Compiling your Red Hat build of Quarkus applications to native executables

Red Hat build of Quarkus 3.2

Red Hat Customer Content Services

Abstract

This guide shows you how to compile the Red Hat build of Quarkus Getting Started project into a native executable and how to configure and test the native executable.

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Chapter 1. Compiling your Red Hat build of Quarkus applications to native executables

As an application developer, you can use Red Hat build of Quarkus 3.2 to create microservices written in Java that run on OpenShift Container Platform and serverless environments. Quarkus applications can run as regular Java applications (on top of a Java Virtual Machine), or be compiled into native executables. Applications compiled to native executables have a smaller memory footprint and faster startup times than their Java counterpart.

This guide shows you how to compile the Red Hat build of Quarkus 3.2 Getting Started project into a native executable and how to configure and test the native executable. You will need the application that you created earlier in Getting started with Red Hat build of Quarkus.

Building a native executable with Red Hat build of Quarkus covers:

  • Building a native executable with a single command by using a container runtime such as Podman or Docker
  • Creating a custom container image using the produced native executable
  • Creating a container image using the OpenShift Container Platform Docker build strategy
  • Deploying the Quarkus native application to OpenShift Container Platform
  • Configuring the native executable
  • Testing the native executable

Prerequisites

  • Have OpenJDK 17 installed and the JAVA_HOME environment variable set to specify the location of the Java SDK.

    • Log in to the Red Hat Customer Portal to download Red Hat build of OpenJDK from the Software Downloads page.
  • An Open Container Initiative (OCI) compatible container runtime, such as Podman or Docker.
  • A completed Quarkus Getting Started project.

1.1. Producing a native executable

A native binary is an executable that is created to run on a specific operating system and CPU architecture.

The following list outlines some examples of a native executable:

  • An ELF binary for Linux AMD 64 bits
  • An EXE binary for Windows AMD 64 bits
  • An ELF binary for ARM 64 bits

When you build a native executable, one advantage is that your application and dependencies, including the JVM, are packaged into a single file. The native executable for your application contains the following items:

  • The compiled application code.
  • The required Java libraries.
  • A reduced version of the Java virtual machine (JVM) for improved application startup times and minimal disk and memory footprint, which is also tailored for the application code and its dependencies.

To produce a native executable from your Quarkus application, you can select either an in-container build or a local-host build. The following table explains the different building options that you can use:

Table 1.1. Building options for producing a native executable

Building optionRequiresUsesResults inBenefits

In-container build - Supported

A container runtime, for example, Podman or Docker

The default registry.access.redhat.com/quarkus/mandrel-23-rhel8:23.0 builder image

A Linux 64-bit executable using the CPU architecture of the host

GraalVM does not need to be set up locally, which makes your CI pipelines run more efficiently

Local-host build - Only supported upstream

A local installation of GraalVM or Mandrel

Its local installation as a default for the quarkus.native.builder-image property

An executable that has the same operating system and CPU architecture as the machine on which the build is executed

An alternative for developers that are not allowed or do not want to use tools such as Docker or Podman. Overall, it is faster than the in-container build approach.

Important
  • Red Hat build of Quarkus 3.2 only supports the building of native Linux executables by using a Java 17-based Red Hat build of Quarkus Native builder image, which is a productized distribution of Mandrel. While other images are available in the community, they are not supported in the product, so you should not use them for production builds that you want Red Hat to provide support for.
  • Applications whose source is written based on Java 11, with no Java 12 - 17 features used, can still compile a native executable of that application using the Java 17-based Mandrel 23.0 base image.
  • Building native executables by using Oracle GraalVM Community Edition (CE), Mandrel community edition, or any other distributions of GraalVM is not supported for Red Hat build of Quarkus.

1.1.1. Producing a native executable by using an in-container build

To create a native executable and run the native image tests, use the native profile that is provided by Red Hat build of Quarkus for an in-container build.

Prerequisites

  • Podman or Docker is installed.
  • The container has access to at least 8GB of memory.

Procedure

  1. Open the Getting Started project pom.xml file, and verify that the project includes the native profile:

    <profiles>
      <profile>
        <id>native</id>
        <activation>
          <property>
            <name>native</name>
          </property>
        </activation>
        <properties>
          <skipITs>false</skipITs>
          <quarkus.package.type>native</quarkus.package.type>
        </properties>
      </profile>
    </profiles>
  2. Build a native executable by using one of the following ways:

    • Using Maven:

      • For Docker:

        ./mvnw package -Dnative -Dquarkus.native.container-build=true
      • For Podman:

        ./mvnw package -Dnative -Dquarkus.native.container-build=true -Dquarkus.native.container-runtime=podman
    • Using the Quarkus CLI:

      • For Docker:

        quarkus build --native -Dquarkus.native.container-build=true
      • For Podman:

        quarkus build --native -Dquarkus.native.container-build=true -Dquarkus.native.container-runtime=podman

        Step results

        These commands create a *-runner binary in the target directory, where the following applies:

      • The *-runner file is the built native binary produced by Quarkus.
      • The target directory is a directory that Maven creates when you build a Maven application.

        Important

        Compiling a Quarkus application to a native executable consumes a large amount of memory during analysis and optimization. You can limit the amount of memory used during native compilation by setting the quarkus.native.native-image-xmx configuration property. Setting low memory limits might increase the build time.

  3. To run the native executable, enter the following command:

    ./target/*-runner

1.1.2. Producing a native executable by using a local-host build

If you are not using Docker or Podman, use the Quarkus local-host build option to create and run a native executable.

Using the local-host build approach is faster than using containers and is suitable for machines that use a Linux operating system.

Important

Using the following procedure in production is not supported by Red Hat build of Quarkus. Use this method only when testing or as a backup approach when Docker or Podman is not available.

Prerequisites

  • A local installation of Mandrel or GraalVm, correctly configured according to the Building a native executable guide.

    • Additionally, for a GraalVM installation, native-image must also be installed.

Procedure

  1. For GraalVM or Mandrel, build a native executable by using one of the following ways:

    • Using Maven:

      ./mvnw package -Dnative
    • Using the Quarkus CLI:

      quarkus build --native

      Step results

      These commands create a *-runner binary in the target directory, where the following applies:

      • The *-runner file is the built native binary produced by Quarkus.
      • The target directory is a directory that Maven creates when you build a Maven application.

        Note

        When you build the native executable, the prod profile is enabled unless modified in the quarkus.profile property.

  2. Run the native executable:

    ./target/*-runner

Additional resources

For more information, see the Producing a native executable section of the "Building a native executable" guide in the Quarkus community.

1.2. Creating a custom container image

You can create a container image from your Quarkus application using one of the following methods:

  • Creating a container manually
  • Creating a container by using the OpenShift Container Platform Docker build
Important

Compiling a Quarkus application to a native executable consumes a large amount of memory during analysis and optimization. You can limit the amount of memory used during native compilation by setting the quarkus.native.native-image-xmx configuration property. Setting low memory limits might increase the build time.

1.2.1. Creating a container manually

This section shows you how to manually create a container image with your application for Linux AMD64. When you produce a native image by using the Quarkus Native container, the native image creates an executable that targets Linux AMD64. If your host operating system is different from Linux AMD64, you cannot run the binary directly and you need to create a container manually.

Your Quarkus Getting Started project includes a Dockerfile.native in the src/main/docker directory with the following content:

FROM registry.access.redhat.com/ubi8/ubi-minimal:8.8
WORKDIR /work/
RUN chown 1001 /work \
    && chmod "g+rwX" /work \
    && chown 1001:root /work
COPY --chown=1001:root target/*-runner /work/application

EXPOSE 8080
USER 1001

ENTRYPOINT ["./application", "-Dquarkus.http.host=0.0.0.0"]
Note

Universal Base Image (UBI)

The following list displays the suitable images for use with Dockerfiles.

  • Red Hat Universal Base Image 8 (UBI8). This base image is designed and engineered to be the base layer for all of your containerized applications, middleware, and utilities.

    registry.access.redhat.com/ubi8/ubi:8.8
  • Red Hat Universal Base Image 8 Minimal (UBI8-minimal). A stripped-down UBI8 image that uses microdnf as a package manager.

    registry.access.redhat.com/ubi8/ubi-minimal:8.8
  • All Red Hat Base images are available on the Container images catalog site.

Procedure

  1. Build a native Linux executable by using one of the following methods:

    • Docker:

      ./mvnw package -Dnative -Dquarkus.native.container-build=true
    • Podman:

      ./mvnw package -Dnative -Dquarkus.native.container-build=true -Dquarkus.native.container-runtime=podman
  2. Build the container image by using one of the following methods:

    • Docker:

      docker build -f src/main/docker/Dockerfile.native -t quarkus-quickstart/getting-started .
    • Podman

      podman build -f src/main/docker/Dockerfile.native -t quarkus-quickstart/getting-started .
  3. Run the container by using one of the following methods:

    • Docker:

      docker run -i --rm -p 8080:8080 quarkus-quickstart/getting-started
    • Podman:

      podman run -i --rm -p 8080:8080 quarkus-quickstart/getting-started

1.2.2. Creating a container by using the OpenShift Docker build

You can create a container image for your Quarkus application by using the OpenShift Container Platform Docker build strategy. This strategy creates a container image by using a build configuration in the cluster.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Log in to the OpenShift CLI:

    oc login -u <username_url>
  2. Create a new project in OpenShift:

    oc new-project <project_name>
  3. Create a build config based on the src/main/docker/Dockerfile.native file:

    cat src/main/docker/Dockerfile.native | oc new-build --name <build_name> --strategy=docker --dockerfile -
  4. Build the project:

    oc start-build <build_name> --from-dir .
  5. Deploy the project to OpenShift Container Platform:

    oc new-app <build_name>
  6. Expose the services:

    oc expose svc/<build_name>

1.3. Native executable configuration properties

Configuration properties define how the native executable is generated. You can configure your Quarkus application using the application.properties file.

Configuration properties

The following table lists the configuration properties that you can set to define how the native executable is generated:

Property

Description

Type

Default

quarkus.native.debug.enabled

If debug is enabled and debug symbols are generated, the symbols are generated in a separate .debug file.

boolean

false

quarkus.native.resources.excludes

A comma-separated list of globs to match resource paths that should not be added to the native image.

list of strings

 

quarkus.native.additional-build-args

Additional arguments to pass to the build process.

list of strings

 

quarkus.native.enable-http-url-handler

Enables HTTP URL handler. This allows you to do URL.openConnection() for HTTP URLs.

boolean

true

quarkus.native.enable-https-url-handler

Enables HTTPS URL handler. This allows you to do URL.openConnection() for HTTPS URLs.

boolean

false

quarkus.native.enable-all-security-services

Adds all security services to the native image.

boolean

false

quarkus.native.add-all-charsets

Adds all character sets to the native image. This increases the image size.

boolean

false

quarkus.native.graalvm-home

Contains the path of the GraalVM distribution.

string

${GRAALVM_HOME:}

quarkus.native.java-home

Contains the path of the JDK.

File

${java.home}

quarkus.native.native-image-xmx

The maximum Java heap used to generate the native image.

string

 

quarkus.native.debug-build-process

Waits for a debugger to attach to the build process before running the native image build. This is an advanced option for those familiar with GraalVM internals.

boolean

false

quarkus.native.publish-debug-build-process-port

Publishes the debug port when building with docker if debug-build-process is true.

boolean

true

quarkus.native.cleanup-server

Restarts the native image server.

boolean

false

quarkus.native.enable-isolates

Enables isolates to improve memory management.

boolean

true

quarkus.native.enable-fallback-images

Creates a JVM-based fallback image if the native image fails.

boolean

false

quarkus.native.enable-server

Uses the native image server. This can speed up compilation but can result in lost changes due to cache invalidation issues.

boolean

false

quarkus.native.auto-service-loader-registration

Automatically registers all META-INF/services entries.

boolean

false

quarkus.native.dump-proxies

Dumps the bytecode of all proxies for inspection.

boolean

false

quarkus.native.container-build

Builds that use a container runtime. Docker is used by default.

boolean

false

quarkus.native.builder-image

The docker image to build the image.

string

registry.access.redhat.com/quarkus/mandrel-23-rhel8:23.0

quarkus.native.container-runtime

The container runtime used to build the image. For example, Docker.

string

 

quarkus.native.container-runtime-options

Options to pass to the container runtime.

list of strings

 

quarkus.native.enable-vm-inspection

Enables VM introspection in the image.

boolean

false

quarkus.native.full-stack-traces

Enables full stack traces in the image.

boolean

true

quarkus.native.enable-reports

Generates reports on call paths and included packages, classes, or methods.

boolean

false

quarkus.native.report-exception-stack-traces

Reports exceptions with a full stack trace.

boolean

true

quarkus.native.report-errors-at-runtime

Reports errors at runtime. This might cause your application to fail at runtime if you use unsupported features.

boolean

false

quarkus.native.resources.includes

A comma-separated list of globs to match resource paths that should be added to the native image. Use a slash (/) character as a path separator on all platforms. Globs must not start with a slash. For example, if you have src/main/resources/ignored.png and src/main/resources/foo/selected.png in your source tree and one of your dependency JARs contains a bar/some.txt file, with quarkus.native.resources.includes set to foo/,bar//*.txt, the files src/main/resources/foo/selected.png and bar/some.txt will be included in the native image, while src/main/resources/ignored.png will not be included. For more information, see the following table, which lists the supported glob features.

list of strings

 

quarkus.native.debug.enabled

Enables debugging and generates debug symbols in a separate .debug file. When used with quarkus.native.container-build, Red Hat build of Quarkus only supports Red Hat Enterprise Linux or other Linux distributions as they contain the binutils package that installs the objcopy utility that splits the debug info from the native image.

boolean

false

Supported glob features

The following table lists the supported glob features and descriptions:

Character

Feature description

*

Matches a possibly-empty sequence of characters that does not contain slash (/).

**

Matches a possibly-empty sequence of characters that might contain slash (/).

?

Matches one character, but not slash.

[abc]

Matches one character specified in the bracket, but not slash.

[a-z]

Matches one character from the range specified in the bracket, but not slash.

[!abc]

Matches one character not specified in the bracket; does not match slash.

[!a-z]

Matches one character outside the range specified in the bracket; does not match slash.

{one,two,three}

Matches any of the alternating tokens separated by commas; the tokens can contain wildcards, nested alternations, and ranges.

\

The escape character. There are three levels of escaping: application.properties parser, MicroProfile Config list converter, and Glob parser. All three levels use the backslash as the escape character.

1.3.1. Configuring memory consumption for Red Hat build of Quarkus native compilation

Compiling a Red Hat build of Quarkus application to a native executable consumes a large amount of memory during analysis and optimization. You can limit the amount of memory used during native compilation by setting the quarkus.native.native-image-xmx configuration property. Setting low memory limits might increase the build time.

Procedure

  • Use one of the following methods to set a value for the quarkus.native.native-image-xmx property to limit the memory consumption during the native image build time:

    • Using the application.properties file:

      quarkus.native.native-image-xmx=<maximum_memory>
    • Setting system properties:

      mvn package -Dnative -Dquarkus.native.container-build=true -Dquarkus.native.native-image-xmx=<maximum_memory>

      This command builds the native executable with Docker. To use Podman, add the -Dquarkus.native.container-runtime=podman argument.

Note

For example, to set the memory limit to 6 GB, enter quarkus.native.native-image-xmx=6g. The value must be a multiple of 1024 and greater than 2MB. Append the letter m or M to indicate megabytes, or g or G to indicate gigabytes.

1.4. Testing the native executable

Test the application in native mode to test the functionality of the native executable. Use the @QuarkusIntegrationTest annotation to build the native executable and run tests against the HTTP endpoints.

Important

The following example shows how to test a native executable with a local installation of GraalVM or Mandrel. Before you begin, consider the following points:

  • This scenario is not supported by Red Hat build of Quarkus, as outlined in Producing a native executable.
  • The native executable you are testing with here must match the operating system and architecture of the host. Therefore, this procedure will not work on a macOS or an in-container build.

Procedure

  1. Open the pom.xml file and verify that the build section has the following elements:

    <plugin>
        <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
        <artifactId>maven-failsafe-plugin</artifactId>
        <version>${surefire-plugin.version}</version>
        <executions>
            <execution>
                <goals>
                    <goal>integration-test</goal>
                    <goal>verify</goal>
                </goals>
                <configuration>
                    <systemPropertyVariables>
                        <native.image.path>${project.build.directory}/${project.build.finalName}-runner</native.image.path>
                        <java.util.logging.manager>org.jboss.logmanager.LogManager</java.util.logging.manager>
                        <maven.home>${maven.home}</maven.home>
                    </systemPropertyVariables>
                </configuration>
            </execution>
        </executions>
    </plugin>
    • The Maven Failsafe plugin (maven-failsafe-plugin) runs the integration test and indicates the location of the native executable that is generated.
  2. Open the src/test/java/org/acme/GreetingResourceIT.java file and verify that it includes the following content:

    package org.acme;
    
    import io.quarkus.test.junit.QuarkusIntegrationTest;
    
    @QuarkusIntegrationTest 1
    public class GreetingResourceIT extends GreetingResourceTest { 2
    
        // Execute the same tests but in native mode.
    }
    1
    Use another test runner that starts the application from the native file before the tests. The executable is retrieved by using the native.image.path system property configured in the Maven Failsafe plugin.
    2
    This example extends the GreetingResourceTest, but you can also create a new test.
  1. Run the test:

    ./mvnw verify -Dnative

    The following example shows the output of this command:

    ./mvnw verify -Dnative
    ....
    
    GraalVM Native Image: Generating 'getting-started-1.0.0-SNAPSHOT-runner' (executable)...
    ========================================================================================================================
    [1/8] Initializing...                                                                                    (6.6s @ 0.22GB)
     Java version: 17.0.7+7, vendor version: Mandrel-23.0.0.0-Final
     Graal compiler: optimization level: 2, target machine: x86-64-v3
     C compiler: gcc (redhat, x86_64, 13.2.1)
     Garbage collector: Serial GC (max heap size: 80% of RAM)
     2 user-specific feature(s)
     - io.quarkus.runner.Feature: Auto-generated class by Red Hat build of Quarkus from the existing extensions
     - io.quarkus.runtime.graal.DisableLoggingFeature: Disables INFO logging during the analysis phase
    [2/8] Performing analysis...  [******]                                                                  (40.0s @ 2.05GB)
      10,318 (86.40%) of 11,942 types reachable
      15,064 (57.36%) of 26,260 fields reachable
      52,128 (55.75%) of 93,501 methods reachable
       3,298 types,   109 fields, and 2,698 methods registered for reflection
          63 types,    68 fields, and    55 methods registered for JNI access
           4 native libraries: dl, pthread, rt, z
    [3/8] Building universe...                                                                               (5.9s @ 1.31GB)
    [4/8] Parsing methods...      [**]                                                                       (3.7s @ 2.08GB)
    [5/8] Inlining methods...     [***]                                                                      (2.0s @ 1.92GB)
    [6/8] Compiling methods...    [******]                                                                  (34.4s @ 3.25GB)
    [7/8] Layouting methods...    [[7/8] Layouting methods...    [**]                                                                       (4.1s @ 1.78GB)
    [8/8] Creating image...       [**]                                                                       (4.5s @ 2.31GB)
      20.93MB (48.43%) for code area:    33,233 compilation units
      21.95MB (50.80%) for image heap:  285,664 objects and 8 resources
     337.06kB ( 0.76%) for other data
      43.20MB in total
    
    ....
    
    
    [INFO]
    [INFO] --- maven-failsafe-plugin:3.0.0-M7:integration-test (default) @ getting-started ---
    [INFO] Using auto detected provider org.apache.maven.surefire.junitplatform.JUnitPlatformProvider
    [INFO]
    [INFO] -------------------------------------------------------
    [INFO]  T E S T S
    [INFO] -------------------------------------------------------
    [INFO] Running org.acme.GreetingResourceIT
    __  ____  __  _____   ___  __ ____  ______
     --/ __ \/ / / / _ | / _ \/ //_/ / / / __/
     -/ /_/ / /_/ / __ |/ , _/ ,< / /_/ /\ \
    --\___\_\____/_/ |_/_/|_/_/|_|\____/___/
    2023-08-28 14:04:52,681 INFO  [io.quarkus] (main) getting-started 1.0.0-SNAPSHOT native (powered by Red Hat build of Quarkus 3.2.9.Final) started in 0.038s. Listening on: http://0.0.0.0:8081
    2023-08-28 14:04:52,682 INFO  [io.quarkus] (main) Profile prod activated.
    2023-08-28 14:04:52,682 INFO  [io.quarkus] (main) Installed features: [cdi, resteasy-reactive, smallrye-context-propagation, vertx]
    [INFO] Tests run: 2, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0, Time elapsed: 4.696 s - in org.acme.GreetingResourceIT
    [INFO]
    [INFO] Results:
    [INFO]
    [INFO] Tests run: 2, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0
    [INFO]
    [INFO]
    [INFO] --- maven-failsafe-plugin:3.0.0-M7:verify (default) @ getting-started ---
    Note

    Quarkus waits 60 seconds for the native image to start before automatically failing the native tests. You can change this duration by configuring the quarkus.test.wait-time system property.

    You can extend the wait time by using the following command where <duration> is the wait time in seconds:

    ./mvnw verify -Dnative -Dquarkus.test.wait-time=<duration>
    Note
    • Native tests run using the prod profile by default unless modified in the quarkus.test.native-image-profile property.

1.4.1. Excluding tests when running as a native executable

When you run tests against your native executable, you can only run black-box testing, for example, interacting with the HTTP endpoints of your application.

Note

Black box refers to the hidden internal workings of a product or program, such as in black-box testing.

Because tests do not run natively, you cannot link against your application’s code like you do when running tests on the JVM. Therefore, in your native tests, you cannot inject beans.

You can share your test class between your JVM and native executions and exclude certain tests using the @DisabledOnNativeImage annotation to run tests only on the JVM.

1.4.2. Testing an existing native executable

By using the Failsafe Maven plugin, you can test against the existing executable build. You can run multiple sets of tests in stages on the binary after it is built.

Note

To test the native executable that you produced with Quarkus, use the available Maven commands. There are no equivalent Quarkus CLI commands to complete this task by using the command line.

Procedure

  • Run a test against a native executable that is already built:

    ./mvnw test-compile failsafe:integration-test

    This command runs the test against the existing native image by using the Failsafe Maven plugin.

  • Alternatively, you can specify the path to the native executable with the following command where <path> is the native image path:

    ./mvnw test-compile failsafe:integration-test -Dnative.image.path=<path>

1.5. Additional resources

Revised on 2024-05-03 11:06:01 UTC

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