Appendix A. Ceph block device configuration reference

As a storage administrator, you can fine tune the behavior of Ceph block devices through the various options that are available. You can use this reference for viewing such things as the default Ceph block device options, and Ceph block device caching options.

A.1. Prerequisites

  • A running Red Hat Ceph Storage cluster.

A.2. Block device default options

It is possible to override the default settings for creating an image. Ceph will create images with format 2 and no striping.

rbd_default_format
Description
The default format (2) if no other format is specified. Format 1 is the original format for a new image, which is compatible with all versions of librbd and the kernel module, but does not support newer features like cloning. Format 2 is supported by librbd and the kernel module since version 3.11 (except for striping). Format 2 adds support for cloning and is more easily extensible to allow more features in the future.
Type
Integer
Default
2
rbd_default_order
Description
The default order if no other order is specified.
Type
Integer
Default
22
rbd_default_stripe_count
Description
The default stripe count if no other stripe count is specified. Changing the default value requires striping v2 feature.
Type
64-bit Unsigned Integer
Default
0
rbd_default_stripe_unit
Description
The default stripe unit if no other stripe unit is specified. Changing the unit from 0 (that is, the object size) requires the striping v2 feature.
Type
64-bit Unsigned Integer
Default
0
rbd_default_features
Description

The default features enabled when creating an block device image. This setting only applies to format 2 images. The settings are:

1: Layering support. Layering enables you to use cloning.

2: Striping v2 support. Striping spreads data across multiple objects. Striping helps with parallelism for sequential read/write workloads.

4: Exclusive locking support. When enabled, it requires a client to get a lock on an object before making a write.

8: Object map support. Block devices are thin provisioned—​meaning, they only store data that actually exists. Object map support helps track which objects actually exist (have data stored on a drive). Enabling object map support speeds up I/O operations for cloning, or importing and exporting a sparsely populated image.

16: Fast-diff support. Fast-diff support depends on object map support and exclusive lock support. It adds another property to the object map, which makes it much faster to generate diffs between snapshots of an image, and the actual data usage of a snapshot much faster.

32: Deep-flatten support. Deep-flatten makes rbd flatten work on all the snapshots of an image, in addition to the image itself. Without it, snapshots of an image will still rely on the parent, so the parent will not be delete-able until the snapshots are deleted. Deep-flatten makes a parent independent of its clones, even if they have snapshots.

64: Journaling support. Journaling records all modifications to an image in the order they occur. This ensures that a crash-consistent mirror of the remote image is available locally

The enabled features are the sum of the numeric settings.

Type
Integer
Default

61 - layering, exclusive-lock, object-map, fast-diff, and deep-flatten are enabled

Important

The current default setting is not compatible with the RBD kernel driver nor older RBD clients.

rbd_default_map_options
Description
Most of the options are useful mainly for debugging and benchmarking. See man rbd under Map Options for details.
Type
String
Default
""

A.3. Block device general options

rbd_op_threads
Description
The number of block device operation threads.
Type
Integer
Default
1
Warning

Do not change the default value of rbd_op_threads because setting it to a number higher than 1 might cause data corruption.

rbd_op_thread_timeout
Description
The timeout (in seconds) for block device operation threads.
Type
Integer
Default
60
rbd_non_blocking_aio
Description
If true, Ceph will process block device asynchronous I/O operations from a worker thread to prevent blocking.
Type
Boolean
Default
true
rbd_concurrent_management_ops
Description
The maximum number of concurrent management operations in flight (for example, deleting or resizing an image).
Type
Integer
Default
10
rbd_request_timed_out_seconds
Description
The number of seconds before a maintenance request times out.
Type
Integer
Default
30
rbd_clone_copy_on_read
Description
When set to true, copy-on-read cloning is enabled.
Type
Boolean
Default
false
rbd_enable_alloc_hint
Description
If true, allocation hinting is enabled, and the block device will issue a hint to the OSD back end to indicate the expected size object.
Type
Boolean
Default
true
rbd_skip_partial_discard
Description
If true, the block device will skip zeroing a range when trying to discard a range inside an object.
Type
Boolean
Default
false
rbd_tracing
Description
Set this option to true to enable the Linux Trace Toolkit Next Generation User Space Tracer (LTTng-UST) tracepoints. See Tracing RADOS Block Device (RBD) Workloads with the RBD Replay Feature for details.
Type
Boolean
Default
false
rbd_validate_pool
Description
Set this option to true to validate empty pools for RBD compatibility.
Type
Boolean
Default
true
rbd_validate_names
Description
Set this option to true to validate image specifications.
Type
Boolean
Default
true

A.4. Block device caching options

The user space implementation of the Ceph block device, that is, librbd, cannot take advantage of the Linux page cache, so it includes its own in-memory caching, called RBD caching. Ceph block device caching behaves just like well-behaved hard disk caching. When the operating system sends a barrier or a flush request, all dirty data is written to the Ceph OSDs. This means that using write-back caching is just as safe as using a well-behaved physical hard disk with a virtual machine that properly sends flushes, that is, Linux kernel version 2.6.32 or higher. The cache uses a Least Recently Used (LRU) algorithm, and in write-back mode it can coalesce contiguous requests for better throughput.

Ceph block devices support write-back caching. To enable write-back caching, set rbd_cache = true to the [client] section of the Ceph configuration file. By default, librbd does not perform any caching. Writes and reads go directly to the storage cluster, and writes return only when the data is on disk on all replicas. With caching enabled, writes return immediately, unless there are more than rbd_cache_max_dirty unflushed bytes. In this case, the write triggers write-back and blocks until enough bytes are flushed.

Ceph block devices support write-through caching. You can set the size of the cache, and you can set targets and limits to switch from write-back caching to write-through caching. To enable write-through mode, set rbd_cache_max_dirty to 0. This means writes return only when the data is on disk on all replicas, but reads may come from the cache. The cache is in memory on the client, and each Ceph block device image has its own. Since the cache is local to the client, there is no coherency if there are others accessing the image. Running other file systems, such as GFS or OCFS, on top of Ceph block devices will not work with caching enabled.

The Ceph configuration settings for Ceph block devices must be set in the [client] section of the Ceph configuration file, by default, /etc/ceph/ceph.conf.

The settings include:

rbd_cache
Description
Enable caching for RADOS Block Device (RBD).
Type
Boolean
Required
No
Default
true
rbd_cache_size
Description
The RBD cache size in bytes.
Type
64-bit Integer
Required
No
Default
32 MiB
rbd_cache_max_dirty
Description
The dirty limit in bytes at which the cache triggers write-back. If 0, uses write-through caching.
Type
64-bit Integer
Required
No
Constraint
Must be less than rbd cache size.
Default
24 MiB
rbd_cache_target_dirty
Description
The dirty target before the cache begins writing data to the data storage. Does not block writes to the cache.
Type
64-bit Integer
Required
No
Constraint
Must be less than rbd cache max dirty.
Default
16 MiB
rbd_cache_max_dirty_age
Description
The number of seconds dirty data is in the cache before writeback starts.
Type
Float
Required
No
Default
1.0
rbd_cache_max_dirty_object
Description
The dirty limit for objects - set to 0 for auto calculate from rbd_cache_size.
Type
Integer
Default
0
rbd_cache_block_writes_upfront
Description
If true, it will block writes to the cache before the aio_write call completes. If false, it will block before the aio_completion is called.
Type
Boolean
Default
false
rbd_cache_writethrough_until_flush
Description
Start out in write-through mode, and switch to write-back after the first flush request is received. Enabling this is a conservative but safe setting in case VMs running on rbd are too old to send flushes, like the virtio driver in Linux before 2.6.32.
Type
Boolean
Required
No
Default
true

A.5. Block device parent and child read options

rbd_balance_snap_reads
Description
Ceph typically reads objects from the primary OSD. Since reads are immutable, you may enable this feature to balance snap reads between the primary OSD and the replicas.
Type
Boolean
Default
false
rbd_localize_snap_reads
Description
Whereas rbd_balance_snap_reads will randomize the replica for reading a snapshot. If you enable rbd_localize_snap_reads, the block device will look to the CRUSH map to find the closest or local OSD for reading the snapshot.
Type
Boolean
Default
false
rbd_balance_parent_reads
Description
Ceph typically reads objects from the primary OSD. Since reads are immutable, you may enable this feature to balance parent reads between the primary OSD and the replicas.
Type
Boolean
Default
false
rbd_localize_parent_reads
Description
Whereas rbd_balance_parent_reads will randomize the replica for reading a parent. If you enable rbd_localize_parent_reads, the block device will look to the CRUSH map to find the closest or local OSD for reading the parent.
Type
Boolean
Default
true

A.6. Block device read ahead options

RBD supports read-ahead/prefetching to optimize small, sequential reads. This should normally be handled by the guest OS in the case of a VM, but boot loaders may not issue efficient reads. Read-ahead is automatically disabled if caching is disabled.

rbd_readahead_trigger_requests
Description
Number of sequential read requests necessary to trigger read-ahead.
Type
Integer
Required
No
Default
10
rbd_readahead_max_bytes
Description
Maximum size of a read-ahead request. If zero, read-ahead is disabled.
Type
64-bit Integer
Required
No
Default
512 KiB
rbd_readahead_disable_after_bytes
Description
After this many bytes have been read from an RBD image, read-ahead is disabled for that image until it is closed. This allows the guest OS to take over read-ahead once it is booted. If zero, read-ahead stays enabled.
Type
64-bit Integer
Required
No
Default
50 MiB

A.7. Block device blocklist options

rbd_blocklist_on_break_lock
Description
Whether to blocklist clients whose lock was broken.
Type
Boolean
Default
true
rbd_blocklist_expire_seconds
Description
The number of seconds to blocklist - set to 0 for OSD default.
Type
Integer
Default
0

A.8. Block device journal options

rbd_journal_order
Description
The number of bits to shift to compute the journal object maximum size. The value is between 12 and 64.
Type
32-bit Unsigned Integer
Default
24
rbd_journal_splay_width
Description
The number of active journal objects.
Type
32-bit Unsigned Integer
Default
4
rbd_journal_commit_age
Description
The commit time interval in seconds.
Type
Double Precision Floating Point Number
Default
5
rbd_journal_object_flush_interval
Description
The maximum number of pending commits per a journal object.
Type
Integer
Default
0
rbd_journal_object_flush_bytes
Description
The maximum number of pending bytes per a journal object.
Type
Integer
Default
0
rbd_journal_object_flush_age
Description
The maximum time interval in seconds for pending commits.
Type
Double Precision Floating Point Number
Default
0
rbd_journal_pool
Description
Specifies a pool for journal objects.
Type
String
Default
""

A.9. Block device configuration override options

Block device configuration override options for global and pool levels.

Global level

Available keys

rbd_qos_bps_burst
Description
The desired burst limit of IO bytes.
Type
Integer
Default
0
rbd_qos_bps_limit
Description
The desired limit of IO bytes per second.
Type
Integer
Default
0
rbd_qos_iops_burst
Description
The desired burst limit of IO operations.
Type
Integer
Default
0
rbd_qos_iops_limit
Description
The desired limit of IO operations per second.
Type
Integer
Default
0
rbd_qos_read_bps_burst
Description
The desired burst limit of read bytes.
Type
Integer
Default
0
rbd_qos_read_bps_limit
Description
The desired limit of read bytes per second.
Type
Integer
Default
0
rbd_qos_read_iops_burst
Description
The desired burst limit of read operations.
Type
Integer
Default
0
rbd_qos_read_iops_limit
Description
The desired limit of read operations per second.
Type
Integer
Default
0
rbd_qos_write_bps_burst
Description
The desired burst limit of write bytes.
Type
Integer
Default
0
rbd_qos_write_bps_limit
Description
The desired limit of write bytes per second.
Type
Integer
Default
0
rbd_qos_write_iops_burst
Description
The desired burst limit of write operations.
Type
Integer
Default
0
rbd_qos_write_iops_limit
Description
The desired burst limit of write operations per second.
Type
Integer
Default
0

The above keys can be used for the following:

rbd config global set CONFIG_ENTITY KEY VALUE
Description
Set a global level configuration override.
rbd config global get CONFIG_ENTITY KEY
Description
Get a global level configuration override.
rbd config global list CONFIG_ENTITY
Description
List the global level configuration overrides.
rbd config global remove CONFIG_ENTITY KEY
Description
Remove a global level configuration override.

Pool level

rbd config pool set POOL_NAME KEY VALUE
Description
Set a pool level configuration override.
rbd config pool get POOL_NAME KEY
Description
Get a pool level configuration override.
rbd config pool list POOL_NAME
Description
List the pool level configuration overrides.
rbd config pool remove POOL_NAME KEY
Description
Remove a pool level configuration override.
Note

CONFIG_ENTITY is global, client or client id. KEY is the config key. VALUE is the config value. POOL_NAME is the name of the pool.

A.10. Block device input and output options

General input and output options for Red Hat Ceph Storage.

rbd_compression_hint
Description
Hint to send to the OSDs on write operations. If set to compressible and the OSD bluestore_compression_mode setting is passive, the OSD attempts to compress data. If set to incompressible and the OSD bluestore_compression_mode setting is aggressive, the OSD will not attempt to compress data.
Type
Enum
Required
No
Default
none
Values
none, compressible, incompressible
rbd_read_from_replica_policy
Description

Policy for determining which OSD receives read operations. If set to default, each PG’s primary OSD will always be used for read operations. If set to balance, read operations will be sent to a randomly selected OSD within the replica set. If set to localize, read operations will be sent to the closest OSD as determined by the CRUSH map and the crush_location configuration option, where the crush_location is denoted using key=value. The key aligns with the CRUSH map keys.

Note

This feature requires the storage cluster to be configured with a minimum compatible OSD release of the latest version of Red Hat Ceph Storage.

Type
Enum
Required
No
Default
default
Values
default, balance, localize