Chapter 2. Configuration

2.1. Changing Your Default Port

Civetweb runs on port 7480 by default. To change the default port (e.g,. to port 80), modify your Ceph configuration file in /etc/ceph directory of your administration server. Add a section entitled [client.rgw.<gateway-node>], replacing <gateway-node> with the short node name of your Ceph Object Gateway node (i.e., hostname -s).

Note

In version 1.3, the Ceph Object Gateway does not support SSL. You may setup a reverse proxy web server with SSL to dispatch HTTPS requests as HTTP requests to CivetWeb.

For example, if your node name is gateway-node1, add a section like this after the [global] section in /etc/ceph/ceph.conf file:

[client.rgw.gateway-node1]
rgw_frontends = "civetweb port=80"
Note

Ensure that you leave no whitespace between port=<port-number> in the rgw_frontends key/value pair. The [client.rgw.gateway-node1] heading identifies this portion of the Ceph configuration file as configuring a Ceph Storage Cluster client where the client type is a Ceph Object Gateway (i.e., rgw), and the name of the instance is gateway-node1.

Copy the updated configuration file from /etc/ceph directory to the working directory of your administration server.

# scp /etc/ceph/ceph.conf <admin-server>:/etc/ceph

Then, copy the updated configuration file to your Ceph Object Gateway node and other Ceph nodes. From the working directory of your administration server, execute:

# ssh <admin-server>
# scp /etc/ceph/ceph.conf <ceph-node>:/etc/ceph

To make the new port setting take effect, from your Ceph Object Gateway node, restart the Ceph Object Gateway.

$ sudo service radosgw restart id=rgw.<short-hostname>

Finally, check to ensure that the port you selected is open on the node’s firewall (e.g., port 80). If it is not open, add the port and reload the firewall configuration. For example, on your Ceph Object Gateway node, execute:

$ sudo iptables --list
$ sudo iptables -I INPUT 1 -i <iface> -p tcp -s <ip-address>/<netmask> --dport 80 -j ACCEPT

Replace <iface> and <ip-address>/<netmask> with the relevant values for your Ceph Object Gateway node.

Once you have finished configuring iptables, ensure that you make the change persistent so that it will be in effect when your Ceph Object Gateway node reboots.

Execute:

$ sudo apt-get install iptables-persistent

A terminal UI will open up. Select yes for the prompts to save current IPv4 iptables rules to /etc/iptables/rules.v4 and current IPv6 iptables rules to /etc/iptables/rules.v6.

The IPv4 iptables rule that you set in the earlier step will be loaded in /etc/iptables/rules.v4 and will be persistent across reboots.

If you add a new IPv4 iptables rule after installing iptables-persistent you will have to add it to the rule file. In such case, execute the following as a root user:

$ iptables-save > /etc/iptables/rules.v4

2.2. Migrating from Apache to Civetweb

If you’re running the Ceph Object Gateway on Apache and FastCGI with Red Hat Ceph Storage v1.2.x or above, you’re already running Civetweb—​it starts with the ceph-radosgw daemon and it’s running on port 7480 by default so that it doesn’t conflict with your Apache and FastCGI installation and other commonly used web service ports. Migrating to use Civetweb basically involves removing your Apache installation. Then, you must remove Apache and FastCGI settings from your Ceph configuration file and reset rgw_frontends to Civetweb.

Referring to the documentation for installing a Ceph Object Gateway notice that the configuration file has an rgw_frontends setting, which enables you to specify civetweb as a front end and change its port. Since you already have keys and a data directory, you will want to maintain those paths in your Ceph configuration file if you used something other than default paths.

A typical Ceph Object Gateway configuration file for an Apache-based deployment looks something like this:

[client.rgw.gateway-node1]
host = {hostname}
keyring = /etc/ceph/ceph.client.radosgw.keyring
rgw socket path = ""
log file = /var/log/radosgw/client.radosgw.gateway-node1.log
rgw frontends = fastcgi socket_port=9000 socket_host=0.0.0.0
rgw print continue = false

To modify it for use with Civetweb, simply remove the Apache-specific settings such as rgw_socket_path and rgw_print_continue. Then, change the rgw_frontends setting to reflect Civetweb rather than the Apache FastCGI front end and specify the port number you intend to use. For example:

[client.rgw.gateway-node1]
host = {hostname}
keyring = /etc/ceph/ceph.client.radosgw.keyring
log file = /var/log/radosgw/client.radosgw.gateway-node1.log
rgw_frontends = civetweb port=80

Finally, on your Ceph Object Gateway execute the following to restart the Ceph Object Gateway:

$ sudo service radosgw restart id=rgw.<short-hostname>

If you used a port number that is not open, you will also need to open that port on your firewall.

2.3. Using SSL with Civetweb

In previous versions, Civetweb SSL support for the Ceph Object Gateway relied on HAProxy and keepalived. In Red Hat Ceph Storage 2, Civetweb can use the OpenSSL library to provide Transport Layer Security (TLS).

Important

Production deployments MUST use HAProxy and keepalived to terminate the SSL connection at HAProxy. Using SSL with Civetweb is recommended ONLY for small-to-medium sized test and pre-production deployments.

To use SSL with Civetweb, obtain a certificate from a Certificate Authority (CA) that matches the hostname of the gateway node. Red Hat recommends obtaining a certificate from a CA that has subject alternate name fields and a wildcard for use with S3-style subdomains.

Civetweb requires the key, server certificate and any other certificate authority or intermediate certificate in a single .pem file.

Important

A .pem file contains the secret key. Protect the .pem file from unauthorized access.

To configure a port for SSL, add the port number to rgw_frontends and append an s to the port number. Additionally, add ssl_certificate with a path to the .pem file. For example:

[client.rgw.{hostname}]
rgw_frontends = "civetweb port=443s ssl_certificate=/etc/ceph/private/server.pem"

2.4. Civetweb Configuration Options

The following Civetweb configuration options can be passed to the embedded web server in the Ceph configuration file for the RADOS Gateway. Each option has a default value and if a value is not specified, then the default value is empty.

OptionDescriptionDefault

access_log_file

Path to a file for access logs. Either full path, or relative to the current working directory. If absent (default), then accesses are not logged.

EMPTY

error_log_file

Path to a file for error logs. Either full path, or relative to the current working directory. If absent (default), then errors are not logged.

EMPTY

num_threads

Number of worker threads. Civetweb handles each incoming connection in a separate thread. Therefore, the value of this option is effectively the number of concurrent HTTP connections Civetweb can handle.

50

request_timeout_ms

Timeout for network read and network write operations, in milliseconds. If a client intends to keep long-running connection, either increase this value or (better) use keep-alive messages.

30000

The following is an example of the /etc/ceph/ceph.conf file with some of these options set:

...

[client.rgw.node1]
rgw frontends = civetweb request_timeout_ms=30000 error_log_file=/var/log/radosgw/civetweb.error.log access_log_file=/var/log/radosgw/civetweb.access.log

2.5. Adding a Wildcard to DNS

To use Ceph with S3-style subdomains, for example bucket-name.domain-name.com, add a wildcard to the DNS record of the DNS server the ceph-radosgw daemon uses to resolve domain names.

For dnsmasq, add the following address setting with a dot (.) prepended to the host name:

address=/.{hostname-or-fqdn}/{host-ip-address}

For example:

address=/.gateway-node1/192.168.122.75

For bind, add a wildcard to the DNS record. For example:

$TTL    604800
@       IN      SOA     gateway-node1. root.gateway-node1. (
                              2         ; Serial
                         604800         ; Refresh
                          86400         ; Retry
                        2419200         ; Expire
                         604800 )       ; Negative Cache TTL
;
@       IN      NS      gateway-node1.
@       IN      A       192.168.122.113
*       IN      CNAME   @

Restart your DNS server and ping your server with a subdomain to ensure that the ceph-radosgw daemon can process the subdomain requests:

ping mybucket.{hostname}

For example:

ping mybucket.gateway-node1

If the DNS server is on the local machine, you may need to modify /etc/resolv.conf by adding a nameserver entry for the local machine.

Finally, specify the host name or address of the DNS server in the appropriate [client.rgw.{instance}] section of the Ceph configuration file using the rgw_dns_name = {hostname} setting. For example:

[client.rgw.rgw1]
...
rgw_dns_name = {hostname}
Note

As a best practice, make changes to the Ceph configuration file at a centralized location such as an admin node or ceph-ansible and redistribute the configuration file as necessary to ensure consistency across the cluster.

Finally, restart the Ceph object gateway so that DNS setting takes effect.

2.6. Adjusting Logging and Debugging Output

Once you finish the setup procedure, check your logging output to ensure it meets your needs. Log files are located in /var/log/radosgw by default. If you encounter issues with your configuration, you can increase logging and debugging messages in the [global] section of your Ceph configuration file and restart the gateway(s) to help troubleshoot any configuration issues. For example:

[global]
#append the following in the global section.
debug ms = 1
debug rgw = 20
debug civetweb = 20

You may also modify these settings at runtime. For example:

ceph tell osd.0 injectargs --debug_civetweb 10/20

For general details on logging and debugging, see Logging and Debugging. For Ceph Object Gateway-specific details on logging settings, see Logging Settings in this guide.

2.7. Testing the Object Gateway

To use the REST interfaces, first create an initial Ceph Object Gateway user for the S3 interface. Then, create a subuser for the Swift interface. You then need to verify if the created users are able to access the gateway.

2.7.1. Creating a radosgw User for S3 Access

A radosgw user needs to be created and granted access. The command man radosgw-admin will provide information on additional command options.

To create the user, execute the following on the gateway host:

sudo radosgw-admin user create --uid="testuser" --display-name="First User"

The output of the command will be something like the following:

{
	"user_id": "testuser",
	"display_name": "First User",
	"email": "",
	"suspended": 0,
	"max_buckets": 1000,
	"auid": 0,
	"subusers": [],
	"keys": [{
		"user": "testuser",
		"access_key": "I0PJDPCIYZ665MW88W9R",
		"secret_key": "dxaXZ8U90SXydYzyS5ivamEP20hkLSUViiaR+ZDA"
	}],
	"swift_keys": [],
	"caps": [],
	"op_mask": "read, write, delete",
	"default_placement": "",
	"placement_tags": [],
	"bucket_quota": {
		"enabled": false,
		"max_size_kb": -1,
		"max_objects": -1
	},
	"user_quota": {
		"enabled": false,
		"max_size_kb": -1,
		"max_objects": -1
	},
	"temp_url_keys": []
}
Note

The values of keys→access_key and keys→secret_key are needed for access validation.

Important

Check the key output. Sometimes radosgw-admin generates a JSON escape character \ in access_key or secret_key and some clients do not know how to handle JSON escape characters. Remedies include removing the JSON escape character \, encapsulating the string in quotes, regenerating the key and ensuring that it does not have a JSON escape character or specify the key and secret manually. Also, if radosgw-admin generates a JSON escape character \ and a forward slash / together in a key, like \/, only remove the JSON escape character \. Do not remove the forward slash / as it is a valid character in the key.

2.7.2. Creating a Swift User

A Swift subuser needs to be created if this kind of access is needed. Creating a Swift user is a two step process. The first step is to create the user. The second is to create the secret key.

Execute the following steps on the gateway host:

Create the Swift user:

sudo radosgw-admin subuser create --uid=testuser --subuser=testuser:swift --access=full

The output will be something like the following:

{
	"user_id": "testuser",
	"display_name": "First User",
	"email": "",
	"suspended": 0,
	"max_buckets": 1000,
	"auid": 0,
	"subusers": [{
		"id": "testuser:swift",
		"permissions": "full-control"
	}],
	"keys": [{
		"user": "testuser:swift",
		"access_key": "3Y1LNW4Q6X0Y53A52DET",
		"secret_key": ""
	}, {
		"user": "testuser",
		"access_key": "I0PJDPCIYZ665MW88W9R",
		"secret_key": "dxaXZ8U90SXydYzyS5ivamEP20hkLSUViiaR+ZDA"
	}],
	"swift_keys": [],
	"caps": [],
	"op_mask": "read, write, delete",
	"default_placement": "",
	"placement_tags": [],
	"bucket_quota": {
		"enabled": false,
		"max_size_kb": -1,
		"max_objects": -1
	},
	"user_quota": {
		"enabled": false,
		"max_size_kb": -1,
		"max_objects": -1
	},
	"temp_url_keys": []
}

Create the secret key:

sudo radosgw-admin key create --subuser=testuser:swift --key-type=swift --gen-secret

The output will be something like the following:

{
	"user_id": "testuser",
	"display_name": "First User",
	"email": "",
	"suspended": 0,
	"max_buckets": 1000,
	"auid": 0,
	"subusers": [{
		"id": "testuser:swift",
		"permissions": "full-control"
	}],
	"keys": [{
		"user": "testuser:swift",
		"access_key": "3Y1LNW4Q6X0Y53A52DET",
		"secret_key": ""
	}, {
		"user": "testuser",
		"access_key": "I0PJDPCIYZ665MW88W9R",
		"secret_key": "dxaXZ8U90SXydYzyS5ivamEP20hkLSUViiaR+ZDA"
	}],
	"swift_keys": [{
		"user": "testuser:swift",
		"secret_key": "244+fz2gSqoHwR3lYtSbIyomyPHf3i7rgSJrF\/IA"
	}],
	"caps": [],
	"op_mask": "read, write, delete",
	"default_placement": "",
	"placement_tags": [],
	"bucket_quota": {
		"enabled": false,
		"max_size_kb": -1,
		"max_objects": -1
	},
	"user_quota": {
		"enabled": false,
		"max_size_kb": -1,
		"max_objects": -1
	},
	"temp_url_keys": []
}

2.7.3. Testing S3 Access

You need to write and run a Python test script for verifying S3 access. The S3 access test script will connect to the radosgw, create a new bucket and list all buckets. The values for aws_access_key_id and aws_secret_access_key are taken from the values of access_key and secret_key returned by the radosgw_admin command.

Execute the following steps:

  1. You will need to install the python-boto package.

    $ sudo apt-get install python-boto
  2. Create the Python script:

    vi s3test.py
  3. Add the following contents to the file:

    import boto
    import boto.s3.connection
    
    access_key = $access
    secret_key = $secret
    
    boto.config.add_section('s3')
    boto.config.set('s3', 'use-sigv4', 'True')
    
    conn = boto.connect_s3(
            aws_access_key_id = access_key,
            aws_secret_access_key = secret_key,
            host = 's3.{zone}.hostname',
            port = {port},
            is_secure=False,
            calling_format = boto.s3.connection.OrdinaryCallingFormat(),
            )
    
    bucket = conn.create_bucket('my-new-bucket')
    for bucket in conn.get_all_buckets():
    	print "{name}\t{created}".format(
    		name = bucket.name,
    		created = bucket.creation_date,
    )

    Replace {zone} with the zone name. That is, the fully qualified domain name of the Ceph Object Gateway node. Ensure that the host setting resolves with DNS. Replace {port}` with the port number of the gateway.

  4. Run the script:

    python s3test.py

    The output will be something like the following:

    my-new-bucket 2015-02-16T17:09:10.000Z

2.7.4. Testing Swift Access

Swift access can be verified via the swift command line client. The command man swift will provide more information on available command line options.

To install swift client, execute the following:

sudo apt-get install python-setuptools
sudo easy_install pip
sudo pip install --upgrade setuptools
sudo pip install --upgrade python-swiftclient

To test swift access, execute the following:

swift -A http://{IP ADDRESS}:{port}/auth/1.0 -U testuser:swift -K '{swift_secret_key}' list

Replace {IP ADDRESS} with the public IP address of the gateway server and {swift_secret_key} with its value from the output of radosgw-admin key create command executed for the swift user. Replace {port} with the port number you are using with Civetweb (e.g., 7480 is the default). If you don’t replace the port, it will default to port 80.

For example:

swift -A http://10.19.143.116:7480/auth/1.0 -U testuser:swift -K '244+fz2gSqoHwR3lYtSbIyomyPHf3i7rgSJrF/IA' list

The output should be:

my-new-bucket

2.8. Configuring Gateways for Static Web Hosting

Traditional web hosting sometimes involves setting up a web server for each website, which can use resources inefficiently when content doesn’t change dynamically. Ceph Object Gateway can host static web sites in S3 buckets—​that is, sites that do not use server-side services like PHP, servlets, databases, nodejs and the like. This approach is substantially more economical than setting up VMs with web servers for each site.

2.8.1. Assumptions

Static web hosting requires at least one running Ceph Storage Cluster, and at least two Ceph Object Gateway instances for static web sites. Red Hat assumes that each zone will have multiple gateway instances load balanced by HAProxy/keepalived.

Note

Red Hat DOES NOT support using a Ceph Object Gateway instance to support both standard S3/Swift APIs and static web hosting.

2.8.2. Requirements

Static web hosting functionality uses its own API, so configuring a gateway to use static web sites in S3 buckets requires the following:

  1. S3 static web hosting uses Ceph Object Gateway instances that are separate and distinct from instances used for standard S3/Swift API use cases.
  2. Gateway instances hosting S3 static web sites should have separate, non-overlapping domain names from the standard S3/Swift API gateway instances.
  3. Gateway instances hosting S3 static web sites should use separate public-facing IP addresses from the standard S3/Swift API gateway instances.
  4. Gateway instances hosting S3 static web sites load balance, and if necessary terminate SSL, using HAProxy/keepalived.

2.8.3. Setting Up the Gateway

To enable a gateway for static web hosting, edit the Ceph configuration file and add the following settings:

[client.rgw.<STATIC-SITE-HOSTNAME>]
...
rgw_enable_static_website = true
rgw_enable_apis = s3website
rgw_dns_name = objects-zonegroup.domain.com
rgw_dns_s3website_name = objects-website-zonegroup.domain.com
rgw_resolve_cname = true
...

The rgw_enable_static_website setting MUST be true. The rgw_enable_apis setting MUST enable the s3website API. The rgw_dns_name and rgw_dns_s3website_name settings must provide their fully qualified domains. If the site will use canonical name extensions, set rgw_resolve_cname to true.

Important

The FQDNs of rgw_dns_name and rgw_dns_s3website_name MUST NOT overlap.

2.8.4. Configuring the DNS

The following is an example of assumed DNS settings, where the first two lines specify the domains of the the gateway instance using a standard S3 interface and point to the IPv4 and IPv6 addresses respectively. The third line provides a wildcard CNAME setting for S3 buckets using canonical name extensions. The fourth and fifth lines specify the domains for the gateway instance using the S3 website interface and point to their IPv4 and IPv6 addresses respectively.

objects-zonegroup.domain.com. IN    A 192.0.2.10
objects-zonegroup.domain.com. IN AAAA 2001:DB8::192:0:2:10
*.objects-zonegroup.domain.com. IN CNAME objects-zonegroup.domain.com.
objects-website-zonegroup.domain.com. IN    A 192.0.2.20
objects-website-zonegroup.domain.com. IN AAAA 2001:DB8::192:0:2:20
Note

The IP addresses in the first two lines differ from the IP addresses in the fourth and fifth lines.

If using Ceph Object Gateway in a multi-site configuration, consider using a routing solution to route traffic to the gateway closest to the client.

The Amazon Web Service (AWS) requires static web host buckets to match the host name. Ceph provides a few different ways to configure the DNS, and HTTPS will work if the proxy has a matching certificate.

Hostname to a Bucket on a Subdomain

To use AWS-style S3 subdomains, use a wildcard in the DNS entry and can redirect requests to any bucket. A DNS entry might look like the following:

*.objects-website-zonegroup.domain.com. IN CNAME objects-website-zonegroup.domain.com.

Access the bucket name in the following manner:

http://bucket1.objects-website-zonegroup.domain.com

Where the bucket name is bucket1.

Hostname to Non-Matching Bucket

Ceph supports mapping domain names to buckets without including the bucket name in the request, which is unique to Ceph Object Gateway. To use a domain name to access a bucket, map the domain name to the bucket name. A DNS entry might look like the following:

www.example.com. IN CNAME bucket2.objects-website-zonegroup.domain.com.

Where the bucket name is bucket2.

Access the bucket in the following manner:

http://www.example.com

Hostname to Long Bucket with CNAME

AWS typically requires the bucket name to match the domain name. To configure the DNS for static web hosting using CNAME, the DNS entry might look like the following:

www.example.com. IN CNAME www.example.com.objects-website-zonegroup.domain.com.

Access the bucket in the following manner:

http://www.example.com

Hostname to Long Bucket without CNAME

If the DNS name contains other non-CNAME records such as SOA, NS, MX or TXT, the DNS record must map the domain name directly to the IP address. For example:

www.example.com. IN A 192.0.2.20
www.example.com. IN AAAA 2001:DB8::192:0:2:20

Access the bucket in the following manner:

http://www.example.com

2.8.5. Creating a Site

To create a static website perform the following steps:

  1. Create an S3 bucket. The bucket name MAY be the same as the website’s domain name. For example, mysite.com may have a bucket name of mysite.com. This is required for AWS, but it is NOT required for Ceph. See DNS Settings for details.
  2. Upload the static website content to the bucket. Contents may include HTML, CSS, client-side JavaScript, images, audio/video content and other downloadable files. A website MUST have an index.html file and MAY have error.html file.
  3. Verify the website’s contents. At this point, only the creator of the bucket will have access to the the contents.
  4. Set permissions on the files so that they are publicly readable.

2.9. Exporting the Namespace to NFS-Ganesha

In Red Hat Ceph Storage 2, the Ceph Object Gateway provides the ability to export S3 object namespaces by using NFS version 4.1 for production systems, and NFS version 3 as a Technology Preview only.

Note

The NFS Ganesha feature is not for general use, but rather for migration to an S3 cloud only.

The implementation conforms to Amazon Web Services (AWS) hierarchical namespace conventions which map UNIX-style path names onto S3 buckets and objects. The top level of the attached namespace, which is subordinate to the NFSv4 pseudo root if present, consists of the Ceph Object Gateway S3 buckets, where buckets are represented as NFS directories. Objects within a bucket are presented as NFS file and directory hierarchies, following S3 conventions. Operations to create files and directories are supported.

Note

Creating or deleting hard or soft links IS NOT supported. Performing rename operations on buckets or directories IS NOT supported via NFS, but rename on files IS supported within and between directories, and between a file system and an NFS mount. File rename operations are more expensive when conducted over NFS, as they change the target directory and typically forces a full readdir to refresh it.

Note

Editing files via the NFS mount IS NOT supported.

The Ceph Object Gateway with NFS is based on a new, in-process library packaging of the Gateway server and a new File System Abstraction Layer (FSAL) namespace driver for the NFS-Ganesha NFSv4 server. At runtime, an instance of the Ceph Object Gateway daemon with NFS combines a full Ceph Object Gateway daemon, albeit without the Civetweb HTTP service, with an NFS-Ganesha instance in a single process. To make use of this feature, deploy NFS-Ganesha version 2.3.2 or later.

Perform the steps in the Before you Start and Configuring an NFS-Ganesha Instance procedures on the host that will contain the NFS-Ganesha (nfs-ganesha-rgw) instance.

Running Multiple NFS Gateways

Each NFS-Ganesha instance acts as a full gateway endpoint, with the limitation that currently an NFS-Ganesha instance cannot be configured to export HTTP services. As with ordinary gateway instances, any number of NFS-Ganesha instances can be started, exporting the same or different resources from the cluster. This enables the clustering of NFS-Ganesha instances. However, this does not imply high availability.

When regular gateway instances and NFS-Ganesha instances overlap the same data resources, they will be accessible from both the standard S3 API and through the NFS-Ganesha instance as exported. You can co-locate the NFS-Ganesha instance with a Ceph Object Gateway instance on the same host.

Before you Start

  1. Disable any running kernel NFS service instances on any host that will run NFS-Ganesha before attempting to run NFS-Ganesha. NFS-Ganesha will not start if another NFS instance is running.
  2. Make sure that the rpcbind service is running:

    # systemctl start rpcbind
    Note

    The rpcbind package that provides rpcbind is in usually installed by default. If that is not the case, install the package first.

    For details on how NFS uses rpcbind, see the Required Services section in the Storage Administration Guide for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

  3. If the nfs-service service is running, stop and disable it:

    # systemctl stop nfs-server.service
    # systemctl disable nfs-server.service

Configuring an NFS-Ganesha Instance

Important

NFSv4 is supported for production systems. NFSv3 is a Technology Preview and is not supported for production systems. Use NFSv3 with caution.

  1. Install the nfs-ganesha-fsal package:

    $ sudo apt-get install nfs-ganesha-fsal
  2. Copy the Ceph configuration file from a Ceph Monitor node to the /etc/ceph/ directory of the NFS-Ganesha host, and edit it as necessary:

    # scp <mon-host>:/etc/ceph/ceph.conf <nfs-ganesha-rgw-host>:/etc/ceph
    Note

    The Ceph configuration file must contain a valid [client.rgw.{instance-name}] section and corresponding parameters for the various required Gateway configuration variables such as rgw_data, keyring, or rgw_frontends. If exporting Swift containers that do not conform to valid S3 bucket naming requirements, set rgw_relaxed_s3_bucket_names to true in the [client.rgw] section of the Ceph configuration file. For example, if a Swift container name contains underscores, it is not a valid S3 bucket name and will not get synchronized unless rgw_relaxed_s3_bucket_names is set to true. When adding objects and buckets outside of NFS, those objects will appear in the NFS namespace in the time set by rgw_nfs_namespace_expire_secs, which is about 5 minutes by default. Override the default value for rgw_nfs_namespace_expire_secs in the Ceph configuration file to change the refresh rate.

  3. Copy the Object Gateway keyring from the Ceph Object Gateway host to the NFS Ganesha host.

    1. Create a directory to store the keyring:

      # mkdir -p /var/lib/ceph/radosgw/ceph-rgw.<instance-name>/
    2. Set the correct ownership for the directory:

      chown ceph.ceph /var/lib/ceph/radosgw/ceph-rgw.<instance-name>
    3. Copy the keyring:

      # scp <rgw-instance-host>:/var/lib/ceph/radosgw/ceph-rgw.<instance-name>/keyring <nfs-ganesha-rgw-host>:/var/lib/ceph/radosgw/ceph-rgw-<instance-name>/.
  4. Open the NFS-Ganesha configuration file:

    # vim /etc/ganesha/ganesha.conf
  5. Configure the EXPORT section with an FSAL (File System Abstraction Layer) block. Provide an ID, S3 user ID, S3 access key, and secret. For NFSv4, it should look something like this:

    EXPORT
    {
            Export_ID={numeric-id};
            Path = "/";
            Pseudo = "/";
            Access_Type = RW;
            SecType = "sys";
            NFS_Protocols = 4;
            Transport_Protocols = TCP;
            Squash = No_Root_Squash;
    
            FSAL {
                    Name = RGW;
                    User_Id = {s3-user-id};
                    Access_Key_Id ="{s3-access-key}";
                    Secret_Access_Key = "{s3-secret}";
            }
    }

    NFSv3 is a Technology Preview and is NOT supported for production systems. Any EXPORT block which should support NFSv3 should include version 3 in the NFS_Protocols setting. Additionally, NFSv3 is the last major version to support the UDP transport. Early versions of the standard included UDP, but RFC 7530 forbids its use. To enable UDP, include it in the Transport_Protocols setting. For example:

    EXPORT {
    ...
        NFS_Protocols = 3,4;
        Transport_Protocols = UDP,TCP;
    ...
    }

    Setting SecType = sys; allows clients to attach without Kerberos authentication.

    Setting Squash = No_Root_Squash; enables a user to change directory ownership in the NFS mount.

    NFS clients using a conventional OS-native NFS 4.1 client typically see a federated namespace of exported file systems defined by the destination server’s pseudofs root. Any number of these can be Ceph Object Gateway exports.

    Each export has its own tuple of name, User_Id, Access_Key, and Secret_Access_Key and creates a proxy of the object namespace visible to the specified user.

    An export in ganesha.conf can also contain an NFSV4 block. Red Hat Ceph Storage supports the Allow_Numeric_Owners and Only_Numberic_Owners parameters as an alternative to setting up the idmapper program.

    NFSV4 {
        Allow_Numeric_Owners = true;
        Only_Numeric_Owners = true;
    }
  6. Configure the RGW section. Specify the name of the instance, provide a path to the Ceph configuration file, and specify any initialization arguments:

    RGW {
        name = "client.rgw.{instance-name}";
        ceph_conf = "/etc/ceph/ceph.conf";
        init_args = "--{arg}={arg-value}";
    }
  7. Save the /etc/ganesha/ganesha.conf configuration file.
  8. Start the nfs-ganesha service.

    # systemctl start nfs-ganesha

Configuring NFSv4 clients

To access the namespace, mount the configured NFS-Ganesha export(s) into desired locations in the local POSIX namespace. As noted, this implementation has a few unique restriction:

  • Only the NFS 4.1 and higher protocol flavors are supported.
  • To enforce write ordering, use the sync mount option.

To mount the NFS-Ganesha exports, add the following entry to the /etc/fstab file on the client host:

<ganesha-host-name>:/ <mount-point> nfs noauto,soft,nfsvers=4.1,sync,proto=tcp 0 0

Specify the NFS-Ganesha host name and the path to the mount point on the client.

Note

To successfully mount the NFS-Ganesha exports, the /sbin/mount.nfs file must exist on the client. The nfs-tools package provides this file. In most cases, the package is installed by default. However, verify that the nfs-tools package is installed on the client and if not, install it.

For additional details on NFS, see the Network File System (NFS) chapter in the Storage Administration Guide for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.

Configuring NFSv3 clients (Technology Preview)

Linux clients can be configured to mount with NFSv3 by supplying nfsvers=3 and noacl as mount options. To use UDP as the transport, add proto=udp to the mount options. However, TCP is the preferred protocol.

<ganesha-host-name>:/ <mount-point> nfs noauto,noacl,soft,nfsvers=3,sync,proto=tcp 0 0
Note

Configure the NFS Ganesha EXPORT block Protocols setting with version 3 and the Transports setting with UDP if the mount will use version 3 with UDP.

Since NFSv3 does not communicate client OPEN and CLOSE operations to file servers, RGW NFS cannot use these operations to mark the beginning and ending of file upload transactions. Instead, RGW NFS attempts to start a new upload when the first write is sent to a file at offset 0, and finalizes the upload when no new writes to the file have been seen for a period of time—​by default, 10 seconds. To change this value, set a value for rgw_nfs_write_completion_interval_s in the RGW section(s) of the Ceph configuration file.