Chapter 4. Configuration

This chapter describes the process for binding the AMQ OpenWire JMS implementation to your JMS application and setting configuration options.

JMS uses the Java Naming Directory Interface (JNDI) to register and look up API implementations and other resources. This enables you to write code to the JMS API without tying it to a particular implementation.

Configuration options are exposed as query parameters on the connection URI.

For more information about configuring AMQ OpenWire JMS, see the ActiveMQ user guide.

4.1. Configuring the JNDI initial context

JMS applications use a JNDI InitialContext object obtained from an InitialContextFactory to look up JMS objects such as the connection factory. AMQ OpenWire JMS provides an implementation of the InitialContextFactory in the org.apache.activemq.jndi.ActiveMQInitialContextFactory class.

The InitialContextFactory implementation is discovered when the InitialContext object is instantiated:

javax.naming.Context context = new javax.naming.InitialContext();

To find an implementation, JNDI must be configured in your environment. There are three ways of achieving this: using a file, using a system property, or using the initial context API.

Using a file

Create a file named and place it on the Java classpath. Add a property with the key java.naming.factory.initial.

Example: Setting the JNDI initial context factory using a file

java.naming.factory.initial = org.apache.activemq.jndi.ActiveMQInitialContextFactory

In Maven-based projects, the file is placed in the <project-dir>/src/main/resources directory.

Using a system property

Set the java.naming.factory.initial system property.

Example: Setting the JNDI initial context factory using a system property

$ java -Djava.naming.factory.initial=org.apache.activemq.jndi.ActiveMQInitialContextFactory ...

Using the initial context API

Use the JNDI initial context API to set properties programatically.

Example: Setting JNDI properties programatically

Hashtable<Object, Object> env = new Hashtable<>();

env.put("java.naming.factory.initial", "org.apache.activemq.jndi.ActiveMQInitialContextFactory");

InitialContext context = new InitialContext(env);

Note that you can use the same API to set the JNDI properties for connection factories, queues, and topics.

4.2. Configuring the connection factory

The JMS connection factory is the entry point for creating connections. It uses a connection URI that encodes your application-specific configuration settings.

To set the factory name and connection URI, create a property in the format below. You can store this configuration in a file or set the corresponding system property.

The JNDI property format for connection factories

connectionFactory.<lookup-name> = <connection-uri>

For example, this is how you might configure a factory named app1:

Example: Setting the connection factory in a file

connectionFactory.app1 = tcp://

You can then use the JNDI context to look up your configured connection factory using the name app1:

ConnectionFactory factory = (ConnectionFactory) context.lookup("app1");

4.3. Connection URIs

Connections are configured using a connection URI. The connection URI specifies the remote host, port, and a set of configuration options, which are set as query parameters. For more information about the available options, see Chapter 5, Configuration options.

The connection URI format


The scheme is tcp for unencrypted connections and ssl for SSL/TLS connections.

For example, the following is a connection URI that connects to host at port 61616 and sets the client ID to backend:

Example: A connection URI


Failover URIs

URIs used for reconnect and failover can contain multiple connection URIs. They take the following form:

The failover URI format


Transport options prefixed with nested. are applied to each connection URI in the list.

4.4. Configuring queue and topic names

JMS provides the option of using JNDI to look up deployment-specific queue and topic resources.

To set queue and topic names in JNDI, create properties in the following format. Either place this configuration in a file or set corresponding system properties.

The JNDI property format for queues and topics

queue.<lookup-name> = <queue-name>
topic.<lookup-name> = <topic-name>

For example, the following properties define the names jobs and notifications for two deployment-specific resources:

Example: Setting queue and topic names in a file = app1/work-items
topic.notifications = app1/updates

You can then look up the resources by their JNDI names:

Queue queue = (Queue) context.lookup("jobs");
Topic topic = (Topic) context.lookup("notifications");