Chapter 16. Configuring Routes

16.1. Route configuration

16.1.1. Creating an HTTP-based route

A route allows you to host your application at a public URL. It can either be secure or unsecured, depending on the network security configuration of your application. An HTTP-based route is an unsecured route that uses the basic HTTP routing protocol and exposes a service on an unsecured application port.

The following procedure describes how to create a simple HTTP-based route to a web application, using the hello-openshift application as an example.

Prerequisites

  • You installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • You are logged in as an administrator.
  • You have a web application that exposes a port and a TCP endpoint listening for traffic on the port.

Procedure

  1. Create a project called hello-openshift by running the following command:

    $ oc new-project hello-openshift
  2. Create a pod in the project by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift/origin/master/examples/hello-openshift/hello-pod.json
  3. Create a service called hello-openshift by running the following command:

    $ oc expose pod/hello-openshift
  4. Create an unsecured route to the hello-openshift application by running the following command:

    $ oc expose svc hello-openshift

    If you examine the resulting Route resource, it should look similar to the following:

    YAML definition of the created unsecured route:

    apiVersion: route.openshift.io/v1
    kind: Route
    metadata:
      name: hello-openshift
    spec:
      host: hello-openshift-hello-openshift.<Ingress_Domain> 1
      port:
        targetPort: 8080
      to:
        kind: Service
        name: hello-openshift

    1
    <Ingress_Domain> is the default ingress domain name.
    Note

    To display your default ingress domain, run the following command:

    $ oc get ingresses.config/cluster -o jsonpath={.spec.domain}

16.1.2. Configuring route timeouts

You can configure the default timeouts for an existing route when you have services in need of a low timeout, which is required for Service Level Availability (SLA) purposes, or a high timeout, for cases with a slow back end.

Prerequisites

  • You need a deployed Ingress Controller on a running cluster.

Procedure

  1. Using the oc annotate command, add the timeout to the route:

    $ oc annotate route <route_name> \
        --overwrite haproxy.router.openshift.io/timeout=<timeout><time_unit> 1
    1
    Supported time units are microseconds (us), milliseconds (ms), seconds (s), minutes (m), hours (h), or days (d).

    The following example sets a timeout of two seconds on a route named myroute:

    $ oc annotate route myroute --overwrite haproxy.router.openshift.io/timeout=2s

16.1.3. HTTP Strict Transport Security

HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS) policy is a security enhancement, which signals to the browser client that only HTTPS traffic is allowed on the route host. HSTS also optimizes web traffic by signaling HTTPS transport is required, without using HTTP redirects. HSTS is useful for speeding up interactions with websites.

When HSTS policy is enforced, HSTS adds a Strict Transport Security header to HTTP and HTTPS responses from the site. You can use the insecureEdgeTerminationPolicy value in a route to redirect HTTP to HTTPS. When HSTS is enforced, the client changes all requests from the HTTP URL to HTTPS before the request is sent, eliminating the need for a redirect.

Cluster administrators can configure HSTS to do the following:

  • Enable HSTS per-route
  • Disable HSTS per-route
  • Enforce HSTS per-domain, for a set of domains, or use namespace labels in combination with domains
Important

HSTS works only with secure routes, either edge-terminated or re-encrypt. The configuration is ineffective on HTTP or passthrough routes.

16.1.3.1. Enabling HTTP Strict Transport Security per-route

HTTP strict transport security (HSTS) is implemented in the HAProxy template and applied to edge and re-encrypt routes that have the haproxy.router.openshift.io/hsts_header annotation.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in to the cluster with a user with cluster-admin privileges.
  • You installed the oc CLI.

Procedure

  • To enable HSTS on a route, add the haproxy.router.openshift.io/hsts_header value to the edge-terminated or re-encrypt route:

    Example route configured with an annotation

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Route
    metadata:
      annotations:
        haproxy.router.openshift.io/hsts_header: max-age=31536000;includeSubDomains;preload 1 2 3
    ...
    spec:
      host: def.abc.com
      tls:
        termination: "reencrypt"
        ...
      wildcardPolicy: "Subdomain"

    1
    Required. max-age measures the length of time, in seconds, that the HSTS policy is in effect. If set to 0, it negates the policy.
    2
    Optional. When included, includeSubDomains tells the client that all subdomains of the host must have the same HSTS policy as the host.
    3
    Optional. When max-age is greater than 0, you can add preload in haproxy.router.openshift.io/hsts_header to allow external services to include this site in their HSTS preload lists. For example, sites such as Google can construct a list of sites that have preload set. Browsers can then use these lists to determine which sites they can communicate with over HTTPS, even before they have interacted with the site. Without preload set, browsers must have interacted with the site over HTTPS, at least once, to get the header.

16.1.3.2. Disabling HTTP Strict Transport Security per-route

To disable HTTP strict transport security (HSTS) per-route, you can set the max-age value in the route annotation to 0.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in to the cluster with a user with cluster-admin privileges.
  • You installed the oc CLI.

Procedure

  • To disable HSTS, set the max-age value in the route annotation to 0, by entering the following command:

    $ oc annotate route <rout_name> -n <namespace> --overwrite=true "haproxy.router.openshift.io/hsts_header"="max-age=0"
    Tip

    You can alternatively apply the following YAML to create the config map:

    Example of disabling HSTS per-route

    metadata:
      annotations:
        haproxy.router.openshift.io/hsts_header: max-age=0

  • To disable HSTS for every route in a namespace, enter the followinf command:

    $ oc annotate <route> --all -n <namespace> --overwrite=true "haproxy.router.openshift.io/hsts_header"="max-age=0"

Verification

  1. To query the annotation for all routes, enter the following command:

    $ oc get route  --all-namespaces -o go-template='{{range .items}}{{if .metadata.annotations}}{{$a := index .metadata.annotations "haproxy.router.openshift.io/hsts_header"}}{{$n := .metadata.name}}{{with $a}}Name: {{$n}} HSTS: {{$a}}{{"\n"}}{{else}}{{""}}{{end}}{{end}}{{end}}'

    Example output

    Name: routename HSTS: max-age=0

16.1.3.3. Enforcing HTTP Strict Transport Security per-domain

To enforce HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS) per-domain for secure routes, add a requiredHSTSPolicies record to the Ingress spec to capture the configuration of the HSTS policy.

If you configure a requiredHSTSPolicy to enforce HSTS, then any newly created route must be configured with a compliant HSTS policy annotation.

Note

To handle upgraded clusters with non-compliant HSTS routes, you can update the manifests at the source and apply the updates.

Note

You cannot use oc expose route or oc create route commands to add a route in a domain that enforces HSTS, because the API for these commands does not accept annotations.

Important

HSTS cannot be applied to secure, or non-TLS routes, even if HSTS is requested for all routes globally.

Prerequisites

  • You are logged in to the cluster with a user with cluster-admin privileges.
  • You installed the oc CLI.

Procedure

  1. Edit the Ingress config file:

    $ oc edit ingresses.config.openshift.io/cluster

    Example HSTS policy

    apiVersion: config.openshift.io/v1
    kind: Ingress
    metadata:
      name: cluster
    spec:
      domain: 'hello-openshift-default.apps.username.devcluster.openshift.com'
      requiredHSTSPolicies: 1
      - domainPatterns: 2
        - '*hello-openshift-default.apps.username.devcluster.openshift.com'
        - '*hello-openshift-default2.apps.username.devcluster.openshift.com'
        namespaceSelector: 3
          matchLabels:
            myPolicy: strict
        maxAge: 4
          smallestMaxAge: 1
          largestMaxAge: 31536000
        preloadPolicy: RequirePreload 5
        includeSubDomainsPolicy: RequireIncludeSubDomains 6
      - domainPatterns: 7
        - 'abc.example.com'
        - '*xyz.example.com'
        namespaceSelector:
          matchLabels: {}
        maxAge: {}
        preloadPolicy: NoOpinion
        includeSubDomainsPolicy: RequireNoIncludeSubDomains

    1
    Required. requiredHSTSPolicies are validated in order, and the first matching domainPatterns applies.
    2 7
    Required. You must specify at least one domainPatterns hostname. Any number of domains can be listed. You can include multiple sections of enforcing options for different domainPatterns.
    3
    Optional. If you include namespaceSelector, it must match the labels of the project where the routes reside, to enforce the set HSTS policy on the routes. Routes that only match the namespaceSelector and not the domainPatterns are not validated.
    4
    Required. max-age measures the length of time, in seconds, that the HSTS policy is in effect. This policy setting allows for a smallest and largest max-age to be enforced.
    • The largestMaxAge value must be between 0 and 2147483647. It can be left unspecified, which means no upper limit is enforced.
    • The smallestMaxAge value must be between 0 and 2147483647. Enter 0 to disable HSTS for troubleshooting, otherwise enter 1 if you never want HSTS to be disabled. It can be left unspecified, which means no lower limit is enforced.
    5
    Optional. Including preload in haproxy.router.openshift.io/hsts_header allows external services to include this site in their HSTS preload lists. Browsers can then use these lists to determine which sites they can communicate with over HTTPS, before they have interacted with the site. Without preload set, browsers need to interact at least once with the site to get the header. preload can be set with one of the following:
    • RequirePreload: preload is required by the RequiredHSTSPolicy.
    • RequireNoPreload: preload is forbidden by the RequiredHSTSPolicy.
    • NoOpinion: preload does not matter to the RequiredHSTSPolicy.
    6
    Optional. includeSubDomainsPolicy can be set with one of the following:
    • RequireIncludeSubDomains: includeSubDomains is required by the RequiredHSTSPolicy.
    • RequireNoIncludeSubDomains: includeSubDomains is forbidden by the RequiredHSTSPolicy.
    • NoOpinion: includeSubDomains does not matter to the RequiredHSTSPolicy.
  2. You can apply HSTS to all routes in the cluster or in a particular namespace by entering the oc annotate command.

    • To apply HSTS to all routes in the cluster, enter the oc annotate command. For example:

      $ oc annotate route --all --all-namespaces --overwrite=true "haproxy.router.openshift.io/hsts_header"="max-age=31536000"
    • To apply HSTS to all routes in a particular namespace, enter the oc annotate command. For example:

      $ oc annotate route --all -n my-namespace --overwrite=true "haproxy.router.openshift.io/hsts_header"="max-age=31536000"

Verification

You can review the HSTS policy you configured. For example:

  • To review the maxAge set for required HSTS policies, enter the following command:

    $ oc get clusteroperator/ingress -n openshift-ingress-operator -o jsonpath='{range .spec.requiredHSTSPolicies[*]}{.spec.requiredHSTSPolicies.maxAgePolicy.largestMaxAge}{"\n"}{end}'
  • To review the HSTS annotations on all routes, enter the following command:

    $ oc get route  --all-namespaces -o go-template='{{range .items}}{{if .metadata.annotations}}{{$a := index .metadata.annotations "haproxy.router.openshift.io/hsts_header"}}{{$n := .metadata.name}}{{with $a}}Name: {{$n}} HSTS: {{$a}}{{"\n"}}{{else}}{{""}}{{end}}{{end}}{{end}}'

    Example output

    Name: <_routename_> HSTS: max-age=31536000;preload;includeSubDomains

16.1.4. Troubleshooting throughput issues

Sometimes applications deployed through OpenShift Container Platform can cause network throughput issues such as unusually high latency between specific services.

Use the following methods to analyze performance issues if pod logs do not reveal any cause of the problem:

  • Use a packet analyzer, such as ping or tcpdump to analyze traffic between a pod and its node.

    For example, run the tcpdump tool on each pod while reproducing the behavior that led to the issue. Review the captures on both sides to compare send and receive timestamps to analyze the latency of traffic to and from a pod. Latency can occur in OpenShift Container Platform if a node interface is overloaded with traffic from other pods, storage devices, or the data plane.

    $ tcpdump -s 0 -i any -w /tmp/dump.pcap host <podip 1> && host <podip 2> 1
    1
    podip is the IP address for the pod. Run the oc get pod <pod_name> -o wide command to get the IP address of a pod.

    tcpdump generates a file at /tmp/dump.pcap containing all traffic between these two pods. Ideally, run the analyzer shortly before the issue is reproduced and stop the analyzer shortly after the issue is finished reproducing to minimize the size of the file. You can also run a packet analyzer between the nodes (eliminating the SDN from the equation) with:

    $ tcpdump -s 0 -i any -w /tmp/dump.pcap port 4789
  • Use a bandwidth measuring tool, such as iperf, to measure streaming throughput and UDP throughput. Run the tool from the pods first, then from the nodes, to locate any bottlenecks.

16.1.5. Using cookies to keep route statefulness

OpenShift Container Platform provides sticky sessions, which enables stateful application traffic by ensuring all traffic hits the same endpoint. However, if the endpoint pod terminates, whether through restart, scaling, or a change in configuration, this statefulness can disappear.

OpenShift Container Platform can use cookies to configure session persistence. The Ingress controller selects an endpoint to handle any user requests, and creates a cookie for the session. The cookie is passed back in the response to the request and the user sends the cookie back with the next request in the session. The cookie tells the Ingress Controller which endpoint is handling the session, ensuring that client requests use the cookie so that they are routed to the same pod.

Note

Cookies cannot be set on passthrough routes, because the HTTP traffic cannot be seen. Instead, a number is calculated based on the source IP address, which determines the backend.

If backends change, the traffic can be directed to the wrong server, making it less sticky. If you are using a load balancer, which hides source IP, the same number is set for all connections and traffic is sent to the same pod.

16.1.6. Path-based routes

Path-based routes specify a path component that can be compared against a URL, which requires that the traffic for the route be HTTP based. Thus, multiple routes can be served using the same hostname, each with a different path. Routers should match routes based on the most specific path to the least. However, this depends on the router implementation.

The following table shows example routes and their accessibility:

Table 16.1. Route availability

RouteWhen Compared toAccessible

www.example.com/test

www.example.com/test

Yes

www.example.com

No

www.example.com/test and www.example.com

www.example.com/test

Yes

www.example.com

Yes

www.example.com

www.example.com/text

Yes (Matched by the host, not the route)

www.example.com

Yes

An unsecured route with a path

apiVersion: v1
kind: Route
metadata:
  name: route-unsecured
spec:
  host: www.example.com
  path: "/test" 1
  to:
    kind: Service
    name: service-name

1
The path is the only added attribute for a path-based route.
Note

Path-based routing is not available when using passthrough TLS, as the router does not terminate TLS in that case and cannot read the contents of the request.

16.1.7. Route-specific annotations

The Ingress Controller can set the default options for all the routes it exposes. An individual route can override some of these defaults by providing specific configurations in its annotations. Red Hat does not support adding a route annotation to an operator-managed route.

Important

To create a whitelist with multiple source IPs or subnets, use a space-delimited list. Any other delimiter type causes the list to be ignored without a warning or error message.

Table 16.2. Route annotations

VariableDescriptionEnvironment variable used as default

haproxy.router.openshift.io/balance

Sets the load-balancing algorithm. Available options are random, source, roundrobin, and leastconn. The default value is leastconn.

ROUTER_TCP_BALANCE_SCHEME for passthrough routes. Otherwise, use ROUTER_LOAD_BALANCE_ALGORITHM.

haproxy.router.openshift.io/disable_cookies

Disables the use of cookies to track related connections. If set to 'true' or 'TRUE', the balance algorithm is used to choose which back-end serves connections for each incoming HTTP request.

 

router.openshift.io/cookie_name

Specifies an optional cookie to use for this route. The name must consist of any combination of upper and lower case letters, digits, "_", and "-". The default is the hashed internal key name for the route.

 

haproxy.router.openshift.io/pod-concurrent-connections

Sets the maximum number of connections that are allowed to a backing pod from a router.
Note: If there are multiple pods, each can have this many connections. If you have multiple routers, there is no coordination among them, each may connect this many times. If not set, or set to 0, there is no limit.

 

haproxy.router.openshift.io/rate-limit-connections

Setting 'true' or 'TRUE' enables rate limiting functionality which is implemented through stick-tables on the specific backend per route.
Note: Using this annotation provides basic protection against distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks.

 

haproxy.router.openshift.io/rate-limit-connections.concurrent-tcp

Limits the number of concurrent TCP connections made through the same source IP address. It accepts a numeric value.
Note: Using this annotation provides basic protection against distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks.

 

haproxy.router.openshift.io/rate-limit-connections.rate-http

Limits the rate at which a client with the same source IP address can make HTTP requests. It accepts a numeric value.
Note: Using this annotation provides basic protection against distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks.

 

haproxy.router.openshift.io/rate-limit-connections.rate-tcp

Limits the rate at which a client with the same source IP address can make TCP connections. It accepts a numeric value.
Note: Using this annotation provides basic protection against distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks.

 

haproxy.router.openshift.io/timeout

Sets a server-side timeout for the route. (TimeUnits)

ROUTER_DEFAULT_SERVER_TIMEOUT

haproxy.router.openshift.io/timeout-tunnel

This timeout applies to a tunnel connection, for example, WebSocket over cleartext, edge, reencrypt, or passthrough routes. With cleartext, edge, or reencrypt route types, this annotation is applied as a timeout tunnel with the existing timeout value. For the passthrough route types, the annotation takes precedence over any existing timeout value set.

ROUTER_DEFAULT_TUNNEL_TIMEOUT

ingresses.config/cluster ingress.operator.openshift.io/hard-stop-after

You can set either an IngressController or the ingress config . This annotation redeploys the router and configures the HA proxy to emit the haproxy hard-stop-after global option, which defines the maximum time allowed to perform a clean soft-stop.

ROUTER_HARD_STOP_AFTER

router.openshift.io/haproxy.health.check.interval

Sets the interval for the back-end health checks. (TimeUnits)

ROUTER_BACKEND_CHECK_INTERVAL

haproxy.router.openshift.io/ip_whitelist

Sets a whitelist for the route. The whitelist is a space-separated list of IP addresses and CIDR ranges for the approved source addresses. Requests from IP addresses that are not in the whitelist are dropped.

The maximum number of IP addresses and CIDR ranges allowed in a whitelist is 61.

 

haproxy.router.openshift.io/hsts_header

Sets a Strict-Transport-Security header for the edge terminated or re-encrypt route.

 

haproxy.router.openshift.io/log-send-hostname

Sets the hostname field in the Syslog header. Uses the hostname of the system. log-send-hostname is enabled by default if any Ingress API logging method, such as sidecar or Syslog facility, is enabled for the router.

 

haproxy.router.openshift.io/rewrite-target

Sets the rewrite path of the request on the backend.

 

router.openshift.io/cookie-same-site

Sets a value to restrict cookies. The values are:

Lax: cookies are transferred between the visited site and third-party sites.

Strict: cookies are restricted to the visited site.

None: cookies are restricted to the visited site.

This value is applicable to re-encrypt and edge routes only. For more information, see the SameSite cookies documentation.

 

haproxy.router.openshift.io/set-forwarded-headers

Sets the policy for handling the Forwarded and X-Forwarded-For HTTP headers per route. The values are:

append: appends the header, preserving any existing header. This is the default value.

replace: sets the header, removing any existing header.

never: never sets the header, but preserves any existing header.

if-none: sets the header if it is not already set.

ROUTER_SET_FORWARDED_HEADERS

Note

Environment variables cannot be edited.

Router timeout variables

TimeUnits are represented by a number followed by the unit: us *(microseconds), ms (milliseconds, default), s (seconds), m (minutes), h *(hours), d (days).

The regular expression is: [1-9][0-9]*(us\|ms\|s\|m\|h\|d).

VariableDefaultDescription

ROUTER_BACKEND_CHECK_INTERVAL

5000ms

Length of time between subsequent liveness checks on back ends.

ROUTER_CLIENT_FIN_TIMEOUT

1s

Controls the TCP FIN timeout period for the client connecting to the route. If the FIN sent to close the connection does not answer within the given time, HAProxy closes the connection. This is harmless if set to a low value and uses fewer resources on the router.

ROUTER_DEFAULT_CLIENT_TIMEOUT

30s

Length of time that a client has to acknowledge or send data.

ROUTER_DEFAULT_CONNECT_TIMEOUT

5s

The maximum connection time.

ROUTER_DEFAULT_SERVER_FIN_TIMEOUT

1s

Controls the TCP FIN timeout from the router to the pod backing the route.

ROUTER_DEFAULT_SERVER_TIMEOUT

30s

Length of time that a server has to acknowledge or send data.

ROUTER_DEFAULT_TUNNEL_TIMEOUT

1h

Length of time for TCP or WebSocket connections to remain open. This timeout period resets whenever HAProxy reloads.

ROUTER_SLOWLORIS_HTTP_KEEPALIVE

300s

Set the maximum time to wait for a new HTTP request to appear. If this is set too low, it can cause problems with browsers and applications not expecting a small keepalive value.

Some effective timeout values can be the sum of certain variables, rather than the specific expected timeout. For example, ROUTER_SLOWLORIS_HTTP_KEEPALIVE adjusts timeout http-keep-alive. It is set to 300s by default, but HAProxy also waits on tcp-request inspect-delay, which is set to 5s. In this case, the overall timeout would be 300s plus 5s.

ROUTER_SLOWLORIS_TIMEOUT

10s

Length of time the transmission of an HTTP request can take.

RELOAD_INTERVAL

5s

Allows the minimum frequency for the router to reload and accept new changes.

ROUTER_METRICS_HAPROXY_TIMEOUT

5s

Timeout for the gathering of HAProxy metrics.

A route setting custom timeout

apiVersion: v1
kind: Route
metadata:
  annotations:
    haproxy.router.openshift.io/timeout: 5500ms 1
...

1
Specifies the new timeout with HAProxy supported units (us, ms, s, m, h, d). If the unit is not provided, ms is the default.
Note

Setting a server-side timeout value for passthrough routes too low can cause WebSocket connections to timeout frequently on that route.

A route that allows only one specific IP address

metadata:
  annotations:
    haproxy.router.openshift.io/ip_whitelist: 192.168.1.10

A route that allows several IP addresses

metadata:
  annotations:
    haproxy.router.openshift.io/ip_whitelist: 192.168.1.10 192.168.1.11 192.168.1.12

A route that allows an IP address CIDR network

metadata:
  annotations:
    haproxy.router.openshift.io/ip_whitelist: 192.168.1.0/24

A route that allows both IP an address and IP address CIDR networks

metadata:
  annotations:
    haproxy.router.openshift.io/ip_whitelist: 180.5.61.153 192.168.1.0/24 10.0.0.0/8

A route specifying a rewrite target

apiVersion: v1
kind: Route
metadata:
  annotations:
    haproxy.router.openshift.io/rewrite-target: / 1
...

1
Sets / as rewrite path of the request on the backend.

Setting the haproxy.router.openshift.io/rewrite-target annotation on a route specifies that the Ingress Controller should rewrite paths in HTTP requests using this route before forwarding the requests to the backend application. The part of the request path that matches the path specified in spec.path is replaced with the rewrite target specified in the annotation.

The following table provides examples of the path rewriting behavior for various combinations of spec.path, request path, and rewrite target.

Table 16.3. rewrite-target examples:

Route.spec.pathRequest pathRewrite targetForwarded request path

/foo

/foo

/

/

/foo

/foo/

/

/

/foo

/foo/bar

/

/bar

/foo

/foo/bar/

/

/bar/

/foo

/foo

/bar

/bar

/foo

/foo/

/bar

/bar/

/foo

/foo/bar

/baz

/baz/bar

/foo

/foo/bar/

/baz

/baz/bar/

/foo/

/foo

/

N/A (request path does not match route path)

/foo/

/foo/

/

/

/foo/

/foo/bar

/

/bar

16.1.8. Configuring the route admission policy

Administrators and application developers can run applications in multiple namespaces with the same domain name. This is for organizations where multiple teams develop microservices that are exposed on the same hostname.

Warning

Allowing claims across namespaces should only be enabled for clusters with trust between namespaces, otherwise a malicious user could take over a hostname. For this reason, the default admission policy disallows hostname claims across namespaces.

Prerequisites

  • Cluster administrator privileges.

Procedure

  • Edit the .spec.routeAdmission field of the ingresscontroller resource variable using the following command:

    $ oc -n openshift-ingress-operator patch ingresscontroller/default --patch '{"spec":{"routeAdmission":{"namespaceOwnership":"InterNamespaceAllowed"}}}' --type=merge

    Sample Ingress Controller configuration

    spec:
      routeAdmission:
        namespaceOwnership: InterNamespaceAllowed
    ...

    Tip

    You can alternatively apply the following YAML to configure the route admission policy:

    apiVersion: operator.openshift.io/v1
    kind: IngressController
    metadata:
      name: default
      namespace: openshift-ingress-operator
    spec:
      routeAdmission:
        namespaceOwnership: InterNamespaceAllowed

16.1.9. Creating a route through an Ingress object

Some ecosystem components have an integration with Ingress resources but not with route resources. To cover this case, OpenShift Container Platform automatically creates managed route objects when an Ingress object is created. These route objects are deleted when the corresponding Ingress objects are deleted.

Procedure

  1. Define an Ingress object in the OpenShift Container Platform console or by entering the oc create command:

    YAML Definition of an Ingress

    apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1
    kind: Ingress
    metadata:
      name: frontend
      annotations:
        route.openshift.io/termination: "reencrypt" 1
    spec:
      rules:
      - host: www.example.com
        http:
          paths:
          - backend:
              serviceName: frontend
              servicePort: 443
      tls:
      - hosts:
        - www.example.com
        secretName: example-com-tls-certificate

    1
    The route.openshift.io/termination annotation can be used to configure the spec.tls.termination field of the Route as Ingress has no field for this. The accepted values are edge, passthrough and reencrypt. All other values are silently ignored. When unset, edge is used.
    1. If you specify the passthrough value in the route.openshift.io/termination annotation, set path to '' and pathType to ImplementationSpecific in the spec:

        spec:
          rules:
          - host: www.example.com
            http:
              paths:
              - path: ''
                pathType: ImplementationSpecific
              - backend:
                  serviceName: frontend
                  servicePort: 443
    $ oc apply -f ingress.yaml
  2. List your routes:

    $ oc get routes

    The result includes an autogenerated route whose name starts with frontend-:

    NAME             HOST/PORT         PATH    SERVICES    PORT    TERMINATION          WILDCARD
    frontend-gnztq   www.example.com           frontend    443     reencrypt/Redirect   None

    If you inspect this route, it looks this:

    YAML Definition of an autogenerated route

    apiVersion: route.openshift.io/v1
    kind: Route
    metadata:
      name: frontend-gnztq
      ownerReferences:
      - apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1
        controller: true
        kind: Ingress
        name: frontend
        uid: 4e6c59cc-704d-4f44-b390-617d879033b6
    spec:
      host: www.example.com
      to:
        kind: Service
        name: frontend
      tls:
        certificate: |
          -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
          [...]
          -----END CERTIFICATE-----
        insecureEdgeTerminationPolicy: Redirect
        key: |
          -----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
          [...]
          -----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
        termination: reencrypt

16.1.10. Configuring the OpenShift Container Platform Ingress Controller for dual-stack networking

If your OpenShift Container Platform cluster is configured for IPv4 and IPv6 dual-stack networking, your cluster is externally reachable by OpenShift Container Platform routes.

The Ingress Controller automatically serves services that have both IPv4 and IPv6 endpoints, but you can configure the Ingress Controller for single-stack or dual-stack services.

Prerequisites

  • You deployed an OpenShift Container Platform cluster on bare metal.
  • You installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).

Procedure

  1. To have the Ingress Controller serve traffic over IPv4/IPv6 to a workload, you can create a service YAML file or modify an existing service YAML file by setting the ipFamilies and ipFamilyPolicy fields. For example:

    Sample service YAML file

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Service
    metadata:
      creationTimestamp: yyyy-mm-ddT00:00:00Z
      labels:
        name: <service_name>
        manager: kubectl-create
        operation: Update
        time: yyyy-mm-ddT00:00:00Z
      name: <service_name>
      namespace: <namespace_name>
      resourceVersion: "<resource_version_number>"
      selfLink: "/api/v1/namespaces/<namespace_name>/services/<service_name>"
      uid: <uid_number>
    spec:
      clusterIP: 172.30.0.0/16
      clusterIPs: 1
      - 172.30.0.0/16
      - <second_IP_address>
      ipFamilies: 2
      - IPv4
      - IPv6
      ipFamilyPolicy: RequireDualStack 3
      ports:
      - port: 8080
        protocol: TCP
        targetport: 8080
      selector:
        name: <namespace_name>
      sessionAffinity: None
      type: ClusterIP
    status:
      loadbalancer: {}

    1
    In a dual-stack instance, there are two different clusterIPs provided.
    2
    For a single-stack instance, enter IPv4 or IPv6. For a dual-stack instance, enter both IPv4 and IPv6.
    3
    For a single-stack instance, enter SingleStack. For a dual-stack instance, enter RequireDualStack.

    These resources generate corresponding endpoints. The Ingress Controller now watches endpointslices.

  2. To view endpoints, enter the following command:

    $ oc get endpoints
  3. To view endpointslices, enter the following command:

    $ oc get endpointslices

16.2. Secured routes

Secure routes provide the ability to use several types of TLS termination to serve certificates to the client. The following sections describe how to create re-encrypt, edge, and passthrough routes with custom certificates.

Important

If you create routes in Microsoft Azure through public endpoints, the resource names are subject to restriction. You cannot create resources that use certain terms. For a list of terms that Azure restricts, see Resolve reserved resource name errors in the Azure documentation.

16.2.1. Creating a re-encrypt route with a custom certificate

You can configure a secure route using reencrypt TLS termination with a custom certificate by using the oc create route command.

Prerequisites

  • You must have a certificate/key pair in PEM-encoded files, where the certificate is valid for the route host.
  • You may have a separate CA certificate in a PEM-encoded file that completes the certificate chain.
  • You must have a separate destination CA certificate in a PEM-encoded file.
  • You must have a service that you want to expose.
Note

Password protected key files are not supported. To remove a passphrase from a key file, use the following command:

$ openssl rsa -in password_protected_tls.key -out tls.key

Procedure

This procedure creates a Route resource with a custom certificate and reencrypt TLS termination. The following assumes that the certificate/key pair are in the tls.crt and tls.key files in the current working directory. You must also specify a destination CA certificate to enable the Ingress Controller to trust the service’s certificate. You may also specify a CA certificate if needed to complete the certificate chain. Substitute the actual path names for tls.crt, tls.key, cacert.crt, and (optionally) ca.crt. Substitute the name of the Service resource that you want to expose for frontend. Substitute the appropriate hostname for www.example.com.

  • Create a secure Route resource using reencrypt TLS termination and a custom certificate:

    $ oc create route reencrypt --service=frontend --cert=tls.crt --key=tls.key --dest-ca-cert=destca.crt --ca-cert=ca.crt --hostname=www.example.com

    If you examine the resulting Route resource, it should look similar to the following:

    YAML Definition of the Secure Route

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Route
    metadata:
      name: frontend
    spec:
      host: www.example.com
      to:
        kind: Service
        name: frontend
      tls:
        termination: reencrypt
        key: |-
          -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----
          [...]
          -----END PRIVATE KEY-----
        certificate: |-
          -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
          [...]
          -----END CERTIFICATE-----
        caCertificate: |-
          -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
          [...]
          -----END CERTIFICATE-----
        destinationCACertificate: |-
          -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
          [...]
          -----END CERTIFICATE-----

    See oc create route reencrypt --help for more options.

16.2.2. Creating an edge route with a custom certificate

You can configure a secure route using edge TLS termination with a custom certificate by using the oc create route command. With an edge route, the Ingress Controller terminates TLS encryption before forwarding traffic to the destination pod. The route specifies the TLS certificate and key that the Ingress Controller uses for the route.

Prerequisites

  • You must have a certificate/key pair in PEM-encoded files, where the certificate is valid for the route host.
  • You may have a separate CA certificate in a PEM-encoded file that completes the certificate chain.
  • You must have a service that you want to expose.
Note

Password protected key files are not supported. To remove a passphrase from a key file, use the following command:

$ openssl rsa -in password_protected_tls.key -out tls.key

Procedure

This procedure creates a Route resource with a custom certificate and edge TLS termination. The following assumes that the certificate/key pair are in the tls.crt and tls.key files in the current working directory. You may also specify a CA certificate if needed to complete the certificate chain. Substitute the actual path names for tls.crt, tls.key, and (optionally) ca.crt. Substitute the name of the service that you want to expose for frontend. Substitute the appropriate hostname for www.example.com.

  • Create a secure Route resource using edge TLS termination and a custom certificate.

    $ oc create route edge --service=frontend --cert=tls.crt --key=tls.key --ca-cert=ca.crt --hostname=www.example.com

    If you examine the resulting Route resource, it should look similar to the following:

    YAML Definition of the Secure Route

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Route
    metadata:
      name: frontend
    spec:
      host: www.example.com
      to:
        kind: Service
        name: frontend
      tls:
        termination: edge
        key: |-
          -----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----
          [...]
          -----END PRIVATE KEY-----
        certificate: |-
          -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
          [...]
          -----END CERTIFICATE-----
        caCertificate: |-
          -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
          [...]
          -----END CERTIFICATE-----

    See oc create route edge --help for more options.

16.2.3. Creating a passthrough route

You can configure a secure route using passthrough termination by using the oc create route command. With passthrough termination, encrypted traffic is sent straight to the destination without the router providing TLS termination. Therefore no key or certificate is required on the route.

Prerequisites

  • You must have a service that you want to expose.

Procedure

  • Create a Route resource:

    $ oc create route passthrough route-passthrough-secured --service=frontend --port=8080

    If you examine the resulting Route resource, it should look similar to the following:

    A Secured Route Using Passthrough Termination

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Route
    metadata:
      name: route-passthrough-secured 1
    spec:
      host: www.example.com
      port:
        targetPort: 8080
      tls:
        termination: passthrough 2
        insecureEdgeTerminationPolicy: None 3
      to:
        kind: Service
        name: frontend

    1
    The name of the object, which is limited to 63 characters.
    2
    The termination field is set to passthrough. This is the only required tls field.
    3
    Optional insecureEdgeTerminationPolicy. The only valid values are None, Redirect, or empty for disabled.

    The destination pod is responsible for serving certificates for the traffic at the endpoint. This is currently the only method that can support requiring client certificates, also known as two-way authentication.