Chapter 8. Configuring network connections

AMQ Interconnect connects clients, servers, AMQP services, and other routers through network connections. To connect the router to other messaging endpoints, you configure listeners to accept connections, and connectors to make outbound connections. However, connections are bidirectional - once the connection is established, message traffic flows in both directions.

You can do the following:

8.1. Connecting routers

To connect a router to another router in the router network, you configure a connector on one router to create the outbound connection, and a listener on the other router to accept the connection.

Because connections are bidirectional, there should only be one connection between any pair of routers. Once the connection is established, message traffic flows in both directions.

This procedure describes how to connect a router to another router in the router network.

Procedure

  1. Determine the direction of the connection.

    Decide which router should be the "connector", and which should be the "listener". The direction of the connection establishment is sometimes arbitrary, but consider the following factors:

    IP network boundaries and firewalls
    Generally, inter-router connections should always be established from more private to more public. For example, to connect a router in a private IP network to another router in a public location (such as a public cloud provider), the router in the private network must be the "connector" and the router in the public location must be the "listener". This is because the public location cannot reach the private location by TCP/IP without the use of VPNs or other firewall features designed to allow public-to-private access.
    Network topology
    The topology of the router network may affect the direction in which connections should be established between the routers. For example, a star-topology that has a series of routers connected to one or two central "hub" routers should have "listeners" on the hub and "connectors" on the spokes. That way, new spoke routers may be added without changing the configuration of the hub.
  2. On the router that should create the connection, open the /etc/qpid-dispatch/qdrouterd.conf configuration file and add a connector.

    This example creates a connector for an inter-router connection between two interior routers:

    connector {
        host: 192.0.2.1
        port: 5001
        role: inter-router
        ...
    }
    host
    The IP address (IPv4 or IPv6) or hostname on which the router will connect.
    port
    The port number or symbolic service name on which the router will connect.
    role
    The role of the connection. If the connection is between two interior routers, specify inter-router. If the connection is between an interior router and an edge router, specify edge.
  3. On the router that should accept the connection establishment, open the /etc/qpid-dispatch/qdrouterd.conf configuration file and verify that an inter-router listener is configured.

    This example creates a listener to accept the connection establishment configured in the previous step:

    listener {
        host: 0.0.0.0
        port: 5001
        role: inter-router
        ...
    }
    host
    The IP address (IPv4 or IPv6) or hostname on which the router will listen.
    port
    The port number or symbolic service name on which the router will listen.
    role
    The role of the connection. If the connection is between two interior routers, specify inter-router. If the connection is between an interior router and an edge router, specify edge.
  4. If the router should connect to any other routers, repeat this procedure.

    Edge routers can only connect to interior routers. They cannot connect to other edge routers.

Additional resources

8.2. Listening for client connections

To enable a router to listen for and accept connections from AMQP clients, you configure a listener.

Once the connection is enabled on the router, clients can connect to it using the same methods they use to connect to a broker. From the client’s perspective, the router connection and link establishment are identical to a broker connection and link establishment.

Note

Instead of configuring a listener to listen for connections from the client, you can configure a connector to initiate connections to the client. In this case, the router will use the connector to initiate the connection, but it will not create any links. Links are only created by the peer that accepts the connection.

Procedure

  1. Open the /etc/qpid-dispatch/qdrouterd.conf configuration file.
  2. Configure a listener with the normal role.

    listener {
        host: primary.example.com
        port: 5672
        role: normal
        failoverUrls: secondary.example.com:20000, tertiary.example.com
        ...
    }
    host
    The IP address (IPv4 or IPv6) or hostname on which the router will listen.
    port
    The port number or symbolic service name on which the router will listen.
    role
    The role of the connection. Specify normal to indicate that this connection is used for message delivery for AMQP clients.
    failoverUrls (optional)

    A comma-separated list of backup URLs the client can use to reconnect if the established connection is lost. Each URL must use the following form:

    [(amqp|amqps|ws|wss)://](HOST|IP ADDRESS)[:port]

    For more information, see Section 8.4, “Understanding connection failover”.

Additional resources

8.3. Connecting to external AMQP containers

To enable a router to establish a connection to an external AMQP container (such as a message broker), you configure a connector.

Note

Instead of configuring a connector to initiate connections to the AMQP container, you can configure a listener to listen for connections from the AMQP container. However, in this case, the addresses on the AMQP container are available for routing only after the AMQP container has created a connection.

Procedure

  1. Open the /etc/qpid-dispatch/qdrouterd.conf configuration file.
  2. Configure a connector with the route-container role.

    This example creates a connector that initiates connections to a broker. The addresses on the broker will be available for routing once the router creates the connection and it is accepted by the broker.

    connector {
        name: my-broker
        host: 192.0.2.10
        port: 5672
        role: route-container
        ...
    }
    name
    The name of the connector. Specify a name that describes the entity to which the router will connect.
    host
    The IP address (IPv4 or IPv6) or hostname to which the router will connect.
    port
    The port number or symbolic service name to which the router will connect.
    role
    The role of the connection. Specify route-container to indicate that this connection is for an AMQP container that holds known addresses.

Additional resources

8.4. Understanding connection failover

If a connection between a router and a remote host fails, connection failover enables the connection to be reestablished automatically on an alternate URL.

A router can use connection failover for both incoming and outgoing connections.

Connection failover for outgoing connections

By default, when you configure a connector on a router, the router attempts to maintain an open network transport connection to the configured remote host and port. If the connection cannot be established, the router continually retries until the connection is established. If the connection is established and then fails, the router immediately attempts to reestablish the connection.

When the router establishes a connection to a remote host, the client may provide the router with alternate connection information (sometimes called failover lists) that it can use if the connection is lost. In these cases, rather than attempting to reestablish the connection on the same host, the router will also try the alternate hosts.

Connection failover is particularly useful when the router establishes outgoing connections to a cluster of servers providing the same service.

Connection failover for incoming connections
You can configure a listener on a router to provide a list of failover URLs to be used as backups. If the connection is lost, the client can use these failover URLs to reestablish the connection to the router.