol is a hint to the UI on how to construct the URL for the endpoint access. Typical values are http, https, ws, wss.
  • secure: A boolean value (defaulting to false) specifying whether the endpoint is put behind a JWT proxy requiring a JWT workspace token to grant access. The JWT proxy is deployed in the same Pod as the server and assumes the server listens solely on the local loop-back interface, such as 127.0.0.1.

    Warning

    Listening on any other interface than the local loop-back poses a security risk because such server is accessible without the JWT authentication within the cluster network on the corresponding IP addresses.

  • path: The path portion of the URL to the endpoint. This defaults to /, meaning that the endpoint is assumed to be accessible at the web root of the server defined by the component.
  • unsecuredPaths: A comma-separated list of endpoint paths that are to stay unsecured even if the secure attribute is set to true.
  • cookiesAuthEnabled: When set to true (the default is false), the JWT workspace token is automatically fetched and included in a workspace-specific cookie to allow requests to pass through the JWT proxy.

    Warning

    This setting potentially allows a CSRF attack when used in conjunction with a server using POST requests.

When starting a new server within a component, CodeReady Workspaces automatically detects this, and the UI offers to expose this port as a public port automatically. This behavior is useful for debugging a web application. It is impossible to do this for servers, such as a database server, which automatically starts at the container start. For such components, specify the endpoints explicitly.

Example specifying endpoints for kubernetes/openshift and chePlugin/cheEditor types:

apiVersion: 1.0.0
metadata:
  name: MyDevfile
components:
  - type: cheEditor
    alias: theia-editor
    id: eclipse/che-theia/next
    endpoints:
    - name: 'theia-extra-endpoint'
      port: 8880
      attributes:
        discoverable: true
        public: true

  - type: chePlugin
    id: redhat/php/latest
    memoryLimit: 1Gi
    endpoints:
    - name: 'php-endpoint'
      port: 7777

  - type: chePlugin
    alias: theia-editor
    id: eclipse/che-theia/next
    endpoints:
    - name: 'theia-extra-endpoint'
      port: 8880
      attributes:
        discoverable: true
        public: true

  - type: openshift
    alias: webapp
    reference: webapp.yaml
    endpoints:
    - name: 'web'
      port: 8080
      attributes:
        discoverable: false
        public: true
        protocol: http

  - type: openshift
    alias: mongo
    reference: mongo-db.yaml
    endpoints:
    - name: 'mongo-db'
      port: 27017
      attributes:
        discoverable: true
        public: false
4.1.5.4.20. OpenShift resources

To describe complex deployments, include references to OpenShift resource lists in the devfile. The OpenShift resource lists become a part of the workspace.

Important
  • CodeReady Workspaces merges all resources from the OpenShift resource lists into a single deployment.
  • Be careful when designing such lists to avoid name conflicts and other problems.

Table 4.1. Supported OpenShift resources

PlatformSupported resources

OpenShift

deployments, pods, services, persistent volume claims, secrets, ConfigMaps, Routes

apiVersion: 1.0.0
metadata:
  name: MyDevfile
projects:
  - name: my-go-project
    clonePath: go/src/github.com/acme/my-go-project
    source:
      type: git
      location: https://github.com/acme/my-go-project.git
components:
  -  type: kubernetes
     reference: ../relative/path/postgres.yaml

The preceding component references a file that is relative to the location of the devfile itself. Meaning, this devfile is only loadable by a CodeReady Workspaces factory to which you supply the location of the devfile and therefore it is able to figure out the location of the referenced OpenShift resource list.

The following is an example of the postgres.yaml file.

apiVersion: v1
kind: List
items:
-
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Deployment
    metadata:
        name: postgres
        labels:
            app: postgres
    spec:
        template:
        metadata:
            name: postgres
            app:
                name: postgres
        spec:
            containers:
            - image: postgres
              name: postgres
              ports:
              - name: postgres
                containerPort: 5432
                volumeMounts:
                - name: pg-storage
                  mountPath: /var/lib/postgresql/data
            volumes:
            - name: pg-storage
              persistentVolumeClaim:
                  claimName: pg-storage
-
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Service
    metadata:
        name: postgres
        labels:
            app: postgres
            name: postgres
    spec:
        ports:
            - port: 5432
              targetPort: 5432
        selector:
            app: postgres
-
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: PersistentVolumeClaim
    metadata:
        name: pg-storage
      labels:
        app: postgres
    spec:
        accessModes:
         - ReadWriteOnce
        resources:
            requests:
                storage: 1Gi

For a basic example of a devfile with an associated OpenShift list, see web-nodejs-with-db-sample on redhat-developer GitHub.

If you use generic or large resource lists from which you will only need a subset of resources, you can select particular resources from the list using a selector (which, as the usual OpenShift selectors, works on the labels of the resources in the list).

apiVersion: 1.0.0
metadata:
  name: MyDevfile
projects:
  - name: my-go-project
    clonePath: go/src/github.com/acme/my-go-project
    source:
      type: git
      location: https://github.com/acme/my-go-project.git
components:
  - type: kubernetes
    reference: ../relative/path/postgres.yaml
    selector:
      app: postgres

Additionally, you can modify the entrypoints (command and arguments) of the containers in the resource list.

4.1.5.5. Adding commands to a devfile

A devfile allows to specify commands to be available for execution in a workspace. Every command can contain a subset of actions, which are related to a specific component in whose container it will be executed.

 commands:
   - name: build
     actions:
       - type: exec
         component: mysql
         command: mvn clean
         workdir: /projects/spring-petclinic

You can use commands to automate the workspace. You can define commands for building and testing your code, or cleaning the database.

The following are two kinds of commands:

  • CodeReady Workspaces specific commands: You have full control over what component executes the command.
  • Editor specific commands: You can use the editor-specific command definitions (example: tasks.json and launch.json in Che-Theia, which is equivalent to how these files work in VS Code).
4.1.5.5.1. CodeReady Workspaces-specific commands

Each CodeReady Workspaces-specific command features:

  • An actions attribute that specifies a command to execute.
  • A component attribute that specifies the container in which to execute the command.

The commands are run using the default shell in the container.

apiVersion: 1.0.0
metadata:
  name: MyDevfile
projects:
  - name: my-go-project
    clonePath: go/src/github.com/acme/my-go-project
    source:
      type: git
      location: https://github.com/acme/my-go-project.git
components:
  - type: dockerimage
    image: golang
    alias: go-cli
    memoryLimit: 512Mi
    mountSources: true
    command: ['sleep', 'infinity']
    env:
      - name: GOPATH
        value: $(CHE_PROJECTS_ROOT)/go
      - name: GOCACHE
        value: /tmp/go-cache
commands:
  - name: compile and run
    actions:
     - type: exec
       component: go-cli
       command: “go get -d && go run main.go”
       workdir: “${CHE_PROJECTS_ROOT}/src/github.com/acme/my-go-project”
Note
  • If a component to be used in a command must have an alias. This alias is used to reference the component in the command definition. Example: alias: go-cli in the component definition and component: go-cli in the command definition. This ensures that Red Hat CodeReady Workspaces can find the correct container to run the command in.
  • A command can have only one action.
4.1.5.5.2. Editor-specific commands

If the editor in the workspace supports it, the devfile can specify additional configuration in the editor-specific format. This is dependent on the integration code in the workspace editor itself and so is not a generic mechanism. However, the default Che-Theia editor within Red Hat CodeReady Workspaces is equipped to understand the tasks.json and launch.json files provided in the devfile.

apiVersion: 1.0.0
metadata:
  name: MyDevfile
projects:
  - name: my-go-project
    clonePath: go/src/github.com/acme/my-go-project
    source:
      type: git
      location: https://github.com/acme/my-go-project.git
commands:
  - name: tasks
    actions:
      - type: vscode-task
        referenceContent: >
            {
                "version": "2.0.0",
                "tasks": [
                    {
                        "label": "create test file",
                        "type": "shell",
                        "command": "touch ${workspaceFolder}/test.file"
                    }
                ]
            }

This example shows association of a tasks.json file with a devfile. Notice the vscode-task type that instructs the Che-Theia editor to interpret this command as a tasks definition and referenceContent attribute that contains the contents of the file itself. You can also save this file separately from the devfile and use reference attribute to specify a relative or absolute URL to it.

In addition to the vscode-task commands, the Che-Theia editor understands vscode-launch type using which you can specify the start configurations.

4.1.5.5.3. Command preview URL

It is possible to specify a preview URL for commands that expose web UI. This URL is offered for opening when the command is executed.

commands:
    - name: tasks
      previewUrl:
        port: 8080     1
        path: /myweb   2
      actions:
      - type: exec
        component: go-cli
        command: "go run webserver.go"
        workdir: ${CHE_PROJECTS_ROOT}/webserver
1
TCP port where the application listens. Mandatory parameter.
2
The path part of the URL to the UI. Optional parameter. The default is root (/).

The example above opens http://__<server-domain>__/myweb, where <server-domain> is the URL to the dynamically created OpenShift Route.

4.1.5.5.3.1. Setting the default way of opening preview URLs

By default, a notification that asks the user about the URL opening preference is displayed.

To specify the preferred way of previewing a service URL:

  1. Open CodeReady Workspaces preferences in File → Settings → Open Preferences and find che.task.preview.notifications in the CodeReady Workspaces section.
  2. Choose from the list of possible values:

    • on — enables a notification for asking the user about the URL opening preferences
    • alwaysPreview — the preview URL opens automatically in the Preview panel as soon as a task is running
    • alwaysGoTo — the preview URL opens automatically in a separate browser tab as soon as a task is running
    • off — disables opening the preview URL (automatically and with a notification)

4.1.5.6. Adding attributes to a devfile

Devfile attributes can be used to configure various features.

4.1.5.6.1. Attribute: editorFree

When an editor is not specified in a devfile, a default is provided. When no editor is needed, use the editorFree attribute. The default value of false means that the devfile requests the provisioning of the default editor.

Example of a devfile without an editor

apiVersion: 1.0.0
metadata:
  name: petclinic-dev-environment
components:
  - alias: myApp
    type: kubernetes
    reference: my-app.yaml
attributes:
  editorFree: true

4.1.5.6.2. Attribute: persistVolumes (ephemeral mode)

By default, volumes and PVCs specified in a devfile are bound to a host folder to persist data even after a container restart. To disable data persistence to make the workspace faster, such as when the volume back end is slow, modify the persistVolumes attribute in the devfile. The default value is true. Set to false to use emptyDir for configured volumes and PVC.

Example of a devfile with ephemeral mode enabled

apiVersion: 1.0.0
metadata:
  name: petclinic-dev-environment
projects:
  - name: petclinic
    source:
      type: git
      location: 'https://github.com/che-samples/web-java-spring-petclinic.git'
attributes:
  persistVolumes: false

4.1.5.6.3. Attribute: asyncPersist (asynchronous storage)

When persistVolumes is set to false (see above), the additional attribute asyncPersist can be set to true to enable asynchronous storage. See Configuring storage types for more details.

Example of a devfile with asynchronous storage enabled

apiVersion: 1.0.0
metadata:
  name: petclinic-dev-environment
projects:
  - name: petclinic
    source:
      type: git
      location: 'https://github.com/che-samples/web-java-spring-petclinic.git'
attributes:
  persistVolumes: false
  asyncPersist: true

4.1.5.6.4. Attribute: mergePlugins

This property can be set to manually control how plugins are included in the workspace. When the property mergePlugins is set to true, Che will attempt to avoid running multiple instances of the same container by combining plugins. The default value when this property is not included in a devfile is governed by the Che configuration property che.workspace.plugin_broker.default_merge_plugins; adding the mergePlugins: false attribute to a devfile will disable plugin merging for that workspace.

Example of a devfile with plugin merging disabled

apiVersion: 1.0.0
metadata:
  name: petclinic-dev-environment
projects:
  - name: petclinic
    source:
      type: git
      location: 'https://github.com/che-samples/web-java-spring-petclinic.git'
attributes:
  mergePlugins: false

4.1.6. Objects supported in Red Hat CodeReady Workspaces 2.11

The following table lists the objects that are partially supported in Red Hat CodeReady Workspaces 2.11:

ObjectAPIKubernetes InfraOpenShift InfraNotes

Pod

Kubernetes

Yes

Yes

-

Deployment

Kubernetes

Yes

Yes

-

ConfigMap

Kubernetes

Yes

Yes

-

PVC

Kubernetes

Yes

Yes

-

Secret

Kubernetes

Yes

Yes

-

Service

Kubernetes

Yes

Yes

-

Ingress

Kubernetes

Yes

No

Minishift allows you to create Ingress and it works when the host is specified (OpenShift creates a route for it). But, the loadBalancer IP is not provisioned. To add Ingress support for the OpenShift infrastructure node, generate routes based on the provided Ingress.

Route

OpenShift

No

Yes

The OpenShift recipe must be made compatible with the Kubernetes Infrastructure: OpenShift routes replaced on Ingresses.

Template

OpenShift

Yes

Yes

The Kubernetes API does not support templates. A workspace with a template in the recipe starts successfully and the default parameters are resolved.

4.2. Authoring devfiles version 2

This section explains the concept of the devfile 2.0 specification and how to configure a CodeReady Workspaces workspace by using a devfile 2.0.

Prerequisites:

Procedure

Additional resources