Chapter 8. Deploying installer-provisioned clusters on bare metal

8.1. Overview

Installer-provisioned installation provides support for installing OpenShift Container Platform on bare metal nodes. This guide provides a methodology to achieving a successful installation.

During installer-provisioned installation on bare metal, the installer on the bare metal node labeled as provisioner creates a bootstrap virtual machine (VM). The role of the bootstrap VM is to assist in the process of deploying an OpenShift Container Platform cluster. The bootstrap VM connects to the baremetal network and to the provisioning network, if present, via the network bridges.

When the installation of OpenShift Container Platform control plane nodes is complete and fully operational, the installer destroys the bootstrap VM automatically and moves the virtual IP addresses (VIPs) to the control plane nodes.

Important

The provisioning network is optional, but it is required for PXE booting. If you deploy without a provisioning network, you must use a virtual media BMC addressing option such as redfish-virtualmedia or idrac-virtualmedia.

8.2. Prerequisites

Installer-provisioned installation of OpenShift Container Platform requires:

  1. One provisioner node with Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 8.x installed.
  2. Three control plane nodes.
  3. Baseboard Management Controller (BMC) access to each node.
  4. At least one network:

    1. One required routable network
    2. One optional network for provisioning nodes; and,
    3. One optional management network.

Before starting an installer-provisioned installation of OpenShift Container Platform, ensure the hardware environment meets the following requirements.

8.2.1. Node requirements

Installer-provisioned installation involves a number of hardware node requirements:

  • CPU architecture: All nodes must use x86_64 CPU architecture.
  • Similar nodes: Red Hat recommends nodes have an identical configuration per role. That is, Red Hat recommends nodes be the same brand and model with the same CPU, memory, and storage configuration.
  • Baseboard Management Controller: The provisioner node must be able to access the baseboard management controller (BMC) of each OpenShift Container Platform cluster node. You may use IPMI, Redfish, or a proprietary protocol.
  • Latest generation: Nodes must be of the most recent generation. Installer-provisioned installation relies on BMC protocols, which must be compatible across nodes. Additionally, RHEL 8 ships with the most recent drivers for RAID controllers. Ensure that the nodes are recent enough to support RHEL 8 for the provisioner node and RHCOS 8 for the control plane and worker nodes.
  • Registry node: (Optional) If setting up a disconnected mirrored registry, it is recommended the registry reside in its own node.
  • Provisioner node: Installer-provisioned installation requires one provisioner node.
  • Control plane: Installer-provisioned installation requires three control plane nodes for high availability.
  • Worker nodes: While not required, a typical production cluster has one or more worker nodes. Smaller clusters are more resource efficient for administrators and developers during development, production, and testing.
  • Network interfaces: Each node must have at least one 10GB network interface for the routable baremetal network. Each node must have one 10GB network interface for a provisioning network when using the provisioning network for deployment. Using the provisioning network is the default configuration. Network interface names must follow the same naming convention across all nodes. For example, the first NIC name on a node, such as eth0 or eno1, must be the same name on all of the other nodes. The same principle applies to the remaining NICs on each node.
  • Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI): Installer-provisioned installation requires UEFI boot on all OpenShift Container Platform nodes when using IPv6 addressing on the provisioning network. In addition, UEFI Device PXE Settings must be set to use the IPv6 protocol on the provisioning network NIC, but omitting the provisioning network removes this requirement.
  • Secure Boot: Many production scenarios require nodes with Secure Boot enabled to verify the node only boots with trusted software, such as UEFI firmware drivers, EFI applications, and the operating system. You may deploy with Secure Boot manually or managed.

    1. Manually: To deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster with Secure Boot manually, you must enable UEFI boot mode and Secure Boot on each control plane node and each worker node. Red Hat supports Secure Boot with manually enabled UEFI and Secure Boot only when installer-provisioned installations use Redfish virtual media. See "Configuring nodes for Secure Boot manually" in the "Configuring nodes" section for additional details.
    2. Managed: To deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster with managed Secure Boot, you must set the bootMode value to UEFISecureBoot in the install-config.yaml file. Red Hat only supports installer-provisioned installation with managed Secure Boot on 10th generation HPE hardware and 13th generation Dell hardware running firmware version 2.75.75.75 or greater. Deploying with managed Secure Boot does not require Redfish virtual media. See "Configuring managed Secure Boot" in the "Setting up the environment for an OpenShift installation" section for details.

      Note

      Red Hat does not support Secure Boot with self-generated keys.

8.2.2. Firmware requirements for installing with virtual media

The installer for installer-provisioned OpenShift Container Platform clusters validates the hardware and firmware compatibility with Redfish virtual media. The following table lists supported firmware for installer-provisioned OpenShift Container Platform clusters deployed with Redfish virtual media.

Table 8.1. Firmware compatibility for Redfish virtual media

HardwareModelManagementFirmware Versions

HP

10th Generation

iLO5

N/A

9th Generation

iLO4

N/A

Dell

14th Generation

iDRAC 9

v4.20.20.20 - 04.40.00.00

13th Generation

iDRAC 8

v2.75.75.75+

Note

See the hardware documentation for the nodes or contact the hardware vendor for information on updating the firmware.

There are no known firmware limitations for HP servers.

For Dell servers, ensure the OpenShift Container Platform cluster nodes have AutoAttach Enabled through the iDRAC console. The menu path is: ConfigurationVirtual MediaAttach ModeAutoAttach . With iDRAC 9 firmware version 04.40.00.00, the Virtual Console plug-in defaults to eHTML5, which causes problems with the InsertVirtualMedia workflow. Set the plug-in to HTML5 to avoid this issue. The menu path is: ConfigurationVirtual consolePlug-in TypeHTML5 .

Important

The installer will not initiate installation on a node if the node firmware is below the foregoing versions when installing with virtual media.

8.2.3. Network requirements

Installer-provisioned installation of OpenShift Container Platform involves several network requirements. First, installer-provisioned installation involves an optional non-routable provisioning network for provisioning the operating system on each bare metal node. Second, installer-provisioned installation involves a routable baremetal network.

Configuring NICs

OpenShift Container Platform deploys with two networks:

  • provisioning: The provisioning network is an optional non-routable network used for provisioning the underlying operating system on each node that is a part of the OpenShift Container Platform cluster. The network interface for the provisioning network on each cluster node must have the BIOS or UEFI configured to PXE boot.

    The provisioningNetworkInterface configuration setting specifies the provisioning network NIC name on the control plane nodes, which must be identical on the control plane nodes. The bootMACAddress configuration setting provides a means to specify a particular NIC on each node for the provisioning network.

    The provisioning network is optional, but it is required for PXE booting. If you deploy without a provisioning network, you must use a virtual media BMC addressing option such as redfish-virtualmedia or idrac-virtualmedia.

  • baremetal: The baremetal network is a routable network. You can use any NIC to interface with the baremetal network provided the NIC is not configured to use the provisioning network.
Important

When using a VLAN, each NIC must be on a separate VLAN corresponding to the appropriate network.

Configuring the DNS server

Clients access the OpenShift Container Platform cluster nodes over the baremetal network. A network administrator must configure a subdomain or subzone where the canonical name extension is the cluster name.

<cluster_name>.<domain>

For example:

test-cluster.example.com

OpenShift Container Platform includes functionality that uses cluster membership information to generate A/AAAA records. This resolves the node names to their IP addresses. After the nodes are registered with the API, the cluster can disperse node information without using CoreDNS-mDNS. This eliminates the network traffic associated with multicast DNS.

Important

You must create a DNS entry for the api.<cluster_name>.<domain> domain name on the external DNS because removing CoreDNS causes the local entry to disappear. Failure to create a DNS record for the api.<cluster_name>.<domain> domain name in the external DNS server precludes worker nodes from joining the cluster.

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) requirements

By default, installer-provisioned installation deploys ironic-dnsmasq with DHCP enabled for the provisioning network. No other DHCP servers should be running on the provisioning network when the provisioningNetwork configuration setting is set to managed, which is the default value. If you have a DHCP server running on the provisioning network, you must set the provisioningNetwork configuration setting to unmanaged in the install-config.yaml file.

Network administrators must reserve IP addresses for each node in the OpenShift Container Platform cluster for the baremetal network on an external DHCP server.

Reserving IP addresses for nodes with the DHCP server

For the baremetal network, a network administrator must reserve a number of IP addresses, including:

  1. Two virtual IP addresses.

    • One IP address for the API endpoint
    • One IP address for the wildcard ingress endpoint
  2. One IP address for the provisioner node.
  3. One IP address for each control plane (master) node.
  4. One IP address for each worker node, if applicable.
Reserving IP addresses so they become static IP addresses

Some administrators prefer to use static IP addresses so that each node’s IP address remains constant in the absence of a DHCP server. To use static IP addresses in the OpenShift Container Platform cluster, reserve the IP addresses with an infinite lease. During deployment, the installer will reconfigure the NICs from DHCP assigned addresses to static IP addresses. NICs with DHCP leases that are not infinite will remain configured to use DHCP.

Networking between external load balancers and control plane nodes

External load balancing services and the control plane nodes must run on the same L2 network, and on the same VLAN when using VLANs to route traffic between the load balancing services and the control plane nodes.

The following table provides an exemplary embodiment of fully qualified domain names. The API and Nameserver addresses begin with canonical name extensions. The hostnames of the control plane and worker nodes are exemplary, so you can use any host naming convention you prefer.

UsageHost NameIP

API

api.<cluster_name>.<domain>

<ip>

Ingress LB (apps)

*.apps.<cluster_name>.<domain>

<ip>

Provisioner node

provisioner.<cluster_name>.<domain>

<ip>

Master-0

openshift-master-0.<cluster_name>.<domain>

<ip>

Master-1

openshift-master-1.<cluster_name>-.<domain>

<ip>

Master-2

openshift-master-2.<cluster_name>.<domain>

<ip>

Worker-0

openshift-worker-0.<cluster_name>.<domain>

<ip>

Worker-1

openshift-worker-1.<cluster_name>.<domain>

<ip>

Worker-n

openshift-worker-n.<cluster_name>.<domain>

<ip>

Network Time Protocol (NTP)

Each OpenShift Container Platform node in the cluster must have access to an NTP server. OpenShift Container Platform nodes use NTP to synchronize their clocks. For example, cluster nodes use SSL certificates that require validation, which might fail if the date and time between the nodes are not in sync.

Important

Define a consistent clock date and time format in each cluster node’s BIOS settings, or installation might fail.

You may reconfigure the control plane nodes to act as NTP servers on disconnected clusters, and reconfigure worker nodes to retrieve time from the control plane nodes.

State-driven network configuration requirements (Technology Preview)

OpenShift Container Platform supports additional post-installation state-driven network configuration on the secondary network interfaces of cluster nodes using kubernetes-nmstate. For example, system administrators might configure a secondary network interface on cluster nodes after installation for a storage network.

Note

Configuration must occur before scheduling pods.

State-driven network configuration requires installing kubernetes-nmstate, and also requires Network Manager running on the cluster nodes. See OpenShift Virtualization > Kubernetes NMState (Tech Preview) for additional details.

8.2.4. Configuring nodes

Configuring nodes when using the provisioning network

Each node in the cluster requires the following configuration for proper installation.

Warning

A mismatch between nodes will cause an installation failure.

While the cluster nodes can contain more than two NICs, the installation process only focuses on the first two NICs:

NICNetworkVLAN

NIC1

provisioning

<provisioning_vlan>

NIC2

baremetal

<baremetal_vlan>

NIC1 is a non-routable network (provisioning) that is only used for the installation of the OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

The Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 8.x installation process on the provisioner node might vary. To install Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 8.x using a local Satellite server or a PXE server, PXE-enable NIC2.

PXEBoot order

NIC1 PXE-enabled provisioning network

1

NIC2 baremetal network. PXE-enabled is optional.

2

Note

Ensure PXE is disabled on all other NICs.

Configure the control plane and worker nodes as follows:

PXEBoot order

NIC1 PXE-enabled (provisioning network)

1

Configuring nodes without the provisioning network

The installation process requires one NIC:

NICNetworkVLAN

NICx

baremetal

<baremetal_vlan>

NICx is a routable network (baremetal) that is used for the installation of the OpenShift Container Platform cluster, and routable to the internet.

Important

The provisioning network is optional, but it is required for PXE booting. If you deploy without a provisioning network, you must use a virtual media BMC addressing option such as redfish-virtualmedia or idrac-virtualmedia.

Configuring nodes for Secure Boot manually

Secure Boot prevents a node from booting unless it verifies the node is using only trusted software, such as UEFI firmware drivers, EFI applications, and the operating system.

Note

Red Hat only supports manually configured Secure Boot when deploying with Redfish virtual media.

To enable Secure Boot manually, refer to the hardware guide for the node and execute the following:

  1. Boot the node and enter the BIOS menu.
  2. Set the node’s boot mode to UEFI Enabled.
  3. Enable Secure Boot.
Important

Red Hat does not support Secure Boot with self-generated keys.

8.2.5. Out-of-band management

Nodes will typically have an additional NIC used by the Baseboard Management Controllers (BMCs). These BMCs must be accessible from the provisioner node.

Each node must be accessible via out-of-band management. When using an out-of-band management network, the provisioner node requires access to the out-of-band management network for a successful OpenShift Container Platform 4 installation.

The out-of-band management setup is out of scope for this document. We recommend setting up a separate management network for out-of-band management. However, using the provisioning network or the baremetal network are valid options.

8.2.6. Required data for installation

Prior to the installation of the OpenShift Container Platform cluster, gather the following information from all cluster nodes:

  • Out-of-band management IP

    • Examples

      • Dell (iDRAC) IP
      • HP (iLO) IP
      • Fujitsu (iRMC) IP

When using the provisioning network

  • NIC1 (provisioning) MAC address
  • NIC2 (baremetal) MAC address

When omitting the provisioning network

  • NICx (baremetal) MAC address

8.2.7. Validation checklist for nodes

When using the provisioning network

  • ❏ NIC1 VLAN is configured for the provisioning network. (optional)
  • ❏ NIC1 is PXE-enabled on the provisioner, control plane (master), and worker nodes when using a provisioning network. (optional)
  • ❏ NIC2 VLAN is configured for the baremetal network.
  • ❏ PXE has been disabled on all other NICs.
  • ❏ Control plane and worker nodes are configured.
  • ❏ All nodes accessible via out-of-band management.
  • ❏ A separate management network has been created. (optional)
  • ❏ Required data for installation.

When omitting the provisioning network

  • ❏ NICx VLAN is configured for the baremetal network.
  • ❏ Control plane and worker nodes are configured.
  • ❏ All nodes accessible via out-of-band management.
  • ❏ A separate management network has been created. (optional)
  • ❏ Required data for installation.

8.3. Setting up the environment for an OpenShift installation

8.3.1. Installing RHEL on the provisioner node

With the networking configuration complete, the next step is to install RHEL 8.x on the provisioner node. The installer uses the provisioner node as the orchestrator while installing the OpenShift Container Platform cluster. For the purposes of this document, installing RHEL on the provisioner node is out of scope. However, options include but are not limited to using a RHEL Satellite server, PXE, or installation media.

8.3.2. Preparing the provisioner node for OpenShift Container Platform installation

Perform the following steps to prepare the environment.

Procedure

  1. Log in to the provisioner node via ssh.
  2. Create a non-root user (kni) and provide that user with sudo privileges:

    # useradd kni
    # passwd kni
    # echo "kni ALL=(root) NOPASSWD:ALL" | tee -a /etc/sudoers.d/kni
    # chmod 0440 /etc/sudoers.d/kni
  3. Create an ssh key for the new user:

    # su - kni -c "ssh-keygen -t ed25519 -f /home/kni/.ssh/id_rsa -N ''"
  4. Log in as the new user on the provisioner node:

    # su - kni
    $
  5. Use Red Hat Subscription Manager to register the provisioner node:

    $ sudo subscription-manager register --username=<user> --password=<pass> --auto-attach
    $ sudo subscription-manager repos --enable=rhel-8-for-x86_64-appstream-rpms --enable=rhel-8-for-x86_64-baseos-rpms
    Note

    For more information about Red Hat Subscription Manager, see Using and Configuring Red Hat Subscription Manager.

  6. Install the following packages:

    $ sudo dnf install -y libvirt qemu-kvm mkisofs python3-devel jq ipmitool
  7. Modify the user to add the libvirt group to the newly created user:

    $ sudo usermod --append --groups libvirt <user>
  8. Restart firewalld and enable the http service:

    $ sudo systemctl start firewalld
    $ sudo firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-service=http --permanent
    $ sudo firewall-cmd --reload
  9. Start and enable the libvirtd service:

    $ sudo systemctl enable libvirtd --now
  10. Create the default storage pool and start it:

    $ sudo virsh pool-define-as --name default --type dir --target /var/lib/libvirt/images
    $ sudo virsh pool-start default
    $ sudo virsh pool-autostart default
  11. Configure networking.

    Note

    You can also configure networking from the web console.

    Export the baremetal network NIC name:

    $ export PUB_CONN=<baremetal_nic_name>

    Configure the baremetal network:

    $ sudo nohup bash -c "
        nmcli con down \"$PUB_CONN\"
        nmcli con delete \"$PUB_CONN\"
        # RHEL 8.1 appends the word \"System\" in front of the connection, delete in case it exists
        nmcli con down \"System $PUB_CONN\"
        nmcli con delete \"System $PUB_CONN\"
        nmcli connection add ifname baremetal type bridge con-name baremetal
        nmcli con add type bridge-slave ifname \"$PUB_CONN\" master baremetal
        pkill dhclient;dhclient baremetal
    "

    If you are deploying with a provisioning network, export the provisioning network NIC name:

    $ export PROV_CONN=<prov_nic_name>

    If you are deploying with a provisioning network, configure the provisioning network:

    $ sudo nohup bash -c "
        nmcli con down \"$PROV_CONN\"
        nmcli con delete \"$PROV_CONN\"
        nmcli connection add ifname provisioning type bridge con-name provisioning
        nmcli con add type bridge-slave ifname \"$PROV_CONN\" master provisioning
        nmcli connection modify provisioning ipv6.addresses fd00:1101::1/64 ipv6.method manual
        nmcli con down provisioning
        nmcli con up provisioning
    "
    Note

    The ssh connection might disconnect after executing these steps.

    The IPv6 address can be any address as long as it is not routable via the baremetal network.

    Ensure that UEFI is enabled and UEFI PXE settings are set to the IPv6 protocol when using IPv6 addressing.

  12. ssh back into the provisioner node (if required).

    # ssh kni@provisioner.<cluster-name>.<domain>
  13. Verify the connection bridges have been properly created.

    $ sudo nmcli con show
    NAME               UUID                                  TYPE      DEVICE
    baremetal          4d5133a5-8351-4bb9-bfd4-3af264801530  bridge    baremetal
    provisioning       43942805-017f-4d7d-a2c2-7cb3324482ed  bridge    provisioning
    virbr0             d9bca40f-eee1-410b-8879-a2d4bb0465e7  bridge    virbr0
    bridge-slave-eno1  76a8ed50-c7e5-4999-b4f6-6d9014dd0812  ethernet  eno1
    bridge-slave-eno2  f31c3353-54b7-48de-893a-02d2b34c4736  ethernet  eno2
  14. Create a pull-secret.txt file.

    $ vim pull-secret.txt

    In a web browser, navigate to Install on Bare Metal with user-provisioned infrastructure, and scroll down to the Downloads section. Click Copy pull secret. Paste the contents into the pull-secret.txt file and save the contents in the kni user’s home directory.

8.3.3. Retrieving the OpenShift Container Platform installer

Use the latest-4.x version of the installer to deploy the latest generally available version of OpenShift Container Platform:

$ export VERSION=latest-4.8
export RELEASE_IMAGE=$(curl -s https://mirror.openshift.com/pub/openshift-v4/clients/ocp/$VERSION/release.txt | grep 'Pull From: quay.io' | awk -F ' ' '{print $3}')

8.3.4. Extracting the OpenShift Container Platform installer

After retrieving the installer, the next step is to extract it.

Procedure

  1. Set the environment variables:

    $ export cmd=openshift-baremetal-install
    $ export pullsecret_file=~/pull-secret.txt
    $ export extract_dir=$(pwd)
  2. Get the oc binary:

    $ curl -s https://mirror.openshift.com/pub/openshift-v4/clients/ocp/$VERSION/openshift-client-linux.tar.gz | tar zxvf - oc
  3. Extract the installer:

    $ sudo cp oc /usr/local/bin
    $ oc adm release extract --registry-config "${pullsecret_file}" --command=$cmd --to "${extract_dir}" ${RELEASE_IMAGE}
    $ sudo cp openshift-baremetal-install /usr/local/bin

8.3.5. Creating an RHCOS images cache (optional)

To employ image caching, you must download two images: the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) image used by the bootstrap VM and the RHCOS image used by the installer to provision the different nodes. Image caching is optional, but especially useful when running the installer on a network with limited bandwidth.

If you are running the installer on a network with limited bandwidth and the RHCOS images download takes more than 15 to 20 minutes, the installer will timeout. Caching images on a web server will help in such scenarios.

Install a container that contains the images.

Procedure

  1. Install podman:

    $ sudo dnf install -y podman
  2. Open firewall port 8080 to be used for RHCOS image caching:

    $ sudo firewall-cmd --add-port=8080/tcp --zone=public --permanent
    $ sudo firewall-cmd --reload
  3. Create a directory to store the bootstraposimage and clusterosimage:

    $ mkdir /home/kni/rhcos_image_cache
  4. Set the appropriate SELinux context for the newly created directory:

    $ sudo semanage fcontext -a -t httpd_sys_content_t "/home/kni/rhcos_image_cache(/.*)?"
    $ sudo restorecon -Rv rhcos_image_cache/
  5. Get the commit ID from the installer:

    $ export COMMIT_ID=$(/usr/local/bin/openshift-baremetal-install version | grep '^built from commit' | awk '{print $4}')

    The ID determines which images the installer needs to download.

  6. Get the URI for the RHCOS image that the installer will deploy on the nodes:

    $ export RHCOS_OPENSTACK_URI=$(curl -s -S https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift/installer/$COMMIT_ID/data/data/rhcos.json  | jq .images.openstack.path | sed 's/"//g')
  7. Get the URI for the RHCOS image that the installer will deploy on the bootstrap VM:

    $ export RHCOS_QEMU_URI=$(curl -s -S https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift/installer/$COMMIT_ID/data/data/rhcos.json  | jq .images.qemu.path | sed 's/"//g')
  8. Get the path where the images are published:

    $ export RHCOS_PATH=$(curl -s -S https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift/installer/$COMMIT_ID/data/data/rhcos.json | jq .baseURI | sed 's/"//g')
  9. Get the SHA hash for the RHCOS image that will be deployed on the bootstrap VM:

    $ export RHCOS_QEMU_SHA_UNCOMPRESSED=$(curl -s -S https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift/installer/$COMMIT_ID/data/data/rhcos.json  | jq -r '.images.qemu["uncompressed-sha256"]')
  10. Get the SHA hash for the RHCOS image that will be deployed on the nodes:

    $ export RHCOS_OPENSTACK_SHA_COMPRESSED=$(curl -s -S https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift/installer/$COMMIT_ID/data/data/rhcos.json  | jq -r '.images.openstack.sha256')
  11. Download the images and place them in the /home/kni/rhcos_image_cache directory:

    $ curl -L ${RHCOS_PATH}${RHCOS_QEMU_URI} -o /home/kni/rhcos_image_cache/${RHCOS_QEMU_URI}
    $ curl -L ${RHCOS_PATH}${RHCOS_OPENSTACK_URI} -o /home/kni/rhcos_image_cache/${RHCOS_OPENSTACK_URI}
  12. Confirm SELinux type is of httpd_sys_content_t for the newly created files:

    $ ls -Z /home/kni/rhcos_image_cache
  13. Create the pod:

    $ podman run -d --name rhcos_image_cache \
    -v /home/kni/rhcos_image_cache:/var/www/html \
    -p 8080:8080/tcp \
    registry.centos.org/centos/httpd-24-centos7:latest

    The above command creates a caching webserver with the name rhcos_image_cache, which serves the images for deployment. The first image ${RHCOS_PATH}${RHCOS_QEMU_URI}?sha256=${RHCOS_QEMU_SHA_UNCOMPRESSED} is the bootstrapOSImage and the second image ${RHCOS_PATH}${RHCOS_OPENSTACK_URI}?sha256=${RHCOS_OPENSTACK_SHA_COMPRESSED} is the clusterOSImage in the install-config.yaml file.

  14. Generate the bootstrapOSImage and clusterOSImage configuration:

    $ export BAREMETAL_IP=$(ip addr show dev baremetal | awk '/inet /{print $2}' | cut -d"/" -f1)
    $ export RHCOS_OPENSTACK_SHA256=$(zcat /home/kni/rhcos_image_cache/${RHCOS_OPENSTACK_URI} | sha256sum | awk '{print $1}')
    $ export RHCOS_QEMU_SHA256=$(zcat /home/kni/rhcos_image_cache/${RHCOS_QEMU_URI} | sha256sum | awk '{print $1}')
    $ export CLUSTER_OS_IMAGE="http://${BAREMETAL_IP}:8080/${RHCOS_OPENSTACK_URI}?sha256=${RHCOS_OPENSTACK_SHA256}"
    $ export BOOTSTRAP_OS_IMAGE="http://${BAREMETAL_IP}:8080/${RHCOS_QEMU_URI}?sha256=${RHCOS_QEMU_SHA256}"
    $ echo "${RHCOS_OPENSTACK_SHA256}  ${RHCOS_OPENSTACK_URI}" > /home/kni/rhcos_image_cache/rhcos-ootpa-latest.qcow2.md5sum
    $ echo "    bootstrapOSImage=${BOOTSTRAP_OS_IMAGE}"
    $ echo "    clusterOSImage=${CLUSTER_OS_IMAGE}"
  15. Add the required configuration to the install-config.yaml file under platform.baremetal:

    platform:
      baremetal:
        bootstrapOSImage: http://<BAREMETAL_IP>:8080/<RHCOS_QEMU_URI>?sha256=<RHCOS_QEMU_SHA256>
        clusterOSImage: http://<BAREMETAL_IP>:8080/<RHCOS_OPENSTACK_URI>?sha256=<RHCOS_OPENSTACK_SHA256>

    See the "Configuration files" section for additional details.

8.3.6. Configuration files

8.3.6.1. Configuring the install-config.yaml file

The install-config.yaml file requires some additional details. Most of the information is teaching the installer and the resulting cluster enough about the available hardware so that it is able to fully manage it.

  1. Configure install-config.yaml. Change the appropriate variables to match the environment, including pullSecret and sshKey.

    apiVersion: v1
    baseDomain: <domain>
    metadata:
      name: <cluster-name>
    networking:
      machineCIDR: <public-cidr>
      networkType: OVNKubernetes
    compute:
    - name: worker
      replicas: 2 1
    controlPlane:
      name: master
      replicas: 3
      platform:
        baremetal: {}
    platform:
      baremetal:
        apiVIP: <api-ip>
        ingressVIP: <wildcard-ip>
        provisioningNetworkCIDR: <CIDR>
        hosts:
          - name: openshift-master-0
            role: master
            bmc:
              address: ipmi://<out-of-band-ip> 2
              username: <user>
              password: <password>
            bootMACAddress: <NIC1-mac-address>
            rootDeviceHints:
             deviceName: "/dev/sda"
          - name: <openshift-master-1>
            role: master
            bmc:
              address: ipmi://<out-of-band-ip> 3
              username: <user>
              password: <password>
            bootMACAddress: <NIC1-mac-address>
            rootDeviceHints:
             deviceName: "/dev/sda"
          - name: <openshift-master-2>
            role: master
            bmc:
              address: ipmi://<out-of-band-ip> 4
              username: <user>
              password: <password>
            bootMACAddress: <NIC1-mac-address>
            rootDeviceHints:
             deviceName: "/dev/sda"
          - name: <openshift-worker-0>
            role: worker
            bmc:
              address: ipmi://<out-of-band-ip> 5
              username: <user>
              password: <password>
            bootMACAddress: <NIC1-mac-address>
          - name: <openshift-worker-1>
            role: worker
            bmc:
              address: ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>
              username: <user>
              password: <password>
            bootMACAddress: <NIC1-mac-address>
            rootDeviceHints:
             deviceName: "/dev/sda"
    pullSecret: '<pull_secret>'
    sshKey: '<ssh_pub_key>'
    1
    Scale the worker machines based on the number of worker nodes that are part of the OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
    2 3 4 5
    See the BMC addressing sections for more options.
  2. Create a directory to store cluster configs.

    $ mkdir ~/clusterconfigs
    $ cp install-config.yaml ~/clusterconfigs
  3. Ensure all bare metal nodes are powered off prior to installing the OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

    $ ipmitool -I lanplus -U <user> -P <password> -H <management-server-ip> power off
  4. Remove old bootstrap resources if any are left over from a previous deployment attempt.

    for i in $(sudo virsh list | tail -n +3 | grep bootstrap | awk {'print $2'});
    do
      sudo virsh destroy $i;
      sudo virsh undefine $i;
      sudo virsh vol-delete $i --pool $i;
      sudo virsh vol-delete $i.ign --pool $i;
      sudo virsh pool-destroy $i;
      sudo virsh pool-undefine $i;
    done

8.3.6.2. Setting proxy settings within the install-config.yaml file (optional)

To deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster using a proxy, make the following changes to the install-config.yaml file.

apiVersion: v1
baseDomain: <domain>
proxy:
  httpProxy: http://USERNAME:PASSWORD@proxy.example.com:PORT
  httpsProxy: https://USERNAME:PASSWORD@proxy.example.com:PORT
  noProxy: <WILDCARD_OF_DOMAIN>,<PROVISIONING_NETWORK/CIDR>,<BMC_ADDRESS_RANGE/CIDR>

The following is an example of noProxy with values.

noProxy: .example.com,172.22.0.0/24,10.10.0.0/24

With a proxy enabled, set the appropriate values of the proxy in the corresponding key/value pair.

Key considerations:

  • If the proxy does not have an HTTPS proxy, change the value of httpsProxy from https:// to http://.
  • If using a provisioning network, include it in the noProxy setting, otherwise the installer will fail.
  • Set all of the proxy settings as environment variables within the provisioner node. For example, HTTP_PROXY, HTTPS_PROXY, and NO_PROXY.

8.3.6.3. Modifying the install-config.yaml file for no provisioning network (optional)

To deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster without a provisioning network, make the following changes to the install-config.yaml file.

platform:
  baremetal:
    apiVIP: <apiVIP>
    ingressVIP: <ingress/wildcard VIP>
    provisioningNetwork: "Disabled" 1
1
Add the provisioningNetwork configuration setting, if needed, and set it to Disabled.
Important

The provisioning network is required for PXE booting. If you deploy without a provisioning network, you must use a virtual media BMC addressing option such as redfish-virtualmedia or idrac-virtualmedia. See "Redfish virtual media for HPE iLO" in the "BMC addressing for HPE iLO" section or "Redfish virtual media for Dell iDRAC" in the "BMC addressing for Dell iDRAC" section for additional details.

8.3.6.4. Modifying the install-config.yaml file for dual-stack network (optional)

To deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster with dual-stack networking, edit the machineNetwork, clusterNetwork, and serviceNetwork configuration settings in the install-config.yaml file. Each setting must have two CIDR entries each. Ensure the first CIDR entry is the IPv4 setting and the second CIDR entry is the IPv6 setting.

machineNetwork:
- cidr: {{ extcidrnet }}
- cidr: {{ extcidrnet6 }}
clusterNetwork:
- cidr: 10.128.0.0/14
  hostPrefix: 23
- cidr: fd02::/48
  hostPrefix: 64
serviceNetwork:
- 172.30.0.0/16
- fd03::/112
Important

The API VIP IP address and the Ingress VIP address must be of the primary IP address family when using dual-stack networking. Currently, Red Hat does not support dual-stack VIPs or dual-stack networking with IPv6 as the primary IP address family. However, Red Hat does support dual-stack networking with IPv4 as the primary IP address family. Therefore, the IPv4 entries must go before the IPv6 entries.

8.3.6.5. Configuring managed Secure Boot in the install-config.yaml file (optional)

You can enable managed Secure Boot when deploying an installer-provisioned cluster using Redfish BMC addressing, such as redfish, redfish-virtualmedia, or idrac-virtualmedia. To enable managed Secure Boot, add the bootMode configuration setting to each node:

Example

hosts:
  - name: openshift-master-0
    role: master
    bmc:
      address: redfish://<out_of_band_ip> 1
      username: <user>
      password: <password>
    bootMACAddress: <NIC1_mac_address>
    rootDeviceHints:
     deviceName: "/dev/sda"
    bootMode: UEFISecureBoot 2

1
Ensure the bmc.address setting uses redfish, redfish-virtualmedia, or idrac-virtualmedia as the protocol. See "BMC addressing for HPE iLO" or "BMC addressing for Dell iDRAC" for additional details.
2
The bootMode setting is UEFI by default. Change it to UEFISecureBoot to enable managed Secure Boot.
Note

See "Configuring nodes" in the "Prerequisites" to ensure the nodes can support managed Secure Boot. If the nodes do not support managed Secure Boot, see "Configuring nodes for Secure Boot manually" in the "Configuring nodes" section. Configuring Secure Boot manually requires Redfish virtual media.

Note

Red Hat does not support Secure Boot with IPMI, because IPMI does not provide Secure Boot management facilities.

8.3.6.6. Additional install-config parameters

See the following tables for the required parameters, the hosts parameter, and the bmc parameter for the install-config.yaml file.

Table 8.2. Required parameters

ParametersDefaultDescription

baseDomain

 

The domain name for the cluster. For example, example.com.

bootMode

UEFI

The boot mode for a node. Options are legacy, UEFI, and UEFISecureBoot. If bootMode is not set, Ironic sets it while inspecting the node.

sshKey

 

The sshKey configuration setting contains the key in the ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub file required to access the control plane nodes and worker nodes. Typically, this key is from the provisioner node.

pullSecret

 

The pullSecret configuration setting contains a copy of the pull secret downloaded from the Install OpenShift on Bare Metal page when preparing the provisioner node.

metadata:
    name:
 

The name to be given to the OpenShift Container Platform cluster. For example, openshift.

networking:
    machineCIDR:
 

The public CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing) of the external network. For example, 10.0.0.0/24 .

compute:
  - name: worker
 

The OpenShift Container Platform cluster requires a name be provided for worker (or compute) nodes even if there are zero nodes.

compute:
    replicas: 2
 

Replicas sets the number of worker (or compute) nodes in the OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

controlPlane:
    name: master
 

The OpenShift Container Platform cluster requires a name for control plane (master) nodes.

controlPlane:
    replicas: 3
 

Replicas sets the number of control plane (master) nodes included as part of the OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

provisioningNetworkInterface

 

The name of the network interface on nodes connected to the provisioning network. For OpenShift Container Platform 4.9 and later releases, use the bootMACAddress configuration setting to enable Ironic to identify the IP address of the NIC instead of using the provisioningNetworkInterface configuration setting to identify the name of the NIC.

defaultMachinePlatform

 

The default configuration used for machine pools without a platform configuration.

apiVIP

api.<clustername.clusterdomain>

The VIP to use for internal API communication.

This setting must either be provided or pre-configured in the DNS so that the default name resolves correctly.

disableCertificateVerification

False

redfish and redfish-virtualmedia need this parameter to manage BMC addresses. The value should be True when using a self-signed certificate for BMC addresses.

ingressVIP

test.apps.<clustername.clusterdomain>

The VIP to use for ingress traffic.

Table 8.3. Optional Parameters

ParametersDefaultDescription

provisioningDHCPRange

172.22.0.10,172.22.0.100

Defines the IP range for nodes on the provisioning network.

provisioningNetworkCIDR

172.22.0.0/24

The CIDR for the network to use for provisioning. This option is required when not using the default address range on the provisioning network.

clusterProvisioningIP

The third IP address of the provisioningNetworkCIDR.

The IP address within the cluster where the provisioning services run. Defaults to the third IP address of the provisioning subnet. For example, 172.22.0.3.

bootstrapProvisioningIP

The second IP address of the provisioningNetworkCIDR.

The IP address on the bootstrap VM where the provisioning services run while the installer is deploying the control plane (master) nodes. Defaults to the second IP address of the provisioning subnet. For example, 172.22.0.2 or 2620:52:0:1307::2 .

externalBridge

baremetal

The name of the baremetal bridge of the hypervisor attached to the baremetal network.

provisioningBridge

provisioning

The name of the provisioning bridge on the provisioner host attached to the provisioning network.

defaultMachinePlatform

 

The default configuration used for machine pools without a platform configuration.

bootstrapOSImage

 

A URL to override the default operating system image for the bootstrap node. The URL must contain a SHA-256 hash of the image. For example: https://mirror.openshift.com/rhcos-<version>-qemu.qcow2.gz?sha256=<uncompressed_sha256> .

clusterOSImage

 

A URL to override the default operating system for cluster nodes. The URL must include a SHA-256 hash of the image. For example, https://mirror.openshift.com/images/rhcos-<version>-openstack.qcow2.gz?sha256=<compressed_sha256>.

provisioningNetwork

 

The provisioningNetwork configuration setting determines whether the cluster uses the provisioning network. If it does, the configuration setting also determines if the cluster manages the network.

Disabled: Set this parameter to Disabled to disable the requirement for a provisioning network. When set to Disabled, you must only use virtual media based provisioning, or bring up the cluster using the assisted installer. If Disabled and using power management, BMCs must be accessible from the baremetal network. If Disabled, you must provide two IP addresses on the baremetal network that are used for the provisioning services.

Managed: Set this parameter to Managed, which is the default, to fully manage the provisioning network, including DHCP, TFTP, and so on.

Unmanaged: Set this parameter to Unmanaged to enable the provisioning network but take care of manual configuration of DHCP. Virtual media provisioning is recommended but PXE is still available if required.

httpProxy

 

Set this parameter to the appropriate HTTP proxy used within your environment.

httpsProxy

 

Set this parameter to the appropriate HTTPS proxy used within your environment.

noProxy

 

Set this parameter to the appropriate list of exclusions for proxy usage within your environment.

Hosts

The hosts parameter is a list of separate bare metal assets used to build the cluster.

Table 8.4. Hosts

NameDefaultDescription

name

 

The name of the BareMetalHost resource to associate with the details. For example, openshift-master-0.

role

 

The role of the bare metal node. Either master or worker.

bmc

 

Connection details for the baseboard management controller. See the BMC addressing section for additional details.

bootMACAddress

 

The MAC address of the NIC that the host uses for the provisioning network. Ironic retrieves the IP address using the bootMACAddress configuration setting. Then, it binds to the host.

8.3.6.7. BMC addressing

Most vendors support Baseboard Management Controller (BMC) addressing with the Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI). IPMI does not encrypt communications. It is suitable for use within a data center over a secured or dedicated management network. Check with your vendor to see if they support Redfish network boot. Redfish delivers simple and secure management for converged, hybrid IT and the Software Defined Data Center (SDDC). Redfish is human readable and machine capable, and leverages common internet and web services standards to expose information directly to the modern tool chain. If your hardware does not support Redfish network boot, use IPMI.

IPMI

Hosts using IPMI use the ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>:<port> address format, which defaults to port 623 if not specified. The following example demonstrates an IPMI configuration within the install-config.yaml file.

platform:
  baremetal:
    hosts:
      - name: openshift-master-0
        role: master
        bmc:
          address: ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>
          username: <user>
          password: <password>
Important

The provisioning network is required when PXE booting using IPMI for BMC addressing. It is not possible to PXE boot hosts without a provisioning network. If you deploy without a provisioning network, you must use a virtual media BMC addressing option such as redfish-virtualmedia or idrac-virtualmedia. See "Redfish virtual media for HPE iLO" in the "BMC addressing for HPE iLO" section or "Redfish virtual media for Dell iDRAC" in the "BMC addressing for Dell iDRAC" section for additional details.

Redfish network boot

To enable Redfish, use redfish:// or redfish+http:// to disable TLS. The installer requires both the hostname or the IP address and the path to the system ID. The following example demonstrates a Redfish configuration within the install-config.yaml file.

platform:
  baremetal:
    hosts:
      - name: openshift-master-0
        role: master
        bmc:
          address: redfish://<out-of-band-ip>/redfish/v1/Systems/1
          username: <user>
          password: <password>

While it is recommended to have a certificate of authority for the out-of-band management addresses, you must include disableCertificateVerification: True in the bmc configuration if using self-signed certificates. The following example demonstrates a Redfish configuration using the disableCertificateVerification: True configuration parameter within the install-config.yaml file.

platform:
  baremetal:
    hosts:
      - name: openshift-master-0
        role: master
        bmc:
          address: redfish://<out-of-band-ip>/redfish/v1/Systems/1
          username: <user>
          password: <password>
          disableCertificateVerification: True

8.3.6.8. BMC addressing for Dell iDRAC

The address field for each bmc entry is a URL for connecting to the OpenShift Container Platform cluster nodes, including the type of controller in the URL scheme and its location on the network.

platform:
  baremetal:
    hosts:
      - name: <hostname>
        role: <master | worker>
        bmc:
          address: <address> 1
          username: <user>
          password: <password>
1
The address configuration setting specifies the protocol.

For Dell hardware, Red Hat supports integrated Dell Remote Access Controller (iDRAC) virtual media, Redfish network boot, and IPMI.

Table 8.5. BMC address formats for Dell iDRAC

ProtocolAddress Format

iDRAC virtual media

idrac-virtualmedia://<out-of-band-ip>/redfish/v1/Systems/System.Embedded.1

Redfish network boot

redfish://<out-of-band-ip>/redfish/v1/Systems/System.Embedded.1

IPMI

ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>

Important

Use idrac-virtualmedia as the protocol for Redfish virtual media. redfish-virtualmedia will not work on Dell hardware. Dell’s idrac-virtualmedia uses the Redfish standard with Dell’s OEM extensions.

See the following sections for additional details.

Redfish virtual media for Dell iDRAC

For Redfish virtual media on Dell servers, use idrac-virtualmedia:// in the address setting. Using redfish-virtualmedia:// will not work.

The following example demonstrates using iDRAC virtual media within the install-config.yaml file.

platform:
  baremetal:
    hosts:
      - name: openshift-master-0
        role: master
        bmc:
          address: idrac-virtualmedia://<out-of-band-ip>/redfish/v1/Systems/System.Embedded.1
          username: <user>
          password: <password>

While it is recommended to have a certificate of authority for the out-of-band management addresses, you must include disableCertificateVerification: True in the bmc configuration if using self-signed certificates. The following example demonstrates a Redfish configuration using the disableCertificateVerification: True configuration parameter within the install-config.yaml file.

platform:
  baremetal:
    hosts:
      - name: openshift-master-0
        role: master
        bmc:
          address: idrac-virtualmedia://<out-of-band-ip>/redfish/v1/Systems/System.Embedded.1
          username: <user>
          password: <password>
          disableCertificateVerification: True
Note

Currently, Redfish is only supported on Dell with iDRAC firmware versions 4.20.20.20 through 04.40.00.00 for installer-provisioned installations on bare metal deployments. There is a known issue with version 04.40.00.00. With iDRAC 9 firmware version 04.40.00.00, the Virtual Console plug-in defaults to eHTML5, which causes problems with the InsertVirtualMedia workflow. Set the plug-in to HTML5 to avoid this issue. The menu path is: ConfigurationVirtual consolePlug-in TypeHTML5 .

Ensure the OpenShift Container Platform cluster nodes have AutoAttach Enabled through the iDRAC console. The menu path is: ConfigurationVirtual MediaAttach ModeAutoAttach .

Use idrac-virtualmedia:// as the protocol for Redfish virtual media. Using redfish-virtualmedia:// will not work on Dell hardware, because the idrac-virtualmedia:// protocol corresponds to the idrac hardware type and the Redfish protocol in Ironic. Dell’s idrac-virtualmedia:// protocol uses the Redfish standard with Dell’s OEM extensions. Ironic also supports the idrac type with the WSMAN protocol. Therefore, you must specify idrac-virtualmedia:// to avoid unexpected behavior when electing to use Redfish with virtual media on Dell hardware.

Redfish network boot for iDRAC

To enable Redfish, use redfish:// or redfish+http:// to disable transport layer security (TLS). The installer requires both the hostname or the IP address and the path to the system ID. The following example demonstrates a Redfish configuration within the install-config.yaml file.

platform:
  baremetal:
    hosts:
      - name: openshift-master-0
        role: master
        bmc:
          address: redfish://<out-of-band-ip>/redfish/v1/Systems/System.Embedded.1
          username: <user>
          password: <password>

While it is recommended to have a certificate of authority for the out-of-band management addresses, you must include disableCertificateVerification: True in the bmc configuration if using self-signed certificates. The following example demonstrates a Redfish configuration using the disableCertificateVerification: True configuration parameter within the install-config.yaml file.

platform:
  baremetal:
    hosts:
      - name: openshift-master-0
        role: master
        bmc:
          address: redfish://<out-of-band-ip>/redfish/v1/Systems/System.Embedded.1
          username: <user>
          password: <password>
          disableCertificateVerification: True
Note

Currently, Redfish is only supported on Dell hardware with iDRAC firmware versions 4.20.20.20 through 04.40.00.00 for installer-provisioned installations on bare metal deployments. There is a known issue with version 04.40.00.00. With iDRAC 9 firmware version 04.40.00.00, the Virtual Console plug-in defaults to eHTML5, which causes problems with the InsertVirtualMedia workflow. Set the plug-in to HTML5 to avoid this issue. The menu path is: ConfigurationVirtual consolePlug-in TypeHTML5 .

Ensure the OpenShift Container Platform cluster nodes have AutoAttach Enabled through the iDRAC console. The menu path is: ConfigurationVirtual MediaAttach ModeAutoAttach .

The redfish:// URL protocol corresponds to the redfish hardware type in Ironic.

8.3.6.9. BMC addressing for HPE iLO

The address field for each bmc entry is a URL for connecting to the OpenShift Container Platform cluster nodes, including the type of controller in the URL scheme and its location on the network.

platform:
  baremetal:
    hosts:
      - name: <hostname>
        role: <master | worker>
        bmc:
          address: <address> 1
          username: <user>
          password: <password>
1
The address configuration setting specifies the protocol.

For HPE integrated Lights Out (iLO), Red Hat supports Redfish virtual media, Redfish network boot, and IPMI.

Table 8.6. BMC address formats for HPE iLO

ProtocolAddress Format

Redfish virtual media

redfish-virtualmedia://<out-of-band-ip>/redfish/v1/Systems/1

Redfish network boot

redfish://<out-of-band-ip>/redfish/v1/Systems/1

IPMI

ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>

See the following sections for additional details.

Redfish virtual media for HPE iLO

To enable Redfish virtual media for HPE servers, use redfish-virtualmedia:// in the address setting. The following example demonstrates using Redfish virtual media within the install-config.yaml file.

platform:
  baremetal:
    hosts:
      - name: openshift-master-0
        role: master
        bmc:
          address: redfish-virtualmedia://<out-of-band-ip>/redfish/v1/Systems/1
          username: <user>
          password: <password>

While it is recommended to have a certificate of authority for the out-of-band management addresses, you must include disableCertificateVerification: True in the bmc configuration if using self-signed certificates. The following example demonstrates a Redfish configuration using the disableCertificateVerification: True configuration parameter within the install-config.yaml file.

platform:
  baremetal:
    hosts:
      - name: openshift-master-0
        role: master
        bmc:
          address: redfish-virtualmedia://<out-of-band-ip>/redfish/v1/Systems/1
          username: <user>
          password: <password>
          disableCertificateVerification: True
Note

Redfish virtual media is not supported on 9th generation systems running iLO4, because Ironic does not support iLO4 with virtual media.

Redfish network boot for HPE iLO

To enable Redfish, use redfish:// or redfish+http:// to disable TLS. The installer requires both the hostname or the IP address and the path to the system ID. The following example demonstrates a Redfish configuration within the install-config.yaml file.

platform:
  baremetal:
    hosts:
      - name: openshift-master-0
        role: master
        bmc:
          address: redfish://<out-of-band-ip>/redfish/v1/Systems/1
          username: <user>
          password: <password>

While it is recommended to have a certificate of authority for the out-of-band management addresses, you must include disableCertificateVerification: True in the bmc configuration if using self-signed certificates. The following example demonstrates a Redfish configuration using the disableCertificateVerification: True configuration parameter within the install-config.yaml file.

platform:
  baremetal:
    hosts:
      - name: openshift-master-0
        role: master
        bmc:
          address: redfish://<out-of-band-ip>/redfish/v1/Systems/1
          username: <user>
          password: <password>
          disableCertificateVerification: True

8.3.6.10. BMC addressing for Fujitsu iRMC

The address field for each bmc entry is a URL for connecting to the OpenShift Container Platform cluster nodes, including the type of controller in the URL scheme and its location on the network.

platform:
  baremetal:
    hosts:
      - name: <hostname>
        role: <master | worker>
        bmc:
          address: <address> 1
          username: <user>
          password: <password>
1
The address configuration setting specifies the protocol.

For Fujitsu hardware, Red Hat supports integrated Remote Management Controller (iRMC) and IPMI.

Table 8.7. BMC address formats for Fujitsu iRMC

ProtocolAddress Format

iRMC

irmc://<out-of-band-ip>

IPMI

ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>

iRMC

Fujitsu nodes can use irmc://<out-of-band-ip> and defaults to port 623. The following example demonstrates an iRMC configuration within the install-config.yaml file.

platform:
  baremetal:
    hosts:
      - name: openshift-master-0
        role: master
        bmc:
          address: irmc://<out-of-band-ip>
          username: <user>
          password: <password>
Note

Currently Fujitsu supports iRMC S5 firmware version 3.05P and above for installer-provisioned installation on bare metal.

8.3.6.11. Root device hints

The rootDeviceHints parameter enables the installer to provision the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) image to a particular device. The installer examines the devices in the order it discovers them, and compares the discovered values with the hint values. The installer uses the first discovered device that matches the hint value. The configuration can combine multiple hints, but a device must match all hints for the installer to select it.

Table 8.8. Subfields

SubfieldDescription

deviceName

A string containing a Linux device name like /dev/vda. The hint must match the actual value exactly.

hctl

A string containing a SCSI bus address like 0:0:0:0. The hint must match the actual value exactly.

model

A string containing a vendor-specific device identifier. The hint can be a substring of the actual value.

vendor

A string containing the name of the vendor or manufacturer of the device. The hint can be a sub-string of the actual value.

serialNumber

A string containing the device serial number. The hint must match the actual value exactly.

minSizeGigabytes

An integer representing the minimum size of the device in gigabytes.

wwn

A string containing the unique storage identifier. The hint must match the actual value exactly.

wwnWithExtension

A string containing the unique storage identifier with the vendor extension appended. The hint must match the actual value exactly.

wwnVendorExtension

A string containing the unique vendor storage identifier. The hint must match the actual value exactly.

rotational

A boolean indicating whether the device should be a rotating disk (true) or not (false).

Example usage

     - name: master-0
       role: master
       bmc:
         address: ipmi://10.10.0.3:6203
         username: admin
         password: redhat
       bootMACAddress: de:ad:be:ef:00:40
       rootDeviceHints:
         deviceName: "/dev/sda"

8.3.6.12. Creating the OpenShift Container Platform manifests

  1. Create the OpenShift Container Platform manifests.

    $ ./openshift-baremetal-install --dir ~/clusterconfigs create manifests
    INFO Consuming Install Config from target directory
    WARNING Making control-plane schedulable by setting MastersSchedulable to true for Scheduler cluster settings
    WARNING Discarding the OpenShift Manifest that was provided in the target directory because its dependencies are dirty and it needs to be regenerated

8.3.6.13. Configuring NTP for disconnected clusters (optional)

OpenShift Container Platform installs the chrony Network Time Protocol (NTP) service on the cluster nodes. Use the following procedure to configure NTP servers on the control plane nodes and configure worker nodes as NTP clients of the control plane nodes before deployment.

OpenShift Container Platform nodes must agree on a date and time to run properly. When worker nodes retrieve the date and time from the NTP servers on the control plane nodes, it enables the installation and operation of clusters that are not connected to a routable network and thereby do not have access to a higher stratum NTP server.

Procedure

  1. Create a Butane config, 99-master-chrony-conf-override.bu, including the contents of the chrony.conf file for the control plane nodes.

    Note

    See "Creating machine configs with Butane" for information about Butane.

    Butane config example

    variant: openshift
    version: 4.8.0
    metadata:
      name: 99-master-chrony-conf-override
      labels:
        machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role: master
    storage:
      files:
        - path: /etc/chrony.conf
          mode: 0644
          overwrite: true
          contents:
            inline: |
              # Use public servers from the pool.ntp.org project.
              # Please consider joining the pool (https://www.pool.ntp.org/join.html).
    
              # The Machine Config Operator manages this file
              server openshift-master-0.<cluster-name>.<domain> iburst 1
              server openshift-master-1.<cluster-name>.<domain> iburst
              server openshift-master-2.<cluster-name>.<domain> iburst
    
              stratumweight 0
              driftfile /var/lib/chrony/drift
              rtcsync
              makestep 10 3
              bindcmdaddress 127.0.0.1
              bindcmdaddress ::1
              keyfile /etc/chrony.keys
              commandkey 1
              generatecommandkey
              noclientlog
              logchange 0.5
              logdir /var/log/chrony
    
              # Configure the control plane nodes to serve as local NTP servers
              # for all worker nodes, even if they are not in sync with an
              # upstream NTP server.
    
              # Allow NTP client access from the local network.
              allow all
              # Serve time even if not synchronized to a time source.
              local stratum 3 orphan

    1
    You must replace <cluster-name> with the name of the cluster and replace <domain> with the fully qualified domain name.
  2. Use Butane to generate a MachineConfig object file, 99-master-chrony-conf-override.yaml, containing the configuration to be delivered to the control plane nodes:

    $ butane 99-master-chrony-conf-override.bu -o 99-master-chrony-conf-override.yaml
  3. Create a Butane config, 99-worker-chrony-conf-override.bu, including the contents of the chrony.conf file for the worker nodes that references the NTP servers on the control plane nodes.

    Butane config example

    variant: openshift
    version: 4.8.0
    metadata:
      name: 99-worker-chrony-conf-override
      labels:
        machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role: worker
    storage:
      files:
        - path: /etc/chrony.conf
          mode: 0644
          overwrite: true
          contents:
            inline: |
              # The Machine Config Operator manages this file.
              server openshift-master-0.<cluster-name>.<domain> iburst 1
              server openshift-master-1.<cluster-name>.<domain> iburst
              server openshift-master-2.<cluster-name>.<domain> iburst
    
              stratumweight 0
              driftfile /var/lib/chrony/drift
              rtcsync
              makestep 10 3
              bindcmdaddress 127.0.0.1
              bindcmdaddress ::1
              keyfile /etc/chrony.keys
              commandkey 1
              generatecommandkey
              noclientlog
              logchange 0.5
              logdir /var/log/chrony

    1
    You must replace <cluster-name> with the name of the cluster and replace <domain> with the fully qualified domain name.
  4. Use Butane to generate a MachineConfig object file, 99-worker-chrony-conf-override.yaml, containing the configuration to be delivered to the worker nodes:

    $ butane 99-worker-chrony-conf-override.bu -o 99-worker-chrony-conf-override.yaml
  5. Copy the 99-master-chrony-conf-override.yaml file to the ~/clusterconfigs/manifests directory.

    $ cp 99-master-chrony-conf-override.yaml ~/clusterconfigs/manifests
  6. Copy the 99-worker-chrony-conf-override.yaml file to the ~/clusterconfigs/manifests directory.

    $ cp 99-worker-chrony-conf-override.yaml ~/clusterconfigs/manifests

8.3.6.14. Configure network components to run on the control plane

Configure networking components to run exclusively on the control plane nodes. By default, OpenShift Container Platform allows any node in the machine config pool to host the apiVIP and ingressVIP virtual IP addresses. However, many environments deploy worker nodes in separate subnets from the control plane nodes. Consequently, you must place the apiVIP and ingressVIP virtual IP addresses exclusively with the control plane nodes.

Procedure

  1. Change to the directory storing the install-config.yaml file:

    $ cd ~/clusterconfigs
  2. Switch to the manifests subdirectory:

    $ cd manifests
  3. Create a file named cluster-network-avoid-workers-99-config.yaml:

    $ touch cluster-network-avoid-workers-99-config.yaml
  4. Open the cluster-network-avoid-workers-99-config.yaml file in an editor and enter a custom resource (CR) that describes the Operator configuration:

    apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
    kind: MachineConfig
    metadata:
      name: 50-worker-fix-ipi-rwn
      labels:
        machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role: worker
    spec:
      config:
        ignition:
          version: 3.2.0
        systemd:
          units:
          - name: nodeip-configuration.service
            enabled: true
            contents: |
              [Unit]
              Description=Writes IP address configuration so that kubelet and crio services select a valid node IP
              Wants=network-online.target
              After=network-online.target ignition-firstboot-complete.service
              Before=kubelet.service crio.service
              [Service]
              Type=oneshot
              ExecStart=/bin/bash -c "exit 0 "
              [Install]
              WantedBy=multi-user.target
        storage:
          files:
            - path: /etc/kubernetes/manifests/keepalived.yaml
              mode: 0644
              contents:
                source: data:,
            - path: /etc/kubernetes/manifests/mdns-publisher.yaml
              mode: 0644
              contents:
                source: data:,
            - path: /etc/kubernetes/manifests/coredns.yaml
              mode: 0644
              contents:
                source: data:,

    This manifest places the apiVIP and ingressVIP virtual IP addresses on the control plane nodes. Additionally, this manifest deploys the following processes on the control plane nodes only:

    • openshift-ingress-operator
    • keepalived
  5. Save the cluster-network-avoid-workers-99-config.yaml file.
  6. Create a manifests/cluster-ingress-default-ingresscontroller.yaml file:

    apiVersion: operator.openshift.io/v1
    kind: IngressController
    metadata:
      name: default
      namespace: openshift-ingress-operator
    spec:
      nodePlacement:
        nodeSelector:
          matchLabels:
            node-role.kubernetes.io/master: ""
  7. Consider backing up the manifests directory. The installer deletes the manifests/ directory when creating the cluster.
  8. Modify the cluster-scheduler-02-config.yml manifest to make the control plane nodes schedulable by setting the mastersSchedulable field to true. Control plane nodes are not schedulable by default. For example:

    $ sed -i "s;mastersSchedulable: false;mastersSchedulable: true;g" clusterconfigs/manifests/cluster-scheduler-02-config.yml
    Note

    If control plane nodes are not schedulable, deploying the cluster will fail.

  9. Before deploying the cluster, ensure that the api.<cluster-name>.<domain> domain name is resolvable in the external DNS server. When you configure network components to run exclusively on the control plane, the internal DNS resolution no longer works for worker nodes, which is an expected outcome.

    Important

    Failure to create a DNS record for the api.<cluster-name>.<domain> domain name in the external DNS server precludes worker nodes from joining the cluster.

8.3.7. Creating a disconnected registry (optional)

In some cases, you might want to install an OpenShift Container Platform cluster using a local copy of the installation registry. This could be for enhancing network efficiency because the cluster nodes are on a network that does not have access to the internet.

A local, or mirrored, copy of the registry requires the following:

  • A certificate for the registry node. This can be a self-signed certificate.
  • A web server that a container on a system will serve.
  • An updated pull secret that contains the certificate and local repository information.
Note

Creating a disconnected registry on a registry node is optional. The subsequent sections indicate that they are optional since they are steps you need to execute only when creating a disconnected registry on a registry node. You should execute all of the subsequent sub-sections labeled "(optional)" when creating a disconnected registry on a registry node.

8.3.7.1. Preparing the registry node to host the mirrored registry (optional)

Make the following changes to the registry node.

Procedure

  1. Open the firewall port on the registry node.

    $ sudo firewall-cmd --add-port=5000/tcp --zone=libvirt  --permanent
    $ sudo firewall-cmd --add-port=5000/tcp --zone=public   --permanent
    $ sudo firewall-cmd --reload
  2. Install the required packages for the registry node.

    $ sudo yum -y install python3 podman httpd httpd-tools jq
  3. Create the directory structure where the repository information will be held.

    $ sudo mkdir -p /opt/registry/{auth,certs,data}

8.3.7.2. Generating the self-signed certificate (optional)

Generate a self-signed certificate for the registry node and put it in the /opt/registry/certs directory.

Procedure

  1. Adjust the certificate information as appropriate.

    $ host_fqdn=$( hostname --long )
    $ cert_c="<Country Name>"   # Country Name (C, 2 letter code)
    $ cert_s="<State>"          # Certificate State (S)
    $ cert_l="<Locality>"       # Certificate Locality (L)
    $ cert_o="<Organization>"   # Certificate Organization (O)
    $ cert_ou="<Org Unit>"      # Certificate Organizational Unit (OU)
    $ cert_cn="${host_fqdn}"    # Certificate Common Name (CN)
    
    $ openssl req \
        -newkey rsa:4096 \
        -nodes \
        -sha256 \
        -keyout /opt/registry/certs/domain.key \
        -x509 \
        -days 365 \
        -out /opt/registry/certs/domain.crt \
        -addext "subjectAltName = DNS:${host_fqdn}" \
        -subj "/C=${cert_c}/ST=${cert_s}/L=${cert_l}/O=${cert_o}/OU=${cert_ou}/CN=${cert_cn}"
    Note

    When replacing <Country Name>, ensure that it only contains two letters. For example, US.

  2. Update the registry node’s ca-trust with the new certificate.

    $ sudo cp /opt/registry/certs/domain.crt /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors/
    $ sudo update-ca-trust extract

8.3.7.3. Creating the registry podman container (optional)

The registry container uses the /opt/registry directory for certificates, authentication files, and to store its data files.

The registry container uses httpd and needs an htpasswd file for authentication.

Procedure

  1. Create an htpasswd file in /opt/registry/auth for the container to use.

    $ htpasswd -bBc /opt/registry/auth/htpasswd <user> <passwd>

    Replace <user> with the user name and <passwd> with the password.

  2. Create and start the registry container.

    $ podman create \
      --name ocpdiscon-registry \
      -p 5000:5000 \
      -e "REGISTRY_AUTH=htpasswd" \
      -e "REGISTRY_AUTH_HTPASSWD_REALM=Registry" \
      -e "REGISTRY_HTTP_SECRET=ALongRandomSecretForRegistry" \
      -e "REGISTRY_AUTH_HTPASSWD_PATH=/auth/htpasswd" \
      -e "REGISTRY_HTTP_TLS_CERTIFICATE=/certs/domain.crt" \
      -e "REGISTRY_HTTP_TLS_KEY=/certs/domain.key" \
      -e "REGISTRY_COMPATIBILITY_SCHEMA1_ENABLED=true" \
      -v /opt/registry/data:/var/lib/registry:z \
      -v /opt/registry/auth:/auth:z \
      -v /opt/registry/certs:/certs:z \
      docker.io/library/registry:2
    $ podman start ocpdiscon-registry

8.3.7.4. Copy and update the pull-secret (optional)

Copy the pull secret file from the provisioner node to the registry node and modify it to include the authentication information for the new registry node.

Procedure

  1. Copy the pull-secret.txt file.

    $ scp kni@provisioner:/home/kni/pull-secret.txt pull-secret.txt
  2. Update the host_fqdn environment variable with the fully qualified domain name of the registry node.

    $ host_fqdn=$( hostname --long )
  3. Update the b64auth environment variable with the base64 encoding of the http credentials used to create the htpasswd file.

    $ b64auth=$( echo -n '<username>:<passwd>' | openssl base64 )

    Replace <username> with the user name and <passwd> with the password.

  4. Set the AUTHSTRING environment variable to use the base64 authorization string. The $USER variable is an environment variable containing the name of the current user.

    $ AUTHSTRING="{\"$host_fqdn:5000\": {\"auth\": \"$b64auth\",\"email\": \"$USER@redhat.com\"}}"
  5. Update the pull-secret.txt file.

    $ jq ".auths += $AUTHSTRING" < pull-secret.txt > pull-secret-update.txt

8.3.7.5. Mirroring the repository (optional)

Procedure

  1. Copy the oc binary from the provisioner node to the registry node.

    $ sudo scp kni@provisioner:/usr/local/bin/oc /usr/local/bin
  2. Mirror the remote install images to the local repository.

    $ /usr/local/bin/oc adm release mirror \
      -a pull-secret-update.txt
      --from=$UPSTREAM_REPO \
      --to-release-image=$LOCAL_REG/$LOCAL_REPO:${VERSION} \
      --to=$LOCAL_REG/$LOCAL_REPO

8.3.7.6. Modify the install-config.yaml file to use the disconnected registry (optional)

On the provisioner node, the install-config.yaml file should use the newly created pull-secret from the pull-secret-update.txt file. The install-config.yaml file must also contain the disconnected registry node’s certificate and registry information.

Procedure

  1. Add the disconnected registry node’s certificate to the install-config.yaml file. The certificate should follow the "additionalTrustBundle: |" line and be properly indented, usually by two spaces.

    $ echo "additionalTrustBundle: |" >> install-config.yaml
    $ sed -e 's/^/  /' /opt/registry/certs/domain.crt >> install-config.yaml
  2. Add the mirror information for the registry to the install-config.yaml file.

    $ echo "imageContentSources:" >> install-config.yaml
    $ echo "- mirrors:" >> install-config.yaml
    $ echo "  - registry.example.com:5000/ocp4/openshift4" >> install-config.yaml
    $ echo "  source: quay.io/openshift-release-dev/ocp-release" >> install-config.yaml
    $ echo "- mirrors:" >> install-config.yaml
    $ echo "  - registry.example.com:5000/ocp4/openshift4" >> install-config.yaml
    $ echo "  source: quay.io/openshift-release-dev/ocp-v4.0-art-dev" >> install-config.yaml
    Note

    Replace registry.example.com with the registry’s fully qualified domain name.

8.3.8. Deploying routers on worker nodes

During installation, the installer deploys router pods on worker nodes. By default, the installer installs two router pods. If the initial cluster has only one worker node, or if a deployed cluster requires additional routers to handle external traffic loads destined for services within the OpenShift Container Platform cluster, you can create a yaml file to set an appropriate number of router replicas.

Note

By default, the installer deploys two routers. If the cluster has at least two worker nodes, you can skip this section.

Note

If the cluster has no worker nodes, the installer deploys the two routers on the control plane nodes by default. If the cluster has no worker nodes, you can skip this section.

Procedure

  1. Create a router-replicas.yaml file.

    apiVersion: operator.openshift.io/v1
    kind: IngressController
    metadata:
      name: default
      namespace: openshift-ingress-operator
    spec:
      replicas: <num-of-router-pods>
      endpointPublishingStrategy:
        type: HostNetwork
      nodePlacement:
        nodeSelector:
          matchLabels:
            node-role.kubernetes.io/worker: ""
    Note

    Replace <num-of-router-pods> with an appropriate value. If working with just one worker node, set replicas: to 1. If working with more than 3 worker nodes, you can increase replicas: from the default value 2 as appropriate.

  2. Save and copy the router-replicas.yaml file to the clusterconfigs/openshift directory.

    cp ~/router-replicas.yaml clusterconfigs/openshift/99_router-replicas.yaml

8.3.9. Validation checklist for installation

  • ❏ OpenShift Container Platform installer has been retrieved.
  • ❏ OpenShift Container Platform installer has been extracted.
  • ❏ Required parameters for the install-config.yaml have been configured.
  • ❏ The hosts parameter for the install-config.yaml has been configured.
  • ❏ The bmc parameter for the install-config.yaml has been configured.
  • ❏ Conventions for the values configured in the bmc address field have been applied.
  • ❏ Created a disconnected registry (optional).
  • ❏ (optional) Validate disconnected registry settings if in use.
  • ❏ (optional) Deployed routers on worker nodes.

8.3.10. Deploying the cluster via the OpenShift Container Platform installer

Run the OpenShift Container Platform installer:

$ ./openshift-baremetal-install --dir ~/clusterconfigs --log-level debug create cluster

8.3.11. Following the installation

During the deployment process, you can check the installation’s overall status by issuing the tail command to the .openshift_install.log log file in the install directory folder.

$ tail -f /path/to/install-dir/.openshift_install.log

8.3.12. Verifying static IP address configuration

If the DHCP reservation for a cluster node specifies an infinite lease, after the installer successfully provisions the node, the dispatcher script checks the node’s network configuration. If the script determines that the network configuration contains an infinite DHCP lease, it creates a new connection using the IP address of the DHCP lease as a static IP address.

Note

The dispatcher script might run on successfully provisioned nodes while the provisioning of other nodes in the cluster is ongoing.

Verify the network configuration is working properly.

Procedure

  1. Check the network interface configuration on the node.
  2. Turn off the DHCP server and reboot the OpenShift Container Platform node and ensure that the network configuration works properly.

Additional resources

8.4. Installer-provisioned post-installation configuration

After successfully deploying an installer-provisioned cluster, consider the following post-installation procedures.

8.4.1. Configuring NTP for disconnected clusters (optional)

OpenShift Container Platform installs the chrony Network Time Protocol (NTP) service on the cluster nodes. Use the following procedure to configure NTP servers on the control plane nodes and configure worker nodes as NTP clients of the control plane nodes after a successful deployment.

OpenShift Container Platform nodes must agree on a date and time to run properly. When worker nodes retrieve the date and time from the NTP servers on the control plane nodes, it enables the installation and operation of clusters that are not connected to a routable network and thereby do not have access to a higher stratum NTP server.

Procedure

  1. Create a Butane config, 99-master-chrony-conf-override.bu, including the contents of the chrony.conf file for the control plane nodes.

    Note

    See "Creating machine configs with Butane" for information about Butane.

    Butane config example

    variant: openshift
    version: 4.8.0
    metadata:
      name: 99-master-chrony-conf-override
      labels:
        machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role: master
    storage:
      files:
        - path: /etc/chrony.conf
          mode: 0644
          overwrite: true
          contents:
            inline: |
              # Use public servers from the pool.ntp.org project.
              # Please consider joining the pool (https://www.pool.ntp.org/join.html).
    
              # The Machine Config Operator manages this file
              server openshift-master-0.<cluster-name>.<domain> iburst 1
              server openshift-master-1.<cluster-name>.<domain> iburst
              server openshift-master-2.<cluster-name>.<domain> iburst
    
              stratumweight 0
              driftfile /var/lib/chrony/drift
              rtcsync
              makestep 10 3
              bindcmdaddress 127.0.0.1
              bindcmdaddress ::1
              keyfile /etc/chrony.keys
              commandkey 1
              generatecommandkey
              noclientlog
              logchange 0.5
              logdir /var/log/chrony
    
              # Configure the control plane nodes to serve as local NTP servers
              # for all worker nodes, even if they are not in sync with an
              # upstream NTP server.
    
              # Allow NTP client access from the local network.
              allow all
              # Serve time even if not synchronized to a time source.
              local stratum 3 orphan

    1
    You must replace <cluster-name> with the name of the cluster and replace <domain> with the fully qualified domain name.
  2. Use Butane to generate a MachineConfig object file, 99-master-chrony-conf-override.yaml, containing the configuration to be delivered to the control plane nodes:

    $ butane 99-master-chrony-conf-override.bu -o 99-master-chrony-conf-override.yaml
  3. Create a Butane config, 99-worker-chrony-conf-override.bu, including the contents of the chrony.conf file for the worker nodes that references the NTP servers on the control plane nodes.

    Butane config example

    variant: openshift
    version: 4.8.0
    metadata:
      name: 99-worker-chrony-conf-override
      labels:
        machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role: worker
    storage:
      files:
        - path: /etc/chrony.conf
          mode: 0644
          overwrite: true
          contents:
            inline: |
              # The Machine Config Operator manages this file.
              server openshift-master-0.<cluster-name>.<domain> iburst 1
              server openshift-master-1.<cluster-name>.<domain> iburst
              server openshift-master-2.<cluster-name>.<domain> iburst
    
              stratumweight 0
              driftfile /var/lib/chrony/drift
              rtcsync
              makestep 10 3
              bindcmdaddress 127.0.0.1
              bindcmdaddress ::1
              keyfile /etc/chrony.keys
              commandkey 1
              generatecommandkey
              noclientlog
              logchange 0.5
              logdir /var/log/chrony

    1
    You must replace <cluster-name> with the name of the cluster and replace <domain> with the fully qualified domain name.
  4. Use Butane to generate a MachineConfig object file, 99-worker-chrony-conf-override.yaml, containing the configuration to be delivered to the worker nodes:

    $ butane 99-worker-chrony-conf-override.bu -o 99-worker-chrony-conf-override.yaml
  5. Apply the 99-master-chrony-conf-override.yaml policy to the control plane nodes.

    $ oc apply -f 99-master-chrony-conf-override.yaml

    Example output

    machineconfig.machineconfiguration.openshift.io/99-master-chrony-conf-override created

  6. Apply the 99-worker-chrony-conf-override.yaml policy to the worker nodes.

    $ oc apply -f 99-worker-chrony-conf-override.yaml

    Example output

    machineconfig.machineconfiguration.openshift.io/99-worker-chrony-conf-override created

  7. Check the status of the applied NTP settings.

    $ oc describe machineconfigpool

8.4.2. Enabling a provisioning network after installation

The assisted installer and installer-provisioned installation for bare metal clusters provide the ability to deploy a cluster without a provisioning network. This capability is for scenarios such as proof-of-concept clusters or deploying exclusively with Redfish virtual media when each node’s baseboard management controller is routable via the baremetal network.

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.8 and later, you can enable a provisioning network after installation using the Cluster Baremetal Operator (CBO).

Prerequisites

  • A dedicated physical network must exist, connected to all worker and control plane nodes.
  • You must isolate the native, untagged physical network.
  • The network cannot have a DHCP server when the provisioningNetwork configuration setting is set to Managed.
  • You can omit the provisioningInterface setting in OpenShift Container Platform 4.9 to use the bootMACAddress configuration setting.

Procedure

  1. When setting the provisioningInterface setting, first identify the provisioning interface name for the cluster nodes. For example, eth0 or eno1.
  2. Enable the Preboot eXecution Environment (PXE) on the provisioning network interface of the cluster nodes.
  3. Retrieve the current state of the provisioning network and save it to a provisioning custom resource (CR) file:

    $ oc get provisioning -o yaml > enable-provisioning-nw.yaml
  4. Modify the provisioning CR file:

    $ vim ~/enable-provisioning-nw.yaml

    Scroll down to the provisioningNetwork configuration setting and change it from Disabled to Managed. Then, add the provisioningOSDownloadURL, provisioningIP, provisioningNetworkCIDR, provisioningDHCPRange, provisioningInterface, and watchAllNameSpaces configuration settings after the provisioningNetwork setting. Provide appropriate values for each setting.

    apiVersion: v1
    items:
    - apiVersion: metal3.io/v1alpha1
      kind: Provisioning
      metadata:
        name: provisioning-configuration
      spec:
        provisioningNetwork: 1
        provisioningOSDownloadURL: 2
        provisioningIP: 3
        provisioningNetworkCIDR: 4
        provisioningDHCPRange: 5
        provisioningInterface: 6
        watchAllNameSpaces: 7
    1
    The provisioningNetwork is one of Managed, Unmanaged, or Disabled. When set to Managed, Metal3 manages the provisioning network and the CBO deploys the Metal3 pod with a configured DHCP server. When set to Unmanaged, the system administrator configures the DHCP server manually.
    2
    The provisioningOSDownloadURL is a valid HTTPS URL with a valid sha256 checksum that enables the Metal3 pod to download a qcow2 operating system image ending in .qcow2.gz or .qcow2.xz. This field is required whether the provisioning network is Managed, Unmanaged, or Disabled. For example: http://192.168.0.1/images/rhcos-<version>.x86_64.qcow2.gz?sha256=<sha>.
    3
    The provisioningIP is the static IP address that the DHCP server and ironic use to provision the network. This static IP address must be within the provisioning subnet, and outside of the DHCP range. If you configure this setting, it must have a valid IP address even if the provisioning network is Disabled. The static IP address is bound to the metal3 pod. If the metal3 pod fails and moves to another server, the static IP address also moves to the new server.
    4
    The Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) address. If you configure this setting, it must have a valid CIDR address even if the provisioning network is Disabled. For example: 192.168.0.1/24.
    5
    The DHCP range. This setting is only applicable to a Managed provisioning network. Omit this configuration setting if the provisioning network is Disabled. For example: 192.168.0.64, 192.168.0.253.
    6
    The NIC name for the provisioning interface on cluster nodes. The provisioningInterface setting is only applicable to Managed and Unmanaged provisioning networks. Omit the provisioningInterface configuration setting if the provisioning network is Disabled. Omit the provisioningInterface configuration setting to use the bootMACAddress configuration setting instead.
    7
    Set this setting to true if you want metal3 to watch namespaces other than the default openshift-machine-api namespace. The default value is false.
  5. Save the changes to the provisioning CR file.
  6. Apply the provisioning CR file to the cluster:

    $ oc apply -f enable-provisioning-nw.yaml

8.4.3. Configuring an external load balancer

You can configure an OpenShift Container Platform cluster to use an external load balancer in place of the default load balancer.

Prerequisites

  • On your load balancer, TCP over ports 6443, 443, and 80 must be available to any users of your system.
  • Load balance the API port, 6443, between each of the control plane nodes.
  • Load balance the application ports, 443 and 80, between all of the compute nodes.
  • On your load balancer, port 22623, which is used to serve ignition start-up configurations to nodes, is not exposed outside of the cluster.
  • Your load balancer must be able to access every machine in your cluster. Methods to allow this access include:

    • Attaching the load balancer to the cluster’s machine subnet.
    • Attaching floating IP addresses to machines that use the load balancer.
Important

External load balancing services and the control plane nodes must run on the same L2 network, and on the same VLAN when using VLANs to route traffic between the load balancing services and the control plane nodes.

Procedure

  1. Enable access to the cluster from your load balancer on ports 6443, 443, and 80.

    As an example, note this HAProxy configuration:

    A section of a sample HAProxy configuration

    ...
    listen my-cluster-api-6443
        bind 0.0.0.0:6443
        mode tcp
        balance roundrobin
        server my-cluster-master-2 192.0.2.2:6443 check
        server my-cluster-master-0 192.0.2.3:6443 check
        server my-cluster-master-1 192.0.2.1:6443 check
    listenmy-cluster-apps-443
            bind 0.0.0.0:443
            mode tcp
            balance roundrobin
            server my-cluster-worker-0 192.0.2.6:443 check
            server my-cluster-worker-1 192.0.2.5:443 check
            server my-cluster-worker-2 192.0.2.4:443 check
    listenmy-cluster-apps-80
            bind 0.0.0.0:80
            mode tcp
            balance roundrobin
            server my-cluster-worker-0 192.0.2.7:80 check
            server my-cluster-worker-1 192.0.2.9:80 check
            server my-cluster-worker-2 192.0.2.8:80 check

  2. Add records to your DNS server for the cluster API and apps over the load balancer. For example:

    <load_balancer_ip_address> api.<cluster_name>.<base_domain>
    <load_balancer_ip_address> apps.<cluster_name>.<base_domain>
  3. From a command line, use curl to verify that the external load balancer and DNS configuration are operational.

    1. Verify that the cluster API is accessible:

      $ curl https://<loadbalancer_ip_address>:6443/version --insecure

      If the configuration is correct, you receive a JSON object in response:

      {
        "major": "1",
        "minor": "11+",
        "gitVersion": "v1.11.0+ad103ed",
        "gitCommit": "ad103ed",
        "gitTreeState": "clean",
        "buildDate": "2019-01-09T06:44:10Z",
        "goVersion": "go1.10.3",
        "compiler": "gc",
        "platform": "linux/amd64"
      }
    2. Verify that cluster applications are accessible:

      Note

      You can also verify application accessibility by opening the OpenShift Container Platform console in a web browser.

      $ curl http://console-openshift-console.apps.<cluster_name>.<base_domain> -I -L --insecure

      If the configuration is correct, you receive an HTTP response:

      HTTP/1.1 302 Found
      content-length: 0
      location: https://console-openshift-console.apps.<cluster-name>.<base domain>/
      cache-control: no-cacheHTTP/1.1 200 OK
      referrer-policy: strict-origin-when-cross-origin
      set-cookie: csrf-token=39HoZgztDnzjJkq/JuLJMeoKNXlfiVv2YgZc09c3TBOBU4NI6kDXaJH1LdicNhN1UsQWzon4Dor9GWGfopaTEQ==; Path=/; Secure
      x-content-type-options: nosniff
      x-dns-prefetch-control: off
      x-frame-options: DENY
      x-xss-protection: 1; mode=block
      date: Tue, 17 Nov 2020 08:42:10 GMT
      content-type: text/html; charset=utf-8
      set-cookie: 1e2670d92730b515ce3a1bb65da45062=9b714eb87e93cf34853e87a92d6894be; path=/; HttpOnly; Secure; SameSite=None
      cache-control: private

8.5. Expanding the cluster

After deploying an installer-provisioned OpenShift Container Platform cluster, you can use the following procedures to expand the number of worker nodes. Ensure that each prospective worker node meets the prerequisites.

Note

Expanding the cluster using RedFish Virtual Media involves meeting minimum firmware requirements. See Firmware requirements for installing with virtual media in the Prerequisites section for additional details when expanding the cluster using RedFish Virtual Media.

8.5.1. Preparing the bare metal node

Expanding the cluster requires a DHCP server. Each node must have a DHCP reservation.

Reserving IP addresses so they become static IP addresses

Some administrators prefer to use static IP addresses so that each node’s IP address remains constant in the absence of a DHCP server. To use static IP addresses in the OpenShift Container Platform cluster, reserve the IP addresses in the DHCP server with an infinite lease. After the installer provisions the node successfully, the dispatcher script will check the node’s network configuration. If the dispatcher script finds that the network configuration contains a DHCP infinite lease, it will recreate the connection as a static IP connection using the IP address from the DHCP infinite lease. NICs without DHCP infinite leases will remain unmodified.

Preparing the bare metal node requires executing the following procedure from the provisioner node.

Procedure

  1. Get the oc binary, if needed. It should already exist on the provisioner node.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ curl -s https://mirror.openshift.com/pub/openshift-v4/clients/ocp/$VERSION/openshift-client-linux-$VERSION.tar.gz | tar zxvf - oc
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ sudo cp oc /usr/local/bin
  2. Power off the bare metal node via the baseboard management controller and ensure it is off.
  3. Retrieve the user name and password of the bare metal node’s baseboard management controller. Then, create base64 strings from the user name and password. In the following example, the user name is root and the password is calvin.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ echo -ne "root" | base64
    [kni@provisioner ~]$ echo -ne "calvin" | base64
  4. Create a configuration file for the bare metal node.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ vim bmh.yaml
    ---
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Secret
    metadata:
      name: openshift-worker-<num>-bmc-secret
    type: Opaque
    data:
      username: <base64-of-uid>
      password: <base64-of-pwd>
    ---
    apiVersion: metal3.io/v1alpha1
    kind: BareMetalHost
    metadata:
      name: openshift-worker-<num>
    spec:
      online: true
      bootMACAddress: <NIC1-mac-address>
      bmc:
        address: <protocol>://<bmc-ip>
        credentialsName: openshift-worker-<num>-bmc-secret

    Replace <num> for the worker number of the bare metal node in the two name fields and the credentialsName field. Replace <base64-of-uid> with the base64 string of the user name. Replace <base64-of-pwd> with the base64 string of the password. Replace <NIC1-mac-address> with the MAC address of the bare metal node’s first NIC.

    See the BMC addressing section for additional BMC configuration options. Replace <protocol> with the BMC protocol, such as IPMI, RedFish, or others. Replace <bmc-ip> with the IP address of the bare metal node’s baseboard management controller.

    Note

    If the MAC address of an existing bare metal node matches the MAC address of a bare metal host that you are attempting to provision, then the Ironic installation will fail. If the host enrollment, inspection, cleaning, or other Ironic steps fail, the Bare Metal Operator retries the installation continuously. See Diagnosing a host duplicate MAC address for more information.

  5. Create the bare metal node.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ oc -n openshift-machine-api create -f bmh.yaml
    secret/openshift-worker-<num>-bmc-secret created
    baremetalhost.metal3.io/openshift-worker-<num> created

    Where <num> will be the worker number.

  6. Power up and inspect the bare metal node.

    [kni@provisioner ~]$ oc -n openshift-machine-api get bmh openshift-worker-<num>

    Where <num> is the worker node number.

    NAME                 STATUS   PROVISIONING STATUS   CONSUMER   BMC                 HARDWARE PROFILE   ONLINE   ERROR
    openshift-worker-<num>   OK       ready                            ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>   unknown            true

8.5.1.1. Diagnosing a duplicate MAC address when provisioning a new host in the cluster

If the MAC address of an existing bare-metal node in the cluster matches the MAC address of a bare-metal host you are attempting to add to the cluster, the Bare Metal Operator associates the host with the existing node. If the host enrollment, inspection, cleaning, or other Ironic steps fail, the Bare Metal Operator retries the installation continuously. A registration error is displayed for the failed bare-metal host.

You can diagnose a duplicate MAC address by examining the bare-metal hosts that are running in the openshift-machine-api namespace.

Prerequisites

  • Install an OpenShift Container Platform cluster on bare metal.
  • Install the OpenShift Container Platform CLI oc.
  • Log in as a user with cluster-admin privileges.

Procedure

To determine whether a bare-metal host that fails provisioning has the same MAC address as an existing node, do the following:

  1. Get the bare-metal hosts running in the openshift-machine-api namespace:

    $ oc get bmh -n openshift-machine-api

    Example output

    NAME                 STATUS   PROVISIONING STATUS      CONSUMER
    openshift-master-0   OK       externally provisioned   openshift-zpwpq-master-0
    openshift-master-1   OK       externally provisioned   openshift-zpwpq-master-1
    openshift-master-2   OK       externally provisioned   openshift-zpwpq-master-2
    openshift-worker-0   OK       provisioned              openshift-zpwpq-worker-0-lv84n
    openshift-worker-1   OK       provisioned              openshift-zpwpq-worker-0-zd8lm
    openshift-worker-2   error    registering

  2. To see more detailed information about the status of the failing host, run the following command replacing <bare_metal_host_name> with the name of the host:

    $ oc get -n openshift-machine-api bmh <bare_metal_host_name> -o yaml

    Example output

    ...
    status:
      errorCount: 12
      errorMessage: MAC address b4:96:91:1d:7c:20 conflicts with existing node openshift-worker-1
      errorType: registration error
    ...

8.5.2. Provisioning the bare metal node

Provisioning the bare metal node requires executing the following procedure from the provisioner node.

Procedure

  1. Ensure the PROVISIONING STATUS is ready before provisioning the bare metal node.

    $  oc -n openshift-machine-api get bmh openshift-worker-<num>

    Where <num> is the worker node number.

    NAME                 STATUS   PROVISIONING STATUS   CONSUMER   BMC                 HARDWARE PROFILE   ONLINE   ERROR
    openshift-worker-<num>   OK       ready                            ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>   unknown            true
  2. Get a count of the number of worker nodes.

    $ oc get nodes
    NAME                                                STATUS   ROLES           AGE     VERSION
    provisioner.openshift.example.com            Ready    master          30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-master-1.openshift.example.com            Ready    master          30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-master-2.openshift.example.com            Ready    master          30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-master-3.openshift.example.com            Ready    master          30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-worker-0.openshift.example.com            Ready    master          30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-worker-1.openshift.example.com            Ready    master          30h     v1.16.2
  3. Get the machine set.

    $ oc get machinesets -n openshift-machine-api
    NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
    ...
    openshift-worker-0.example.com      1         1         1       1           55m
    openshift-worker-1.example.com      1         1         1       1           55m
  4. Increase the number of worker nodes by one.

    $ oc scale --replicas=<num> machineset <machineset> -n openshift-machine-api

    Replace <num> with the new number of worker nodes. Replace <machineset> with the name of the machine set from the previous step.

  5. Check the status of the bare metal node.

    $ oc -n openshift-machine-api get bmh openshift-worker-<num>

    Where <num> is the worker node number. The status changes from ready to provisioning.

    NAME                 STATUS   PROVISIONING STATUS   CONSUMER                  BMC                 HARDWARE PROFILE   ONLINE   ERROR
    openshift-worker-<num>   OK       provisioning          openshift-worker-<num>-65tjz   ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>   unknown            true

    The provisioning status remains until the OpenShift Container Platform cluster provisions the node. This can take 30 minutes or more. After the node is provisioned, the status will change to provisioned.

    NAME                 STATUS   PROVISIONING STATUS   CONSUMER                  BMC                 HARDWARE PROFILE   ONLINE   ERROR
    openshift-worker-<num>   OK       provisioned           openshift-worker-<num>-65tjz   ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>   unknown            true
  6. After provisioning completes, ensure the bare metal node is ready.

    $ oc get nodes
    NAME                                          STATUS   ROLES   AGE     VERSION
    provisioner.openshift.example.com             Ready    master  30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-master-1.openshift.example.com      Ready    master  30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-master-2.openshift.example.com      Ready    master  30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-master-3.openshift.example.com      Ready    master  30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-worker-0.openshift.example.com      Ready    master  30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-worker-1.openshift.example.com      Ready    master  30h     v1.16.2
    openshift-worker-<num>.openshift.example.com  Ready    worker  3m27s   v1.16.2

    You can also check the kubelet.

    $ ssh openshift-worker-<num>
    [kni@openshift-worker-<num>]$ journalctl -fu kubelet

8.6. Troubleshooting

8.6.1. Troubleshooting the installer workflow

Prior to troubleshooting the installation environment, it is critical to understand the overall flow of the installer-provisioned installation on bare metal. The diagrams below provide a troubleshooting flow with a step-by-step breakdown for the environment.

Flow-Diagram-1

Workflow 1 of 4 illustrates a troubleshooting workflow when the install-config.yaml file has errors or the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) images are inaccessible. Troubleshooting suggestions can be found at Troubleshooting install-config.yaml.

Flow-Diagram-2

Workflow 2 of 4 illustrates a troubleshooting workflow for bootstrap VM issues, bootstrap VMs that cannot boot up the cluster nodes, and inspecting logs. When installing a OpenShift Container Platform cluster without the provisioning network, this workflow does not apply.

Flow-Diagram-3

Workflow 3 of 4 illustrates a troubleshooting workflow for cluster nodes that will not PXE boot. If installing using RedFish Virtual Media, each node must meet minimum firmware requirements for the installer to deploy the node. See Firmware requirements for installing with virtual media in the Prerequisites section for additional details.

Flow-Diagram-4

Workflow 4 of 4 illustrates a troubleshooting workflow from a non-accessible API to a validated installation.

8.6.2. Troubleshooting install-config.yaml

The install-config.yaml configuration file represents all of the nodes that are part of the OpenShift Container Platform cluster. The file contains the necessary options consisting of but not limited to apiVersion, baseDomain, imageContentSources and virtual IP addresses. If errors occur early in the deployment of the OpenShift Container Platform cluster, the errors are likely in the install-config.yaml configuration file.

Procedure

  1. Use the guidelines in YAML-tips.
  2. Verify the YAML syntax is correct using syntax-check.
  3. Verify the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) QEMU images are properly defined and accessible via the URL provided in the install-config.yaml. For example:

    $ curl -s -o /dev/null -I -w "%{http_code}\n" http://webserver.example.com:8080/rhcos-44.81.202004250133-0-qemu.x86_64.qcow2.gz?sha256=7d884b46ee54fe87bbc3893bf2aa99af3b2d31f2e19ab5529c60636fbd0f1ce7

    If the output is 200, there is a valid response from the webserver storing the bootstrap VM image.

8.6.3. Bootstrap VM issues

The OpenShift Container Platform installer spawns a bootstrap node virtual machine, which handles provisioning the OpenShift Container Platform cluster nodes.

Procedure

  1. About 10 to 15 minutes after triggering the installer, check to ensure the bootstrap VM is operational using the virsh command:

    $ sudo virsh list
     Id    Name                           State
     --------------------------------------------
     12    openshift-xf6fq-bootstrap      running
    Note

    The name of the bootstrap VM is always the cluster name followed by a random set of characters and ending in the word "bootstrap."

    If the bootstrap VM is not running after 10-15 minutes, troubleshoot why it is not running. Possible issues include:

  2. Verify libvirtd is running on the system:

    $ systemctl status libvirtd
    ● libvirtd.service - Virtualization daemon
       Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/libvirtd.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
       Active: active (running) since Tue 2020-03-03 21:21:07 UTC; 3 weeks 5 days ago
         Docs: man:libvirtd(8)
               https://libvirt.org
     Main PID: 9850 (libvirtd)
        Tasks: 20 (limit: 32768)
       Memory: 74.8M
       CGroup: /system.slice/libvirtd.service
               ├─ 9850 /usr/sbin/libvirtd

    If the bootstrap VM is operational, log into it.

  3. Use the virsh console command to find the IP address of the bootstrap VM:

    $ sudo virsh console example.com
    Connected to domain example.com
    Escape character is ^]
    
    Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS 43.81.202001142154.0 (Ootpa) 4.3
    SSH host key: SHA256:BRWJktXZgQQRY5zjuAV0IKZ4WM7i4TiUyMVanqu9Pqg (ED25519)
    SSH host key: SHA256:7+iKGA7VtG5szmk2jB5gl/5EZ+SNcJ3a2g23o0lnIio (ECDSA)
    SSH host key: SHA256:DH5VWhvhvagOTaLsYiVNse9ca+ZSW/30OOMed8rIGOc (RSA)
    ens3:  fd35:919d:4042:2:c7ed:9a9f:a9ec:7
    ens4: 172.22.0.2 fe80::1d05:e52e:be5d:263f
    localhost login:
    Important

    When deploying a OpenShift Container Platform cluster without the provisioning network, you must use a public IP address and not a private IP address like 172.22.0.2.

  4. After you obtain the IP address, log in to the bootstrap VM using the ssh command:

    Note

    In the console output of the previous step, you can use the IPv6 IP address provided by ens3 or the IPv4 IP provided by ens4.

    $ ssh core@172.22.0.2

If you are not successful logging in to the bootstrap VM, you have likely encountered one of the following scenarios:

  • You cannot reach the 172.22.0.0/24 network. Verify network connectivity on the provisioner host specifically around the provisioning network bridge. This will not be the issue if you are not using the provisioning network.
  • You cannot reach the bootstrap VM via the public network. When attempting to SSH via baremetal network, verify connectivity on the provisioner host specifically around the baremetal network bridge.
  • You encountered Permission denied (publickey,password,keyboard-interactive). When attempting to access the bootstrap VM, a Permission denied error might occur. Verify that the SSH key for the user attempting to log into the VM is set within the install-config.yaml file.

8.6.3.1. Bootstrap VM cannot boot up the cluster nodes

During the deployment, it is possible for the bootstrap VM to fail to boot the cluster nodes, which prevents the VM from provisioning the nodes with the RHCOS image. This scenario can arise due to:

  • A problem with the install-config.yaml file.
  • Issues with out-of-band network access via the baremetal network.

To verify the issue, there are three containers related to ironic:

  • ironic-api
  • ironic-conductor
  • ironic-inspector

Procedure

  1. Log in to the bootstrap VM:

    $ ssh core@172.22.0.2
  2. To check the container logs, execute the following:

    [core@localhost ~]$ sudo podman logs -f <container-name>

    Replace <container-name> with one of ironic-api, ironic-conductor, or ironic-inspector. If you encounter an issue where the control plane nodes are not booting up via PXE, check the ironic-conductor pod. The ironic-conductor pod contains the most detail about the attempt to boot the cluster nodes, because it attempts to log in to the node over IPMI.

Potential reason

The cluster nodes might be in the ON state when deployment started.

Solution

Power off the OpenShift Container Platform cluster nodes before you begin the installation over IPMI:

$ ipmitool -I lanplus -U root -P <password> -H <out-of-band-ip> power off

8.6.3.2. Inspecting logs

When experiencing issues downloading or accessing the RHCOS images, first verify that the URL is correct in the install-config.yaml configuration file.

Example of internal webserver hosting RHCOS images

bootstrapOSImage: http://<ip:port>/rhcos-43.81.202001142154.0-qemu.x86_64.qcow2.gz?sha256=9d999f55ff1d44f7ed7c106508e5deecd04dc3c06095d34d36bf1cd127837e0c
clusterOSImage: http://<ip:port>/rhcos-43.81.202001142154.0-openstack.x86_64.qcow2.gz?sha256=a1bda656fa0892f7b936fdc6b6a6086bddaed5dafacedcd7a1e811abb78fe3b0

The ipa-downloader and coreos-downloader containers download resources from a webserver or the external quay.io registry, whichever the install-config.yaml configuration file specifies. Verify the following two containers are up and running and inspect their logs as needed:

  • ipa-downloader
  • coreos-downloader

Procedure

  1. Log in to the bootstrap VM:

    $ ssh core@172.22.0.2
  2. Check the status of the ipa-downloader and coreos-downloader containers within the bootstrap VM:

    [core@localhost ~]$ sudo podman logs -f ipa-downloader
    [core@localhost ~]$ sudo podman logs -f coreos-downloader

    If the bootstrap VM cannot access the URL to the images, use the curl command to verify that the VM can access the images.

  3. To inspect the bootkube logs that indicate if all the containers launched during the deployment phase, execute the following:

    [core@localhost ~]$ journalctl -xe
    [core@localhost ~]$ journalctl -b -f -u bootkube.service
  4. Verify all the pods, including dnsmasq, mariadb, httpd, and ironic, are running:

    [core@localhost ~]$ sudo podman ps
  5. If there are issues with the pods, check the logs of the containers with issues. To check the log of the ironic-api, execute the following:

    [core@localhost ~]$ sudo podman logs <ironic-api>

8.6.4. Cluster nodes will not PXE boot

When OpenShift Container Platform cluster nodes will not PXE boot, execute the following checks on the cluster nodes that will not PXE boot. This procedure does not apply when installing a OpenShift Container Platform cluster without the provisioning network.

Procedure

  1. Check the network connectivity to the provisioning network.
  2. Ensure PXE is enabled on the NIC for the provisioning network and PXE is disabled for all other NICs.
  3. Verify that the install-config.yaml configuration file has the proper hardware profile and boot MAC address for the NIC connected to the provisioning network. For example:

    control plane node settings

    bootMACAddress: 24:6E:96:1B:96:90 # MAC of bootable provisioning NIC
    hardwareProfile: default          #control plane node settings

    Worker node settings

    bootMACAddress: 24:6E:96:1B:96:90 # MAC of bootable provisioning NIC
    hardwareProfile: unknown          #worker node settings

8.6.5. The API is not accessible

When the cluster is running and clients cannot access the API, domain name resolution issues might impede access to the API.

Procedure

  1. Hostname Resolution: Check the cluster nodes to ensure they have a fully qualified domain name, and not just localhost.localdomain. For example:

    $ hostname

    If a hostname is not set, set the correct hostname. For example:

    $ hostnamectl set-hostname <hostname>
  2. Incorrect Name Resolution: Ensure that each node has the correct name resolution in the DNS server using dig and nslookup. For example:

    $ dig api.<cluster-name>.example.com
    ; <<>> DiG 9.11.4-P2-RedHat-9.11.4-26.P2.el8 <<>> api.<cluster-name>.example.com
    ;; global options: +cmd
    ;; Got answer:
    ;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 37551
    ;; flags: qr aa rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 1, ADDITIONAL: 2
    
    ;; OPT PSEUDOSECTION:
    ; EDNS: version: 0, flags:; udp: 4096
    ; COOKIE: 866929d2f8e8563582af23f05ec44203d313e50948d43f60 (good)
    ;; QUESTION SECTION:
    ;api.<cluster-name>.example.com. IN A
    
    ;; ANSWER SECTION:
    api.<cluster-name>.example.com. 10800 IN	A 10.19.13.86
    
    ;; AUTHORITY SECTION:
    <cluster-name>.example.com. 10800 IN NS	<cluster-name>.example.com.
    
    ;; ADDITIONAL SECTION:
    <cluster-name>.example.com. 10800 IN A	10.19.14.247
    
    ;; Query time: 0 msec
    ;; SERVER: 10.19.14.247#53(10.19.14.247)
    ;; WHEN: Tue May 19 20:30:59 UTC 2020
    ;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 140

    The output in the foregoing example indicates that the appropriate IP address for the api.<cluster-name>.example.com VIP is 10.19.13.86. This IP address should reside on the baremetal network.

8.6.6. Cleaning up previous installations

In the event of a previous failed deployment, remove the artifacts from the failed attempt before attempting to deploy OpenShift Container Platform again.

Procedure

  1. Power off all bare metal nodes prior to installing the OpenShift Container Platform cluster:

    $ ipmitool -I lanplus -U <user> -P <password> -H <management-server-ip> power off
  2. Remove all old bootstrap resources if any are left over from a previous deployment attempt:

    for i in $(sudo virsh list | tail -n +3 | grep bootstrap | awk {'print $2'});
    do
      sudo virsh destroy $i;
      sudo virsh undefine $i;
      sudo virsh vol-delete $i --pool $i;
      sudo virsh vol-delete $i.ign --pool $i;
      sudo virsh pool-destroy $i;
      sudo virsh pool-undefine $i;
    done
  3. Remove the following from the clusterconfigs directory to prevent Terraform from failing:

    $ rm -rf ~/clusterconfigs/auth ~/clusterconfigs/terraform* ~/clusterconfigs/tls ~/clusterconfigs/metadata.json

8.6.7. Issues with creating the registry

When creating a disconnected registry, you might encounter a "User Not Authorized" error when attempting to mirror the registry. This error might occur if you fail to append the new authentication to the existing pull-secret.txt file.

Procedure

  1. Check to ensure authentication is successful:

    $ /usr/local/bin/oc adm release mirror \
      -a pull-secret-update.json
      --from=$UPSTREAM_REPO \
      --to-release-image=$LOCAL_REG/$LOCAL_REPO:${VERSION} \
      --to=$LOCAL_REG/$LOCAL_REPO
    Note

    Example output of the variables used to mirror the install images:

    UPSTREAM_REPO=${RELEASE_IMAGE}
    LOCAL_REG=<registry_FQDN>:<registry_port>
    LOCAL_REPO='ocp4/openshift4'

    The values of RELEASE_IMAGE and VERSION were set during the Retrieving OpenShift Installer step of the Setting up the environment for an OpenShift installation section.

  2. After mirroring the registry, confirm that you can access it in your disconnected environment:

    $ curl -k -u <user>:<password> https://registry.example.com:<registry-port>/v2/_catalog
    {"repositories":["<Repo-Name>"]}

8.6.8. Miscellaneous issues

8.6.8.1. Addressing the runtime network not ready error

After the deployment of a cluster you might receive the following error:

`runtime network not ready: NetworkReady=false reason:NetworkPluginNotReady message:Network plugin returns error: Missing CNI default network`

The Cluster Network Operator is responsible for deploying the networking components in response to a special object created by the installer. It runs very early in the installation process, after the control plane (master) nodes have come up, but before the bootstrap control plane has been torn down. It can be indicative of more subtle installer issues, such as long delays in bringing up control plane (master) nodes or issues with apiserver communication.

Procedure

  1. Inspect the pods in the openshift-network-operator namespace:

    $ oc get all -n openshift-network-operator
    NAME                                    READY STATUS            RESTARTS   AGE
    pod/network-operator-69dfd7b577-bg89v   0/1   ContainerCreating 0          149m
  2. On the provisioner node, determine that the network configuration exists:

    $ kubectl get network.config.openshift.io cluster -oyaml
    apiVersion: config.openshift.io/v1
    kind: Network
    metadata:
      name: cluster
    spec:
      serviceNetwork:
      - 172.30.0.0/16
      clusterNetwork:
      - cidr: 10.128.0.0/14
        hostPrefix: 23
      networkType: OpenShiftSDN

    If it does not exist, the installer did not create it. To determine why the installer did not create it, execute the following:

    $ openshift-install create manifests
  3. Check that the network-operator is running:

    $ kubectl -n openshift-network-operator get pods
  4. Retrieve the logs:

    $ kubectl -n openshift-network-operator logs -l "name=network-operator"

    On high availability clusters with three or more control plane (master) nodes, the Operator will perform leader election and all other Operators will sleep. For additional details, see Troubleshooting.

8.6.8.2. Cluster nodes not getting the correct IPv6 address over DHCP

If the cluster nodes are not getting the correct IPv6 address over DHCP, check the following:

  1. Ensure the reserved IPv6 addresses reside outside the DHCP range.
  2. In the IP address reservation on the DHCP server, ensure the reservation specifies the correct DHCP Unique Identifier (DUID). For example:

    # This is a dnsmasq dhcp reservation, 'id:00:03:00:01' is the client id and '18:db:f2:8c:d5:9f' is the MAC Address for the NIC
    id:00:03:00:01:18:db:f2:8c:d5:9f,openshift-master-1,[2620:52:0:1302::6]
  3. Ensure that route announcements are working.
  4. Ensure that the DHCP server is listening on the required interfaces serving the IP address ranges.

8.6.8.3. Cluster nodes not getting the correct hostname over DHCP

During IPv6 deployment, cluster nodes must get their hostname over DHCP. Sometimes the NetworkManager does not assign the hostname immediately. A control plane (master) node might report an error such as:

Failed Units: 2
  NetworkManager-wait-online.service
  nodeip-configuration.service

This error indicates that the cluster node likely booted without first receiving a hostname from the DHCP server, which causes kubelet to boot with a localhost.localdomain hostname. To address the error, force the node to renew the hostname.

Procedure

  1. Retrieve the hostname:

    [core@master-X ~]$ hostname

    If the hostname is localhost, proceed with the following steps.

    Note

    Where X is the control plane node (also known as the master node) number.

  2. Force the cluster node to renew the DHCP lease:

    [core@master-X ~]$ sudo nmcli con up "<bare-metal-nic>"

    Replace <bare-metal-nic> with the wired connection corresponding to the baremetal network.

  3. Check hostname again:

    [core@master-X ~]$ hostname
  4. If the hostname is still localhost.localdomain, restart NetworkManager:

    [core@master-X ~]$ sudo systemctl restart NetworkManager
  5. If the hostname is still localhost.localdomain, wait a few minutes and check again. If the hostname remains localhost.localdomain, repeat the previous steps.
  6. Restart the nodeip-configuration service:

    [core@master-X ~]$ sudo systemctl restart nodeip-configuration.service

    This service will reconfigure the kubelet service with the correct hostname references.

  7. Reload the unit files definition since the kubelet changed in the previous step:

    [core@master-X ~]$ sudo systemctl daemon-reload
  8. Restart the kubelet service:

    [core@master-X ~]$ sudo systemctl restart kubelet.service
  9. Ensure kubelet booted with the correct hostname:

    [core@master-X ~]$ sudo journalctl -fu kubelet.service

If the cluster node is not getting the correct hostname over DHCP after the cluster is up and running, such as during a reboot, the cluster will have a pending csr. Do not approve a csr, or other issues might arise.

Addressing a csr

  1. Get CSRs on the cluster:

    $ oc get csr
  2. Verify if a pending csr contains Subject Name: localhost.localdomain:

    $ oc get csr <pending_csr> -o jsonpath='{.spec.request}' | base64 --decode | openssl req -noout -text
  3. Remove any csr that contains Subject Name: localhost.localdomain:

    $ oc delete csr <wrong_csr>

8.6.8.4. Routes do not reach endpoints

During the installation process, it is possible to encounter a Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) conflict. This conflict might occur if a previously used OpenShift Container Platform node that was once part of a cluster deployment using a specific cluster name is still running but not part of the current OpenShift Container Platform cluster deployment using that same cluster name. For example, a cluster was deployed using the cluster name openshift, deploying three control plane (master) nodes and three worker nodes. Later, a separate install uses the same cluster name openshift, but this redeployment only installed three control plane (master) nodes, leaving the three worker nodes from a previous deployment in an ON state. This might cause a Virtual Router Identifier (VRID) conflict and a VRRP conflict.

  1. Get the route:

    $ oc get route oauth-openshift
  2. Check the service endpoint:

    $ oc get svc oauth-openshift
    NAME              TYPE        CLUSTER-IP      EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)   AGE
    oauth-openshift   ClusterIP   172.30.19.162   <none>        443/TCP   59m
  3. Attempt to reach the service from a control plane (master) node:

    [core@master0 ~]$ curl -k https://172.30.19.162
    {
      "kind": "Status",
      "apiVersion": "v1",
      "metadata": {
      },
      "status": "Failure",
      "message": "forbidden: User \"system:anonymous\" cannot get path \"/\"",
      "reason": "Forbidden",
      "details": {
      },
      "code": 403
  4. Identify the authentication-operator errors from the provisioner node:

    $ oc logs deployment/authentication-operator -n openshift-authentication-operator
    Event(v1.ObjectReference{Kind:"Deployment", Namespace:"openshift-authentication-operator", Name:"authentication-operator", UID:"225c5bd5-b368-439b-9155-5fd3c0459d98", APIVersion:"apps/v1", ResourceVersion:"", FieldPath:""}): type: 'Normal' reason: 'OperatorStatusChanged' Status for clusteroperator/authentication changed: Degraded message changed from "IngressStateEndpointsDegraded: All 2 endpoints for oauth-server are reporting"

Solution

  1. Ensure that the cluster name for every deployment is unique, ensuring no conflict.
  2. Turn off all the rogue nodes which are not part of the cluster deployment that are using the same cluster name. Otherwise, the authentication pod of the OpenShift Container Platform cluster might never start successfully.

8.6.8.5. Failed Ignition during Firstboot

During the Firstboot, the Ignition configuration may fail.

Procedure

  1. Connect to the node where the Ignition configuration failed:

    Failed Units: 1
      machine-config-daemon-firstboot.service
  2. Restart the machine-config-daemon-firstboot service:

    [core@worker-X ~]$ sudo systemctl restart machine-config-daemon-firstboot.service

8.6.8.6. NTP out of sync

The deployment of OpenShift Container Platform clusters depends on NTP synchronized clocks among the cluster nodes. Without synchronized clocks, the deployment may fail due to clock drift if the time difference is greater than two seconds.

Procedure

  1. Check for differences in the AGE of the cluster nodes. For example:

    $ oc get nodes
    NAME                         STATUS   ROLES    AGE   VERSION
    master-0.cloud.example.com   Ready    master   145m   v1.16.2
    master-1.cloud.example.com   Ready    master   135m   v1.16.2
    master-2.cloud.example.com   Ready    master   145m   v1.16.2
    worker-2.cloud.example.com   Ready    worker   100m   v1.16.2
  2. Check for inconsistent timing delays due to clock drift. For example:

    $ oc get bmh -n openshift-machine-api
    master-1   error registering master-1  ipmi://<out-of-band-ip>
    $ sudo timedatectl
                   Local time: Tue 2020-03-10 18:20:02 UTC
               Universal time: Tue 2020-03-10 18:20:02 UTC
                     RTC time: Tue 2020-03-10 18:36:53
                    Time zone: UTC (UTC, +0000)
    System clock synchronized: no
                  NTP service: active
              RTC in local TZ: no

Addressing clock drift in existing clusters

  1. Create a Butane config file including the contents of the chrony.conf file to be delivered to the nodes. In the following example, create 99-master-chrony.bu to add the file to the control plane nodes. You can modify the file for worker nodes or repeat this procedure for the worker role.

    Note

    See "Creating machine configs with Butane" for information about Butane.

    variant: openshift
    version: 4.8.0
    metadata:
      name: 99-master-chrony
      labels:
        machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role: master
    storage:
      files:
      - path: /etc/chrony.conf
        mode: 0644
        overwrite: true
        contents:
          inline: |
            server <NTP-server> iburst 1
            stratumweight 0
            driftfile /var/lib/chrony/drift
            rtcsync
            makestep 10 3
            bindcmdaddress 127.0.0.1
            bindcmdaddress ::1
            keyfile /etc/chrony.keys
            commandkey 1
            generatecommandkey
            noclientlog
            logchange 0.5
            logdir /var/log/chrony
    1
    Replace <NTP-server> with the IP address of the NTP server.
  2. Use Butane to generate a MachineConfig object file, 99-master-chrony.yaml, containing the configuration to be delivered to the nodes:

    $ butane 99-master-chrony.bu -o 99-master-chrony.yaml
  3. Apply the MachineConfig object file:

    $ oc apply -f 99-master-chrony.yaml
  4. Ensure the System clock synchronized value is yes:

    $ sudo timedatectl
                   Local time: Tue 2020-03-10 19:10:02 UTC
               Universal time: Tue 2020-03-10 19:10:02 UTC
                     RTC time: Tue 2020-03-10 19:36:53
                    Time zone: UTC (UTC, +0000)
    System clock synchronized: yes
                  NTP service: active
              RTC in local TZ: no

    To setup clock synchronization prior to deployment, generate the manifest files and add this file to the openshift directory. For example:

    $ cp chrony-masters.yaml ~/clusterconfigs/openshift/99_masters-chrony-configuration.yaml

    Then, continue to create the cluster.

8.6.9. Reviewing the installation

After installation, ensure the installer deployed the nodes and pods successfully.

Procedure

  1. When the OpenShift Container Platform cluster nodes are installed appropriately, the following Ready state is seen within the STATUS column:

    $ oc get nodes
    NAME                   STATUS   ROLES           AGE  VERSION
    master-0.example.com   Ready    master,worker   4h   v1.16.2
    master-1.example.com   Ready    master,worker   4h   v1.16.2
    master-2.example.com   Ready    master,worker   4h   v1.16.2
  2. Confirm the installer deployed all pods successfully. The following command removes any pods that are still running or have completed as part of the output.

    $ oc get pods --all-namespaces | grep -iv running | grep -iv complete