Block Device Guide

Red Hat Ceph Storage 3

Managing, creating, configuring, and using Red Hat Ceph Storage Block Devices

Red Hat Ceph Storage Documentation Team

Abstract

This document describes how to manage, create, configure, and use Red Hat Ceph Storage Block Devices.

Chapter 1. Overview

A block is a sequence of bytes, for example, a 512-byte block of data. Block-based storage interfaces are the most common way to store data with rotating media such as:

  • hard disks,
  • CDs,
  • floppy disks,
  • and even traditional 9-track tape.

The ubiquity of block device interfaces makes a virtual block device an ideal candidate to interact with a mass data storage system like Red Hat Ceph Storage.

Ceph Block Devices, also known as Reliable Autonomic Distributed Object Store (RADOS) Block Devices (RBDs), are thin-provisioned, resizable and store data striped over multiple Object Storage Devices (OSD) in a Ceph Storage Cluster. Ceph Block Devices leverage RADOS capabilities such as:

  • creating snapshots,
  • replication,
  • and consistency.

Ceph Block Devices interact with OSDs by using the librbd library.

Ceph Block Devices deliver high performance with infinite scalability to Kernel Virtual Machines (KVMs) such as Quick Emulator (QEMU), and cloud-based computing systems like OpenStack and CloudStack that rely on the libvirt and QEMU utilities to integrate with Ceph Block Devices. You can use the same cluster to operate the Ceph Object Gateway and Ceph Block Devices simultaneously.

Important

To use Ceph Block Devices, you must have access to a running Ceph Storage Cluster. For details on installing the Red Hat Ceph Storage, see the Installation Guide for Red Hat Enterprise Linux or Installation Guide for Ubuntu.

Chapter 2. Block Device Commands

The rbd command enables you to create, list, introspect, and remove block device images. You can also use it to clone images, create snapshots, rollback an image to a snapshot, view a snapshot, and so on.

2.1. Prerequisites

There are two prerequisites that you must meet before you can use the Ceph Block Devices and the rbd command:

Important

The Manually Installing Ceph Block Device chapter also provides information on mounting and using Ceph Block Devices on client nodes. Execute these steps on client nodes only after creating an image for the Block Device in the Ceph Storage Cluster. See Section 2.4, “Creating Block Device Images” for details.

2.2. Displaying Help

Use the rbd help command to display help for a particular rbd command and its subcommand:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd help <command> <subcommand>

Example

To display help for the snap list command:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd help snap list
Note

The -h option still displays help for all available commands.

2.3. Creating Block Device Pools

Before using the block device client, ensure a pool for rbd exists and is enabled and initialized. To create an rbd pool, execute the following:

[root@rbd-client ~]# ceph osd pool create {pool-name} {pg-num} {pgp-num}
[root@rbd-client ~]# ceph osd pool application enable {pool-name} rbd
[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd pool init -p {pool-name}
Note

You MUST create a pool first before you can specify it as a source. See the Pools chapter in the Storage Strategies guide for Red Hat Ceph Storage 3 for additional details.

2.4. Creating Block Device Images

Before adding a block device to a node, create an image for it in the Ceph storage cluster. To create a block device image, execute the following command:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd create <image-name> --size <megabytes> --pool <pool-name>

For example, to create a 1GB image named data that stores information in a pool named stack, run:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd create data --size 1024 --pool stack
NOTE
Ensure a pool for rbd exists before creating an image. See Creating Block Device Pools for additional details.

2.5. Listing Block Device Images

To list block devices in the rbd pool, execute the following (rbd is the default pool name):

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd ls

To list block devices in a particular pool, execute the following, but replace {poolname} with the name of the pool:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd ls {poolname}

For example:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd ls swimmingpool

2.6. Retrieving Image Information

To retrieve information from a particular image, execute the following, but replace {image-name} with the name for the image:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd --image {image-name} info

For example:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd --image foo info

To retrieve information from an image within a pool, execute the following, but replace {image-name} with the name of the image and replace {pool-name} with the name of the pool:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd --image {image-name} -p {pool-name} info

For example:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd --image bar -p swimmingpool info

2.7. Resizing Block Device Images

Ceph block device images are thin provisioned. They do not actually use any physical storage until you begin saving data to them. However, they do have a maximum capacity that you set with the --size option.

To increase or decrease the maximum size of a Ceph block device image:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd resize --image <image-name> --size <size>

2.8. Removing Block Device Images

To remove a block device, execute the following, but replace {image-name} with the name of the image you want to remove:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd rm {image-name}

For example:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd rm foo

To remove a block device from a pool, execute the following, but replace {image-name} with the name of the image to remove and replace {pool-name} with the name of the pool:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd rm {image-name} -p {pool-name}

For example:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd rm bar -p swimmingpool

2.9. Moving Block Device Images to the Trash

RADOS Block Device (RBD) images can be moved to the trash using the rbd trash command. This command provides more options than the rbd rm command.

Once an image is moved to the trash, it can be removed from the trash at a later time. This helps to avoid accidental deletion.

To move an image to the trash execute the following:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd trash move {image-spec}

Once an image is in the trash, it is assigned a unique image ID. You will need this image ID to specify the image later if you need to use any of the trash options. Execute the rbd trash list for a list of IDs of the images in the trash. This command also returns the image’s pre-deletion name.

In addition, there is an optional --image-id argument that can be used with rbd info and rbd snap commands. Use --image-id with the rbd info command to see the properties of an image in the trash, and with rbd snap to remove an image’s snapshots from the trash.

Remove an Image from the Trash

To remove an image from the trash execute the following:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd trash remove [{pool-name}/] {image-id}
Important

Once an image is removed from the trash, it cannot be restored.

Delay Trash Removal

Use the --delay option to set an amount of time before an image can be removed from the trash. Execute the following, except replace {time} with the number of seconds to wait before the image can be removed (defaults to 0):

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd trash move [--delay {time}] {image-spec}

Once the --delay option is enabled, an image cannot be removed from the trash within the specified timeframe unless forced.

Restore an Image from the Trash

As long as an image has not been removed from the trash, it can be restored using the rbd trash restore command.

Execute the rbd trash restore command to restore the image:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd trash restore [{pool-name}/] {image-id}

2.10. Enabling and Disabling Image Features

You can enable or disable image features, such as fast-diff, exclusive-lock, object-map, or journaling, on already existing images.

To enable a feature:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd feature enable <pool-name>/<image-name> <feature-name>

To disable a feature:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd feature disable <pool-name>/<image-name> <feature-name>

Examples

  • To enable the exclusive-lock feature on the image1 image in the data pool:

    [root@rbd-client ~]# rbd feature enable data/image1 exclusive-lock
  • To disable the fast-diff feature on the image2 image in the data pool:

    [root@rbd-client ~]# rbd feature disable data/image2 fast-diff
Important

After enabling the fast-diff and object-map features, rebuild the object map:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd object-map rebuild <pool-name>/<image-name>
Note

The deep flatten feature can be only disabled on already existing images but not enabled. To use deep flatten, enable it when creating images.

2.11. Working with Image Metadata

Ceph supports adding custom image metadata as key-value pairs. The pairs do not have any strict format.

Also, by using metadata, you can set the RBD configuration parameters for particular images. See Overriding the Default Configuration for Particular Images for details.

Use the rbd image-meta commands to work with metadata.

Setting Image Metadata

To set a new metadata key-value pair:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd image-meta set <pool-name>/<image-name> <key> <value>

Example

  • To set the last_update key to the 2016-06-06 value on the dataset image in the data pool:

    [root@rbd-client ~]# rbd image-meta set data/dataset last_update 2016-06-06

Removing Image Metadata

To remove a metadata key-value pair:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd image-meta remove <pool-name>/<image-name> <key>

Example

  • To remove the last_update key-value pair from the dataset image in the data pool:

    [root@rbd-client ~]# rbd image-meta remove data/dataset last_update

Getting a Value for a Key

To view a value of a key:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd image-meta get <pool-name>/<image-name> <key>

Example

  • To view the value of the last_update key:

    [root@rbd-client ~]# rbd image-meta get data/dataset last_update

Listing Image Metadata

To show all metadata on an image:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd image-meta list <pool-name>/<image-name>

Example

  • To list metadata set on the dataset image in the data pool:

    [root@rbd-client ~]# rbd data/dataset image-meta list

Overriding the Default Configuration for Particular Images

To override the RBD image configuration settings set in the Ceph configuration file for a particular image, set the configuration parameters with the conf_ prefix as image metadata:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd image-meta set <pool-name>/<image-name> conf_<parameter> <value>

Example

  • To disable the RBD cache for the dataset image in the data pool:

    [root@rbd-client ~]# rbd image-meta set data/dataset conf_rbd_cache false

See Block Device Configuration Reference for a list of possible configuration options.

Chapter 3. Snapshots

A snapshot is a read-only copy of the state of an image at a particular point in time. One of the advanced features of Ceph block devices is that you can create snapshots of the images to retain a history of an image’s state. Ceph also supports snapshot layering, which allows you to clone images (for example a VM image) quickly and easily. Ceph supports block device snapshots using the rbd command and many higher level interfaces, including QEMU, libvirt,OpenStack and CloudStack.

Important

To use RBD snapshots, you must have a running Ceph cluster.

Note

If a snapshot is taken while I/O is still in progress in a image, the snapshot might not get the exact or latest data of the image and the snapshot may have to be cloned to a new image to be mountable. So, we recommend to stop I/O before taking a snapshot of an image. If the image contains a filesystem, the filesystem must be in a consistent state before taking a snapshot. To stop I/O you can use fsfreeze command. See fsfreeze(8) man page for more details. For virtual machines, qemu-guest-agent can be used to automatically freeze filesystems when creating a snapshot.

diag da77489ea8c396db63914ce19237174d

3.1. Cephx Notes

When cephx is enabled (it is by default), you must specify a user name or ID and a path to the keyring containing the corresponding key for the user. You may also add the CEPH_ARGS environment variable to avoid re-entry of the following parameters:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd --id {user-ID} --keyring=/path/to/secret [commands]
[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd --name {username} --keyring=/path/to/secret [commands]

For example:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd --id admin --keyring=/etc/ceph/ceph.keyring [commands]
[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd --name client.admin --keyring=/etc/ceph/ceph.keyring [commands]
Tip

Add the user and secret to the CEPH_ARGS environment variable so that you don’t need to enter them each time.

3.2. Snapshot Basics

The following procedures demonstrate how to create, list, and remove snapshots using the rbd command on the command line.

3.2.1. Creating Snapshots

To create a snapshot with rbd, specify the snap create option, the pool name and the image name:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd --pool {pool-name} snap create --snap {snap-name} {image-name}
[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd snap create {pool-name}/{image-name}@{snap-name}

For example:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd --pool rbd snap create --snap snapname foo
[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd snap create rbd/foo@snapname

3.2.2. Listing Snapshots

To list snapshots of an image, specify the pool name and the image name:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd --pool {pool-name} snap ls {image-name}
[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd snap ls {pool-name}/{image-name}

For example:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd --pool rbd snap ls foo
[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd snap ls rbd/foo

3.2.3. Rollbacking Snapshots

To rollback to a snapshot with rbd, specify the snap rollback option, the pool name, the image name and the snap name:

rbd --pool {pool-name} snap rollback --snap {snap-name} {image-name}
rbd snap rollback {pool-name}/{image-name}@{snap-name}

For example:

rbd --pool rbd snap rollback --snap snapname foo
rbd snap rollback rbd/foo@snapname
Note

Rolling back an image to a snapshot means overwriting the current version of the image with data from a snapshot. The time it takes to execute a rollback increases with the size of the image. It is faster to clone from a snapshot than to rollback an image to a snapshot, and it is the preferred method of returning to a pre-existing state.

3.2.4. Deleting Snapshots

To delete a snapshot with rbd, specify the snap rm option, the pool name, the image name and the snapshot name:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd --pool <pool-name> snap rm --snap <snap-name> <image-name>
[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd snap rm <pool-name-/<image-name>@<snap-name>

For example:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd --pool rbd snap rm --snap snapname foo
[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd snap rm rbd/foo@snapname
Important

If an image has any clones, the cloned images retain reference to the parent image snapshot. To delete the parent image snapshot, you must flatten the child images first. See Flattening a Cloned Image for details.

Note

Ceph OSD daemons delete data asynchronously, so deleting a snapshot does not free up the disk space immediately.

3.2.5. Purging Snapshots

To delete all snapshots for an image with rbd, specify the snap purge option and the image name:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd --pool {pool-name} snap purge {image-name}
[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd snap purge {pool-name}/{image-name}

For example:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd --pool rbd snap purge foo
[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd snap purge rbd/foo

3.2.6. Renaming Snapshots

To rename a snapshot:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd snap rename <pool-name>/<image-name>@<original-snapshot-name> <pool-name>/<image-name>@<new-snapshot-name>

Example

To rename the snap1 snapshot of the dataset image on the data pool to snap2:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd snap rename data/dataset@snap1 data/dataset@snap2

Execute the rbd help snap rename command to display additional details on renaming snapshots.

3.3. Layering

Ceph supports the ability to create many copy-on-write (COW) or copy-on-read (COR) clones of a block device snapshot. Snapshot layering enables Ceph block device clients to create images very quickly. For example, you might create a block device image with a Linux VM written to it; then, snapshot the image, protect the snapshot, and create as many clones as you like. A snapshot is read-only, so cloning a snapshot simplifies semantics—​making it possible to create clones rapidly.

diag 783bfb85b3c774ad7e507408a4bec167
Note

The terms parent and child mean a Ceph block device snapshot (parent), and the corresponding image cloned from the snapshot (child). These terms are important for the command line usage below.

Each cloned image (child) stores a reference to its parent image, which enables the cloned image to open the parent snapshot and read it. This reference is removed when the clone is flattened that is, when information from the snapshot is completely copied to the clone. For more information on flattening see Section 3.3.6, “Flattening Cloned Images”.

A clone of a snapshot behaves exactly like any other Ceph block device image. You can read to, write from, clone, and resize cloned images. There are no special restrictions with cloned images. However, the clone of a snapshot refers to the snapshot, so you MUST protect the snapshot before you clone it.

A clone of a snapshot can be a copy-on-write (COW) or copy-on-read (COR) clone. Copy-on-write (COW) is always enabled for clones while copy-on-read (COR) has to be enabled explicitly. Copy-on-write (COW) copies data from the parent to the clone when it writes to an unallocated object within the clone. Copy-on-read (COR) copies data from the parent to the clone when it reads from an unallocated object within the clone. Reading data from a clone will only read data from the parent if the object does not yet exist in the clone. Rados block device breaks up large images into multiple objects (defaults to 4 MB) and all copy-on-write (COW) and copy-on-read (COR) operations occur on a full object (that is writing 1 byte to a clone will result in a 4 MB object being read from the parent and written to the clone if the destination object does not already exist in the clone from a previous COW/COR operation).

Whether or not copy-on-read (COR) is enabled, any reads that cannot be satisfied by reading an underlying object from the clone will be rerouted to the parent. Since there is practically no limit to the number of parents (meaning that you can clone a clone), this reroute continues until an object is found or you hit the base parent image. If copy-on-read (COR) is enabled, any reads that fail to be satisfied directly from the clone result in a full object read from the parent and writing that data to the clone so that future reads of the same extent can be satisfied from the clone itself without the need of reading from the parent.

This is essentially an on-demand, object-by-object flatten operation. This is specially useful when the clone is in a high-latency connection away from it’s parent (parent in a different pool in another geographical location). Copy-on-read (COR) reduces the amortized latency of reads. The first few reads will have high latency because it will result in extra data being read from the parent (for example, you read 1 byte from the clone but now 4 MB has to be read from the parent and written to the clone), but all future reads will be served from the clone itself.

To create copy-on-read (COR) clones from snapshot you have to explicitly enable this feature by adding rbd_clone_copy_on_read = true under [global] or [client] section in your ceph.conf file.

3.3.1. Getting Started with Layering

Ceph block device layering is a simple process. You must have an image. You must create a snapshot of the image. You must protect the snapshot. Once you have performed these steps, you can begin cloning the snapshot.

diag af6f113d697245b04e39e7bd07fb897b

The cloned image has a reference to the parent snapshot, and includes the pool ID, image ID and snapshot ID. The inclusion of the pool ID means that you may clone snapshots from one pool to images in another pool.

  1. Image Template: A common use case for block device layering is to create a master image and a snapshot that serves as a template for clones. For example, a user may create an image for a RHEL7 distribution and create a snapshot for it. Periodically, the user may update the image and create a new snapshot (for example yum update, yum upgrade, followed by rbd snap create). As the image matures, the user can clone any one of the snapshots.
  2. Extended Template: A more advanced use case includes extending a template image that provides more information than a base image. For example, a user may clone an image (for example, a VM template) and install other software (for example, a database, a content management system, an analytics system, and so on) and then snapshot the extended image, which itself may be updated just like the base image.
  3. Template Pool: One way to use block device layering is to create a pool that contains master images that act as templates, and snapshots of those templates. You may then extend read-only privileges to users so that they may clone the snapshots without the ability to write or execute within the pool.
  4. Image Migration/Recovery: One way to use block device layering is to migrate or recover data from one pool into another pool.

3.3.2. Protecting Snapshots

Clones access the parent snapshots. All clones would break if a user inadvertently deleted the parent snapshot. To prevent data loss, you MUST protect the snapshot before you can clone it. To do so, run the following commands:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd --pool {pool-name} snap protect --image {image-name} --snap {snapshot-name}
[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd snap protect {pool-name}/{image-name}@{snapshot-name}

For example:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd --pool rbd snap protect --image my-image --snap my-snapshot
[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd snap protect rbd/my-image@my-snapshot
Note

You cannot delete a protected snapshot.

3.3.3. Cloning Snapshots

To clone a snapshot, you need to specify the parent pool, image and snapshot; and the child pool and image name. You must protect the snapshot before you can clone it. To do so, run the following commands:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd --pool {pool-name} --image {parent-image} --snap {snap-name} --dest-pool {pool-name} --dest {child-image}

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd clone {pool-name}/{parent-image}@{snap-name}  {pool-name}/{child-image-name}

For example:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd clone rbd/my-image@my-snapshot rbd/new-image
Note

You may clone a snapshot from one pool to an image in another pool. For example, you may maintain read-only images and snapshots as templates in one pool, and writable clones in another pool.

3.3.4. Unprotecting Snapshots

Before you can delete a snapshot, you must unprotect it first. Additionally, you may NOT delete snapshots that have references from clones. You must flatten each clone of a snapshot, before you can delete the snapshot. To do so, run the following commands:

[root@rbd-client ~]#rbd --pool {pool-name} snap unprotect --image {image-name} --snap {snapshot-name}

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd snap unprotect {pool-name}/{image-name}@{snapshot-name}

For example:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd --pool rbd snap unprotect --image my-image --snap my-snapshot

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd snap unprotect rbd/my-image@my-snapshot

3.3.5. Listing Children of a Snapshot

To list the children of a snapshot, execute the following:

rbd --pool {pool-name} children --image {image-name} --snap {snap-name}
rbd children {pool-name}/{image-name}@{snapshot-name}

For example:

rbd --pool rbd children --image my-image --snap my-snapshot
rbd children rbd/my-image@my-snapshot

3.3.6. Flattening Cloned Images

Cloned images retain a reference to the parent snapshot. When you remove the reference from the child clone to the parent snapshot, you effectively "flatten" the image by copying the information from the snapshot to the clone.The time it takes to flatten a clone increases with the size of the snapshot.

To delete a parent image snapshot associated with child images, you must flatten the child images first:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd --pool <pool-name> flatten --image <image-name>
[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd flatten <pool-name>/<image-name>

For example:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd --pool rbd flatten --image my-image
[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd flatten rbd/my-image

Because a flattened image contains all the information from the snapshot, a flattened image will use more storage space than a layered clone.

Note

If the deep flatten feature is enabled on an image, the image clone is dissociated from its parent by default.

Chapter 4. Block Device Mirroring

RADOS Block Device (RBD) mirroring is a process of asynchronous replication of Ceph block device images between two or more Ceph clusters. Mirroring ensures point-in-time consistent replicas of all changes to an image, including reads and writes, block device resizing, snapshots, clones and flattening. Mirroring can run in either an active-passive or active-active configuration; that is, using mandatory exclusive locks and the RBD journaling feature, RBD records all modifications to an image in the order in which they occur. This ensures that a crash-consistent mirror of the remote image is available locally. Therefore, before an image can be mirrored to a peer cluster, you must enable journaling. See Section 4.1, “Enabling Journaling” for details.

Since, it is the images stored in the local and remote pools associated to the block device that get mirrored, the CRUSH hierarchy for the local and remote pools should have the same storage capacity and performance characteristics. Additionally, the network connection between the local and remote sites should have sufficient bandwidth to ensure mirroring happens without too much latency.

Important

The CRUSH hierarchies supporting local and remote pools that mirror block device images SHOULD have the same capacity and performance characteristics, and SHOULD have adequate bandwidth to ensure mirroring without excess latency. For example, if you have X MiB/s average write throughput to images in the primary cluster, the network must support N * X throughput in the network connection to the secondary site plus a safety factor of Y% to mirror N images.

Mirroring serves primarily for recovery from a disaster. Depending on which type of mirroring you use, see either Recovering from a disaster with one-way mirroring or Recovering from a disaster with two-way mirroring, for details.

The rbd-mirror Daemon

The rbd-mirror daemon is responsible for synchronizing images from one Ceph cluster to another.

Depending on the type of replication, rbd-mirror runs either on a single cluster or on all clusters that participate in mirroring:

  • One-way Replication

    • When data is mirrored from a primary cluster to a secondary cluster that serves as a backup,rbd-mirror runs ONLY on the backup cluster. RBD mirroring may have multiple secondary sites in an active-passive configuration.
  • Two-way Replication

    • When the data is mirrored from mirrored from a primary cluster to a secondary cluster and the secondary cluster can mirror back to the primary and each other, both clusters must have rbd-mirror running. Currently, two-way replication, also known as an active-active configuration, is supported only between two sites.

The rbd-mirror package provides rbd-mirror.

Important

In two-way replication, each instance of rbd-mirror must be able to connect to the other Ceph cluster simultaneously. Additionally, the network must have sufficient bandwidth between the two data center sites to handle mirroring.

Warning

Only run a single rbd-mirror daemon per a Ceph cluster.

Mirroring Modes

Mirroring is configured on a per-pool basis within peer clusters. Ceph supports two modes, depending on what images in a pool are mirrored:

Pool Mode
All images in a pool with the journaling feature enabled are mirrored. See Configuring Pool Mirroring for details.
Image Mode
Only a specific subset of images within a pool is mirrored and you must enable mirroring for each image separately. See Configuring Image Mirroring for details.

Image States

In an active-passive configuration, the mirrored images are:

  • primary (can be modified)
  • non-primary (cannot be modified).

Images are automatically promoted to primary when mirroring is first enabled on an image. The promotion can happen:

It is possible to demote primary images and promote non-primary images. See Section 4.3, “Image Configuration” for details.

4.1. Enabling Journaling

You can enable the RBD journaling feature:

  • when an image is created
  • dynamically on already existing images
Important

Journaling depends on the exclusive-lock feature which must be enabled too. See the following steps.

To enable journaling when creating an image, use the --image-feature option:

rbd create <image-name> --size <megabytes> --pool <pool-name> --image-feature <feature>

For example:

$ rbd create image-1 --size 1024 --pool pool-1 --image-feature exclusive-lock,journaling

To enable journaling on already existing images, use the rbd feature enable command:

rbd feature enable <pool-name>/<image-name> <feature-name>

For example:

$ rbd feature enable pool-1/image-1 exclusive-lock
$ rbd feature enable pool-1/image-1 journaling

To enable journaling on all new images by default, add the following setting to the Ceph configuration file:

rbd default features = 125

4.2. Pool Configuration

This chapter shows how to do the following tasks:

Execute the following commands on both peer clusters.

Enabling Mirroring on a Pool

To enable mirroring on a pool:

rbd mirror pool enable <pool-name> <mode>

Examples

To enable mirroring of the whole pool named data:

$ rbd mirror pool enable data pool

To enable image mode mirroring on the pool named stack:

$ rbd mirror pool enable stack image

See Mirroring Modes for details.

Disabling Mirroring on a Pool

To disable mirroring on a pool:

rbd mirror pool disable <pool-name>

Example

To disable mirroring of a pool named data:

$ rbd mirror pool disable data

Before disabling mirroring, remove the peer clusters. See Section 4.2, “Pool Configuration” for details.

Note

When you disable mirroring on a pool, you also disable it on any images within the pool for which mirroring was enabled separately in image mode. See Image Configuration for details.

Adding a Cluster Peer

In order for the rbd-mirror daemon to discover its peer cluster, you must register the peer to the pool:

rbd mirror pool peer add <pool-name> <client-name>@<cluster-name>

Example

To add the remote cluster as a peer to the local cluster or the other way around:

$ rbd --cluster local mirror pool peer add data client.remote@remote
$ rbd --cluster remote mirror pool peer add data client.local@local

Viewing Information about Peers

To view information about the peers:

rbd mirror pool info <pool-name>

Example

$ rbd mirror pool info data
Enabled: true
Peers:
  UUID                                 NAME        CLIENT
    786b42ea-97eb-4b16-95f4-867f02b67289 ceph-remote client.admin

Removing a Cluster Peer

To remove a mirroring peer cluster:

rbd mirror pool peer remove <pool-name> <peer-uuid>

Specify the pool name and the peer Universally Unique Identifier (UUID). To view the peer UUID, use the rbd mirror pool info command.

Example

$ rbd mirror pool peer remove data 55672766-c02b-4729-8567-f13a66893445

Getting Mirroring Status for a Pool

To get the mirroring pool summary:

rbd mirror pool status <pool-name>

Example

To get the status of the data pool:

$ rbd mirror pool status data
health: OK
images: 1 total

To output status details for every mirroring image in a pool, use the --verbose option.

4.3. Image Configuration

This chapter shows how to do the following tasks:

Execute the following commands on a single cluster only.

Enabling Image Mirroring

To enable mirroring of a specific image:

  1. Enable mirroring of the whole pool in image mode on both peer clusters. See Section 4.2, “Pool Configuration” for details.
  2. Then explicitly enable mirroring for a specific image within the pool:

    rbd mirror image enable <pool-name>/<image-name>

Example

To enable mirroring for the image2 image in the data pool:

$ rbd mirror image enable data/image2

Disabling Image Mirroring

To disable mirroring for a specific image:

rbd mirror image disable <pool-name>/<image-name>

Example

To disable mirroring of the image2 image in the data pool:

$ rbd mirror image disable data/image2

Image Promotion and Demotion

To demote an image to non-primary:

rbd mirror image demote <pool-name>/<image-name>

Example

To demote the image2 image in the data pool:

$ rbd mirror image demote data/image2

To promote an image to primary:

rbd mirror image promote <pool-name>/<image-name>

Example

To promote the image2 image in the data pool:

$ rbd mirror image promote data/image2

Depending on which type of mirroring you use, see either Recovering from a disaster with one-way mirroring or Recovering from a disaster with two-way mirroring, for details.

Use the --force option to force promote a non-primary image:

$ rbd mirror image promote --force data/image2

Use forced promotion when the demotion cannot be propagated to the peer Ceph cluster, for example because of cluster failure or communication outage. See Failover After a Non-Orderly Shutdown for details.

Note

Do not force promote non-primary images that are still syncing, because the images will not be valid after the promotion.

Image Resynchronization

To request a resynchronization to the primary image:

rbd mirror image resync <pool-name>/<image-name>

Example

To request resynchronization of the image2 image in the data pool:

$ rbd mirror image resync data/image2

In case of an inconsistent state between the two peer clusters, the rbd-mirror daemon does not attempt to mirror the image that causing it. For details on fixing this issue, see the section on recovering from a disaster. Depending on which type of mirroring you use, see either Recovering from a disaster with one-way mirroring or Recovering from a disaster with two-way mirroring, for details.

Getting Mirroring Status for a Single Image

To get status of a mirrored image:

rbd mirror image status <pool-name>/<image-name>

Example

To get the status of the image2 image in the data pool:

$ rbd mirror image status data/image2
image2:
  global_id:   2c928338-4a86-458b-9381-e68158da8970
  state:       up+replaying
  description: replaying, master_position=[object_number=6, tag_tid=2,
entry_tid=22598], mirror_position=[object_number=6, tag_tid=2,
entry_tid=29598], entries_behind_master=0
  last_update: 2016-04-28 18:47:39

4.4. Configuring One-Way Mirroring

One-way mirroring implies that a primary image in one cluster gets replicated in a secondary cluster. In the secondary or remote cluster, the replicated image is non-primary; that is, block device clients cannot write to the image.

Note

One-way mirroring supports multiple secondary sites in an active-passive configuration. To configure one-way mirroring on multiple secondary sites, repeat the following procedures on each remote cluster.

Note

One-way mirroring is appropriate for maintaining a crash-consistent copy of an image. One-way mirroring may not be appropriate for all situations, such as using the secondary image for automatic failover and failback with OpenStack, since the cluster cannot failback when using one-way mirroring. In those scenarios, use two-way mirroring. See Section 4.5, “Configuring Two-Way Mirroring” for details.

The following procedures assume:

  • Two Ceph clusters for replicating block device images one way; that is, replicating images from a primary image in a cluster named local to a second cluster named remote as used in this procedure. The clusters have corresponding configuration files located in the /etc/ceph/ directory - local.conf and remote.conf. For information on installing the Ceph Storage Cluster see the Installation Guide for Red Hat Enterprise Linux or Installation Guide for Ubuntu. If you have two Ceph clusters with the same name, usually the default ceph name, see Configuring Mirroring Between Clusters With The Same Name for additional required steps.
  • One block device client is connected to the local cluster - client.local. For information on installing Ceph clients, see the Installation Guide for Red Hat Enterprise Linux or Installation Guide for Ubuntu
  • The data pool is created on both clusters. See the Pools chapter in the Storage Strategies guide or Red Hat Ceph Storage 3 for details.
  • The data pool on the local cluster contains images you want to mirror (in the procedures below named image1 and image2) and journaling is enabled on the images. See Enabling Journaling for details.

There are two ways to configure block device mirroring:

Configuring Pool Mirroring

  1. Ensure that all images within the data pool have exclusive lock and journaling enabled. See Section 4.1, “Enabling Journaling” for details.
  2. On the monitor node of the remote cluster, install the rbd-mirror package. The package is provided by the Red Hat Ceph Storage 3 Tools repository.

    Red Hat Enterprise Linux

    # yum install rbd-mirror

    Ubuntu

    $ sudo apt-get install rbd-mirror
    Note

    The rbd-mirror daemon can run on any host in the cluster. It does not have to be a Monitor or OSD host. However, only one rbd-mirror daemon per secondary or remote cluster.

  3. On both clusters, specify the cluster name by adding the CLUSTER option to the appropriate file. On Red Hat Enterprise Linux, update the /etc/sysconfig/ceph file, and on Ubuntu, update the /etc/default/ceph file accordingly:

    CLUSTER=local
    CLUSTER=remote
  4. On both clusters, create users with permissions to access the data pool and output their keyrings to a <cluster-name>.client.<user-name>.keyring file.

    1. On the monitor host in the local cluster, create the client.local user and output the keyring to the local.client.local.keyring file:

      # ceph auth get-or-create client.local mon 'profile rbd' osd 'profile rbd pool=data' -o /etc/ceph/local.client.local.keyring --cluster local
    2. On the monitor host in the remote cluster, create the client.remote user and output the keyring to the remote.client.remote.keyring file:

      # ceph auth get-or-create client.remote mon 'profile rbd' osd 'profile rbd pool=data' -o /etc/ceph/remote.client.remote.keyring --cluster remote
  5. Copy the Ceph configuration file and the newly created keyring from the monitor host in the local cluster to the remote cluster and to the client hosts in the remote cluster:

    # scp /etc/ceph/local.conf <user>@<remote_mon-host-name>:/etc/ceph/
    # scp /etc/ceph/local.client.local.keyring <user>@<remote_mon-host-name>:/etc/ceph/
    
    # scp /etc/ceph/local.conf <user>@<remote_client-host-name>:/etc/ceph/
    # scp /etc/ceph/local.client.local.keyring <user>@<remote_client-host-name>:/etc/ceph/
  6. On the monitor host of the remote cluster, enable and start the rbd-mirror daemon:

    systemctl enable ceph-rbd-mirror.target
    systemctl enable ceph-rbd-mirror@<client-id>
    systemctl start ceph-rbd-mirror@<client-id>

    Where <client-id> is the Ceph Storage cluster user that the rbd-mirror daemon will use. The user must have the appropriate cephx access to the cluster. For detailed information, see the User Management chapter in the Administration Guide for Red Hat Ceph Storage 3.

    For example:

    # systemctl enable ceph-rbd-mirror.target
    # systemctl enable ceph-rbd-mirror@remote
    # systemctl start ceph-rbd-mirror@remote
  7. Enable pool mirroring of the data pool residing on the local and the remote cluster:

    $ rbd mirror pool enable data pool --cluster local
    $ rbd mirror pool enable data pool --cluster remote

    And ensure that mirroring has been successfully enabled:

    $ rbd mirror pool info data --cluster local
    $ rbd mirror pool info data --cluster remote
  8. Add the local cluster as a peer of the remote cluster:

    $ rbd mirror pool peer add data client.local@local --cluster remote

    And ensure that the peer was successfully added:

    $ rbd mirror pool info data --cluster remote
    Mode: pool
    Peers:
      UUID                                 NAME   CLIENT
      87ea0826-8ffe-48fb-b2e8-9ca81b012771 local client.local

Configuring Image Mirroring

  1. Ensure the selected images to be mirrored within the data pool have exclusive lock and journaling enabled. See Section 4.1, “Enabling Journaling” for details.
  2. Follow steps 2 - 6 in the Configuring Pool Mirroring procedure.
  3. Enable image mirroring of the data pool on the local cluster:

    $ rbd --cluster local mirror pool enable data image

    And ensure that mirroring has been successfully enabled:

    $ rbd mirror pool info --cluster local data
  4. Add the local cluster as a peer of remote:

    $ rbd --cluster remote mirror pool peer add data client.local@local

    And ensure that the peer was successfully added:

    $ rbd --cluster remote mirror pool info data
    Mode: image
    Peers:
      UUID                                 NAME   CLIENT
      87ea0826-8ffe-48fb-b2e8-9ca81b012771 local client.local
  5. On the local cluster, explicitly enable image mirroring of the image1 and image2 images:

    $ rbd --cluster local mirror image enable data/image1
    Mirroring enabled
    $ rbd --cluster local mirror image enable data/image2
    Mirroring enabled

    And ensure that mirroring has been successfully enabled:

    $ rbd mirror image status data/image1 --cluster remote
    image1:
      global_id:   2c928338-4a86-458b-9381-e68158da8970
      state:       up+replaying
      description: replaying, master_position=[object_number=6, tag_tid=2,
    entry_tid=22598], mirror_position=[object_number=6, tag_tid=2,
    entry_tid=29598], entries_behind_master=0
      last_update: 2016-04-28 18:47:39
    $ rbd mirror image status data/image2 --cluster remote
    image1:
      global_id:   4c818438-4e86-e58b-2382-f61658dc8932
      state:       up+replaying
      description: replaying, master_position=[object_number=6, tag_tid=2,
    entry_tid=22598], mirror_position=[object_number=6, tag_tid=2,
    entry_tid=29598], entries_behind_master=0
      last_update: 2016-04-28 18:48:05

4.5. Configuring Two-Way Mirroring

The following procedures assume that:

Configuring Pool Mirroring

  1. On both clients, install the rbd-mirror package. The package is provided by the Red Hat Ceph Storage 3 Tools repository.

    Red Hat Enterprise Linux

    # yum install rbd-mirror

    Ubuntu

    $ sudo apt-get install rbd-mirror
  2. On both client hosts, specify the cluster name by adding the CLUSTER option to the appropriate file: On Red Hat Enterprise Linux, update the /etc/sysconfig/ceph file, and on Ubuntu, update the /etc/default/ceph file accordingly:

    CLUSTER=local
    CLUSTER=remote
  3. On both clusters, create users with permissions to access the data pool and output their keyrings to a <cluster-name>.client.<user-name>.keyring file.

    1. On the monitor host in the local cluster, create the client.local user and output the keyring to the local.client.local.keyring file:

      # ceph auth get-or-create client.local mon 'profile rbd' osd 'profile rbd pool=data' -o /etc/ceph/local.client.local.keyring --cluster local
    2. On the monitor host in the remote cluster, create the client.remote user and output the keyring to the remote.client.remote.keyring file:

      # ceph auth get-or-create client.remote mon 'profile rbd' osd 'profile rbd pool=data' -o /etc/ceph/remote.client.remote.keyring --cluster remote
  4. Copy the Ceph configuration files and the newly created keyrings between the peer clusters.

    1. Copy local.conf and local.client.local.keyring from the monitor host in the local cluster to the monitor host in the remote cluster and to the client hosts in the remote cluster:

      # scp /etc/ceph/local.conf <user>@<remote_mon-host-name>:/etc/ceph/
      # scp /etc/ceph/local.client.local.keyring <user>@<remote_mon-host-name>:/etc/ceph/
      
      # scp /etc/ceph/local.conf <user>@<remote_client-host-name>:/etc/ceph/
      # scp /etc/ceph/local.client.local.keyring <user>@<remote_client-host-name>:/etc/ceph/
    2. Copy remote.conf and remote.client.remote.keyring from the monitor host in the remote cluster to the monitor host in the local cluster and to the client hosts in the local cluster:

      # scp /etc/ceph/remote.conf <user>@<local_mon-host-name>:/etc/ceph/
      # scp /etc/ceph/remote.client.remote.keyring <user>@<local-mon-host-name>:/etc/ceph/
      
      # scp /etc/ceph/remote.conf <user>@<local_client-host-name>:/etc/ceph/
      # scp /etc/ceph/remote.client.remote.keyring <user>@<local_client-host-name>:/etc/ceph/
  5. If the Monitor and Mirroring daemons are not colocated on the same node, then copy local.client.local.keyring and local.conf from the monitor host in the local cluster to the mirroring host in the local and remote cluster:

    # scp /etc/ceph/local.client.local.keyring <user>@<local-mirroring-host-name>:/etc/ceph/
    
    # scp /etc/ceph/local.conf <user>@<local-mirroring-host-name>:/etc/ceph/
    
    # scp /etc/ceph/local.client.local.keyring <user>@<remote-mirroring-host-name>:/etc/ceph/
    
    # scp /etc/ceph/local.conf <user>@<remote-mirroring-host-name>:/etc/ceph/

    And copy remote.client.remote.keyring and remote.conf from the monitor host in the remote cluster to the mirroring host in the remote and local cluster:

    # scp /etc/ceph/remote.client.remote.keyring <user>@<remote-mirroring-host-name>:/etc/ceph/
    
    # scp /etc/ceph/remote.conf <user>@<remote-mirroring-host-name>:/etc/ceph/
    
    # scp /etc/ceph/remote.client.remote.keyring <user>@<local-mirroring-host-name>:/etc/ceph/
    
    # scp /etc/ceph/remote.conf <user>@<local-mirroring-host-name>:/etc/ceph/
  6. On both client hosts, enable and start the rbd-mirror daemon:

    systemctl enable ceph-rbd-mirror.target
    systemctl enable ceph-rbd-mirror@<client-id>
    systemctl start ceph-rbd-mirror@<client-id>

    Where <client-id> is a unique client ID for use by the rbd-mirror daemon. The client must have the appropriate cephx access to the cluster. For detailed information, see the User Management chapter in the Administration Guide for Red Hat Ceph Storage 3.

    For example:

    # systemctl enable ceph-rbd-mirror.target
    # systemctl enable ceph-rbd-mirror@local
    # systemctl start ceph-rbd-mirror@local
  7. Enable pool mirroring of the data pool on both clusters:

    $ rbd mirror pool enable data pool --cluster local
    $ rbd mirror pool enable data pool --cluster remote

    And ensure that mirroring has been successfully enabled:

    $ rbd mirror pool status data
    health: OK
    images: 1 total
  8. Add the clusters as peers:

    $ rbd mirror pool peer add data client.remote@remote --cluster local
    $ rbd mirror pool peer add data client.local@local --cluster remote

    And ensure that the peers were successfully added:

    $ rbd mirror pool info data --cluster local
    Mode: pool
    Peers:
      UUID                                 NAME  CLIENT
      de32f0e3-1319-49d3-87f9-1fc076c83946 remote client.remote
    
    $ rbd mirror pool info data --cluster remote
    Mode: pool
    Peers:
      UUID                                 NAME   CLIENT
      87ea0826-8ffe-48fb-b2e8-9ca81b012771 local client.local

Configuring Image Mirroring

  1. Follow the steps 1 - 5 in the Configuring Pool Mirroring procedure.
  2. Enable image mirroring of the data pool on both clusters:

    $ rbd --cluster local mirror pool enable data image
    $ rbd --cluster remote mirror pool enable data image

    And ensure that mirroring has been successfully enabled:

    $ rbd mirror pool status data
    health: OK
    images: 2 total
  3. Add the clusters as peers:

    $ rbd --cluster local mirror pool peer add data client.remote@remote
    $ rbd --cluster remote mirror pool peer add data client.local@local

    And ensure that the peers were successfully added:

    $ rbd --cluster local mirror pool info
    Mode: pool
    Peers:
      UUID                                 NAME  CLIENT
      de32f0e3-1319-49d3-87f9-1fc076c83946 remote client.remote
    
    $ rbd --cluster remote mirror pool info
    Mode: pool
    Peers:
      UUID                                 NAME   CLIENT
      87ea0826-8ffe-48fb-b2e8-9ca81b012771 local client.local
  4. On the local cluster, explicitly enable image mirroring of the image1 and image2 images:

    $ rbd --cluster local mirror image enable data/image1
    Mirroring enabled
    $ rbd --cluster local mirror image enable data/image2
    Mirroring enabled

    And ensure that mirroring has been successfully enabled:

    $ rbd mirror image status data/image1 --cluster local
    image1:
      global_id:   2c928338-4a86-458b-9381-e68158da8970
      state:       up+replaying
      description: replaying, master_position=[object_number=6, tag_tid=2,
    entry_tid=22598], mirror_position=[object_number=6, tag_tid=2,
    entry_tid=29598], entries_behind_master=0
      last_update: 2016-04-28 18:47:39
    
    $ rbd mirror image status data/image1 --cluster remote
    image1:
      global_id:   2c928338-4a86-458b-9381-e68158da8970
      state:       up+replaying
      description: replaying, master_position=[object_number=6, tag_tid=2,
    entry_tid=22598], mirror_position=[object_number=6, tag_tid=2,
    entry_tid=29598], entries_behind_master=0
      last_update: 2016-04-28 18:47:39
    $ rbd mirror image status data/image2 --cluster master
    image1:
      global_id:   4c818438-4e86-e58b-2382-f61658dc8932
      state:       up+replaying
      description: replaying, master_position=[object_number=6, tag_tid=2,
    entry_tid=22598], mirror_position=[object_number=6, tag_tid=2,
    entry_tid=29598], entries_behind_master=0
      last_update: 2016-04-28 18:48:05
    
    $ rbd mirror image status data/image2 --cluster remote
    image1:
      global_id:   4c818438-4e86-e58b-2382-f61658dc8932
      state:       up+replaying
      description: replaying, master_position=[object_number=6, tag_tid=2,
    entry_tid=22598], mirror_position=[object_number=6, tag_tid=2,
    entry_tid=29598], entries_behind_master=0
      last_update: 2016-04-28 18:48:05

Configuring Mirroring Between Clusters With The Same Name

Sometimes administrators create clusters using the same cluster name, usually the default ceph name. For example, Ceph 2.2 and earlier releases support OSD encryption, but the dm-crypt function expects a cluster named ceph. When both clusters have the same name, currently you must perform additional steps to configure rbd-mirror:

  1. Change the name of the cluster in the /etc/sysconfig/ceph file on the rbd-mirror node on cluster A. For example, CLUSTER=master. On Ubuntu change the cluster name in the /etc/default/ceph file.
  2. Create a symlink to the ceph.conf file. For example:

    # ln -s ceph.conf master.conf  #only on the mirror node on cluster A.
  3. Use the symlink files in each rbd-mirror setup. For example executing either of the following:

    # ceph -s
    # ceph -s --cluster master

    now refer to the same cluster.

4.6. Delayed Replication

Whether you are using one- or two-way replication, you can delay replication between RADOS Block Device (RBD) mirroring images. You may want to implement delayed replication if you want a window of cushion time in case an unwanted change to the primary image needs to be reverted before being replicated to the secondary image.

To implement delayed replication, the rbd-mirror daemon within the destination cluster should set the rbd mirroring replay delay = <minimum delay in seconds> configuration setting. This setting can either be applied globally within the ceph.conf file utilized by the rbd-mirror daemons, or on an individual image basis.

To utilize delayed replication for a specific image, on the primary image, run the following rbd CLI command:

rbd image-meta set  <image-spec> conf_rbd_mirroring_replay_delay <minimum delay in seconds>

For example, to set a 10 minute minimum replication delay on image vm-1 in the pool vms:

rbd image-meta set vms/vm-1 conf_rbd_mirroring_replay_delay 600

4.7. Recovering from a disaster with one-way mirroring

To recover from a disaster when using one-way mirroring use the following procedures. They show how to fail over to the secondary cluster, named remote, after the primary cluster, named local, terminates, and how to failback. The shutdown can be orderly or non-orderly.

Important

One-way mirroring supports multiple secondary sites. If you are using additional secondary clusters, choose one of the secondary, or remote, clusters to fail over to. Synchronize from the same cluster during failback.

Prerequisites

  • At least two running clusters.
  • Pool mirroring or image mirroring configured with one way mirroring.

Failover After an Orderly Shutdown

  1. Stop all clients that use the primary image. This step depends on which clients use the image. For example, detach volumes from any OpenStack instances that use the image. See the Block Storage and Volumes chapter in the Storage Guide for Red Hat OpenStack Platform 13.
  2. Demote the primary image located on the local cluster. The following command demotes the image named image1 in the pool named data:

    $ rbd mirror image demote data/image1 --cluster=local
  3. Promote the non-primary image located on the remote cluster:

    $ rbd mirror image promote data/image1 --cluster=remote

Failover After a Non-Orderly Shutdown

  1. Verify that the primary cluster is down.
  2. Stop all clients that use the primary image. This step depends on which clients use the image. For example, detach volumes from any OpenStack instances that use the image. See the Block Storage and Volumes chapter in the Storage Guide for Red Hat OpenStack Platform 10.
  3. Promote the non-primary image located on the remote cluster. Use the --force option, because the demotion cannot be propagated to the local cluster:

    $ rbd mirror image promote --force data/image1 --cluster remote

Prepare for failback

When using one-way mirroring the primary cluster must be configured for mirroring in order to resynchronize the images during failback. This is not required when using two-way mirroring because mirroring is already configured on the primary cluster to support mirroring in both directions.

  1. On the monitor node of the local cluster, install the rbd-mirror package. The package is provided by the Red Hat Ceph Storage 3 Tools repository:

    Red Hat Enterprise Linux

    # yum install rbd-mirror

    Ubuntu

    $ sudo apt-get install rbd-mirror
  2. Copy remote.conf and remote.client.remote.keyring from the monitor host in the remote cluster to the monitor host in the local cluster and to the client hosts in the local cluster:

    # scp /etc/ceph/remote.conf <user>@<local_mon-host-name>:/etc/ceph/
    # scp /etc/ceph/remote.client.remote.keyring <user>@<local-mon-host-name>:/etc/ceph/
    
    # scp /etc/ceph/remote.conf <user>@<local_client-host-name>:/etc/ceph/
    # scp /etc/ceph/remote.client.remote.keyring <user>@<local_client-host-name>:/etc/ceph/
  3. On the monitor host of the local cluster, enable and start the rbd-mirror daemon:

    systemctl enable ceph-rbd-mirror.target
    systemctl enable ceph-rbd-mirror@<client-id>
    systemctl start ceph-rbd-mirror@<client-id>

    Where <client-id> is a unique client ID for use by the rbd-mirror daemon. The client must have the appropriate cephx access to the cluster. For detailed information, see the User Management chapter in the Administration Guide for Red Hat Ceph Storage 3.

    For example:

    # systemctl enable ceph-rbd-mirror.target
    # systemctl enable ceph-rbd-mirror@local
    # systemctl start ceph-rbd-mirror@local
  4. Add the remote cluster as a peer on the local cluster:

    $ rbd mirror pool peer add data client.remote@remote --cluster local

    If you are using multiple secondary clusters, only the secondary cluster chosen to fail over to, and failback from, must be added.

Failback

When the formerly primary cluster recovers, failback to it.

  1. Determine if the image is still primary. The following command prints information that indicates if the image named image1 in the pool named data is primary:

    $ rbd info data/image1
  2. If the image is primary, demote it. The following command demotes the image named image1 in the pool named data on the local cluster:

    $ rbd mirror image demote data/image1 --cluster local
  3. Resynchronize the image. The following command resynchronizes the image named image1 in the pool named data:

    $ rbd mirror image resync data/image1 --cluster remote
    Important

    Repeat this step on any additional secondary clusters. Change remote to the name of the additional secondary cluster you are resynchronizing from.

  4. Before proceeding further, ensure that resynchronization is complete and in the up+replaying state. The following command checks the status of the image named image1 in the pool named data:

    $ rbd mirror image status data/image1 --cluster remote
  5. Demote the image located on the remote cluster. The following command demotes the image named image1 in the pool named data:

    $ rbd mirror image demote data/image1 --cluster remote
    Note

    If there are multiple secondary clusters, this only needs to be done from the secondary cluster where it was promoted.

  6. Promote the formerly primary image located on the local cluster:

    $ rbd mirror image promote data/image1 --cluster local

Remove two-way mirroring

In the Prepare for failback section above, functions for two-way mirroring were configured to enable synchronization from the remote cluster to the local cluster. After failback is complete these functions can be disabled.

  1. Stop and disable the rbd-mirror daemon:

    systemctl stop ceph-rbd-mirror@<client-id>
    systemctl disable ceph-rbd-mirror.target
    systemctl disable ceph-rbd-mirror@<client-id>

    For example:

    # systemctl stop ceph-rbd-mirror@local
    # systemctl disable ceph-rbd-mirror.target
    # systemctl disable ceph-rbd-mirror@local
  2. Remove the remote cluster as a peer from the local cluster:

    $ rbd mirror pool peer remove data client.remote@remote --cluster local

Additional Resources

4.8. Recovering from a disaster with two-way mirroring

To recover from a disaster when using two-way mirroring use the following procedures. They show how to fail over to the mirrored data on the secondary cluster (named remote) after the primary one (named local) terminated, and how to Failback. The shutdown can be:

If the shutdown is non-orderly, the Failback procedure requires resynchronizing the image.

The procedures assume that you have successfully configured either:

Failover After an Orderly Shutdown

  1. Stop all clients that use the primary image. This step depends on which clients use the image. For example, detach volumes from any OpenStack instances that use the image. See the Block Storage and Volumes chapter in the Storage Guide for Red Hat OpenStack Platform 10.
  2. Demote the primary image located on the local cluster. The following command demotes the image named image1 in the pool named stack:

    $ rbd mirror image demote stack/image1 --cluster=local

    See Section 4.3, “Image Configuration” for details.

  3. Promote the non-primary image located on the remote cluster:

    $ rbd mirror image promote stack/image1 --cluster=remote

    See Section 4.3, “Image Configuration” for details.

  4. Resume the access to the peer image. This step depends on which clients use the image.

Failover After a Non-Orderly Shutdown

  1. Verify that the primary cluster is down.
  2. Stop all clients that use the primary image. This step depends on which clients use the image. For example, detach volumes from any OpenStack instances that use the image. See the Block Storage and Volumes chapter in the Storage Guide for Red Hat OpenStack Platform 10.
  3. Promote the non-primary image located on the remote cluster. Use the --force option, because the demotion cannot be propagated to the local cluster:

    $ rbd mirror image promote --force stack/image1 --cluster remote

    See Section 4.3, “Image Configuration” for details

  4. Resume the access to the peer image. This step depends on which clients use the image.

Failback

When the formerly primary cluster recovers, failback to it.

  1. If there was a non-orderly shutdown, demote the old primary image on the local cluster. The following command demotes the image named image1 in the pool named stack on the local cluster:

    $ rbd mirror image demote stack/image1 --cluster local
  2. Resynchronize the image ONLY if there was a non-orderly shutdown. The following command resynchronizes the image named image1 in the pool named stack:

    $ rbd mirror image resync stack/image1 --cluster local

    See Section 4.3, “Image Configuration” for details.

  3. Before proceeding further, ensure that resynchronization is complete and in the up+replaying state. The following command checks the status of the image named image1 in the pool named stack:

    $ rbd mirror image status stack/image1 --cluster local
  4. Demote the image located on the remote cluster. The following command demotes the image named image1 in the pool named stack:

    $ rbd mirror image demote stack/image1 --cluster=remote

    See Section 4.3, “Image Configuration” for details.

  5. Promote the formerly primary image located on the local cluster:

    $ rbd mirror image promote stack/image1 --cluster=local

    See Section 4.3, “Image Configuration” for details.

4.9. Updating Instances with Mirroring

When updating a cluster using Ceph Block Device mirroring with an asynchronous update, follow the installation instruction for the update. Then, restart the Ceph Block Device instances.

Note

There is no required order for restarting the instances. Red Hat recommends restarting the instance pointing to the pool with primary images followed by the instance pointing to the mirrored pool.

Chapter 5. Librbd (Python)

The rbd python module provides file-like access to RBD images. In order to use this built-in tool, the rbd and rados modules must be imported.

Creating and writing to an image

  1. Connect to RADOS and open an IO context:

    cluster = rados.Rados(conffile='my_ceph.conf')
    cluster.connect()
    ioctx = cluster.open_ioctx('mypool')
  2. Instantiate an :class:rbd.RBD object, which you use to create the image:

    rbd_inst = rbd.RBD()
    size = 4 * 1024**3  # 4 GiB
    rbd_inst.create(ioctx, 'myimage', size)
  3. To perform I/O on the image, instantiate an :class:rbd.Image object:

    image = rbd.Image(ioctx, 'myimage')
    data = 'foo' * 200
    image.write(data, 0)

    This writes 'foo' to the first 600 bytes of the image. Note that data cannot be :type:unicode - librbd does not know how to deal with characters wider than a :c:type:char.

  4. Close the image, the IO context and the connection to RADOS:

    image.close()
    ioctx.close()
    cluster.shutdown()

    To be safe, each of these calls must to be in a separate :finally block:

    import rados
    import rbd
    
    cluster = rados.Rados(conffile='my_ceph_conf')
    try:
        ioctx = cluster.open_ioctx('my_pool')
        try:
            rbd_inst = rbd.RBD()
            size = 4 * 1024**3  # 4 GiB
            rbd_inst.create(ioctx, 'myimage', size)
            image = rbd.Image(ioctx, 'myimage')
            try:
                data = 'foo' * 200
                image.write(data, 0)
            finally:
                image.close()
        finally:
            ioctx.close()
    finally:
        cluster.shutdown()

    This can be cumbersome, so the Rados, Ioctx, and Image classes can be used as context managers that close or shut down automatically. Using them as context managers, the above example becomes:

    with rados.Rados(conffile='my_ceph.conf') as cluster:
        with cluster.open_ioctx('mypool') as ioctx:
            rbd_inst = rbd.RBD()
            size = 4 * 1024**3  # 4 GiB
            rbd_inst.create(ioctx, 'myimage', size)
            with rbd.Image(ioctx, 'myimage') as image:
                data = 'foo' * 200
                image.write(data, 0)

Chapter 6. Kernel Module Operations

Important

To use kernel module operations, you must have a running Ceph cluster.

Important

Clients on Linux distributions aside from Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) are permitted but not supported. If there are issues found in the cluster (e.g. the MDS) when using these clients, Red Hat will address them, but if the cause is found to be on the client side, the issue will have to be addressed by the kernel vendor.

6.1. Getting a List of Images

To mount a block device image, first return a list of the images.

To do so, execute the following:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd list

6.2. Mapping Block Devices

Use rbd to map an image name to a kernel module. You must specify the image name, the pool name and the user name. rbd will load the RBD kernel module if it is not already loaded.

To do so, execute the following:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd map {image-name} --pool {pool-name} --id {user-name}

For example:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd map --pool rbd myimage --id admin

If you use cephx authentication, you must also specify a secret. It may come from a keyring or a file containing the secret.

To do so, execute the following:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd map --pool rbd myimage --id admin --keyring /path/to/keyring
[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd map --pool rbd myimage --id admin --keyfile /path/to/file

6.3. Showing Mapped Block Devices

To show block device images mapped to kernel modules with the rbd command, specify the showmapped option.

To do so, execute the following:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd showmapped

6.4. Unmapping a Block Device

To unmap a block device image with the rbd command, specify the unmap option and the device name (by convention the same as the block device image name).

To do so, execute the following:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd unmap /dev/rbd/{poolname}/{imagename}

For example:

[root@rbd-client ~]# rbd unmap /dev/rbd/rbd/foo

Chapter 7. Block Device Configuration Reference

7.1. General Settings

rbd_op_threads
Description
The number of block device operation threads.
Type
Integer
Default
1
Warning

Do not change the default value of rbd_op_threads because setting it to a number higher than 1 might cause data corruption.

rbd_op_thread_timeout
Description
The timeout (in seconds) for block device operation threads.
Type
Integer
Default
60
rbd_non_blocking_aio
Description
If true, Ceph will process block device asynchronous I/O operations from a worker thread to prevent blocking.
Type
Boolean
Default
true
rbd_concurrent_management_ops
Description
The maximum number of concurrent management operations in flight (for example, deleting or resizing an image).
Type
Integer
Default
10
rbd_request_timed_out_seconds
Description
The number of seconds before a maintenance request times out.
Type
Integer
Default
30
rbd_clone_copy_on_read
Description
When set to true, copy-on-read cloning is enabled.
Type
Boolean
Default
false
rbd_enable_alloc_hint
Description
If true, allocation hinting is enabled, and the block device will issue a hint to the OSD back end to indicate the expected size object.
Type
Boolean
Default
true
rbd_skip_partial_discard
Description
If true, the block device will skip zeroing a range when trying to discard a range inside an object.
Type
Boolean
Default
false
rbd_tracing
Description
Set this option to true to enable the Linux Trace Toolkit Next Generation User Space Tracer (LTTng-UST) tracepoints. See Tracing RADOS Block Device (RBD) Workloads with the RBD Replay Feature for details.
Type
Boolean
Default
false
rbd_validate_pool
Description
Set this option to true to validate empty pools for RBD compatibility.
Type
Boolean
Default
true
rbd_validate_names
Description
Set this option to true to validate image specifications.
Type
Boolean
Default
true

7.2. Default Settings

It is possible to override the default settings for creating an image. Ceph will create images with format 2 and no striping.

rbd_default_format
Description
The default format (2) if no other format is specified. Format 1 is the original format for a new image, which is compatible with all versions of librbd and the kernel module, but does not support newer features like cloning. Format 2 is supported by librbd and the kernel module since version 3.11 (except for striping). Format 2 adds support for cloning and is more easily extensible to allow more features in the future.
Type
Integer
Default
2
rbd_default_order
Description
The default order if no other order is specified.
Type
Integer
Default
22
rbd_default_stripe_count
Description
The default stripe count if no other stripe count is specified. Changing the default value requires striping v2 feature.
Type
64-bit Unsigned Integer
Default
0
rbd_default_stripe_unit
Description
The default stripe unit if no other stripe unit is specified. Changing the unit from 0 (that is, the object size) requires the striping v2 feature.
Type
64-bit Unsigned Integer
Default
0
rbd_default_features
Description

The default features enabled when creating an block device image. This setting only applies to format 2 images. The settings are:

1: Layering support. Layering enables you to use cloning.

2: Striping v2 support. Striping spreads data across multiple objects. Striping helps with parallelism for sequential read/write workloads.

4: Exclusive locking support. When enabled, it requires a client to get a lock on an object before making a write.

8: Object map support. Block devices are thin provisioned—​meaning, they only store data that actually exists. Object map support helps track which objects actually exist (have data stored on a drive). Enabling object map support speeds up I/O operations for cloning, or importing and exporting a sparsely populated image.

16: Fast-diff support. Fast-diff support depends on object map support and exclusive lock support. It adds another property to the object map, which makes it much faster to generate diffs between snapshots of an image, and the actual data usage of a snapshot much faster.

32: Deep-flatten support. Deep-flatten makes rbd flatten work on all the snapshots of an image, in addition to the image itself. Without it, snapshots of an image will still rely on the parent, so the parent will not be delete-able until the snapshots are deleted. Deep-flatten makes a parent independent of its clones, even if they have snapshots.

64: Journaling support. Journaling records all modifications to an image in the order they occur. This ensures that a crash-consistent mirror of the remote image is available locally

The enabled features are the sum of the numeric settings.

Type
Integer
Default

61 - layering, exclusive-lock, object-map, fast-diff, and deep-flatten are enabled

Important

The current default setting is not compatible with the RBD kernel driver nor older RBD clients.

rbd_default_map_options
Description
Most of the options are useful mainly for debugging and benchmarking. See man rbd under Map Options for details.
Type
String
Default
""

7.3. Cache Settings

The user space implementation of the Ceph block device (that is, librbd) cannot take advantage of the Linux page cache, so it includes its own in-memory caching, called RBD caching. RBD caching behaves just like well-behaved hard disk caching. When the OS sends a barrier or a flush request, all dirty data is written to the OSDs. This means that using write-back caching is just as safe as using a well-behaved physical hard disk with a VM that properly sends flushes (that is, Linux kernel >= 2.6.32). The cache uses a Least Recently Used (LRU) algorithm, and in write-back mode it can coalesce contiguous requests for better throughput.

Ceph supports write-back caching for RBD. To enable it, add rbd cache = true to the [client] section of your ceph.conf file. By default librbd does not perform any caching. Writes and reads go directly to the storage cluster, and writes return only when the data is on disk on all replicas. With caching enabled, writes return immediately, unless there are more than rbd cache max dirty unflushed bytes. In this case, the write triggers writeback and blocks until enough bytes are flushed.

Ceph supports write-through caching for RBD. You can set the size of the cache, and you can set targets and limits to switch from write-back caching to write through caching. To enable write-through mode, set rbd cache max dirty to 0. This means writes return only when the data is on disk on all replicas, but reads may come from the cache. The cache is in memory on the client, and each RBD image has its own. Since the cache is local to the client, there is no coherency if there are others accessing the image. Running GFS or OCFS on top of RBD will not work with caching enabled.

The ceph.conf file settings for RBD should be set in the [client] section of your configuration file. The settings include:

rbd cache
Description
Enable caching for RADOS Block Device (RBD).
Type
Boolean
Required
No
Default
true
rbd cache size
Description
The RBD cache size in bytes.
Type
64-bit Integer
Required
No
Default
32 MiB
rbd cache max dirty
Description
The dirty limit in bytes at which the cache triggers write-back. If 0, uses write-through caching.
Type
64-bit Integer
Required
No
Constraint
Must be less than rbd cache size.
Default
24 MiB
rbd cache target dirty
Description
The dirty target before the cache begins writing data to the data storage. Does not block writes to the cache.
Type
64-bit Integer
Required
No
Constraint
Must be less than rbd cache max dirty.
Default
16 MiB
rbd cache max dirty age
Description
The number of seconds dirty data is in the cache before writeback starts.
Type
Float
Required
No
Default
1.0
rbd_cache_max_dirty_object
Description
The dirty limit for objects - set to 0 for auto calculate from rbd_cache_size.
Type
Integer
Default
0
rbd_cache_block_writes_upfront
Description
If true, it will block writes to the cache before the aio_write call completes. If false, it will block before the aio_completion is called.
Type
Boolean
Default
false
rbd cache writethrough until flush
Description
Start out in write-through mode, and switch to write-back after the first flush request is received. Enabling this is a conservative but safe setting in case VMs running on rbd are too old to send flushes, like the virtio driver in Linux before 2.6.32.
Type
Boolean
Required
No
Default
true

7.4. Parent/Child Reads Settings

rbd_balance_snap_reads
Description
Ceph typically reads objects from the primary OSD. Since reads are immutable, you may enable this feature to balance snap reads between the primary OSD and the replicas.
Type
Boolean
Default
false
rbd_localize_snap_reads
Description
Whereas rbd_balance_snap_reads will randomize the replica for reading a snapshot, if you enable rbd_localize_snap_reads, the block device will look to the CRUSH map to find the closest (local) OSD for reading the snapshot.
Type
Boolean
Default
false
rbd_balance_parent_reads
Description
Ceph typically reads objects from the primary OSD. Since reads are immutable, you may enable this feature to balance parent reads between the primary OSD and the replicas.
Type
Boolean
Default
false
rbd_localize_parent_reads
Description
Whereas rbd_balance_parent_reads will randomize the replica for reading a parent, if you enable rbd_localize_parent_reads, the block device will look to the CRUSH map to find the closest (local) OSD for reading the parent.
Type
Boolean
Default
true

7.5. Read-ahead Settings

RBD supports read-ahead/prefetching to optimize small, sequential reads. This should normally be handled by the guest OS in the case of a VM, but boot loaders may not issue efficient reads. Read-ahead is automatically disabled if caching is disabled.

rbd readahead trigger requests
Description
Number of sequential read requests necessary to trigger read-ahead.
Type
Integer
Required
No
Default
10
rbd readahead max bytes
Description
Maximum size of a read-ahead request. If zero, read-ahead is disabled.
Type
64-bit Integer
Required
No
Default
512 KiB
rbd readahead disable after bytes
Description
After this many bytes have been read from an RBD image, read-ahead is disabled for that image until it is closed. This allows the guest OS to take over read-ahead once it is booted. If zero, read-ahead stays enabled.
Type
64-bit Integer
Required
No
Default
50 MiB

7.6. Blacklist Settings

rbd_blacklist_on_break_lock
Description
Whether to blacklist clients whose lock was broken.
Type
Boolean
Default
true
rbd_blacklist_expire_seconds
Description
The number of seconds to blacklist - set to 0 for OSD default.
Type
Integer
Default
0

7.7. Journal Settings

rbd_journal_order
Description
The number of bits to shift to compute the journal object maximum size. The value is between 12 and 64.
Type
32-bit Unsigned Integer
Default
24
rbd_journal_splay_width
Description
The number of active journal objects.
Type
32-bit Unsigned Integer
Default
4
rbd_journal_commit_age
Description
The commit time interval in seconds.
Type
Double Precision Floating Point Number
Default
5
rbd_journal_object_flush_interval
Description
The maximum number of pending commits per a journal object.
Type
Integer
Default
0
rbd_journal_object_flush_bytes
Description
The maximum number of pending bytes per a journal object.
Type
Integer
Default
0
rbd_journal_object_flush_age
Description
The maximum time interval in seconds for pending commits.
Type
Double Precision Floating Point Number
Default
0
rbd_journal_pool
Description
Specifies a pool for journal objects.
Type
String
Default
""

Chapter 8. Using an iSCSI Gateway

The iSCSI gateway is integrating Red Hat Ceph Storage with the iSCSI standard to provide a Highly Available (HA) iSCSI target that exports RADOS Block Device (RBD) images as SCSI disks. The iSCSI protocol allows clients (initiators) to send SCSI commands to SCSI storage devices (targets) over a TCP/IP network. This allows for heterogeneous clients, such as Microsoft Windows, to access the Red Hat Ceph Storage cluster.

Each iSCSI gateway runs the Linux IO target kernel subsystem (LIO) to provide iSCSI protocol support. LIO utilizes a user-space passthrough (TCMU) to interact with Ceph’s librbd library to expose RBD images to iSCSI clients. With Ceph’s iSCSI gateway you can effectively run a fully integrated block-storage infrastructure with all features and benefits of a conventional Storage Area Network (SAN).

Figure 8.1. Ceph iSCSI Gateway HA Design

Ceph iSCSI HA 424879 1116 ECE 01

8.1. Requirements

To implement the Ceph iSCSI gateway there are a few requirements. Red Hat recommends using two nodes for a highly available Ceph iSCSI gateway solution and up to four Ceph iSCSI gateway nodes.

For the hardware requirements, see the Red Hat Ceph Storage Hardware Selection Guide.

Warning

On the iSCSI gateway nodes, the memory footprint of the RBD images can grow to a large size. Plan memory requirements accordingly based off the number RBD images mapped. Each RBD image roughly uses 90 MB of RAM.

There are no specific iSCSI gateway options for the Ceph Monitors or OSDs, but it is important to lower the default timers for detecting down OSDs to reduce the possibility of initiator timeouts. Red Hat recommends setting the following timers on each OSD in the storage cluster:

osd client watch timeout = 15
osd heartbeat grace = 20
osd heartbeat interval = 5
  • Online Updating Using the Ceph Monitor

    Syntax

    ceph tell <daemon_type>.<id> injectargs '--<parameter_name> <new_value>'

    Example

    # ceph tell osd.0 injectargs '--osd_client_watch_timeout 15'
    # ceph tell osd.0 injectargs '--osd_heartbeat_grace 20'
    # ceph tell osd.0 injectargs '--osd_heartbeat_interval 5'

  • Online Updating on the OSD Node

    Syntax

    ceph daemon <daemon_type>.<id> config set <parameter_name> <new_value>

    Example

    # ceph daemon osd.0 config set osd_client_watch_timeout 15
    # ceph daemon osd.0 config set osd_heartbeat_grace 20
    # ceph daemon osd.0 config set osd_heartbeat_interval 5

Note

Update the Ceph configuration file and copy it to all nodes in the Ceph storage cluster. For example, the default configuration file is /etc/ceph/ceph.conf. Add the following lines to the Ceph configuration file:

[osd]
osd_client_watch_timeout = 15
osd_heartbeat_grace = 20
osd_heartbeat_interval = 5

For more details on setting Ceph configuration options, see the Configuration Guide for Red Hat Ceph Storage 3.

8.2. Configuring the iSCSI Target

Traditionally, block-level access to a Ceph storage cluster has been limited to QEMU and librbd, which is a key enabler for adoption within OpenStack environments. Block-level access to the Ceph storage cluster can now take advantage of the iSCSI standard to provide data storage.

Prerequisites:

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.5 or later.
  • A running Red Hat Ceph Storage cluster, version 3.1 or later.
  • iSCSI gateways nodes, which can either be colocated with OSD nodes or on dedicated nodes.
  • Valid Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 and Red Hat Ceph Storage 3.2 entitlements/subscriptions on the iSCSI gateways nodes.
  • Separate network subnets for iSCSI front-end traffic and Ceph back-end traffic.

Deploying the Ceph iSCSI gateway can be done using Ansible or the command-line interface.

8.2.1. Configuring the iSCSI Target using Ansible

Requirements:

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.5 or later.
  • A running Red Hat Ceph Storage 3 or later.

Installing:

  1. On the iSCSI gateway nodes, enable the Red Hat Ceph Storage 3 Tools repository. For details, see the Enabling the Red Hat Ceph Storage Repositories section in the Installation Guide for Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

    1. Install the ceph-iscsi-config package:

      # yum install ceph-iscsi-config
  2. On the Ansible administration node, do the following steps, as the root user:

    1. Enable the Red Hat Ceph Storage 3 Tools repository. For details, see the Enabling the Red Hat Ceph Storage Repositories section in the Installation Guide for Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
    2. Install the ceph-ansible package:

      # yum install ceph-ansible
    3. Add an entry in /etc/ansible/hosts file for the gateway group:

      [iscsigws]
      ceph-igw-1
      ceph-igw-2
      Note

      If colocating the iSCSI gateway with an OSD node, add the OSD node to the [iscsigws] section.

Configuring:

The ceph-ansible package places a file in the /usr/share/ceph-ansible/group_vars/ directory called iscsigws.yml.sample.

  1. Create a copy of the iscsigws.yml.sample file and name it iscsigws.yml.

    Important

    The new file name (iscsigws.yml) and the new section heading ([iscsigws]) are only applicable to Red Hat Ceph Storage 3.1 or higher. Upgrading from previous versions of Red Hat Ceph Storage to 3.1 will still use the old file name (iscsi-gws.yml) and the old section heading ([iscsi-gws]).

  2. Open the iscsigws.yml file for editing.
  3. Uncomment the gateway_ip_list variable and update the values accordingly, using IPv4 or IPv6 addresses.

    For example, adding two gateways with the IPv4 addresses of 10.172.19.21 and 10.172.19.22, configure gateway_ip_list like this:

    gateway_ip_list: 10.172.19.21,10.172.19.22
    Important

    You cannot use a mix of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.

  4. Uncomment the rbd_devices variable and update the values accordingly, for example:

    rbd_devices:
      - { pool: 'rbd', image: 'ansible1', size: '30G', host: 'ceph-1', state: 'present' }
      - { pool: 'rbd', image: 'ansible2', size: '15G', host: 'ceph-1', state: 'present' }
      - { pool: 'rbd', image: 'ansible3', size: '30G', host: 'ceph-1', state: 'present' }
      - { pool: 'rbd', image: 'ansible4', size: '50G', host: 'ceph-1', state: 'present' }
  5. Uncomment the client_connections variable and update the values accordingly, for example:

    Example with enabling CHAP authentication

    client_connections:
      - { client: 'iqn.1994-05.com.redhat:rh7-iscsi-client', image_list: 'rbd.ansible1,rbd.ansible2', chap: 'rh7-iscsi-client/redhat', status: 'present' }
      - { client: 'iqn.1991-05.com.microsoft:w2k12r2', image_list: 'rbd.ansible4', chap: 'w2k12r2/microsoft_w2k12', status: 'absent' }

    Example with disabling CHAP authentication

    client_connections:
      - { client: 'iqn.1991-05.com.microsoft:w2k12r2', image_list: 'rbd.ansible4', chap: '', status: 'present' }
      - { client: 'iqn.1991-05.com.microsoft:w2k16r2', image_list: 'rbd.ansible2', chap: '', status: 'present' }

    Important

    Disabling CHAP is only supported on Red Hat Ceph Storage 3.1 or higher. Red Hat does not support mixing clients, some with CHAP enabled and some CHAP disabled. All clients marked as present must have CHAP enabled or must have CHAP disabled.

  6. Review the following Ansible variables and descriptions, and update accordingly, if needed.

    Table 8.1. iSCSI Gateway General Variables

    VariableMeaning/Purpose

    seed_monitor

    Each gateway needs access to the ceph cluster for rados and rbd calls. This means the iSCSI gateway must have an appropriate /etc/ceph/ directory defined. The seed_monitor host is used to populate the iSCSI gateway’s /etc/ceph/ directory.

    cluster_name

    Define a custom storage cluster name.

    gateway_keyring

    Define a custom keyring name.

    deploy_settings

    If set to true, then deploy the settings when the playbook is ran.

    perform_system_checks

    This is a boolean value that checks for multipath and lvm configuration settings on each gateway. It must be set to true for at least the first run to ensure multipathd and lvm are configured properly.

    gateway_iqn

    This is the iSCSI IQN that all the gateways will expose to clients. This means each client will see the gateway group as a single subsystem.

    gateway_ip_list

    The comma separated ip list defines the IPv4 or IPv6 addresses that will be used on the front end network for iSCSI traffic. This IP will be bound to the active target portal group on each node, and is the access point for iSCSI traffic. Each IP should correspond to an IP available on the hosts defined in the iscsigws.yml host group in /etc/ansible/hosts.

    rbd_devices

    This section defines the RBD images that will be controlled and managed within the iSCSI gateway configuration. Parameters like pool and image are self explanatory. Here are the other parameters:
    size = This defines the size of the RBD. You may increase the size later, by simply changing this value, but shrinking the size of an RBD is not supported and is ignored.
    host = This is the iSCSI gateway host name that will be responsible for the rbd allocation/resize. Every defined rbd_device entry must have a host assigned.
    state = This is typical Ansible syntax for whether the resource should be defined or removed. A request with a state of absent will first be checked to ensure the rbd is not mapped to any client. If the RBD is unallocated, it will be removed from the iSCSI gateway and deleted from the configuration.

    client_connections

    This section defines the iSCSI client connection details together with the LUN (RBD image) masking. Currently only CHAP is supported as an authentication mechanism. Each connection defines an image_list which is a comma separated list of the form pool.rbd_image[,pool.rbd_image,…​]. RBD images can be added and removed from this list, to change the client masking. Note, that there are no checks done to limit RBD sharing across client connections.

    Table 8.2. iSCSI Gateway RBD-TARGET-API Variables

    VariableMeaning/Purpose

    api_user

    The user name for the API. The default is admin.

    api_password

    The password for using the API. The default is admin.

    api_port

    The TCP port number for using the API. The default is 5000.

    api_secure

    Value can be true or false. The default is false.

    loop_delay

    Controls the sleeping interval in seconds for polling the iSCSI management object. The default value is 1.

    trusted_ip_list

    A list of IPv4 or IPv6 addresses who have access to the API. By default, only the iSCSI gateway nodes have access.

    Important

    For rbd_devices, there can not be any periods (.) in the pool name or in the image name.

    Warning

    Gateway configuration changes are only supported from one gateway at a time. Attempting to run changes concurrently through multiple gateways may lead to configuration instability and inconsistency.

    Warning

    Ansible will install the ceph-iscsi-cli package, create, and then update the /etc/ceph/iscsi-gateway.cfg file based on settings in the group_vars/iscsigws.yml file when the ansible-playbook command is ran. If you have previously installed the ceph-iscsi-cli package using the command line installation procedures, then the existing settings from the iscsi-gateway.cfg file must be copied to the group_vars/iscsigws.yml file.

    See the Appendix A, Sample iscsigws.yml File to view the full iscsigws.yml.sample file.

Deploying:

On the Ansible administration node, do the following steps, as the root user.

  1. Execute the Ansible playbook:

    # cd /usr/share/ceph-ansible
    # ansible-playbook site.yml
    Note

    The Ansible playbook will handle RPM dependencies, RBD creation and Linux iSCSI target configuration.

    Warning

    On stand-alone iSCSI gateway nodes, verify that the correct Red Hat Ceph Storage 3.2 software repositories are enabled. If they are unavailable, then the wrong packages will be installed.

  2. Verify the configuration by running the following command:

    # gwcli ls
    Important

    Do not use the targetcli utility to change the configuration, this will result in the following issues: ALUA misconfiguration and path failover problems. There is the potential to corrupt data, to have mismatched configuration across iSCSI gateways, and to have mismatched WWN information, which will lead to client pathing problems.

Service Management:

The ceph-iscsi-config package installs the configuration management logic and a Systemd service called rbd-target-gw. When the Systemd service is enabled, the rbd-target-gw will start at boot time and will restore the Linux iSCSI target state. Deploying the iSCSI gateways with the Ansible playbook disables the target service.

# systemctl start rbd-target-gw

Below are the outcomes of interacting with the rbd-target-gw Systemd service.

# systemctl <start|stop|restart|reload> rbd-target-gw
reload
A reload request will force rbd-target-gw to reread the configuration and apply it to the current running environment. This is normally not required, since changes are deployed in parallel from Ansible to all iSCSI gateway nodes.
stop
A stop request will close the gateway’s portal interfaces, dropping connections to clients and wipe the current Linux iSCSI target configuration from the kernel. This returns the iSCSI gateway to a clean state. When clients are disconnected, active I/O is rescheduled to the other iSCSI gateways by the client side multipathing layer.

Administration:

Within the /usr/share/ceph-ansible/group_vars/iscsigws.yml file there are a number of operational workflows that the Ansible playbook supports.

Warning

Red Hat does not support managing RBD images exported by the Ceph iSCSI gateway tools, such as gwcli and ceph-ansible. Also, using the rbd command to rename or remove RBD images exported by the Ceph iSCSI gateway, can result in an unstable storage cluster.

Warning

Before removing RBD images from the iSCSI gateway configuration, follow the standard procedures for removing a storage device from the operating system.

For clients and systems using Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, see the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Storage Administration Guide for more details on removing devices.

Table 8.3. Operational Workflows

I want to…​Update the iscsigws.yml file by…​

Add more RBD images

Adding another entry to the rbd_devices section with the new image.

Resize an existing RBD image

Updating the size parameter within the rbd_devices section. Client side actions are required to pick up the new size of the disk.

Add a client

Adding an entry to the client_connections section.

Add another RBD to a client

Adding the relevant RBD pool.image name to the image_list variable for the client.

Remove an RBD from a client

Removing the RBD pool.image name from the clients image_list variable.

Remove an RBD from the system

Changing the RBD entry state variable to absent. The RBD image must be unallocated from the operating system first for this to succeed.

Change the clients CHAP credentials

Updating the relevant CHAP details in client_connections. This will need to be coordinated with the clients. For example, the client issues an iSCSI logout, the credentials are changed by the Ansible playbook, the credentials are changed at the client, then the client performs an iSCSI login.

Remove a client

Updating the relevant client_connections item with a state of absent. Once the Ansible playbook is ran, the client will be purged from the system, but the disks will remain defined to Linux iSCSI target for potential reuse.

Once a change has been made, rerun the Ansible playbook to apply the change across the iSCSI gateway nodes.

# ansible-playbook site.yml

Removing the Configuration:

All iSCSI initiators need to be disconnected before purging the iSCSI gateway configuration. Follow the procedures below for the appropriate operating system:

  1. Log out all iSCSI sessions:

    Red Hat Enterprise Linux initiators:

    iscsiadm -m node -T $TARGET_NAME --logout

    Replace $TARGET_NAME with the configured iSCSI target name.

    Example output

    # iscsiadm -m node -T iqn.2003-01.com.redhat.iscsi-gw:ceph-igw --logout
    Logging out of session [sid: 1, target: iqn.2003-01.com.redhat.iscsi-gw:iscsi-igw, portal: 10.172.19.21,3260]
    Logging out of session [sid: 2, target: iqn.2003-01.com.redhat.iscsi-gw:iscsi-igw, portal: 10.172.19.22,3260]
    Logout of [sid: 1, target: iqn.2003-01.com.redhat.iscsi-gw:iscsi-igw, portal: 10.172.19.21,3260] successful.
    Logout of [sid: 2, target: iqn.2003-01.com.redhat.iscsi-gw:iscsi-igw, portal: 10.172.19.22,3260] successful.

    Windows initiators:

    See the Microsoft documentation for more details.

    VMware ESXi initiators:

    See the VMware documentation for more details.

  2. Run the iSCSI gateway command line utility:

    # gwcli
  3. Remove the hosts:

    /> cd /iscsi-target/iqn.2003-01.com.redhat.iscsi-gw:$TARGET_NAME/hosts
    /> /iscsi-target...$TARGET_NAME/hosts> delete $CLIENT_NAME

    Replace $TARGET_NAME with the configured iSCSI target name, and replace $CLIENT_NAME with iSCSI initiator name.

    Example

    /> cd /iscsi-target/iqn.2003-01.com.redhat.iscsi-gw:ceph-igw/hosts
    /> /iscsi-target...eph-igw/hosts> delete iqn.1994-05.com.redhat:rh7-client

  4. Remove the disks:

    /> cd /disks/
    /disks> delete $POOL_NAME.$IMAGE_NAME

    Replace $POOL_NAME with the name of the pool, and replace the $IMAGE_NAME with the name of the image.

    /> cd /disks/
    /disks> delete rbd.disk_1
  5. Run the Ansible iSCSI gateway purge playbook (/usr/share/ceph-ansible/purge-iscsi-gateways.yml):

    # ansible-playbook purge-iscsi-gateways.yml
    1. When this Ansible playbook is ran, a prompt for the type of purge to do is displayed:

      lio
      In this mode the Linux iSCSI target configuration is purged on all iSCSI gateways that are defined. Disks that were created are left untouched within the Ceph storage cluster.
      all

      When all is chosen, the Linux iSCSI target configuration is removed together with all RBD images that were defined within the iSCSI gateway environment, other unrelated RBD images will not be removed. Ensure the correct mode is chosen, this operation will delete data.

      Warning

      A purge operation is destructive action against the iSCSI gateway environment.

      Warning

      A purge operation will fail, if RBD images have snapshots or clones and are exported through the Ceph iSCSI gateway.

      Example Output

      [root@rh7-iscsi-client ceph-ansible]# ansible-playbook purge-iscsi-gateways.yml
      Which configuration elements should be purged? (all, lio or abort) [abort]: all
      
      
      PLAY [Confirm removal of the iSCSI gateway configuration] *********************
      
      
      GATHERING FACTS ***************************************************************
      ok: [localhost]
      
      
      TASK: [Exit playbook if user aborted the purge] *******************************
      skipping: [localhost]
      
      
      TASK: [set_fact ] *************************************************************
      ok: [localhost]
      
      
      PLAY [Removing the gateway configuration] *************************************
      
      
      GATHERING FACTS ***************************************************************
      ok: [ceph-igw-1]
      ok: [ceph-igw-2]
      
      
      TASK: [igw_purge | purging the gateway configuration] *************************
      changed: [ceph-igw-1]
      changed: [ceph-igw-2]
      
      
      TASK: [igw_purge | deleting configured rbd devices] ***************************
      changed: [ceph-igw-1]
      changed: [ceph-igw-2]
      
      
      PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
      ceph-igw-1                 : ok=3    changed=2    unreachable=0    failed=0
      ceph-igw-2                 : ok=3    changed=2    unreachable=0    failed=0
      localhost                  : ok=2    changed=0    unreachable=0    failed=0

8.2.2. Configuring the iSCSI Target using the Command Line Interface

The Ceph iSCSI gateway is the iSCSI target node and also a Ceph client node. The Ceph iSCSI gateway can be a standalone node or be colocated on a Ceph Object Store Disk (OSD) node. Completing the following steps will install, and configure the Ceph iSCSI gateway for basic operation.

Requirements:

  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.5 or later
  • A running Red Hat Ceph Storage 3.2 cluster or later
  • The following packages must be installed:

    • targetcli-2.1.fb47-0.1.20170815.git5bf3517.el7cp or newer package
    • python-rtslib-2.1.fb64-0.1.20170815.gitec364f3.el7cp or newer package
    • tcmu-runner-1.4.0-0.2.el7cp or newer package
    • openssl-1.0.2k-8.el7 or newer package

      Important

      If previous versions of these packages exist, then they must be removed first before installing the newer versions. These newer versions must be installed from a Red Hat Ceph Storage repository.

Do the following steps on all Ceph Monitor nodes in the storage cluster, before using the gwcli utility:

  1. Restart the ceph-mon service, as the root user:

    # systemctl restart ceph-mon@$MONITOR_HOST_NAME

    For example:

    # systemctl restart ceph-mon@monitor1

Do the following steps on the Ceph iSCSI gateway node, as the root user, before proceeding to the Installing section:

  1. If the Ceph iSCSI gateway is not colocated on an OSD node, then copy the Ceph configuration files, located in /etc/ceph/, from a running Ceph node in the storage cluster to the iSCSI Gateway node. The Ceph configuration files must exist on the iSCSI gateway node under /etc/ceph/.
  2. Install and configure the Ceph command-line interface.For details, see the Installing the Ceph Command Line Interface chapter in the Red Hat Ceph Storage 3 Installation Guide for Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
  3. Enable the Ceph tools repository:

    # subscription-manager repos --enable=rhel-7-server-rhceph-3-tools-rpms
  4. If needed, open TCP ports 3260 and 5000 on the firewall.
  5. Create a new or use an existing RADOS Block Device (RBD).

    1. See Section 2.1, “Prerequisites” for more details.
Warning

If you already installed the Ceph iSCSI gateway using Ansible, then do not use this procedure.

Ansible will install the ceph-iscsi-cli package, create, and then update the /etc/ceph/iscsi-gateway.cfg file based on settings in the group_vars/iscsigws.yml file when the ansible-playbook command is ran. See Requirements: for more information.

Installing:

Do the following steps on all iSCSI gateway nodes, as the root user, unless otherwise noted.

  1. Install the ceph-iscsi-cli package:

    # yum install ceph-iscsi-cli
  2. Install the tcmu-runner package:

    # yum install tcmu-runner
  3. If needed, install the openssl package:

    # yum install openssl
    1. On the primary iSCSI gateway node, create a directory to hold the SSL keys:

      # mkdir ~/ssl-keys
      # cd ~/ssl-keys
    2. On the primary iSCSI gateway node, create the certificate and key files:

      # openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -nodes -keyout iscsi-gateway.key -x509 -days 365 -out iscsi-gateway.crt
      Note

      You will be prompted to enter the environmental information.

    3. On the primary iSCSI gateway node, create a PEM file:

      # cat iscsi-gateway.crt iscsi-gateway.key > iscsi-gateway.pem
    4. On the primary iSCSI gateway node, create a public key:

      # openssl x509 -inform pem -in iscsi-gateway.pem -pubkey -noout > iscsi-gateway-pub.key
    5. From the primary iSCSI gateway node, copy the iscsi-gateway.crt, iscsi-gateway.pem, iscsi-gateway-pub.key, and iscsi-gateway.key files to the /etc/ceph/ directory on the other iSCSI gateway nodes.
  4. Create a file named iscsi-gateway.cfg in the /etc/ceph/ directory:

    # touch /etc/ceph/iscsi-gateway.cfg
    1. Edit the iscsi-gateway.cfg file and add the following lines:

      Syntax

      [config]
      cluster_name = <ceph_cluster_name>
      gateway_keyring = <ceph_client_keyring>
      api_secure = true
      trusted_ip_list = <ip_addr>,<ip_addr>

      Example

      [config]
      cluster_name = ceph
      gateway_keyring = ceph.client.admin.keyring
      api_secure = true
      trusted_ip_list = 192.168.0.10,192.168.0.11

      See Tables 8.1 and 8.2 in the Requirements: for more details on these options.

      Important

      The iscsi-gateway.cfg file must be identical on all iSCSI gateway nodes.

    2. Copy the iscsi-gateway.cfg file to all iSCSI gateway nodes.
  5. Enable and start the API service:

    # systemctl enable rbd-target-api
    # systemctl start rbd-target-api

Configuring:

  1. Start the iSCSI gateway command-line interface:

    # gwcli
  2. Creating the iSCSI gateways using either IPv4 or IPv6 addresses:

    Syntax

    >/iscsi-target create iqn.2003-01.com.redhat.iscsi-gw:<target_name>
    > goto gateways
    > create <iscsi_gw_name> <IP_addr_of_gw>
    > create <iscsi_gw_name> <IP_addr_of_gw>

    Example

    >/iscsi-target create iqn.2003-01.com.redhat.iscsi-gw:ceph-igw
    > goto gateways
    > create ceph-gw-1 10.172.19.21
    > create ceph-gw-2 10.172.19.22

    Important

    You cannot use a mix of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.

  3. Adding a RADOS Block Device (RBD):

    Syntax

    > cd /disks
    >/disks/ create <pool_name> image=<image_name> size=<image_size>m|g|t max_data_area_mb=<buffer_size>

    Example

    > cd /disks
    >/disks/ create rbd image=disk_1 size=50g max_data_area_mb=32

    Important

    There can not be any periods (.) in the pool name or in the image name.

    Warning

    The max_data_area_mb option controls the amount of memory in megabytes that each image can use to pass SCSI command data between the iSCSI target and the Ceph cluster. If this value is too small, then it can result in excessive queue full retries which will affect performance. If the value is too large, then it can result in one disk using too much of the system’s memory, which can cause allocation failures for other subsystems. The default value is 8.

    This value can be changed using the reconfigure command. The image must not be in use by an iSCSI initiator for this command to take effect. Other options must NOT be adjusted using the reconfigure command, unless specified in this document or Red Hat Support has instructed you to do so.

    Syntax

    >/disks/ reconfigure max_data_area_mb <new_buffer_size>

    Example

    >/disks/ reconfigure max_data_area_mb 64

  4. Creating a client:

    Syntax

    > goto hosts
    > create iqn.1994-05.com.redhat:<client_name>
    > auth chap=<user_name>/<password>

    Example

    > goto hosts
    > create iqn.1994-05.com.redhat:rh7-client
    > auth chap=iscsiuser1/temp12345678

    Important

    Disabling CHAP is only supported on Red Hat Ceph Storage 3.1 or higher. Red Hat does not support mixing clients, some with CHAP enabled and some CHAP disabled. All clients must have either CHAP enabled or have CHAP disabled. The default behavior is to only authenticate an initiator by its initiator name.

    If initiators are failing to log into the target, then the CHAP authentication might be a misconfigured for some initiators.

    Example

    o- hosts ................................ [Hosts: 2: Auth: MISCONFIG]

    Do the following command at the hosts level to reset all the CHAP authentication:

    /> goto hosts
    /iscsi-target...csi-igw/hosts> auth nochap
    ok
    ok
    /iscsi-target...csi-igw/hosts> ls
    o- hosts ................................ [Hosts: 2: Auth: None]
      o- iqn.2005-03.com.ceph:esx ........... [Auth: None, Disks: 4(310G)]
      o- iqn.1994-05.com.redhat:rh7-client .. [Auth: None, Disks: 0(0.00Y)]
  5. Adding disks to a client:

    Syntax

    >/iscsi-target..eph-igw/hosts> cd iqn.1994-05.com.redhat:<client_name>
    > disk add <pool_name>.<image_name>

    Example

    >/iscsi-target..eph-igw/hosts> cd iqn.1994-05.com.redhat:rh7-client
    > disk add rbd.disk_1

  6. To confirm that the API is using SSL correctly, look in the /var/log/rbd-target-api.log file for https, for example:

    Aug 01 17:27:42 test-node.example.com python[1879]:  * Running on https://0.0.0.0:5000/
  7. The next step is to configure an iSCSI initiator. See Section 8.3, “Configuring the iSCSI Initiator” for more information on configuring an iSCSI initiator.

Verifying

  1. To verify if the iSCSI gateways are working:

    Example

    /> goto gateways
    /iscsi-target...-igw/gateways> ls
    o- gateways ............................ [Up: 2/2, Portals: 2]
      o- ceph-gw-1  ........................ [ 10.172.19.21 (UP)]
      o- ceph-gw-2  ........................ [ 10.172.19.22 (UP)]

    Note

    If the status is UNKNOWN, then check for network issues and any misconfigurations. If using a firewall, then check if the appropriate TCP port is open. Check if the iSCSI gateway is listed in the trusted_ip_list option. Verify that the rbd-target-api service is running on the iSCSI gateway node.

  2. To verify if the initiator is connecting to the iSCSI target, you will see the initiator LOGGED-IN:

    Example

    /> goto hosts
    /iscsi-target...csi-igw/hosts> ls
    o- hosts .............................. [Hosts: 1: Auth: None]
      o- iqn.1994-05.com.redhat:rh7-client  [LOGGED-IN, Auth: None, Disks: 0(0.00Y)]

  3. To verify if LUNs are balanced across iSCSI gateways:

    /> goto hosts
    /iscsi-target...csi-igw/hosts> ls
    o- hosts ................................. [Hosts: 2: Auth: None]
      o- iqn.2005-03.com.ceph:esx ............ [Auth: None, Disks: 4(310G)]
      | o- lun 0 ............................. [rbd.disk_1(100G), Owner: ceph-gw-1]
      | o- lun 1 ............................. [rbd.disk_2(10G), Owner: ceph-gw-2]

    When creating a disk, the disk will be assigned an iSCSI gateway as its Owner based on the initiator’s multipath layer. The initiator’s multipath layer will reported as being in ALUA Active-Optimized (AO) state. The other paths will be reported as being in the ALUA Active-non-Optimized (ANO) state.

    If the AO path fails one of the other iSCSI gateways will be used. The ordering for the failover gateway depends on the initiator’s multipath layer, where normally, the order is based on which path was discovered first.

    Currently, the balancing of LUNs is not dynamic. The owning iSCSI gateway is selected at disk creation time and is not changeable.

8.3. Configuring the iSCSI Initiator

Red Hat Ceph Storage supports iSCSI initiators on three operating systems for connecting to the Ceph iSCSI gateway:

8.3.1. The iSCSI Initiator for Red Hat Enterprise Linux

Prerequisite:

  • Package iscsi-initiator-utils-6.2.0.873-35 or newer must be installed
  • Package device-mapper-multipath-0.4.9-99 or newer must be installed

Installing the Software:

  1. Install the iSCSI initiator and multipath tools:

    # yum install iscsi-initiator-utils
    # yum install device-mapper-multipath

Setting the Initiator Name

  1. Edit the /etc/iscsi/initiatorname.iscsi file.

    Note

    The initiator name must match the initiator name used in the Ansible client_connections option or what was used during the initial setup using gwcli.

Configuring Multipath IO:

  1. Create the default /etc/multipath.conf file and enable the multipathd service:

    # mpathconf --enable --with_multipathd y
  2. Add the following to /etc/multipath.conf file:

    devices {
            device {
                    vendor                 "LIO-ORG"
                    hardware_handler       "1 alua"
                    path_grouping_policy   "failover"
                    path_selector          "queue-length 0"
                    failback               60
                    path_checker           tur
                    prio                   alua
                    prio_args              exclusive_pref_bit
                    fast_io_fail_tmo       25
                    no_path_retry          queue
            }
    }
  3. Restart the multipathd service:

    # systemctl reload multipathd

CHAP Setup and iSCSI Discovery/Login:

  1. Provide a CHAP username and password by updating the /etc/iscsi/iscsid.conf file accordingly.

    Example

    node.session.auth.authmethod = CHAP
    node.session.auth.username = user
    node.session.auth.password = password

    Note

    If you update these options, then you must rerun the iscsiadm discovery command.

  2. Discover the target portals:

    # iscsiadm -m discovery -t st -p 192.168.56.101
    192.168.56.101:3260,1 iqn.2003-01.org.linux-iscsi.rheln1
    192.168.56.102:3260,2 iqn.2003-01.org.linux-iscsi.rheln1
  3. Login to target:

    # iscsiadm -m node -T iqn.2003-01.org.linux-iscsi.rheln1 -l

Viewing the Multipath IO Configuration:

The multipath daemon (multipathd), will set up devices automatically based on the multipath.conf settings. Running the multipath command show devices setup in a failover configuration with a priority group for each path, for example:

# multipath -ll
mpathbt (360014059ca317516a69465c883a29603) dm-1 LIO-ORG ,IBLOCK
size=1.0G features='0' hwhandler='1 alua' wp=rw
|-+- policy='queue-length 0' prio=50 status=active
| `- 28:0:0:1 sde  8:64  active ready running
`-+- policy='queue-length 0' prio=10 status=enabled
  `- 29:0:0:1 sdc  8:32  active ready running

The multipath -ll output prio value indicates the ALUA state, where prio=50 indicates it is the path to the owning iSCSI gateway in the ALUA Active-Optimized state and prio=10 indicates it is an Active-non-Optmized path. The status field indicates which path is being used, where active indicates the currently used path, and enabled indicates the failover path, if the active fails. To match the device name, for example, sde in the multipath -ll output, to the iSCSI gateway run the following command:

# iscsiadm -m session -P 3

The Persistent Portal value is the IP address assigned to the iSCSI gateway listed in gwcli or the IP address of one of the iSCSI gateways listed in the gateway_ip_list, if Ansible was used.

8.3.2. The iSCSI Initiator for Red Hat Virtualization

Prerequisite:

  • Red Hat Virtualization 4.1
  • Configured MPIO devices on all Red Hat Virtualization nodes
  • Package iscsi-initiator-utils-6.2.0.873-35 or newer must be installed
  • Package device-mapper-multipath-0.4.9-99 or newer must be installed

Adding iSCSI Storage

  1. Click the Storage resource tab to list the existing storage domains.
  2. Click the New Domain button to open the New Domain window.
  3. Enter the Name of the new storage domain.
  4. Use the Data Center drop-down menu to select an data center.
  5. Use the drop-down menus to select the Domain Function and the Storage Type. The storage domain types that are not compatible with the chosen domain function are not available.
  6. Select an active host in the Use Host field. If this is not the first data domain in a data center, you must select the data center’s SPM host.
  7. The New Domain window automatically displays known targets with unused LUNs when iSCSI is selected as the storage type. If the target that you are adding storage from is not listed then you can use target discovery to find it, otherwise proceed to the next step.

    1. Click Discover Targets to enable target discovery options. When targets have been discovered and logged in to, the New Domain window automatically displays targets with LUNs unused by the environment.

      Note

      LUNs external to the environment are also displayed.

      You can use the Discover Targets options to add LUNs on many targets, or multiple paths to the same LUNs.

    2. Enter the fully qualified domain name or IP address of the iSCSI host in the Address field.
    3. Enter the port to connect to the host on when browsing for targets in the Port field. The default is 3260.
    4. If the Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) is being used to secure the storage, select the User Authentication check box. Enter the CHAP user name and CHAP password.
    5. Click the Discover button.
    6. Select the target to use from the discovery results and click the Login button. Alternatively, click the Login All to log in to all of the discovered targets.

      Important

      If more than one path access is required, ensure to discover and log in to the target through all the required paths. Modifying a storage domain to add additional paths is currently not supported.

  8. Click the + button next to the desired target. This will expand the entry and display all unused LUNs attached to the target.
  9. Select the check box for each LUN that you are using to create the storage domain.
  10. Optionally, you can configure the advanced parameters.

    1. Click Advanced Parameters.
    2. Enter a percentage value into the Warning Low Space Indicator field. If the free space available on the storage domain is below this percentage, warning messages are displayed to the user and logged.
    3. Enter a GB value into the Critical Space Action Blocker field. If the free space available on the storage domain is below this value, error messages are displayed to the user and logged, and any new action that consumes space, even temporarily, will be blocked.
    4. Select the Wipe After Delete check box to enable the wipe after delete option. This option can be edited after the domain is created, but doing so will not change the wipe after delete property of disks that already exist.
    5. Select the Discard After Delete check box to enable the discard after delete option. This option can be edited after the domain is created. This option is only available to block storage domains.
  11. Click OK to create the storage domain and close the window.

8.3.3. The iSCSI Initiator for Microsoft Windows

Prerequisite:

  • Microsoft Windows Server 2016

iSCSI Initiator, Discovery and Setup:

  1. Install the iSCSI initiator driver and MPIO tools.
  2. Launch the MPIO program, click on the Discover Multi-Paths tab, check the Add support for iSCSI devices box, and click Add. This change will require a reboot.
  3. On the iSCSI Initiator Properties window, on the Discovery tab 1 , add a target portal. Enter the IP address or DNS name 2 and Port 3 of the Ceph iSCSI gateway:

    iscsi discovery tab mod
  4. On the Targets tab 1 , select the target and click on Connect 2 :

    iscsi target tab mod
  5. On the Connect To Target window, select the Enable multi-path option 1 , and click the Advanced button 2 :

    iscsi connect to target mod
  6. Under the Connect using section, select a Target portal IP 1 . Select the Enable CHAP login on 2 and enter the Name and Target secret values 3 from the Ceph iSCSI Ansible client credentials section, and click OK 4 :

    iscsi advanced window mod
    Important

    Windows Server 2016 does not accept a CHAP secret less than 12 bytes.

  7. Repeat steps 5 and 6 for each target portal defined when setting up the iSCSI gateway.
  8. If the initiator name is different than the initiator name used during the initial setup, then rename the initiator name. From iSCSI Initiator Properties window, on the Configuration tab 1 , click the Change button 2 to rename the initiator name.

    iscsi windows initiator properties mod

Multipath IO Setup:

Configuring the MPIO load balancing policy, setting the timeout and retry options are using PowerShell with the mpclaim command. The iSCSI Initiator tool configures the remaining options.

Note

Red Hat recommends increasing the PDORemovePeriod option to 120 seconds from PowerShell. This value might need to be adjusted based on the application. When all paths are down, and 120 seconds expires, the operating system will start failing IO requests.

Set-MPIOSetting -NewPDORemovePeriod 120
  1. Set the failover policy
mpclaim.exe -l -m 1
  1. Verify the failover policy
mpclaim -s -m
MSDSM-wide Load Balance Policy: Fail Over Only
  1. Using the iSCSI Initiator tool, from the Targets tab 1 click on the Devices…​ button 2 :

    iscsi target tab2 mod
  2. From the Devices window, select a disk 1 and click the MPIO…​ button 2 :

    iscsi devices mpio mod
  3. On the Device Details window the paths to each target portal is displayed. If using the ceph-ansible setup method, the iSCSI gateway will use ALUA to tell the iSCSI initiator which path and iSCSI gateway should be used as the primary path. The Load Balancing Policy Fail Over Only must be selected

    mpio set failover only mod
  4. From PowerShell, to view the multipath configuration
mpclaim -s -d $MPIO_DISK_ID

+ Replace $MPIO_DISK_ID with the appropriate disk identifier.

Note

There will be one Active/Optimized path which is the path to the iSCSI gateway node that owns the LUN, and there will be an Active/Unoptimized path for each other iSCSI gateway node.

mpclaim output mod

Tuning:

Consider using the following registry settings:

  • Windows Disk Timeout

    Key

    HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\Disk

    Value

    TimeOutValue = 65

  • Microsoft iSCSI Initiator Driver

    Key

    HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Class\{4D36E97B-E325-11CE-BFC1-08002BE10318}\<Instance_Number>\Parameters

    Values

    LinkDownTime = 25
    SRBTimeoutDelta = 15

8.3.4. The iSCSI Initiator for VMware ESX vSphere Web Client

Prerequisite:

  • VMware ESX 6.5 or later using Virtual Machine compatibility 6.5 with VMFS 6
  • Access to the vSphere Web Client
  • Root access to VMware ESX host to execute the esxcli command

iSCSI Discovery and Multipath Device Setup:

  1. Disable HardwareAcceleratedMove (XCOPY):

    # esxcli system settings advanced set --int-value 0 --option /DataMover/HardwareAcceleratedMove
  2. Enable the iSCSI software. From Navigator pane, click on Storage 1 . Select the Adapters tab 2 . Click on Confgure iSCSI 3 :

    esx web client storage main mod
  3. Verify the initiator name in the Name & alias section 1 .

    esx web client config iscsi main mod step2
    Note

    If the initiator name is different than the initiator name used when creating the client during the initial setup using gwcli or if the initiator name used in the Ansible client_connections: client variable is different, then follow this procedure to change the initiator name. From the VMware ESX host, run these esxcli commands.

    1. Get the adapter name for the iSCSI software:

      > esxcli iscsi adapter list
      > Adapter  Driver     State   UID            Description
      > -------  ---------  ------  -------------  ----------------------
      > vmhba64  iscsi_vmk  online  iscsi.vmhba64  iSCSI Software Adapter
    2. Set the initiator name:

      Syntax

      > esxcli iscsi adapter set -A <adaptor_name> -n <initiator_name>

      Example

      > esxcli iscsi adapter set -A vmhba64 -n iqn.1994-05.com.redhat:rh7-client

  4. Configure CHAP. Expand the CHAP authentication section 1 . Select “Do not use CHAP unless required by target” 2 . Enter the CHAP Name and Secret 3 credentials that were used in the initial setup, whether using the gwcli auth command or the Ansible client_connections: credentials variable. Verify the Mutual CHAP authentication section 4 has “Do not use CHAP” selected.

    esx web client chap mod step3
    Warning

    There is a bug in the vSphere Web Client where the CHAP settings are not used initially. On the Ceph iSCSI gateway node, in kernel logs, you will see the following errors as an indication of this bug:

    > kernel: CHAP user or password not set for Initiator ACL
    > kernel: Security negotiation failed.
    > kernel: iSCSI Login negotiation failed.

    To workaround this bug, configure the CHAP settings using the esxcli command. The authname argument is the Name in the vSphere Web Client:

    > esxcli iscsi adapter auth chap set --direction=uni --authname=myiscsiusername --secret=myiscsipassword --level=discouraged -A vmhba64
  5. Configure the iSCSI settings. Expand Advanced settings 1 . Set the RecoveryTimeout value to 25 2 .

    esx web client iscsi recovery timeout mod step4
  6. Set the discovery address. In the Dynamic targets section 1 , click Add dynamic target 2 . Under Address 3 add an IP addresses for one of the Ceph iSCSI gateways. Only one IP address needs to be added. Finally, click the Save configuration button 4 . From the main interface, on the Devices tab, you will see the RBD image.

    esx web client config iscsi main mod step5
    Note

    Configuring the LUN will be done automatically, using the ALUA SATP and MRU PSP. Other SATPs and PSPs must not be used. This can be verified with the esxcli command:

    esxcli storage nmp path list -d eui.$DEVICE_ID

    Replace $DEVICE_ID with the appropriate device identifier.

  7. Verify that multipathing has been setup correctly.

    1. List the devices:

      Example

      # esxcli storage nmp device list | grep iSCSI
         Device Display Name: LIO-ORG iSCSI Disk (naa.6001405f8d087846e7b4f0e9e3acd44b)
         Device Display Name: LIO-ORG iSCSI Disk (naa.6001405057360ba9b4c434daa3c6770c)

    2. Get the multipath information for the Ceph iSCSI disk from the previous step:

      Example

      # esxcli storage nmp path list -d naa.6001405f8d087846e7b4f0e9e3acd44b
      
      iqn.2005-03.com.ceph:esx1-00023d000001,iqn.2003-01.com.redhat.iscsi-gw:iscsi-igw,t,1-naa.6001405f8d087846e7b4f0e9e3acd44b
         Runtime Name: vmhba64:C0:T0:L0
         Device: naa.6001405f8d087846e7b4f0e9e3acd44b
         Device Display Name: LIO-ORG iSCSI Disk (naa.6001405f8d087846e7b4f0e9e3acd44b)
         Group State: active
         Array Priority: 0
         Storage Array Type Path Config: {TPG_id=1,TPG_state=AO,RTP_id=1,RTP_health=UP}
         Path Selection Policy Path Config: {current path; rank: 0}
      
      iqn.2005-03.com.ceph:esx1-00023d000002,iqn.2003-01.com.redhat.iscsi-gw:iscsi-igw,t,2-naa.6001405f8d087846e7b4f0e9e3acd44b
         Runtime Name: vmhba64:C1:T0:L0
         Device: naa.6001405f8d087846e7b4f0e9e3acd44b
         Device Display Name: LIO-ORG iSCSI Disk (naa.6001405f8d087846e7b4f0e9e3acd44b)
         Group State: active unoptimized
         Array Priority: 0
         Storage Array Type Path Config: {TPG_id=2,TPG_state=ANO,RTP_id=2,RTP_health=UP}
         Path Selection Policy Path Config: {non-current path; rank: 0}

      From the example output, each path has an iSCSI/SCSI name with the following parts:

      Initiator name = iqn.2005-03.com.ceph:esx1 ISID = 00023d000002 Target name = iqn.2003-01.com.redhat.iscsi-gw:iscsi-igw Target port group = 2 Device id = naa.6001405f8d087846e7b4f0e9e3acd44b

      The Group State value of active indicates this is the Active-Optimized path to the iSCSI gateway. The gwcli command lists the active as the iSCSI gateway owner. The rest of the paths will have the Group State value of unoptimized and will be the failover path, if the active path goes into a dead state.

  8. To match all paths to their respective iSCSI gateways, run the following command:

    # esxcli iscsi session connection list

    Example output

    vmhba64,iqn.2003-01.com.redhat.iscsi-gw:iscsi-igw,00023d000001,0
       Adapter: vmhba64
       Target: iqn.2003-01.com.redhat.iscsi-gw:iscsi-igw
       ISID: 00023d000001
       CID: 0
       DataDigest: NONE
       HeaderDigest: NONE
       IFMarker: false
       IFMarkerInterval: 0
       MaxRecvDataSegmentLength: 131072
       MaxTransmitDataSegmentLength: 262144
       OFMarker: false
       OFMarkerInterval: 0
       ConnectionAddress: 10.172.19.21
       RemoteAddress: 10.172.19.21
       LocalAddress: 10.172.19.11
       SessionCreateTime: 08/16/18 04:20:06
       ConnectionCreateTime: 08/16/18 04:20:06
       ConnectionStartTime: 08/16/18 04:30:45
       State: logged_in
    
    vmhba64,iqn.2003-01.com.redhat.iscsi-gw:iscsi-igw,00023d000002,0
       Adapter: vmhba64
       Target: iqn.2003-01.com.redhat.iscsi-gw:iscsi-igw
       ISID: 00023d000002
       CID: 0
       DataDigest: NONE
       HeaderDigest: NONE
       IFMarker: false
       IFMarkerInterval: 0
       MaxRecvDataSegmentLength: 131072
       MaxTransmitDataSegmentLength: 262144
       OFMarker: false
       OFMarkerInterval: 0
       ConnectionAddress: 10.172.19.22
       RemoteAddress: 10.172.19.22
       LocalAddress: 10.172.19.12
       SessionCreateTime: 08/16/18 04:20:06
       ConnectionCreateTime: 08/16/18 04:20:06
       ConnectionStartTime: 08/16/18 04:30:41
       State: logged_in

    Match the path name with the ISID value, and the RemoteAddress value is the IP address of the owning iSCSI gateway.

8.4. Upgrading the Ceph iSCSI gateway using Ansible

Upgrading the Red Hat Ceph Storage iSCSI gateways can be done by using an Ansible playbook designed for rolling upgrades.

Prerequisites

  • A running Ceph iSCSI gateway.
  • A running Red Hat Ceph Storage cluster.

Procedure

  1. Verify the correct iSCSI gateway nodes are listed in the Ansible inventory file (/etc/ansible/hosts).
  2. Run the rolling upgrade playbook:

    [admin@ansible ~]$ ansible-playbook rolling_update.yml
  3. Run the site playbook to finish the upgrade:

    [admin@ansible ~]$ ansible-playbook site.yml --limit iscsigws

8.5. Upgrading the Ceph iSCSI gateway using the command-line interface

Upgrading the Red Hat Ceph Storage iSCSI gateways can be done in a rolling fashion, by upgrading one iSCSI gateway node at a time.

Warning

Do not upgrade the iSCSI gateway while upgrading and restarting Ceph OSDs. Wait until the OSD upgrades are finished and the storage cluster is in an active+clean state.

Prerequisites

  • A running Ceph iSCSI gateway.
  • A running Red Hat Ceph Storage cluster.
  • Having root access to the iSCSI gateway node.

Procedure

  1. Update the iSCSI gateway packages:

    [root@igw ~]# yum update ceph-iscsi-config ceph-iscsi-cli
  2. Stop the iSCSI gateway daemons:

    [root@igw ~]# systemctl stop rbd-target-api
    [root@igw ~]# systemctl stop rbd-target-gw
  3. Verify that the iSCSI gateway daemons stopped cleanly:

    [root@igw ~]# systemctl status rbd-target-gw
    1. If the rbd-target-gw service successfully stops, then skip to step 4.
    2. If the rbd-target-gw service fails to stop, then do the following steps:

      1. If the targetcli package is not install, then install the targetcli package:

        [root@igw ~]# yum install targetcli
      2. Check for existing target objects:

        [root@igw ~]# targetlci ls

        Example output

        o- / ............................................................. [...]
        o- backstores .................................................... [...]
        | o- user:rbd ..................................... [Storage Objects: 0]
        o- iscsi .................................................. [Targets: 0]

        If the backstores and Storage Objects are empty, then the iSCSI target has been shutdown cleanly and you can skip to step 4.

      3. If you have still have target objects, then run the following command to force remove all target objects:

        [root@igw ~]# targetlci clearconfig confirm=True
        Warning

        If multiple services are using the iSCSI target, then run targetcli in interactive mode to delete those specific objects.

  4. Update the tcmu-runner package:

    [root@igw ~]# yum update tcmu-runner
  5. Stop the tcmu-runner service:

    [root@igw ~]# systemctl stop tcmu-runner
  6. Restart the all the iSCSI gateway service in this order:

    [root@igw ~]# systemctl start tcmu-runner
    [root@igw ~]# systemctl start rbd-target-gw
    [root@igw ~]# systemctl start rbd-target-api

8.6. Monitoring the iSCSI gateways

Red Hat provides an additional tool for Ceph iSCSI gateway environments to monitor performance of exported RADOS Block Device (RBD) images.

The gwtop tool is a top-like tool that displays aggregated performance metrics of RBD images that are exported to clients over iSCSI. The metrics are sourced from a Performance Metrics Domain Agent (PMDA). Information from the Linux-IO target (LIO) PMDA is used to list each exported RBD image with the connected client and its associated I/O metrics.

Requirements:

  • A running Ceph iSCSI gateway

Installing:

Do the following steps on the iSCSI gateway nodes, as the root user.

  1. Enable the Ceph tools repository:

    # subscription-manager repos --enable=rhel-7-server-rhceph-3-tools-rpms
  2. Install the ceph-iscsi-tools package:

    # yum install ceph-iscsi-tools
  3. Install the performance co-pilot package:

    # yum install pcp
    Note

    For more details on performance co-pilot, see the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Performance Tuning Guide.

  4. Install the LIO PMDA package:

    # yum install pcp-pmda-lio
  5. Enable and start the performance co-pilot service:

    # systemctl enable pmcd
    # systemctl start pmcd
  6. Register the pcp-pmda-lio agent:

    cd /var/lib/pcp/pmdas/lio
    ./Install

By default, gwtop assumes the iSCSI gateway configuration object is stored in a RADOS object called gateway.conf in the rbd pool. This configuration defines the iSCSI gateways to contact for gathering the performance statistics. This can be overridden by using either the -g or -c flags. See gwtop --help for more details.

The LIO configuration determines which type of performance statistics to extract from performance co-pilot. When gwtop starts it looks at the LIO configuration, and if it find user-space disks, then gwtop selects the LIO collector automatically.

Example gwtop Outputs:

For user backed storage (TCMU) devices:

gwtop  2/2 Gateways   CPU% MIN:  4 MAX:  5    Network Total In:    2M  Out:    3M   10:20:00
Capacity:   8G    Disks:   8   IOPS:  503   Clients:  1   Ceph: HEALTH_OK          OSDs:   3
Pool.Image       Src    Size     iops     rMB/s     wMB/s   Client
iscsi.t1703             500M        0      0.00      0.00
iscsi.testme1           500M        0      0.00      0.00
iscsi.testme2           500M        0      0.00      0.00
iscsi.testme3           500M        0      0.00      0.00
iscsi.testme5           500M        0      0.00      0.00
rbd.myhost_1      T       4G      504      1.95      0.00   rh460p(CON)
rbd.test_2                1G        0      0.00      0.00
rbd.testme              500M        0      0.00      0.00

In the Client column, (CON) means the iSCSI initiator (client) is currently logged into the iSCSI gateway. If -multi- is displayed, then multiple clients are mapped to the single RBD image.

Warning

Red Hat does not support mapping a single RBD image to multiple iSCSI initiators (clients).

Appendix A. Sample iscsigws.yml File

# Variables here are applicable to all host groups NOT roles

# This sample file generated by generate_group_vars_sample.sh

# Dummy variable to avoid error because ansible does not recognize the
# file as a good configuration file when no variable in it.
dummy:

# You can override vars by using host or group vars

###########
# GENERAL #
###########
# Specify the iqn for ALL gateways. This iqn is shared across the gateways, so an iscsi
# client sees the gateway group as a single storage subsystem.
#gateway_iqn: "iqn.2003-01.com.redhat.iscsi-gw:ceph-igw"

# gateway_ip_list provides a list of the IP Addrresses - one per gateway - that will be used
# as an iscsi target portal ip. The list must be comma separated - and the order determines
# the sequence of TPG's within the iscsi target across each gateway. Once set, additional
# gateways can be added, but the order must *not* be changed.
#gateway_ip_list: 0.0.0.0

# rbd_devices defines the images that should be created and exported from the iscsi gateways.
# If the rbd does not exist, it will be created for you. In addition you may increase the
# size of rbd's by changing the size parameter and rerunning the playbook. A size value lower
# than the current size of the rbd is ignored.
#
# the 'host' parameter defines which of the gateway nodes should handle the physical
# allocation/expansion or removal of the rbd
# to remove an image, simply use a state of 'absent'. This will first check the rbd is not allocated
# to any client, and the remove it from LIO and then delete the rbd image
#
# NB. this variable definition can be commented out to bypass LUN management
#
# Example:
#
#rbd_devices:
#  - { pool: 'rbd', image: 'ansible1', size: '30G', host: 'ceph-1', state: 'present' }
#  - { pool: 'rbd', image: 'ansible2', size: '15G', host: 'ceph-1', state: 'present' }
#  - { pool: 'rbd', image: 'ansible3', size: '30G', host: 'ceph-1', state: 'present' }
#  - { pool: 'rbd', image: 'ansible4', size: '50G', host: 'ceph-1', state: 'present' }
#rbd_devices: {}

# client_connections defines the client ACL's to restrict client access to specific LUNs
# The settings are as follows;
# - image_list is a comma separated list of rbd images of the form <pool name>.<rbd_image_name>
# - chap supplies the user and password the client will use for authentication of the
#   form <user>/<password>
# - status shows the intended state of this client definition - 'present' or 'absent'
#
# NB. this definition can be commented out to skip client (nodeACL) management
#
# Example:
#
#client_connections:
#  - { client: 'iqn.1994-05.com.redhat:rh7-iscsi-client', image_list: 'rbd.ansible1,rbd.ansible2', chap: 'rh7-iscsi-client/redhat', status: 'present' }
#  - { client: 'iqn.1991-05.com.microsoft:w2k12r2', image_list: 'rbd.ansible4', chap: 'w2k12r2/microsoft_w2k12', status: 'absent' }

#client_connections: {}


# Whether or not to generate secure certificate to iSCSI gateway nodes
#generate_crt: False


##################
# RBD-TARGET-API #
##################
# Optional settings related to the CLI/API service
#api_user: admin
#api_password: admin
#api_port: 5000
#api_secure: false
#loop_delay: 1
#trusted_ip_list: 192.168.122.1


##########
# DOCKER #
##########

# Resource limitation
# For the whole list of limits you can apply see: docs.docker.com/engine/admin/resource_constraints
# Default values are based from: https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_ceph_storage/2/html/red_hat_ceph_storage_hardware_guide/minimum_recommendations
# These options can be passed using the 'ceph_mds_docker_extra_env' variable.

# TCMU_RUNNER resource limitation
#ceph_tcmu_runner_docker_memory_limit: 1g
#ceph_tcmu_runner_docker_cpu_limit: 1

# RBD_TARGET_GW resource limitation
#ceph_rbd_target_gw_docker_memory_limit: 1g
#ceph_rbd_target_gw_docker_cpu_limit: 1

# RBD_TARGET_API resource limitation
#ceph_rbd_target_api_docker_memory_limit: 1g
#ceph_rbd_target_api_docker_cpu_limit: 1

Legal Notice

Copyright © 2018 Red Hat, Inc.
The text of and illustrations in this document are licensed by Red Hat under a Creative Commons Attribution–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license ("CC-BY-SA"). An explanation of CC-BY-SA is available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/. In accordance with CC-BY-SA, if you distribute this document or an adaptation of it, you must provide the URL for the original version.
Red Hat, as the licensor of this document, waives the right to enforce, and agrees not to assert, Section 4d of CC-BY-SA to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law.
Red Hat, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the Shadowman logo, JBoss, OpenShift, Fedora, the Infinity logo, and RHCE are trademarks of Red Hat, Inc., registered in the United States and other countries.
Linux® is the registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States and other countries.
Java® is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates.
XFS® is a trademark of Silicon Graphics International Corp. or its subsidiaries in the United States and/or other countries.
MySQL® is a registered trademark of MySQL AB in the United States, the European Union and other countries.
Node.js® is an official trademark of Joyent. Red Hat Software Collections is not formally related to or endorsed by the official Joyent Node.js open source or commercial project.
The OpenStack® Word Mark and OpenStack logo are either registered trademarks/service marks or trademarks/service marks of the OpenStack Foundation, in the United States and other countries and are used with the OpenStack Foundation's permission. We are not affiliated with, endorsed or sponsored by the OpenStack Foundation, or the OpenStack community.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.