Chapter 2. Creating a custom Java runtime environment for non-modular applications

You can create a custom Java runtime environment from a non-modular application by using the jlink tool.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Create a simple Hello World application by using the Logger class.

    1. Check the base Red Hat build of OpenJDK 21 binary exists in the jdk-17 folder:

      $ ls jdk-17
      bin  conf  demo  include  jmods  legal  lib  man  NEWS  release
      $ ./jdk-17/bin/java -version
      openjdk version "17.0.10" 2021-01-19 LTS
      OpenJDK Runtime Environment 18.9 (build 17.0.10+9-LTS)
      OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM 18.9 (build 17.0.10+9-LTS, mixed mode)
    2. Create a directory for your application:

      $ mkdir -p hello-example/sample
    3. Create hello-example/sample/HelloWorld.java file with the following content:

      package sample;
      
      import java.util.logging.Logger;
      
      public class HelloWorld {
          private static final Logger LOG = Logger.getLogger(HelloWorld.class.getName());
          public static void main(String[] args) {
              LOG.info("Hello World!");
          }
      }
    4. Compile your application:

      $ ./jdk-17/bin/javac -d . $(find hello-example -name \*.java)
    5. Run your application without a custom JRE:

      $ ./jdk-17/bin/java sample.HelloWorld
      Mar 09, 2021 10:48:59 AM sample.HelloWorld main
      INFO: Hello World!

      The previous example shows the base Red Hat build of OpenJDK requiring 311 MB to run a single class.

    6. (Optional) You can inspect the Red Hat build of OpenJDK and see many non-required modules for your application:

      $ du -sh jdk-17/
      313M	jdk-17/
      $ ./jdk-17/bin/java --list-modules
      java.base@17.0.1
      java.compiler@17.0.1
      java.datatransfer@17.0.1
      java.desktop@17.0.1
      java.instrument@17.0.1
      java.logging@17.0.1
      java.management@17.0.1
      java.management.rmi@17.0.1
      java.naming@17.0.1
      java.net.http@17.0.1
      java.prefs@17.0.1
      java.rmi@17.0.1
      java.scripting@17.0.1
      java.se@17.0.1
      java.security.jgss@17.0.1
      java.security.sasl@17.0.1
      java.smartcardio@17.0.1
      java.sql@17.0.1
      java.sql.rowset@17.0.1
      java.transaction.xa@17.0.1
      java.xml@17.0.1
      java.xml.crypto@17.0.1
      jdk.accessibility@17.0.1
      jdk.attach@17.0.1
      jdk.charsets@17.0.1
      jdk.compiler@17.0.1
      jdk.crypto.cryptoki@17.0.1
      jdk.crypto.ec@17.0.1
      jdk.dynalink@17.0.1
      jdk.editpad@17.0.1
      jdk.hotspot.agent@17.0.1
      jdk.httpserver@17.0.1
      jdk.incubator.foreign@17.0.1
      jdk.incubator.vector@17.0.1
      jdk.internal.ed@17.0.1
      jdk.internal.jvmstat@17.0.1
      jdk.internal.le@17.0.1
      jdk.internal.opt@17.0.1
      jdk.internal.vm.ci@17.0.1
      jdk.internal.vm.compiler@17.0.1
      jdk.internal.vm.compiler.management@17.0.1
      jdk.jartool@17.0.1
      jdk.javadoc@17.0.1
      jdk.jcmd@17.0.1
      jdk.jconsole@17.0.1
      jdk.jdeps@17.0.1
      jdk.jdi@17.0.1
      jdk.jdwp.agent@17.0.1
      jdk.jfr@17.0.1
      jdk.jlink@17.0.1
      jdk.jpackage@17.0.1
      jdk.jshell@17.0.1
      jdk.jsobject@17.0.1
      jdk.jstatd@17.0.1
      jdk.localedata@17.0.1
      jdk.management@17.0.1
      jdk.management.agent@17.0.1
      jdk.management.jfr@17.0.1
      jdk.naming.dns@17.0.1
      jdk.naming.rmi@17.0.1
      jdk.net@17.0.1
      jdk.nio.mapmode@17.0.1
      jdk.random@17.0.1
      jdk.sctp@17.0.1
      jdk.security.auth@17.0.1
      jdk.security.jgss@17.0.1
      jdk.unsupported@17.0.1
      jdk.unsupported.desktop@17.0.1
      jdk.xml.dom@17.0.1
      jdk.zipfs@17.0.1

      This sample Hello World application has very few dependencies. You can use jlink to create custom runtime images for your application. With these images you can run your application with only the required Red Hat build of OpenJDK dependencies.

  2. Determine module dependencies of your application using jdeps command:

    $ ./jdk-17/bin/jdeps -s ./sample/HelloWorld.class
    HelloWorld.class -> java.base
    HelloWorld.class -> java.logging
  3. Build a custom java runtime image for your application:

    $ ./jdk-17/bin/jlink --add-modules java.base,java.logging --output custom-runtime
    $ du -sh custom-runtime
    50M	custom-runtime/
    $ ./custom-runtime/bin/java --list-modules
    java.base@17.0.10
    java.logging@17.0.10
    Note

    Red Hat build of OpenJDK reduces the size of your custom Java runtime image from a 313 M runtime image to a 50 M runtime image.

  4. You can verify the reduced runtime of your application:

    $ ./custom-runtime/bin/java sample.HelloWorld
    Jan 14, 2021 12:13:26 PM HelloWorld main
    INFO: Hello World!

    The generated JRE with your sample application does not have any other dependencies.

    You can distribute your application together with your custom runtime for deployment.

    Note

    You must rebuild the custom Java runtime images for your application with every security update of your base Red Hat build of OpenJDK.