Chapter 15. Logging in to the cluster by using the CLI

You can log in to your cluster as a default system user by exporting the cluster kubeconfig file. The kubeconfig file contains information about the cluster that is used by the CLI to connect a client to the correct cluster and API server. The file is specific to a cluster and is created during OpenShift Container Platform installation.

Prerequisites

  • You deployed an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • You installed the oc CLI.

Procedure

  1. Export the kubeadmin credentials:

    $ export KUBECONFIG=<installation_directory>/auth/kubeconfig 1
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the path to the directory that you stored the installation files in.
  2. Verify you can run oc commands successfully using the exported configuration:

    $ oc whoami

    Example output

    system:admin

Additional resources

  • See Accessing the web console for more details about accessing and understanding the OpenShift Container Platform web console.

15.1. Verifying cluster status

You can verify your OpenShift Container Platform cluster’s status during or after installation.

Procedure

  1. In the cluster environment, export the administrator’s kubeconfig file:

    $ export KUBECONFIG=<installation_directory>/auth/kubeconfig 1
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the path to the directory that you stored the installation files in.

    The kubeconfig file contains information about the cluster that is used by the CLI to connect a client to the correct cluster and API server.

  2. View the control plane and compute machines created after a deployment:

    $ oc get nodes
  3. View your cluster’s version:

    $ oc get clusterversion
  4. View your Operators' status:

    $ oc get clusteroperator
  5. View all running pods in the cluster:

    $ oc get pods -A

Troubleshooting

If the installation fails, the installation program times out and displays an error message. To learn more, see Troubleshooting installation issues.

15.2. Accessing the OpenShift Container Platform web console on RHV

After the OpenShift Container Platform cluster initializes, you can log into the OpenShift Container Platform web console.

Procedure

  1. Optional: In the Red Hat Virtualization (RHV) Administration Portal, open ComputeCluster.
  2. Verify that the installation program creates the virtual machines.
  3. Return to the command line where the installation program is running. When the installation program finishes, it displays the user name and temporary password for logging into the OpenShift Container Platform web console.
  4. In a browser, open the URL of the OpenShift Container Platform web console. The URL uses this format:

    console-openshift-console.apps.<clustername>.<basedomain> 1
    1
    For <clustername>.<basedomain>, specify the cluster name and base domain.

    For example:

    console-openshift-console.apps.my-cluster.virtlab.example.com

15.3. Telemetry access for OpenShift Container Platform

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.8, the Telemetry service, which runs by default to provide metrics about cluster health and the success of updates, requires internet access. If your cluster is connected to the internet, Telemetry runs automatically, and your cluster is registered to the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager (OCM).

After you confirm that your Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager inventory is correct, either maintained automatically by Telemetry or manually by using OCM, use subscription watch to track your OpenShift Container Platform subscriptions at the account or multi-cluster level.

Additional resources

15.4. Troubleshooting common issues with installing on Red Hat Virtualization (RHV)

Here are some common issues you might encounter, along with proposed causes and solutions.

15.4.1. CPU load increases and nodes go into a Not Ready state

  • Symptom: CPU load increases significantly and nodes start going into a Not Ready state.
  • Cause: The storage domain latency might be too high, especially for control plane nodes (also known as the master nodes).
  • Solution:

    Make the nodes ready again by restarting the kubelet service:

    $ systemctl restart kubelet

    Inspect the OpenShift Container Platform metrics service, which automatically gathers and reports on some valuable data such as the etcd disk sync duration. If the cluster is operational, use this data to help determine whether storage latency or throughput is the root issue. If so, consider using a storage resource that has lower latency and higher throughput.

    To get raw metrics, enter the following command as kubeadmin or user with cluster-admin privileges:

    $ oc get --insecure-skip-tls-verify --server=https://localhost:<port> --raw=/metrics

    To learn more, see Exploring Application Endpoints for the purposes of Debugging with OpenShift 4.x

15.4.2. Trouble connecting the OpenShift Container Platform cluster API

  • Symptom: The installation program completes but the OpenShift Container Platform cluster API is not available. The bootstrap virtual machine remains up after the bootstrap process is complete. When you enter the following command, the response will time out.

    $ oc login -u kubeadmin -p *** <apiurl>
  • Cause: The bootstrap VM was not deleted by the installation program and has not released the cluster’s API IP address.
  • Solution: Use the wait-for subcommand to be notified when the bootstrap process is complete:

    $ ./openshift-install wait-for bootstrap-complete

    When the bootstrap process is complete, delete the bootstrap virtual machine:

    $ ./openshift-install destroy bootstrap

15.5. Post-installation tasks

After the OpenShift Container Platform cluster initializes, you can perform the following tasks.

  • Optional: After deployment, add or replace SSH keys using the Machine Config Operator (MCO) in OpenShift Container Platform.
  • Optional: Remove the kubeadmin user. Instead, use the authentication provider to create a user with cluster-admin privileges.

15.6. Installing a cluster on RHV with customizations

You can customize and install an OpenShift Container Platform cluster on Red Hat Virtualization (RHV), similar to the one shown in the following diagram.

Diagram of an OpenShift Container Platform cluster on a RHV cluster

The installation program uses installer-provisioned infrastructure to automate creating and deploying the cluster.

To install a customized cluster, you prepare the environment and perform the following steps:

  1. Create an installation configuration file, the install-config.yaml file, by running the installation program and answering its prompts.
  2. Inspect and modify parameters in the install-config.yaml file.
  3. Make a working copy of the install-config.yaml file.
  4. Run the installation program with a copy of the install-config.yaml file.

Then, the installation program creates the OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

For an alternative to installing a customized cluster, see Installing a default cluster.

Note

This installation program is available for Linux and macOS only.

15.6.1. Prerequisites

15.6.2. Internet access for OpenShift Container Platform

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.8, you require access to the internet to install your cluster.

You must have internet access to:

  • Access the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager page to download the installation program and perform subscription management. If the cluster has internet access and you do not disable Telemetry, that service automatically entitles your cluster.
  • Access Quay.io to obtain the packages that are required to install your cluster.
  • Obtain the packages that are required to perform cluster updates.
Important

If your cluster cannot have direct internet access, you can perform a restricted network installation on some types of infrastructure that you provision. During that process, you download the content that is required and use it to populate a mirror registry with the packages that you need to install a cluster and generate the installation program. With some installation types, the environment that you install your cluster in will not require internet access. Before you update the cluster, you update the content of the mirror registry.

15.6.3. Requirements for the RHV environment

To install and run an OpenShift Container Platform version 4.8 cluster, the RHV environment must meet the following requirements.

Not meeting these requirements can cause the installation or process to fail. Additionally, not meeting these requirements can cause the OpenShift Container Platform cluster to fail days or weeks after installation.

The following requirements for CPU, memory, and storage resources are based on default values multiplied by the default number of virtual machines the installation program creates. These resources must be available in addition to what the RHV environment uses for non-OpenShift Container Platform operations.

By default, the installation program creates seven virtual machines during the installation process. First, it creates a bootstrap virtual machine to provide temporary services and a control plane while it creates the rest of the OpenShift Container Platform cluster. When the installation program finishes creating the cluster, deleting the bootstrap machine frees up its resources.

If you increase the number of virtual machines in the RHV environment, you must increase the resources accordingly.

Requirements

  • The RHV version is 4.4.
  • The RHV environment has one data center whose state is Up.
  • The RHV data center contains an RHV cluster.
  • The RHV cluster has the following resources exclusively for the OpenShift Container Platform cluster:

    • Minimum 28 vCPUs: four for each of the seven virtual machines created during installation.
    • 112 GiB RAM or more, including:

      • 16 GiB or more for the bootstrap machine, which provides the temporary control plane.
      • 16 GiB or more for each of the three control plane machines which provide the control plane.
      • 16 GiB or more for each of the three compute machines, which run the application workloads.
  • The RHV storage domain must meet these etcd backend performance requirements.
  • For affinity group support:

    One physical machine per worker or control plane. Workers and control planes can be on the same physical machine. For example, if you have three workers and three control planes, you need three physical machines. If you have four workers and three control planes, you need four physical machines.

    • For hard anti-affinity (default): A minimum of three physical machines. For more than three worker nodes, one physical machine per worker or control plane. Workers and control planes can be on the same physical machine.
    • For custom affinity groups: Ensure that the resources are appropriate for the affinity group rules that you define.
  • In production environments, each virtual machine must have 120 GiB or more. Therefore, the storage domain must provide 840 GiB or more for the default OpenShift Container Platform cluster. In resource-constrained or non-production environments, each virtual machine must have 32 GiB or more, so the storage domain must have 230 GiB or more for the default OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • To download images from the Red Hat Ecosystem Catalog during installation and update procedures, the RHV cluster must have access to an internet connection. The Telemetry service also needs an internet connection to simplify the subscription and entitlement process.
  • The RHV cluster must have a virtual network with access to the REST API on the RHV Manager. Ensure that DHCP is enabled on this network, because the VMs that the installer creates obtain their IP address by using DHCP.
  • A user account and group with the following least privileges for installing and managing an OpenShift Container Platform cluster on the target RHV cluster:

    • DiskOperator
    • DiskCreator
    • UserTemplateBasedVm
    • TemplateOwner
    • TemplateCreator
    • ClusterAdmin on the target cluster
Warning

Apply the principle of least privilege: Avoid using an administrator account with SuperUser privileges on RHV during the installation process. The installation program saves the credentials you provide to a temporary ovirt-config.yaml file that might be compromised.

15.6.4. Verifying the requirements for the RHV environment

Verify that the RHV environment meets the requirements to install and run an OpenShift Container Platform cluster. Not meeting these requirements can cause failures.

Important

These requirements are based on the default resources the installation program uses to create control plane and compute machines. These resources include vCPUs, memory, and storage. If you change these resources or increase the number of OpenShift Container Platform machines, adjust these requirements accordingly.

Procedure

  1. Check that the RHV version supports installation of OpenShift Container Platform version 4.8.

    1. In the RHV Administration Portal, click the ? help icon in the upper-right corner and select About.
    2. In the window that opens, make a note of the RHV Software Version.
    3. Confirm that the RHV version is 4.4. For more information about supported version combinations, see Support Matrix for OpenShift Container Platform on RHV.
  2. Inspect the data center, cluster, and storage.

    1. In the RHV Administration Portal, click ComputeData Centers.
    2. Confirm that the data center where you plan to install OpenShift Container Platform is accessible.
    3. Click the name of that data center.
    4. In the data center details, on the Storage tab, confirm the storage domain where you plan to install OpenShift Container Platform is Active.
    5. Record the Domain Name for use later on.
    6. Confirm Free Space has at least 230 GiB.
    7. Confirm that the storage domain meets these etcd backend performance requirements, which you can measure by using the fio performance benchmarking tool.
    8. In the data center details, click the Clusters tab.
    9. Find the RHV cluster where you plan to install OpenShift Container Platform. Record the cluster name for use later on.
  3. Inspect the RHV host resources.

    1. In the RHV Administration Portal, click Compute > Clusters.
    2. Click the cluster where you plan to install OpenShift Container Platform.
    3. In the cluster details, click the Hosts tab.
    4. Inspect the hosts and confirm they have a combined total of at least 28 Logical CPU Cores available exclusively for the OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
    5. Record the number of available Logical CPU Cores for use later on.
    6. Confirm that these CPU cores are distributed so that each of the seven virtual machines created during installation can have four cores.
    7. Confirm that, all together, the hosts have 112 GiB of Max free Memory for scheduling new virtual machines distributed to meet the requirements for each of the following OpenShift Container Platform machines:

      • 16 GiB required for the bootstrap machine
      • 16 GiB required for each of the three control plane machines
      • 16 GiB for each of the three compute machines
    8. Record the amount of Max free Memory for scheduling new virtual machines for use later on.
  4. Verify that the virtual network for installing OpenShift Container Platform has access to the RHV Manager’s REST API. From a virtual machine on this network, use curl to reach the RHV Manager’s REST API:

    $ curl -k -u <username>@<profile>:<password> \ 1
    https://<engine-fqdn>/ovirt-engine/api 2
    1
    For <username>, specify the user name of an RHV account with privileges to create and manage an OpenShift Container Platform cluster on RHV. For <profile>, specify the login profile, which you can get by going to the RHV Administration Portal login page and reviewing the Profile dropdown list. For <password>, specify the password for that user name.
    2
    For <engine-fqdn>, specify the fully qualified domain name of the RHV environment.

    For example:

    $ curl -k -u ocpadmin@internal:pw123 \
    https://rhv-env.virtlab.example.com/ovirt-engine/api

15.6.5. Preparing the network environment on RHV

Configure two static IP addresses for the OpenShift Container Platform cluster and create DNS entries using these addresses.

Procedure

  1. Reserve two static IP addresses

    1. On the network where you plan to install OpenShift Container Platform, identify two static IP addresses that are outside the DHCP lease pool.
    2. Connect to a host on this network and verify that each of the IP addresses is not in use. For example, use Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) to check that none of the IP addresses have entries:

      $ arp 10.35.1.19

      Example output

      10.35.1.19 (10.35.1.19) -- no entry

    3. Reserve two static IP addresses following the standard practices for your network environment.
    4. Record these IP addresses for future reference.
  2. Create DNS entries for the OpenShift Container Platform REST API and apps domain names using this format:

    api.<cluster-name>.<base-domain>   <ip-address> 1
    *.apps.<cluster-name>.<base-domain>   <ip-address> 2
    1
    For <cluster-name>, <base-domain>, and <ip-address>, specify the cluster name, base domain, and static IP address of your OpenShift Container Platform API.
    2
    Specify the cluster name, base domain, and static IP address of your OpenShift Container Platform apps for Ingress and the load balancer.

    For example:

    api.my-cluster.virtlab.example.com	10.35.1.19
    *.apps.my-cluster.virtlab.example.com	10.35.1.20

15.6.6. Installing OpenShift Container Platform on RHV in insecure mode

By default, the installer creates a CA certificate, prompts you for confirmation, and stores the certificate to use during installation. You do not need to create or install one manually.

Although it is not recommended, you can override this functionality and install OpenShift Container Platform without verifying a certificate by installing OpenShift Container Platform on RHV in insecure mode.

Warning

Installing in insecure mode is not recommended, because it enables a potential attacker to perform a Man-in-the-Middle attack and capture sensitive credentials on the network.

Procedure

  1. Create a file named ~/.ovirt/ovirt-config.yaml.
  2. Add the following content to ovirt-config.yaml:

    ovirt_url: \https://ovirt.example.com/ovirt-engine/api
    ovirt_fqdn: ovirt.example.com
    ovirt_pem_url: ""
    ovirt_username: ocpadmin@internal
    ovirt_password: super-secret-password
    ovirt_insecure: true
  3. Run the installer.

15.6.7. Generating a key pair for cluster node SSH access

During an OpenShift Container Platform installation, you can provide an SSH public key to the installation program. The key is passed to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) nodes through their Ignition config files and is used to authenticate SSH access to the nodes. The key is added to the ~/.ssh/authorized_keys list for the core user on each node, which enables password-less authentication.

After the key is passed to the nodes, you can use the key pair to SSH in to the RHCOS nodes as the user core. To access the nodes through SSH, the private key identity must be managed by SSH for your local user.

If you want to SSH in to your cluster nodes to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, you must provide the SSH public key during the installation process. The ./openshift-install gather command also requires the SSH public key to be in place on the cluster nodes.

Important

Do not skip this procedure in production environments, where disaster recovery and debugging is required.

Procedure

  1. If you do not have an existing SSH key pair on your local machine to use for authentication onto your cluster nodes, create one. For example, on a computer that uses a Linux operating system, run the following command:

    $ ssh-keygen -t ed25519 -N '' -f <path>/<file_name> 1
    1
    Specify the path and file name, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa, of the new SSH key. If you have an existing key pair, ensure your public key is in the your ~/.ssh directory.
    Note

    If you plan to install an OpenShift Container Platform cluster that uses FIPS Validated / Modules in Process cryptographic libraries on the x86_64 architecture, do not create a key that uses the ed25519 algorithm. Instead, create a key that uses the rsa or ecdsa algorithm.

  2. View the public SSH key:

    $ cat <path>/<file_name>.pub

    For example, run the following to view the ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub public key:

    $ cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
  3. Add the SSH private key identity to the SSH agent for your local user, if it has not already been added. SSH agent management of the key is required for password-less SSH authentication onto your cluster nodes, or if you want to use the ./openshift-install gather command.

    Note

    On some distributions, default SSH private key identities such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa and ~/.ssh/id_dsa are managed automatically.

    1. If the ssh-agent process is not already running for your local user, start it as a background task:

      $ eval "$(ssh-agent -s)"

      Example output

      Agent pid 31874

      Note

      If your cluster is in FIPS mode, only use FIPS-compliant algorithms to generate the SSH key. The key must be either RSA or ECDSA.

  4. Add your SSH private key to the ssh-agent:

    $ ssh-add <path>/<file_name> 1
    1
    Specify the path and file name for your SSH private key, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa

    Example output

    Identity added: /home/<you>/<path>/<file_name> (<computer_name>)

  5. Set the GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS environment variable to the full path to your service account private key file.

    $ export GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS="<your_service_account_file>"
  6. Verify that the credentials were applied.

    $ gcloud auth list

Next steps

  • When you install OpenShift Container Platform, provide the SSH public key to the installation program.

15.6.8. Obtaining the installation program

Before you install OpenShift Container Platform, download the installation file on your provisioning machine.

Prerequisites

  • You have a machine that runs Linux, for example Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8, with 500 MB of local disk space

Procedure

  1. Access the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site. If you have a Red Hat account, log in with your credentials. If you do not, create an account.
  2. Select your infrastructure provider.
  3. Navigate to the page for your installation type, download the installation program for your operating system, and place the file in the directory where you will store the installation configuration files.

    Important

    The installation program creates several files on the computer that you use to install your cluster. You must keep the installation program and the files that the installation program creates after you finish installing the cluster. Both files are required to delete the cluster.

    Important

    Deleting the files created by the installation program does not remove your cluster, even if the cluster failed during installation. To remove your cluster, complete the OpenShift Container Platform uninstallation procedures for your specific cloud provider.

  4. Extract the installation program. For example, on a computer that uses a Linux operating system, run the following command:

    $ tar xvf openshift-install-linux.tar.gz
  5. From the Pull Secret page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site, download your installation pull secret. This pull secret allows you to authenticate with the services that are provided by the included authorities, including Quay.io, which serves the container images for OpenShift Container Platform components.

15.6.9. Creating the installation configuration file

You can customize the OpenShift Container Platform cluster you install on Google Cloud Platform (GCP). Red Hat Virtualization (RHV).

Prerequisites

  • Obtain the OpenShift Container Platform installation program and the pull secret for your cluster.
  • Obtain service principal permissions at the subscription level.

Procedure

  1. Create the install-config.yaml file.

    1. Change to the directory that contains the installation program and run the following command:

      $ ./openshift-install create install-config --dir=<installation_directory> 1
      1
      For <installation_directory>, specify the directory name to store the files that the installation program creates.
      Important

      Specify an empty directory. Some installation assets, like bootstrap X.509 certificates have short expiration intervals, so you must not reuse an installation directory. If you want to reuse individual files from another cluster installation, you can copy them into your directory. However, the file names for the installation assets might change between releases. Use caution when copying installation files from an earlier OpenShift Container Platform version.

      1. Select gcp as the platform to target.
      2. If you have not configured the service account key for your GCP account on your computer, you must obtain it from GCP and paste the contents of the file or enter the absolute path to the file.
      3. Select the project ID to provision the cluster in. The default value is specified by the service account that you configured.
      4. Select the region to deploy the cluster to.
      5. Select the base domain to deploy the cluster to. The base domain corresponds to the public DNS zone that you created for your cluster.
    2. Respond to the installation program prompts.

      1. For SSH Public Key, select a password-less public key, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub. This key authenticates connections with the new OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

        Note

        For production OpenShift Container Platform clusters on which you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, select an SSH key that your ssh-agent process uses.

      2. For Platform, select ovirt.
      3. For Enter oVirt’s API endpoint URL, enter the URL of the RHV API using this format:

        https://<engine-fqdn>/ovirt-engine/api 1
        1
        For <engine-fqdn>, specify the fully qualified domain name of the RHV environment.

        For example:

        $ curl -k -u ocpadmin@internal:pw123 \
        https://rhv-env.virtlab.example.com/ovirt-engine/api
      4. For Is the oVirt CA trusted locally?, enter Yes, because you have already set up a CA certificate. Otherwise, enter No.
      5. For oVirt’s CA bundle, if you entered Yes for the preceding question, copy the certificate content from /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors/ca.pem and paste it here. Then, press Enter twice. Otherwise, if you entered No for the preceding question, this question does not appear.
      6. For oVirt engine username, enter the user name and profile of the RHV administrator using this format:

        <username>@<profile> 1
        1
        For <username>, specify the user name of an RHV administrator. For <profile>, specify the login profile, which you can get by going to the RHV Administration Portal login page and reviewing the Profile dropdown list. Together, the user name and profile should look similar to this example:
        ocpadmin@internal
      7. For oVirt engine password, enter the RHV admin password.
      8. For oVirt cluster, select the cluster for installing OpenShift Container Platform.
      9. For oVirt storage domain, select the storage domain for installing OpenShift Container Platform.
      10. For oVirt network, select a virtual network that has access to the RHV Manager REST API.
      11. For Internal API Virtual IP, enter the static IP address you set aside for the cluster’s REST API.
      12. For Ingress virtual IP, enter the static IP address you reserved for the wildcard apps domain.
      13. For Base Domain, enter the base domain of the OpenShift Container Platform cluster. If this cluster is exposed to the outside world, this must be a valid domain recognized by DNS infrastructure. For example, enter: virtlab.example.com
      14. For Cluster Name, enter the name of the cluster. For example, my-cluster. Use cluster name from the externally registered/resolvable DNS entries you created for the OpenShift Container Platform REST API and apps domain names. The installation program also gives this name to the cluster in the RHV environment.
      15. For Pull Secret, copy the pull secret from the pull-secret.txt file you downloaded earlier and paste it here. You can also get a copy of the same pull secret from the Pull Secret page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.
  2. Modify the install-config.yaml file. You can find more information about the available parameters in the "Installation configuration parameters" section.

    Note

    If you have any intermediate CA certificates on the Manager, verify that the certificates appear in the ovirt-config.yaml file and the install-config.yaml file. If they do not appear, add them as follows:

    1. In the ~/.ovirt/ovirt-config.yaml file:

      [ovirt_ca_bundle]: |
           -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
           <MY_TRUSTED_CA>
           -----END CERTIFICATE-----
           -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
           <INTERMEDIATE_CA>
           -----END CERTIFICATE-----
    2. In the install-config.yaml file:

      [additionalTrustBundle]: |
           -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
           <MY_TRUSTED_CA>
           -----END CERTIFICATE-----
           -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
           <INTERMEDIATE_CA>
           -----END CERTIFICATE-----
  3. Back up the install-config.yaml file so that you can use it to install multiple clusters.

    Important

    The install-config.yaml file is consumed during the installation process. If you want to reuse the file, you must back it up now.

15.6.9.1. Example install-config.yaml files for Red Hat Virtualization (RHV)

You can customize the OpenShift Container Platform cluster the installation program creates by changing the parameters and parameter values in the install-config.yaml file.

The following examples are specific to installing OpenShift Container Platform on RHV.

install-config.yaml is located in <installation_directory>, which you specified when you ran the following command.

$ ./openshift-install create install-config --dir=<installation_directory>
Note
  • These example files are provided for reference only. You must obtain your install-config.yaml file by using the installation program.
  • Changing the install-config.yaml file can increase the resources your cluster requires. Verify that your RHV environment has those additional resources. Otherwise, the installation or cluster will fail.
Example default install-config.yaml file
apiVersion: v1
baseDomain: example.com
compute:
- architecture: amd64
  hyperthreading: Enabled
  name: worker
  platform: {}
  replicas: 3
controlPlane:
  architecture: amd64
  hyperthreading: Enabled
  name: master
  platform: {}
  replicas: 3
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: null
  name: my-cluster
networking:
  clusterNetwork:
  - cidr: 10.128.0.0/14
    hostPrefix: 23
  machineNetwork:
  - cidr: 10.0.0.0/16
  networkType: OpenShiftSDN
  serviceNetwork:
  - 172.30.0.0/16
platform:
  ovirt:
    api_vip: 10.46.8.230
    ingress_vip: 192.168.1.5
    ovirt_cluster_id: 68833f9f-e89c-4891-b768-e2ba0815b76b
    ovirt_storage_domain_id: ed7b0f4e-0e96-492a-8fff-279213ee1468
    ovirt_network_name: ovirtmgmt
    vnicProfileID: 3fa86930-0be5-4052-b667-b79f0a729692
publish: External
pullSecret: '{"auths": ...}'
sshKey: ssh-ed12345 AAAA...
Example minimal install-config.yaml file
apiVersion: v1
baseDomain: example.com
metadata:
  name: test-cluster
platform:
  ovirt:
    api_vip: 10.46.8.230
    ingress_vip: 10.46.8.232
    ovirt_cluster_id: 68833f9f-e89c-4891-b768-e2ba0815b76b
    ovirt_storage_domain_id: ed7b0f4e-0e96-492a-8fff-279213ee1468
    ovirt_network_name: ovirtmgmt
    vnicProfileID: 3fa86930-0be5-4052-b667-b79f0a729692
pullSecret: '{"auths": ...}'
sshKey: ssh-ed12345 AAAA...
Example Custom machine pools in an install-config.yaml file
apiVersion: v1
baseDomain: example.com
controlPlane:
  name: master
  platform:
    ovirt:
      cpu:
        cores: 4
        sockets: 2
      memoryMB: 65536
      osDisk:
        sizeGB: 100
      vmType: server
  replicas: 3
compute:
- name: worker
  platform:
    ovirt:
      cpu:
        cores: 4
        sockets: 4
      memoryMB: 65536
      osDisk:
        sizeGB: 200
      vmType: server
  replicas: 5
metadata:
  name: test-cluster
platform:
  ovirt:
    api_vip: 10.46.8.230
    ingress_vip: 10.46.8.232
    ovirt_cluster_id: 68833f9f-e89c-4891-b768-e2ba0815b76b
    ovirt_storage_domain_id: ed7b0f4e-0e96-492a-8fff-279213ee1468
    ovirt_network_name: ovirtmgmt
    vnicProfileID: 3fa86930-0be5-4052-b667-b79f0a729692
pullSecret: '{"auths": ...}'
sshKey: ssh-ed25519 AAAA...
Example non-enforcing affinity group

It is recommended to add a non-enforcing affinity group to distribute the control plane and workers, if possible, to use as much of the cluster as possible.

platform:
  ovirt:
    affinityGroups:
    - description: AffinityGroup to place each compute machine on a separate host
      enforcing: true
      name: compute
      priority: 3
    - description: AffinityGroup to place each control plane machine on a separate host
      enforcing: true
      name: controlplane
      priority: 5
    - description: AffinityGroup to place worker nodes and control plane nodes on separate hosts
      enforcing: false
      name: openshift
      priority: 5
compute:
- architecture: amd64
  hyperthreading: Enabled
  name: worker
  platform:
    ovirt:
      affinityGroupsNames:
      - compute
      - openshift
  replicas: 3
controlPlane:
  architecture: amd64
  hyperthreading: Enabled
  name: master
  platform:
    ovirt:
      affinityGroupsNames:
      - controlplane
      - openshift
  replicas: 3
Example removing all affinity groups for a non-production lab setup

For non-production lab setups, you must remove all affinity groups to concentrate the OpenShift Container Platform cluster on the few hosts you have.

platform:
  ovirt:
    affinityGroups: []
compute:
- architecture: amd64
  hyperthreading: Enabled
  name: worker
  platform:
    ovirt:
      affinityGroupsNames: []
  replicas: 3
controlPlane:
  architecture: amd64
  hyperthreading: Enabled
  name: master
  platform:
    ovirt:
      affinityGroupsNames: []
  replicas: 3

15.6.9.2. Installation configuration parameters

Before you deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster, you provide a customized install-config.yaml installation configuration file that describes the details for your environment.

Note

After installation, you cannot modify these parameters in the install-config.yaml file.

Important

The openshift-install command does not validate field names for parameters. If an incorrect name is specified, the related file or object is not created, and no error is reported. Ensure that the field names for any parameters that are specified are correct.

15.6.9.2.1. Required configuration parameters

Required installation configuration parameters are described in the following table:

Table 15.1. Required parameters

ParameterDescriptionValues

apiVersion

The API version for the install-config.yaml content. The current version is v1. The installer may also support older API versions.

String

baseDomain

The base domain of your cloud provider. The base domain is used to create routes to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster components. The full DNS name for your cluster is a combination of the baseDomain and metadata.name parameter values that uses the <metadata.name>.<baseDomain> format.

A fully-qualified domain or subdomain name, such as example.com.

metadata

Kubernetes resource ObjectMeta, from which only the name parameter is consumed.

Object

metadata.name

The name of the cluster. DNS records for the cluster are all subdomains of {{.metadata.name}}.{{.baseDomain}}.

String of lowercase letters, hyphens (-), and periods (.), such as dev.

platform

The configuration for the specific platform upon which to perform the installation: aws, baremetal, azure, openstack, ovirt, vsphere, or {}. For additional information about platform.<platform> parameters, consult the table for your specific platform that follows.

Object

pullSecret

Get a pull secret from https://console.redhat.com/openshift/install/pull-secret to authenticate downloading container images for OpenShift Container Platform components from services such as Quay.io.

{
   "auths":{
      "cloud.openshift.com":{
         "auth":"b3Blb=",
         "email":"you@example.com"
      },
      "quay.io":{
         "auth":"b3Blb=",
         "email":"you@example.com"
      }
   }
}
15.6.9.2.2. Network configuration parameters

You can customize your installation configuration based on the requirements of your existing network infrastructure. For example, you can expand the IP address block for the cluster network or provide different IP address blocks than the defaults.

Only IPv4 addresses are supported.

Table 15.2. Network parameters

ParameterDescriptionValues

networking

The configuration for the cluster network.

Object

Note

You cannot modify parameters specified by the networking object after installation.

networking.networkType

The cluster network provider Container Network Interface (CNI) plug-in to install.

Either OpenShiftSDN or OVNKubernetes. The default value is OpenShiftSDN.

networking.clusterNetwork

The IP address blocks for pods.

The default value is 10.128.0.0/14 with a host prefix of /23.

If you specify multiple IP address blocks, the blocks must not overlap.

An array of objects. For example:

networking:
  clusterNetwork:
  - cidr: 10.128.0.0/14
    hostPrefix: 23

networking.clusterNetwork.cidr

Required if you use networking.clusterNetwork. An IP address block.

An IPv4 network.

An IP address block in Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation. The prefix length for an IPv4 block is between 0 and 32.

networking.clusterNetwork.hostPrefix

The subnet prefix length to assign to each individual node. For example, if hostPrefix is set to 23 then each node is assigned a /23 subnet out of the given cidr. A hostPrefix value of 23 provides 510 (2^(32 - 23) - 2) pod IP addresses.

A subnet prefix.

The default value is 23.

networking.serviceNetwork

The IP address block for services. The default value is 172.30.0.0/16.

The OpenShift SDN and OVN-Kubernetes network providers support only a single IP address block for the service network.

An array with an IP address block in CIDR format. For example:

networking:
  serviceNetwork:
   - 172.30.0.0/16

networking.machineNetwork

The IP address blocks for machines.

If you specify multiple IP address blocks, the blocks must not overlap.

An array of objects. For example:

networking:
  machineNetwork:
  - cidr: 10.0.0.0/16

networking.machineNetwork.cidr

Required if you use networking.machineNetwork. An IP address block. The default value is 10.0.0.0/16 for all platforms other than libvirt. For libvirt, the default value is 192.168.126.0/24.

An IP network block in CIDR notation.

For example, 10.0.0.0/16.

Note

Set the networking.machineNetwork to match the CIDR that the preferred NIC resides in.

15.6.9.2.3. Optional configuration parameters

Optional installation configuration parameters are described in the following table:

Table 15.3. Optional parameters

ParameterDescriptionValues

additionalTrustBundle

A PEM-encoded X.509 certificate bundle that is added to the nodes' trusted certificate store. This trust bundle may also be used when a proxy has been configured.

String

compute

The configuration for the machines that comprise the compute nodes.

Array of MachinePool objects. For details, see the following "Machine-pool" table.

compute.architecture

Determines the instruction set architecture of the machines in the pool. Currently, heteregeneous clusters are not supported, so all pools must specify the same architecture. Valid values are s390x (the default).

String

compute.hyperthreading

Whether to enable or disable simultaneous multithreading, or hyperthreading, on compute machines. By default, simultaneous multithreading is enabled to increase the performance of your machines' cores.

Important

If you disable simultaneous multithreading, ensure that your capacity planning accounts for the dramatically decreased machine performance.

Enabled or Disabled

compute.name

Required if you use compute. The name of the machine pool.

worker

compute.platform

Required if you use compute. Use this parameter to specify the cloud provider to host the worker machines. This parameter value must match the controlPlane.platform parameter value.

aws, azure, gcp, openstack, ovirt, vsphere, or {}

compute.replicas

The number of compute machines, which are also known as worker machines, to provision.

A positive integer greater than or equal to 2. The default value is 3.

controlPlane

The configuration for the machines that comprise the control plane.

Array of MachinePool objects. For details, see the following "Machine-pool" table.

controlPlane.architecture

Determines the instruction set architecture of the machines in the pool. Currently, heterogeneous clusters are not supported, so all pools must specify the same architecture. Valid values are s390x (the default).

String

controlPlane.hyperthreading

Whether to enable or disable simultaneous multithreading, or hyperthreading, on control plane machines. By default, simultaneous multithreading is enabled to increase the performance of your machines' cores.

Important

If you disable simultaneous multithreading, ensure that your capacity planning accounts for the dramatically decreased machine performance.

Enabled or Disabled

controlPlane.name

Required if you use controlPlane. The name of the machine pool.

master

controlPlane.platform

Required if you use controlPlane. Use this parameter to specify the cloud provider that hosts the control plane machines. This parameter value must match the compute.platform parameter value.

aws, azure, gcp, openstack, ovirt, vsphere, or {}

controlPlane.replicas

The number of control plane machines to provision.

The only supported value is 3, which is the default value.

credentialsMode

The Cloud Credential Operator (CCO) mode. If no mode is specified, the CCO dynamically tries to determine the capabilities of the provided credentials, with a preference for mint mode on the platforms where multiple modes are supported.

Note

Not all CCO modes are supported for all cloud providers. For more information on CCO modes, see the Cloud Credential Operator entry in the Red Hat Operators reference content.

Mint, Passthrough, Manual, or an empty string ("").

fips

Enable or disable FIPS mode. The default is false (disabled). If FIPS mode is enabled, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) machines that OpenShift Container Platform runs on bypass the default Kubernetes cryptography suite and use the cryptography modules that are provided with RHCOS instead.

Important

The use of FIPS Validated / Modules in Process cryptographic libraries is only supported on OpenShift Container Platform deployments on the x86_64 architecture.

Note

If you are using Azure File storage, you cannot enable FIPS mode.

false or true

imageContentSources

Sources and repositories for the release-image content.

Array of objects. Includes a source and, optionally, mirrors, as described in the following rows of this table.

imageContentSources.source

Required if you use imageContentSources. Specify the repository that users refer to, for example, in image pull specifications.

String

imageContentSources.mirrors

Specify one or more repositories that may also contain the same images.

Array of strings

publish

How to publish or expose the user-facing endpoints of your cluster, such as the Kubernetes API, OpenShift routes.

Internal or External. To deploy a private cluster, which cannot be accessed from the internet, set publish to Internal. The default value is External.

sshKey

The SSH key or keys to authenticate access your cluster machines.

Note

For production OpenShift Container Platform clusters on which you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, specify an SSH key that your ssh-agent process uses.

One or more keys. For example:

sshKey:
  <key1>
  <key2>
  <key3>
15.6.9.2.4. Additional Google Cloud Platform (GCP) configuration parameters

Additional GCP configuration parameters are described in the following table:

Table 15.4. Additional GCP parameters

ParameterDescriptionValues

platform.gcp.network

The name of the existing VPC that you want to deploy your cluster to.

String.

platform.gcp.region

The name of the GCP region that hosts your cluster.

Any valid region name, such as us-central1.

platform.gcp.type

The GCP machine type.

The GCP machine type.

platform.gcp.zones

The availability zones where the installation program creates machines for the specified MachinePool.

A list of valid GCP availability zones, such as us-central1-a, in a YAML sequence.

platform.gcp.controlPlaneSubnet

The name of the existing subnet in your VPC that you want to deploy your control plane machines to.

The subnet name.

platform.gcp.computeSubnet

The name of the existing subnet in your VPC that you want to deploy your compute machines to.

The subnet name.

platform.gcp.osDisk.diskSizeGB

The size of the disk in gigabytes (GB).

Any size between 16 GB and 65536 GB.

platform.gcp.osDisk.diskType

The type of disk.

Either the default pd-ssd or the pd-standard disk type. The control plane nodes must be the pd-ssd disk type. The worker nodes can be either type.

controlPlane.platform.gcp.osDisk.encryptionKey.kmsKey.name

The name of the customer managed encryption key to be used for control plane machine disk encryption.

The encryption key name.

controlPlane.platform.gcp.osDisk.encryptionKey.kmsKey.keyRing

For control plane machines, the name of the KMS key ring to which the KMS key belongs.

The KMS key ring name.

controlPlane.platform.gcp.osDisk.encryptionKey.kmsKey.location

For control plane machines, the GCP location in which the key ring exists. For more information on KMS locations, see Google’s documentation on Cloud KMS locations.

The GCP location for the key ring.

controlPlane.platform.gcp.osDisk.encryptionKey.kmsKey.projectID

For control plane machines, the ID of the project in which the KMS key ring exists. This value defaults to the VM project ID if not set.

The GCP project ID.

compute.platform.gcp.osDisk.encryptionKey.kmsKey.name

The name of the customer managed encryption key to be used for compute machine disk encryption.

The encryption key name.

compute.platform.gcp.osDisk.encryptionKey.kmsKey.keyRing

For compute machines, the name of the KMS key ring to which the KMS key belongs.

The KMS key ring name.

compute.platform.gcp.osDisk.encryptionKey.kmsKey.location

For compute machines, the GCP location in which the key ring exists. For more information on KMS locations, see Google’s documentation on Cloud KMS locations.

The GCP location for the key ring.

compute.platform.gcp.osDisk.encryptionKey.kmsKey.projectID

For compute machines, the ID of the project in which the KMS key ring exists. This value defaults to the VM project ID if not set.

The GCP project ID.

15.6.9.2.5. Additional Red Hat Virtualization (RHV) configuration parameters

Additional RHV configuration parameters are described in the following table:

Table 15.5. Additional Red Hat Virtualization (RHV) parameters for clusters

ParameterDescriptionValues

platform.ovirt.ovirt_cluster_id

Required. The Cluster where the VMs will be created.

String. For example: 68833f9f-e89c-4891-b768-e2ba0815b76b

platform.ovirt.ovirt_storage_domain_id

Required. The Storage Domain ID where the VM disks will be created.

String. For example: ed7b0f4e-0e96-492a-8fff-279213ee1468

platform.ovirt.ovirt_network_name

Required. The network name where the VM nics will be created.

String. For example: ocpcluster

platform.ovirt.vnicProfileID

Required. The vNIC profile ID of the VM network interfaces. This can be inferred if the cluster network has a single profile.

String. For example: 3fa86930-0be5-4052-b667-b79f0a729692

platform.ovirt.api_vip

Required. An IP address on the machine network that will be assigned to the API virtual IP (VIP). You can access the OpenShift API at this endpoint.

String. Example: 10.46.8.230

platform.ovirt.ingress_vip

Required. An IP address on the machine network that will be assigned to the Ingress virtual IP (VIP).

String. Example: 10.46.8.232

platform.ovirt.affinityGroups

Optional. A list of affinity groups to create during the installation process.

List of objects.

platform.ovirt.affinityGroups.description

Required if you include platform.ovirt.affinityGroups. A description of the affinity group.

String. Example: AffinityGroup for spreading each compute machine to a different host

platform.ovirt.affinityGroups.enforcing

Required if you include platform.ovirt.affinityGroups. When set to true, RHV does not provision any machines if not enough hardware nodes are available. When set to false, RHV does provision machines even if not enough hardware nodes are available, resulting in multiple virtual machines being hosted on the same physical machine.

String. Example: true

platform.ovirt.affinityGroups.name

Required if you include platform.ovirt.affinityGroups. The name of the affinity group.

String. Example: compute

platform.ovirt.affinityGroups.priority

Required if you include platform.ovirt.affinityGroups. The priority given to an affinity group when platform.ovirt.affinityGroups.enforcing = false. RHV applies affinity groups in the order of priority, where a greater number takes precedence over a lesser one. If multiple affinity groups have the same priority, the order in which they are applied is not guaranteed.

Integer. Example: 3

15.6.9.2.6. Additional RHV parameters for machine pools

Additional RHV configuration parameters for machine pools are described in the following table:

Table 15.6. Additional RHV parameters for machine pools

ParameterDescriptionValues

<machine-pool>.platform.ovirt.cpu

Optional. Defines the CPU of the VM.

Object

<machine-pool>.platform.ovirt.cpu.cores

Required if you use <machine-pool>.platform.ovirt.cpu. The number of cores. Total virtual CPUs (vCPUs) is cores * sockets.

Integer

<machine-pool>.platform.ovirt.cpu.sockets

Required if you use <machine-pool>.platform.ovirt.cpu. The number of sockets per core. Total virtual CPUs (vCPUs) is cores * sockets.

Integer

<machine-pool>.platform.ovirt.memoryMB

Optional. Memory of the VM in MiB.

Integer

<machine-pool>.platform.ovirt.instanceTypeID

Optional. An instance type UUID, such as 00000009-0009-0009-0009-0000000000f1, which you can get from the https://<engine-fqdn>/ovirt-engine/api/instancetypes endpoint.

String of UUID

<machine-pool>.platform.ovirt.osDisk

Optional. Defines the first and bootable disk of the VM.

String

<machine-pool>.platform.ovirt.osDisk.sizeGB

Required if you use <machine-pool>.platform.ovirt.osDisk. Size of the disk in GiB.

Number

<machine-pool>.platform.ovirt.vmType

Optional. The VM workload type, such as high-performance, server, or desktop. By default, master nodes use high-performance, and worker nodes use server. For details, see Explanation of Settings in the New Virtual Machine and Edit Virtual Machine Windows and Configuring High Performance Virtual Machines, Templates, and Pools in the Virtual Machine Management Guide.

Note

high_performance improves performance on the VM, but there are limitations. For example, you cannot access the VM with a graphical console. For more information see Configuring High Performance Virtual Machines, Templates, and Pools in the Virtual Machine Management Guide.

String

<machine-pool>.platform.ovirt.affinityGroupsNames

Optional. A list of affinity group names that should be applied to the virtual machines. The affinity groups must exist in RHV, or be created during installation as described in Additional RHV parameters for clusters in this topic. This entry can be empty.

Example with two affinity groups

This example defines two affinity groups, named compute and clusterWideNonEnforcing:

<machine-pool>:
  platform:
    ovirt:
      affinityGroupNames:
        - compute
        - clusterWideNonEnforcing

This example defines no affinity groups:

<machine-pool>:
  platform:
    ovirt:
      affinityGroupNames: []

String

Note

You can replace <machine-pool> with controlPlane or compute.

15.6.10. Deploying the cluster

You can install OpenShift Container Platform on a compatible cloud platform.

Important

You can run the create cluster command of the installation program only once, during initial installation.

Prerequisites

  • Open the ovirt-imageio port to the Manager from the machine running the installer. By default, the port is 54322.
  • Obtain the OpenShift Container Platform installation program and the pull secret for your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Remove any existing GCP credentials that do not use the service account key for the GCP account that you configured for your cluster and that are stored in the following locations:

    • The GOOGLE_CREDENTIALS, GOOGLE_CLOUD_KEYFILE_JSON, or GCLOUD_KEYFILE_JSON environment variables
    • The ~/.gcp/osServiceAccount.json file
    • The gcloud cli default credentials
  2. Change to the directory that contains the installation program and initialize the cluster deployment:

    $ ./openshift-install create cluster --dir=<installation_directory> \ 1
        --log-level=info 2
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the location of your customized ./install-config.yaml file.
    2
    To view different installation details, specify warn, debug, or error instead of info.
    Note

    If the cloud provider account that you configured on your host does not have sufficient permissions to deploy the cluster, the installation process stops, and the missing permissions are displayed.

    When the cluster deployment completes, directions for accessing your cluster, including a link to its web console and credentials for the kubeadmin user, display in your terminal.

    Example output

    ...
    INFO Install complete!
    INFO To access the cluster as the system:admin user when using 'oc', run 'export KUBECONFIG=/home/myuser/install_dir/auth/kubeconfig'
    INFO Access the OpenShift web-console here: https://console-openshift-console.apps.mycluster.example.com
    INFO Login to the console with user: "kubeadmin", and password: "4vYBz-Ee6gm-ymBZj-Wt5AL"
    INFO Time elapsed: 36m22s

    Note

    The cluster access and credential information also outputs to <installation_directory>/.openshift_install.log when an installation succeeds.

    Important

    The Ignition config files that the installation program generates contain certificates that expire after 24 hours, which are then renewed at that time. If the cluster is shut down before renewing the certificates and the cluster is later restarted after the 24 hours have elapsed, the cluster automatically recovers the expired certificates. The exception is that you must manually approve the pending node-bootstrapper certificate signing requests (CSRs) to recover kubelet certificates. See the documentation for Recovering from expired control plane certificates for more information.

    Important

    You must not delete the installation program or the files that the installation program creates. Both are required to delete the cluster.

  3. Optional: You can reduce the number of permissions for the service account that you used to install the cluster.

    • If you assigned the Owner role to your service account, you can remove that role and replace it with the Viewer role.
    • If you included the Service Account Key Admin role, you can remove it.
Important

You have completed the steps required to install the cluster. The remaining steps show you how to verify the cluster and troubleshoot the installation.

15.6.11. Installing the OpenShift CLI by downloading the binary

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) to interact with OpenShift Container Platform from a command-line interface. You can install oc on Linux, Windows, or macOS.

Important

If you installed an earlier version of oc, you cannot use it to complete all of the commands in OpenShift Container Platform 4.8. Download and install the new version of oc.

Installing the OpenShift CLI on Linux

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on Linux by using the following procedure.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the OpenShift Container Platform downloads page on the Red Hat Customer Portal.
  2. Select the appropriate version in the Version drop-down menu.
  3. Click Download Now next to the OpenShift v4.8 Linux Client entry and save the file.
  4. Unpack the archive:

    $ tar xvzf <file>
  5. Place the oc binary in a directory that is on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, execute the following command:

    $ echo $PATH

After you install the OpenShift CLI, it is available using the oc command:

$ oc <command>
Installing the OpenShift CLI on Windows

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on Windows by using the following procedure.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the OpenShift Container Platform downloads page on the Red Hat Customer Portal.
  2. Select the appropriate version in the Version drop-down menu.
  3. Click Download Now next to the OpenShift v4.8 Windows Client entry and save the file.
  4. Unzip the archive with a ZIP program.
  5. Move the oc binary to a directory that is on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, open the command prompt and execute the following command:

    C:\> path

After you install the OpenShift CLI, it is available using the oc command:

C:\> oc <command>
Installing the OpenShift CLI on macOS

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on macOS by using the following procedure.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the OpenShift Container Platform downloads page on the Red Hat Customer Portal.
  2. Select the appropriate version in the Version drop-down menu.
  3. Click Download Now next to the OpenShift v4.8 MacOSX Client entry and save the file.
  4. Unpack and unzip the archive.
  5. Move the oc binary to a directory on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, open a terminal and execute the following command:

    $ echo $PATH

After you install the OpenShift CLI, it is available using the oc command:

$ oc <command>

15.6.12. Logging in to the cluster by using the CLI

You can log in to your cluster as a default system user by exporting the cluster kubeconfig file. The kubeconfig file contains information about the cluster that is used by the CLI to connect a client to the correct cluster and API server. The file is specific to a cluster and is created during OpenShift Container Platform installation.

Prerequisites

  • You deployed an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • You installed the oc CLI.

Procedure

  1. Export the kubeadmin credentials:

    $ export KUBECONFIG=<installation_directory>/auth/kubeconfig 1
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the path to the directory that you stored the installation files in.
  2. Verify you can run oc commands successfully using the exported configuration:

    $ oc whoami

    Example output

    system:admin

To learn more, see Getting started with the OpenShift CLI.

15.6.13. Verifying cluster status

You can verify your OpenShift Container Platform cluster’s status during or after installation.

Procedure

  1. In the cluster environment, export the administrator’s kubeconfig file:

    $ export KUBECONFIG=<installation_directory>/auth/kubeconfig 1
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the path to the directory that you stored the installation files in.

    The kubeconfig file contains information about the cluster that is used by the CLI to connect a client to the correct cluster and API server.

  2. View the control plane and compute machines created after a deployment:

    $ oc get nodes
  3. View your cluster’s version:

    $ oc get clusterversion
  4. View your Operators' status:

    $ oc get clusteroperator
  5. View all running pods in the cluster:

    $ oc get pods -A

Troubleshooting

If the installation fails, the installation program times out and displays an error message. To learn more, see Troubleshooting installation issues.

15.6.14. Accessing the OpenShift Container Platform web console on RHV

After the OpenShift Container Platform cluster initializes, you can log into the OpenShift Container Platform web console.

Procedure

  1. Optional: In the Red Hat Virtualization (RHV) Administration Portal, open ComputeCluster.
  2. Verify that the installation program creates the virtual machines.
  3. Return to the command line where the installation program is running. When the installation program finishes, it displays the user name and temporary password for logging into the OpenShift Container Platform web console.
  4. In a browser, open the URL of the OpenShift Container Platform web console. The URL uses this format:

    console-openshift-console.apps.<clustername>.<basedomain> 1
    1
    For <clustername>.<basedomain>, specify the cluster name and base domain.

    For example:

    console-openshift-console.apps.my-cluster.virtlab.example.com

15.6.15. Telemetry access for OpenShift Container Platform

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.8, the Telemetry service, which runs by default to provide metrics about cluster health and the success of updates, requires internet access. If your cluster is connected to the internet, Telemetry runs automatically, and your cluster is registered to the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager (OCM).

After you confirm that your Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager inventory is correct, either maintained automatically by Telemetry or manually by using OCM, use subscription watch to track your OpenShift Container Platform subscriptions at the account or multi-cluster level.

Additional resources

15.6.16. Troubleshooting common issues with installing on Red Hat Virtualization (RHV)

Here are some common issues you might encounter, along with proposed causes and solutions.

15.6.16.1. CPU load increases and nodes go into a Not Ready state

  • Symptom: CPU load increases significantly and nodes start going into a Not Ready state.
  • Cause: The storage domain latency might be too high, especially for control plane nodes (also known as the master nodes).
  • Solution:

    Make the nodes ready again by restarting the kubelet service:

    $ systemctl restart kubelet

    Inspect the OpenShift Container Platform metrics service, which automatically gathers and reports on some valuable data such as the etcd disk sync duration. If the cluster is operational, use this data to help determine whether storage latency or throughput is the root issue. If so, consider using a storage resource that has lower latency and higher throughput.

    To get raw metrics, enter the following command as kubeadmin or user with cluster-admin privileges:

    $ oc get --insecure-skip-tls-verify --server=https://localhost:<port> --raw=/metrics

    To learn more, see Exploring Application Endpoints for the purposes of Debugging with OpenShift 4.x

15.6.16.2. Trouble connecting the OpenShift Container Platform cluster API

  • Symptom: The installation program completes but the OpenShift Container Platform cluster API is not available. The bootstrap virtual machine remains up after the bootstrap process is complete. When you enter the following command, the response will time out.

    $ oc login -u kubeadmin -p *** <apiurl>
  • Cause: The bootstrap VM was not deleted by the installation program and has not released the cluster’s API IP address.
  • Solution: Use the wait-for subcommand to be notified when the bootstrap process is complete:

    $ ./openshift-install wait-for bootstrap-complete

    When the bootstrap process is complete, delete the bootstrap virtual machine:

    $ ./openshift-install destroy bootstrap

15.6.17. Post-installation tasks

After the OpenShift Container Platform cluster initializes, you can perform the following tasks.

  • Optional: After deployment, add or replace SSH keys using the Machine Config Operator (MCO) in OpenShift Container Platform.
  • Optional: Remove the kubeadmin user. Instead, use the authentication provider to create a user with cluster-admin privileges.

15.6.18. Next steps

15.7. Installing a cluster on RHV with user-provisioned infrastructure

In OpenShift Container Platform version 4.8, you can install a customized OpenShift Container Platform cluster on Red Hat Virtualization (RHV) and other infrastructure that you provide. The OpenShift Container Platform documentation uses the term user-provisioned infrastructure to refer to this infrastructure type.

The following diagram shows an example of a potential OpenShift Container Platform cluster running on a RHV cluster.

Diagram of an OpenShift Container Platform cluster on a RHV cluster. The RHV hosts run virtual machines that contain both control plane and compute pods. One of the hosts also runs a Manager virtual machine and a bootstrap virtual machine that contains a temporary control plane pod.

15.7.1. Prerequisites

The following items are required to install an OpenShift Container Platform cluster on a RHV environment.

15.7.2. Internet access for OpenShift Container Platform

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.8, you require access to the internet to install your cluster.

You must have internet access to:

  • Access the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager page to download the installation program and perform subscription management. If the cluster has internet access and you do not disable Telemetry, that service automatically entitles your cluster.
  • Access Quay.io to obtain the packages that are required to install your cluster.
  • Obtain the packages that are required to perform cluster updates.
Important

If your cluster cannot have direct internet access, you can perform a restricted network installation on some types of infrastructure that you provision. During that process, you download the content that is required and use it to populate a mirror registry with the packages that you need to install a cluster and generate the installation program. With some installation types, the environment that you install your cluster in will not require internet access. Before you update the cluster, you update the content of the mirror registry.

15.7.3. Requirements for the RHV environment

To install and run an OpenShift Container Platform version 4.8 cluster, the RHV environment must meet the following requirements.

Not meeting these requirements can cause the installation or process to fail. Additionally, not meeting these requirements can cause the OpenShift Container Platform cluster to fail days or weeks after installation.

The following requirements for CPU, memory, and storage resources are based on default values multiplied by the default number of virtual machines the installation program creates. These resources must be available in addition to what the RHV environment uses for non-OpenShift Container Platform operations.

By default, the installation program creates seven virtual machines during the installation process. First, it creates a bootstrap virtual machine to provide temporary services and a control plane while it creates the rest of the OpenShift Container Platform cluster. When the installation program finishes creating the cluster, deleting the bootstrap machine frees up its resources.

If you increase the number of virtual machines in the RHV environment, you must increase the resources accordingly.

Requirements

  • The RHV version is 4.4.
  • The RHV environment has one data center whose state is Up.
  • The RHV data center contains an RHV cluster.
  • The RHV cluster has the following resources exclusively for the OpenShift Container Platform cluster:

    • Minimum 28 vCPUs: four for each of the seven virtual machines created during installation.
    • 112 GiB RAM or more, including:

      • 16 GiB or more for the bootstrap machine, which provides the temporary control plane.
      • 16 GiB or more for each of the three control plane machines which provide the control plane.
      • 16 GiB or more for each of the three compute machines, which run the application workloads.
  • The RHV storage domain must meet these etcd backend performance requirements.
  • In production environments, each virtual machine must have 120 GiB or more. Therefore, the storage domain must provide 840 GiB or more for the default OpenShift Container Platform cluster. In resource-constrained or non-production environments, each virtual machine must have 32 GiB or more, so the storage domain must have 230 GiB or more for the default OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • To download images from the Red Hat Ecosystem Catalog during installation and update procedures, the RHV cluster must have access to an internet connection. The Telemetry service also needs an internet connection to simplify the subscription and entitlement process.
  • The RHV cluster must have a virtual network with access to the REST API on the RHV Manager. Ensure that DHCP is enabled on this network, because the VMs that the installer creates obtain their IP address by using DHCP.
  • A user account and group with the following least privileges for installing and managing an OpenShift Container Platform cluster on the target RHV cluster:

    • DiskOperator
    • DiskCreator
    • UserTemplateBasedVm
    • TemplateOwner
    • TemplateCreator
    • ClusterAdmin on the target cluster
Warning

Apply the principle of least privilege: Avoid using an administrator account with SuperUser privileges on RHV during the installation process. The installation program saves the credentials you provide to a temporary ovirt-config.yaml file that might be compromised.

15.7.4. Verifying the requirements for the RHV environment

Verify that the RHV environment meets the requirements to install and run an OpenShift Container Platform cluster. Not meeting these requirements can cause failures.

Important

These requirements are based on the default resources the installation program uses to create control plane and compute machines. These resources include vCPUs, memory, and storage. If you change these resources or increase the number of OpenShift Container Platform machines, adjust these requirements accordingly.

Procedure

  1. Check that the RHV version supports installation of OpenShift Container Platform version 4.8.

    1. In the RHV Administration Portal, click the ? help icon in the upper-right corner and select About.
    2. In the window that opens, make a note of the RHV Software Version.
    3. Confirm that the RHV version is 4.4. For more information about supported version combinations, see Support Matrix for OpenShift Container Platform on RHV.
  2. Inspect the data center, cluster, and storage.

    1. In the RHV Administration Portal, click ComputeData Centers.
    2. Confirm that the data center where you plan to install OpenShift Container Platform is accessible.
    3. Click the name of that data center.
    4. In the data center details, on the Storage tab, confirm the storage domain where you plan to install OpenShift Container Platform is Active.
    5. Record the Domain Name for use later on.
    6. Confirm Free Space has at least 230 GiB.
    7. Confirm that the storage domain meets these etcd backend performance requirements, which you can measure by using the fio performance benchmarking tool.
    8. In the data center details, click the Clusters tab.
    9. Find the RHV cluster where you plan to install OpenShift Container Platform. Record the cluster name for use later on.
  3. Inspect the RHV host resources.

    1. In the RHV Administration Portal, click Compute > Clusters.
    2. Click the cluster where you plan to install OpenShift Container Platform.
    3. In the cluster details, click the Hosts tab.
    4. Inspect the hosts and confirm they have a combined total of at least 28 Logical CPU Cores available exclusively for the OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
    5. Record the number of available Logical CPU Cores for use later on.
    6. Confirm that these CPU cores are distributed so that each of the seven virtual machines created during installation can have four cores.
    7. Confirm that, all together, the hosts have 112 GiB of Max free Memory for scheduling new virtual machines distributed to meet the requirements for each of the following OpenShift Container Platform machines:

      • 16 GiB required for the bootstrap machine
      • 16 GiB required for each of the three control plane machines
      • 16 GiB for each of the three compute machines
    8. Record the amount of Max free Memory for scheduling new virtual machines for use later on.
  4. Verify that the virtual network for installing OpenShift Container Platform has access to the RHV Manager’s REST API. From a virtual machine on this network, use curl to reach the RHV Manager’s REST API:

    $ curl -k -u <username>@<profile>:<password> \ 1
    https://<engine-fqdn>/ovirt-engine/api 2
    1
    For <username>, specify the user name of an RHV account with privileges to create and manage an OpenShift Container Platform cluster on RHV. For <profile>, specify the login profile, which you can get by going to the RHV Administration Portal login page and reviewing the Profile dropdown list. For <password>, specify the password for that user name.
    2
    For <engine-fqdn>, specify the fully qualified domain name of the RHV environment.

    For example:

    $ curl -k -u ocpadmin@internal:pw123 \
    https://rhv-env.virtlab.example.com/ovirt-engine/api

15.7.5. Networking requirements for user-provisioned infrastructure

All the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) machines require networking to be configured in initramfs during boot to fetch their Ignition config files.

Firewall

Configure your firewall so your cluster has access to required sites.

See also:

Load balancers

Configure one or preferably two layer-4 load balancers:

  • Provide load balancing for ports 6443 and 22623 on the control plane and bootstrap machines. Port 6443 provides access to the Kubernetes API server and must be reachable both internally and externally. Port 22623 must be accessible to nodes within the cluster.
  • Provide load balancing for port 443 and 80 for machines that run the Ingress router, which are usually compute nodes in the default configuration. Both ports must be accessible from within and outside the cluster.

DNS

Configure infrastructure-provided DNS to allow the correct resolution of the main components and services. If you use only one load balancer, these DNS records can point to the same IP address.

  • Create DNS records for api.<cluster_name>.<base_domain> (internal and external resolution) and api-int.<cluster_name>.<base_domain> (internal resolution) that point to the load balancer for the control plane machines.
  • Create a DNS record for *.apps.<cluster_name>.<base_domain> that points to the load balancer for the Ingress router. For example, ports 443 and 80 of the compute machines.

15.7.5.1. Network connectivity requirements

You must configure the network connectivity between machines to allow OpenShift Container Platform cluster components to communicate. Each machine must be able to resolve the hostnames of all other machines in the cluster.

This section provides details about the ports that are required.

Important

In connected OpenShift Container Platform environments, all nodes are required to have internet access to pull images for platform containers and provide telemetry data to Red Hat.

Table 15.7. Ports used for all-machine to all-machine communications

ProtocolPortDescription

ICMP

N/A

Network reachability tests

TCP

1936

Metrics

9000-9999

Host level services, including the node exporter on ports 9100-9101 and the Cluster Version Operator on port 9099.

10250-10259

The default ports that Kubernetes reserves

10256

openshift-sdn

UDP

4789

VXLAN and Geneve

6081

VXLAN and Geneve

9000-9999

Host level services, including the node exporter on ports 9100-9101.

TCP/UDP

30000-32767

Kubernetes node port

Table 15.8. Ports used for all-machine to control plane communications

ProtocolPortDescription

TCP

6443

Kubernetes API

Table 15.9. Ports used for control plane machine to control plane machine communications

ProtocolPortDescription

TCP

2379-2380

etcd server and peer ports

15.7.6. Setting up the installation machine

To run the binary openshift-install installation program and Ansible scripts, set up the RHV Manager or an Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) computer with network access to the RHV environment and the REST API on the Manager.

Procedure

  1. Update or install Python3 and Ansible. For example:

    # dnf update python3 ansible
  2. Install the python3-ovirt-engine-sdk4 package to get the Python Software Development Kit.
  3. Install the ovirt.image-template Ansible role. On the RHV Manager and other Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) machines, this role is distributed as the ovirt-ansible-image-template package. For example, enter:

    # dnf install ovirt-ansible-image-template
  4. Install the ovirt.vm-infra Ansible role. On the RHV Manager and other RHEL machines, this role is distributed as the ovirt-ansible-vm-infra package.

    # dnf install ovirt-ansible-vm-infra
  5. Create an environment variable and assign an absolute or relative path to it. For example, enter:

    $ export ASSETS_DIR=./wrk
    Note

    The installation program uses this variable to create a directory where it saves important installation-related files. Later, the installation process reuses this variable to locate those asset files. Avoid deleting this assets directory; it is required for uninstalling the cluster.

15.7.7. Installing OpenShift Container Platform on RHV in insecure mode

By default, the installer creates a CA certificate, prompts you for confirmation, and stores the certificate to use during installation. You do not need to create or install one manually.

Although it is not recommended, you can override this functionality and install OpenShift Container Platform without verifying a certificate by installing OpenShift Container Platform on RHV in insecure mode.

Warning

Installing in insecure mode is not recommended, because it enables a potential attacker to perform a Man-in-the-Middle attack and capture sensitive credentials on the network.

Procedure

  1. Create a file named ~/.ovirt/ovirt-config.yaml.
  2. Add the following content to ovirt-config.yaml:

    ovirt_url: \https://ovirt.example.com/ovirt-engine/api
    ovirt_fqdn: ovirt.example.com
    ovirt_pem_url: ""
    ovirt_username: ocpadmin@internal
    ovirt_password: super-secret-password
    ovirt_insecure: true
  3. Run the installer.

15.7.8. Generating a key pair for cluster node SSH access

During an OpenShift Container Platform installation, you can provide an SSH public key to the installation program. The key is passed to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) nodes through their Ignition config files and is used to authenticate SSH access to the nodes. The key is added to the ~/.ssh/authorized_keys list for the core user on each node, which enables password-less authentication.

After the key is passed to the nodes, you can use the key pair to SSH in to the RHCOS nodes as the user core. To access the nodes through SSH, the private key identity must be managed by SSH for your local user.

If you want to SSH in to your cluster nodes to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, you must provide the SSH public key during the installation process. The ./openshift-install gather command also requires the SSH public key to be in place on the cluster nodes.

Important

Do not skip this procedure in production environments, where disaster recovery and debugging is required.

Procedure

  1. If you do not have an existing SSH key pair on your local machine to use for authentication onto your cluster nodes, create one. For example, on a computer that uses a Linux operating system, run the following command:

    $ ssh-keygen -t ed25519 -N '' -f <path>/<file_name> 1
    1
    Specify the path and file name, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa, of the new SSH key. If you have an existing key pair, ensure your public key is in the your ~/.ssh directory.
    Note

    If you plan to install an OpenShift Container Platform cluster that uses FIPS Validated / Modules in Process cryptographic libraries on the x86_64 architecture, do not create a key that uses the ed25519 algorithm. Instead, create a key that uses the rsa or ecdsa algorithm.

  2. View the public SSH key:

    $ cat <path>/<file_name>.pub

    For example, run the following to view the ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub public key:

    $ cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
  3. Add the SSH private key identity to the SSH agent for your local user, if it has not already been added. SSH agent management of the key is required for password-less SSH authentication onto your cluster nodes, or if you want to use the ./openshift-install gather command.

    Note

    On some distributions, default SSH private key identities such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa and ~/.ssh/id_dsa are managed automatically.

    1. If the ssh-agent process is not already running for your local user, start it as a background task:

      $ eval "$(ssh-agent -s)"

      Example output

      Agent pid 31874

      Note

      If your cluster is in FIPS mode, only use FIPS-compliant algorithms to generate the SSH key. The key must be either RSA or ECDSA.

  4. Add your SSH private key to the ssh-agent:

    $ ssh-add <path>/<file_name> 1
    1
    Specify the path and file name for your SSH private key, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa

    Example output

    Identity added: /home/<you>/<path>/<file_name> (<computer_name>)

  5. Set the GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS environment variable to the full path to your service account private key file.

    $ export GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS="<your_service_account_file>"
  6. Verify that the credentials were applied.

    $ gcloud auth list

Next steps

  • When you install OpenShift Container Platform, provide the SSH public key to the installation program.

15.7.9. Obtaining the installation program

Before you install OpenShift Container Platform, download the installation file on your provisioning machine.

Prerequisites

  • You have a machine that runs Linux, for example Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8, with 500 MB of local disk space

Procedure

  1. Access the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site. If you have a Red Hat account, log in with your credentials. If you do not, create an account.
  2. Select your infrastructure provider.
  3. Navigate to the page for your installation type, download the installation program for your operating system, and place the file in the directory where you will store the installation configuration files.

    Important

    The installation program creates several files on the computer that you use to install your cluster. You must keep the installation program and the files that the installation program creates after you finish installing the cluster. Both files are required to delete the cluster.

    Important

    Deleting the files created by the installation program does not remove your cluster, even if the cluster failed during installation. To remove your cluster, complete the OpenShift Container Platform uninstallation procedures for your specific cloud provider.

  4. Extract the installation program. For example, on a computer that uses a Linux operating system, run the following command:

    $ tar xvf openshift-install-linux.tar.gz
  5. From the Pull Secret page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site, download your installation pull secret. This pull secret allows you to authenticate with the services that are provided by the included authorities, including Quay.io, which serves the container images for OpenShift Container Platform components.

15.7.10. Downloading the Ansible playbooks

Download the Ansible playbooks for installing OpenShift Container Platform version 4.8 on RHV.

Procedure

  • On your installation machine, run the following commands:

    $ mkdir playbooks
    $ cd playbooks
    $ curl -s -L -X GET https://api.github.com/repos/openshift/installer/contents/upi/ovirt?ref=release-4.8 |
    grep 'download_url.*\.yml' |
    awk '{ print $2 }' | sed -r 's/("|",)//g' |
    xargs -n 1 curl -O

Next steps

  • After you download these Ansible playbooks, you must also create the environment variable for the assets directory and customize the inventory.yml file before you create an installation configuration file by running the installation program.

15.7.11. The inventory.yml file

You use the inventory.yml file to define and create elements of the OpenShift Container Platform cluster you are installing. This includes elements such as the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) image, virtual machine templates, bootstrap machine, control plane nodes, and worker nodes. You also use inventory.yml to destroy the cluster.

The following inventory.yml example shows you the parameters and their default values. The quantities and numbers in these default values meet the requirements for running a production OpenShift Container Platform cluster in a RHV environment.

Example inventory.yml file

---
all:
  vars:

    ovirt_cluster: "Default"
    ocp:
      assets_dir: "{{ lookup('env', 'ASSETS_DIR') }}"
      ovirt_config_path: "{{ lookup('env', 'HOME') }}/.ovirt/ovirt-config.yaml"

    # ---
    # {op-system} section
    # ---
    rhcos:
      image_url: "https://mirror.openshift.com/pub/openshift-v4/dependencies/rhcos/4.8/latest/rhcos-openstack.x86_64.qcow2.gz"
      local_cmp_image_path: "/tmp/rhcos.qcow2.gz"
      local_image_path: "/tmp/rhcos.qcow2"

    # ---
    # Profiles section
    # ---
    control_plane:
      cluster: "{{ ovirt_cluster }}"
      memory: 16GiB
      sockets: 4
      cores: 1
      template: rhcos_tpl
      operating_system: "rhcos_x64"
      type: high_performance
      graphical_console:
        headless_mode: false
        protocol:
        - spice
        - vnc
      disks:
      - size: 120GiB
        name: os
        interface: virtio_scsi
        storage_domain: depot_nvme
      nics:
      - name: nic1
        network: lab
        profile: lab

    compute:
      cluster: "{{ ovirt_cluster }}"
      memory: 16GiB
      sockets: 4
      cores: 1
      template: worker_rhcos_tpl
      operating_system: "rhcos_x64"
      type: high_performance
      graphical_console:
        headless_mode: false
        protocol:
        - spice
        - vnc
      disks:
      - size: 120GiB
        name: os
        interface: virtio_scsi
        storage_domain: depot_nvme
      nics:
      - name: nic1
        network: lab
        profile: lab

    # ---
    # Virtual machines section
    # ---
    vms:
    - name: "{{ metadata.infraID }}-bootstrap"
      ocp_type: bootstrap
      profile: "{{ control_plane }}"
      type: server
    - name: "{{ metadata.infraID }}-master0"
      ocp_type: master
      profile: "{{ control_plane }}"
    - name: "{{ metadata.infraID }}-master1"
      ocp_type: master
      profile: "{{ control_plane }}"
    - name: "{{ metadata.infraID }}-master2"
      ocp_type: master
      profile: "{{ control_plane }}"
    - name: "{{ metadata.infraID }}-worker0"
      ocp_type: worker
      profile: "{{ compute }}"
    - name: "{{ metadata.infraID }}-worker1"
      ocp_type: worker
      profile: "{{ compute }}"
    - name: "{{ metadata.infraID }}-worker2"
      ocp_type: worker
      profile: "{{ compute }}"

Important

Enter values for parameters whose descriptions begin with "Enter." Otherwise, you can use the default value or replace it with a new value.

General section

  • ovirt_cluster: Enter the name of an existing RHV cluster in which to install the OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • ocp.assets_dir: The path of a directory the openshift-install installation program creates to store the files that it generates.
  • ocp.ovirt_config_path: The path of the ovirt-config.yaml file the installation program generates, for example, ./wrk/install-config.yaml. This file contains the credentials required to interact with the REST API of the Manager.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) section

  • image_url: Enter the URL of the RHCOS image you specified for download.
  • local_cmp_image_path: The path of a local download directory for the compressed RHCOS image.
  • local_image_path: The path of a local directory for the extracted RHCOS image.

Profiles section

This section consists of two profiles:

  • control_plane: The profile of the bootstrap and control plane nodes.
  • compute: The profile of workers nodes in the compute plane.

These profiles have the following parameters. The default values of the parameters meet the minimum requirements for running a production cluster. You can increase or customize these values to meet your workload requirements.

  • cluster: The value gets the cluster name from ovirt_cluster in the General Section.
  • memory: The amount of memory, in GB, for the virtual machine.
  • sockets: The number of sockets for the virtual machine.
  • cores: The number of cores for the virtual machine.
  • template: The name of the virtual machine template. If plan to install multiple clusters, and these clusters use templates that contain different specifications, prepend the template name with the ID of the cluster.
  • operating_system: The type of guest operating system in the virtual machine. With oVirt/RHV version 4.4, this value must be rhcos_x64 so the value of Ignition script can be passed to the VM.
  • type: Enter server as the type of the virtual machine.

    Important

    You must change the value of the type parameter from high_performance to server.

  • disks: The disk specifications. The control_plane and compute nodes can have different storage domains.
  • size: The minimum disk size.
  • name: Enter the name of a disk connected to the target cluster in RHV.
  • interface: Enter the interface type of the disk you specified.
  • storage_domain: Enter the storage domain of the disk you specified.
  • nics: Enter the name and network the virtual machines use. You can also specify the virtual network interface profile. By default, NICs obtain their MAC addresses from the oVirt/RHV MAC pool.

Virtual machines section

This final section, vms, defines the virtual machines you plan to create and deploy in the cluster. By default, it provides the minimum number of control plane and worker nodes for a production environment.

vms contains three required elements:

  • name: The name of the virtual machine. In this case, metadata.infraID prepends the virtual machine name with the infrastructure ID from the metadata.yml file.
  • ocp_type: The role of the virtual machine in the OpenShift Container Platform cluster. Possible values are bootstrap, master, worker.
  • profile: The name of the profile from which each virtual machine inherits specifications. Possible values in this example are control_plane or compute.

    You can override the value a virtual machine inherits from its profile. To do this, you add the name of the profile attribute to the virtual machine in inventory.yml and assign it an overriding value. To see an example of this, examine the name: "{{ metadata.infraID }}-bootstrap" virtual machine in the preceding inventory.yml example: It has a type attribute whose value, server, overrides the value of the type attribute this virtual machine would otherwise inherit from the control_plane profile.

Metadata variables

For virtual machines, metadata.infraID prepends the name of the virtual machine with the infrastructure ID from the metadata.json file you create when you build the Ignition files.

The playbooks use the following code to read infraID from the specific file located in the ocp.assets_dir.

---
- name: include metadata.json vars
  include_vars:
    file: "{{ ocp.assets_dir }}/metadata.json"
    name: metadata

  ...

15.7.12. Specifying the RHCOS image settings

Update the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) image settings of the inventory.yml file. Later, when you run this file one of the playbooks, it downloads a compressed Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) image from the image_url URL to the local_cmp_image_path directory. The playbook then uncompresses the image to the local_image_path directory and uses it to create oVirt/RHV templates.

Procedure

  1. Locate the RHCOS image download page for the version of OpenShift Container Platform you are installing, such as Index of /pub/openshift-v4/dependencies/rhcos/latest/latest.
  2. From that download page, copy the URL of an OpenStack qcow2 image, such as https://mirror.openshift.com/pub/openshift-v4/dependencies/rhcos/4.8/latest/rhcos-openstack.x86_64.qcow2.gz.
  3. Edit the inventory.yml playbook you downloaded earlier. In it, paste the URL as the value for image_url. For example:

    rhcos:
      "https://mirror.openshift.com/pub/openshift-v4/dependencies/rhcos/4.8/latest/rhcos-openstack.x86_64.qcow2.gz"

15.7.13. Creating the install config file

You create an installation configuration file by running the installation program, openshift-install, and responding to its prompts with information you specified or gathered earlier.

When you finish responding to the prompts, the installation program creates an initial version of the install-config.yaml file in the assets directory you specified earlier, for example, ./wrk/install-config.yaml

The installation program also creates a file, $HOME/.ovirt/ovirt-config.yaml, that contains all the connection parameters that are required to reach the Manager and use its REST API.

NOTE: The installation process does not use values you supply for some parameters, such as Internal API virtual IP and Ingress virtual IP, because you have already configured them in your infrastructure DNS.

It also uses the values you supply for parameters in inventory.yml, like the ones for oVirt cluster, oVirt storage, and oVirt network. And uses a script to remove or replace these same values from install-config.yaml with the previously mentioned virtual IPs.

Procedure

  1. Run the installation program:

    $ openshift-install create install-config --dir $ASSETS_DIR
  2. Respond to the installation program’s prompts with information about your system.

    Example output

    ? SSH Public Key /home/user/.ssh/id_dsa.pub
    ? Platform <ovirt>
    ? Engine FQDN[:PORT] [? for help] <engine.fqdn>
    ? Enter ovirt-engine username <ocpadmin@internal>
    ? Enter password <******>
    ? oVirt cluster <cluster>
    ? oVirt storage <storage>
    ? oVirt network <net>
    ? Internal API virtual IP <172.16.0.252>
    ? Ingress virtual IP <172.16.0.251>
    ? Base Domain <example.org>
    ? Cluster Name <ocp4>
    ? Pull Secret [? for help] <********>

For Internal API virtual IP and Ingress virtual IP, supply the IP addresses you specified when you configured the DNS service.

Together, the values you enter for the oVirt cluster and Base Domain prompts form the FQDN portion of URLs for the REST API and any applications you create, such as https://api.ocp4.example.org:6443/ and https://console-openshift-console.apps.ocp4.example.org.

To get your pull secret, visit https://console.redhat.com/openshift/install/pull-secret.

15.7.14. Customizing install-config.yaml

Here, you use three Python scripts to override some of the installation program’s default behaviors:

  • By default, the installation program uses the machine API to create nodes. To override this default behavior, you set the number of compute nodes to zero replicas. Later, you use Ansible playbooks to create the compute nodes.
  • By default, the installation program sets the IP range of the machine network for nodes. To override this default behavior, you set the IP range to match your infrastructure.
  • By default, the installation program sets the platform to ovirt. However, installing a cluster on user-provisioned infrastructure is more similar to installing a cluster on bare metal. Therefore, you delete the ovirt platform section from install-config.yaml and change the platform to none. Instead, you use inventory.yml to specify all of the required settings.
Note

These snippets work with Python 3 and Python 2.

Procedure

  1. Set the number of compute nodes to zero replicas:

    $ python3 -c 'import os, yaml
    path = "%s/install-config.yaml" % os.environ["ASSETS_DIR"]
    conf = yaml.safe_load(open(path))
    conf["compute"][0]["replicas"] = 0
    open(path, "w").write(yaml.dump(conf, default_flow_style=False))'
  2. Set the IP range of the machine network. For example, to set the range to 172.16.0.0/16, enter:

    $ python3 -c 'import os, yaml
    path = "%s/install-config.yaml" % os.environ["ASSETS_DIR"]
    conf = yaml.safe_load(open(path))
    conf["networking"]["machineNetwork"][0]["cidr"] = "172.16.0.0/16"
    open(path, "w").write(yaml.dump(conf, default_flow_style=False))'
  3. Remove the ovirt section and change the platform to none:

    $ python3 -c 'import os, yaml
    path = "%s/install-config.yaml" % os.environ["ASSETS_DIR"]
    conf = yaml.safe_load(open(path))
    platform = conf["platform"]
    del platform["ovirt"]
    platform["none"] = {}
    open(path, "w").write(yaml.dump(conf, default_flow_style=False))'
    Warning

    Red Hat Virtualization does not currently support installation with user-provisioned infrastructure on the oVirt platform. Therefore, you must set the platform to none, allowing OpenShift Container Platform to identify each node as a bare-metal node and the cluster as a bare-metal cluster. This is the same as installing a cluster on any platform, and has the following limitations:

    1. There will be no cluster provider so you must manually add each machine and there will be no node scaling capabilities.
    2. The oVirt CSI driver will not be installed and there will be no CSI capabilities.

15.7.15. Generate manifest files

Use the installation program to generate a set of manifest files in the assets directory.

The command to generate the manifest files displays a warning message before it consumes the install-config.yaml file.

If you plan to reuse the install-config.yaml file, create a backup copy of it before you back it up before you generate the manifest files.

Procedure

  1. Optional: Create a backup copy of the install-config.yaml file:

    $ cp install-config.yaml install-config.yaml.backup
  2. Generate a set of manifests in your assets directory:

    $ openshift-install create manifests --dir $ASSETS_DIR

    This command displays the following messages.

    Example output

    INFO Consuming Install Config from target directory
    WARNING Making control-plane schedulable by setting MastersSchedulable to true for Scheduler cluster settings

    The command generates the following manifest files:

    Example output

    $ tree
    .
    └── wrk
        ├── manifests
        │   ├── 04-openshift-machine-config-operator.yaml
        │   ├── cluster-config.yaml
        │   ├── cluster-dns-02-config.yml
        │   ├── cluster-infrastructure-02-config.yml
        │   ├── cluster-ingress-02-config.yml
        │   ├── cluster-network-01-crd.yml
        │   ├── cluster-network-02-config.yml
        │   ├── cluster-proxy-01-config.yaml
        │   ├── cluster-scheduler-02-config.yml
        │   ├── cvo-overrides.yaml
        │   ├── etcd-ca-bundle-configmap.yaml
        │   ├── etcd-client-secret.yaml
        │   ├── etcd-host-service-endpoints.yaml
        │   ├── etcd-host-service.yaml
        │   ├── etcd-metric-client-secret.yaml
        │   ├── etcd-metric-serving-ca-configmap.yaml
        │   ├── etcd-metric-signer-secret.yaml
        │   ├── etcd-namespace.yaml
        │   ├── etcd-service.yaml
        │   ├── etcd-serving-ca-configmap.yaml
        │   ├── etcd-signer-secret.yaml
        │   ├── kube-cloud-config.yaml
        │   ├── kube-system-configmap-root-ca.yaml
        │   ├── machine-config-server-tls-secret.yaml
        │   └── openshift-config-secret-pull-secret.yaml
        └── openshift
            ├── 99_kubeadmin-password-secret.yaml
            ├── 99_openshift-cluster-api_master-user-data-secret.yaml
            ├── 99_openshift-cluster-api_worker-user-data-secret.yaml
            ├── 99_openshift-machineconfig_99-master-ssh.yaml
            ├── 99_openshift-machineconfig_99-worker-ssh.yaml
            └── openshift-install-manifests.yaml

Next steps

  • Make control plane nodes non-schedulable.

15.7.16. Making control-plane nodes non-schedulable

Because you are manually creating and deploying the control plane machines, you must configure a manifest file to make the control plane nodes non-schedulable.

Procedure

  1. To make the control plane nodes non-schedulable, enter:

    $ python3 -c 'import os, yaml
    path = "%s/manifests/cluster-scheduler-02-config.yml" % os.environ["ASSETS_DIR"]
    data = yaml.safe_load(open(path))
    data["spec"]["mastersSchedulable"] = False
    open(path, "w").write(yaml.dump(data, default_flow_style=False))'

15.7.17. Building the Ignition files

To build the Ignition files from the manifest files you just generated and modified, you run the installation program. This action creates a Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) machine, initramfs, which fetches the Ignition files and performs the configurations needed to create a node.

In addition to the Ignition files, the installation program generates the following:

  • An auth directory that contains the admin credentials for connecting to the cluster with the oc and kubectl utilities.
  • A metadata.json file that contains information such as the OpenShift Container Platform cluster name, cluster ID, and infrastructure ID for the current installation.

The Ansible playbooks for this installation process use the value of infraID as a prefix for the virtual machines they create. This prevents naming conflicts when there are multiple installations in the same oVirt/RHV cluster.

Note

Certificates in Ignition configuration files expire after 24 hours. Complete the cluster installation and keep the cluster running in a non-degraded state for 24 hours so that the first certificate rotation can finish.

Procedure

  1. To build the Ignition files, enter:

    $ openshift-install create ignition-configs --dir $ASSETS_DIR

    Example output

    $ tree
    .
    └── wrk
        ├── auth
        │   ├── kubeadmin-password
        │   └── kubeconfig
        ├── bootstrap.ign
        ├── master.ign
        ├── metadata.json
        └── worker.ign

15.7.18. Creating templates and virtual machines

After confirming the variables in the inventory.yml, you run the first Ansible provisioning playbook, create-templates-and-vms.yml.

This playbook uses the connection parameters for the RHV Manager from $HOME/.ovirt/ovirt-config.yaml and reads metadata.json in the assets directory.

If a local Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) image is not already present, the playbook downloads one from the URL you specified for image_url in inventory.yml. It extracts the image and uploads it to RHV to create templates.

The playbook creates a template based on the control_plane and compute profiles in the inventory.yml file. If these profiles have different names, it creates two templates.

When the playbook finishes, the virtual machines it creates are stopped. You can get information from them to help configure other infrastructure elements. For example, you can get the virtual machines' MAC addresses to configure DHCP to assign permanent IP addresses to the virtual machines.

Procedure

  1. In inventory.yml, under the control_plane and compute variables, change both instances of type: high_performance to type: server.
  2. Optional: If you plan to perform multiple installations to the same cluster, create different templates for each OpenShift Container Platform installation. In the inventory.yml file, prepend the value of template with infraID. For example:

      control_plane:
        cluster: "{{ ovirt_cluster }}"
        memory: 16GiB
        sockets: 4
        cores: 1
        template: "{{ metadata.infraID }}-rhcos_tpl"
        operating_system: "rhcos_x64"
        ...
  3. Create the templates and virtual machines:

    $ ansible-playbook -i inventory.yml create-templates-and-vms.yml

15.7.19. Creating the bootstrap machine

You create a bootstrap machine by running the bootstrap.yml playbook. This playbook starts the bootstrap virtual machine, and passes it the bootstrap.ign Ignition file from the assets directory. The bootstrap node configures itself so it can serve Ignition files to the control plane nodes.

To monitor the bootstrap process, you use the console in the RHV Administration Portal or connect to the virtual machine by using SSH.

Procedure

  1. Create the bootstrap machine:

    $ ansible-playbook -i inventory.yml bootstrap.yml
  2. Connect to the bootstrap machine using a console in the Administration Portal or SSH. Replace <bootstrap_ip> with the bootstrap node IP address. To use SSH, enter:

    $ ssh core@<boostrap.ip>
  3. Collect bootkube.service journald unit logs for the release image service from the bootstrap node:

    [core@ocp4-lk6b4-bootstrap ~]$ journalctl -b -f -u release-image.service -u bootkube.service
    Note

    The bootkube.service log on the bootstrap node outputs etcd connection refused errors, indicating that the bootstrap server is unable to connect to etcd on control plane nodes (also known as the master nodes). After etcd has started on each control plane node and the nodes have joined the cluster, the errors should stop.

15.7.20. Creating the control plane nodes

You create the control plane nodes by running the masters.yml playbook. This playbook passes the master.ign Ignition file to each of the virtual machines. The Ignition file contains a directive for the control plane node to get the Ignition from a URL such as https://api-int.ocp4.example.org:22623/config/master. The port number in this URL is managed by the load balancer, and is accessible only inside the cluster.

Procedure

  1. Create the control plane nodes:

    $ ansible-playbook -i inventory.yml masters.yml
  2. While the playbook creates your control plane, monitor the bootstrapping process:

    $ openshift-install wait-for bootstrap-complete --dir $ASSETS_DIR

    Example output

    INFO API v1.18.3+b74c5ed up
    INFO Waiting up to 40m0s for bootstrapping to complete...

  3. When all the pods on the control plane nodes and etcd are up and running, the installation program displays the following output.

    Example output

    INFO It is now safe to remove the bootstrap resources

15.7.21. Verifying cluster status

You can verify your OpenShift Container Platform cluster’s status during or after installation.

Procedure

  1. In the cluster environment, export the administrator’s kubeconfig file:

    $ export KUBECONFIG=$ASSETS_DIR/auth/kubeconfig

    The kubeconfig file contains information about the cluster that is used by the CLI to connect a client to the correct cluster and API server.

  2. View the control plane and compute machines created after a deployment:

    $ oc get nodes
  3. View your cluster’s version:

    $ oc get clusterversion
  4. View your Operators' status:

    $ oc get clusteroperator
  5. View all running pods in the cluster:

    $ oc get pods -A

15.7.22. Removing the bootstrap machine

After the wait-for command shows that the bootstrap process is complete, you must remove the bootstrap virtual machine to free up compute, memory, and storage resources. Also, remove settings for the bootstrap machine from the load balancer directives.

Procedure

  1. To remove the bootstrap machine from the cluster, enter:

    $ ansible-playbook -i inventory.yml retire-bootstrap.yml
  2. Remove settings for the bootstrap machine from the load balancer directives.

15.7.23. Creating the worker nodes and completing the installation

Creating worker nodes is similar to creating control plane nodes. However, worker nodes workers do not automatically join the cluster. To add them to the cluster, you review and approve the workers' pending CSRs (Certificate Signing Requests).

After approving the first requests, you continue approving CSR until all of the worker nodes are approved. When you complete this process, the worker nodes become Ready and can have pods scheduled to run on them.

Finally, monitor the command line to see when the installation process completes.

Procedure

  1. Create the worker nodes:

    $ ansible-playbook -i inventory.yml workers.yml
  2. To list all of the CSRs, enter:

    $ oc get csr -A

    Eventually, this command displays one CSR per node. For example:

    Example output

    NAME        AGE    SIGNERNAME                                    REQUESTOR                                                                   CONDITION
    csr-2lnxd   63m    kubernetes.io/kubelet-serving                 system:node:ocp4-lk6b4-master0.ocp4.example.org                             Approved,Issued
    csr-hff4q   64m    kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Approved,Issued
    csr-hsn96   60m    kubernetes.io/kubelet-serving                 system:node:ocp4-lk6b4-master2.ocp4.example.org                             Approved,Issued
    csr-m724n   6m2s   kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending
    csr-p4dz2   60m    kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Approved,Issued
    csr-t9vfj   60m    kubernetes.io/kubelet-serving                 system:node:ocp4-lk6b4-master1.ocp4.example.org                             Approved,Issued
    csr-tggtr   61m    kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Approved,Issued
    csr-wcbrf   7m6s   kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending

  3. To filter the list and see only pending CSRs, enter:

    $ watch "oc get csr -A | grep pending -i"

    This command refreshes the output every two seconds and displays only pending CSRs. For example:

    Example output

    Every 2.0s: oc get csr -A | grep pending -i
    
    csr-m724n   10m   kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending
    csr-wcbrf   11m   kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending

  4. Inspect each pending request. For example:

    Example output

    $ oc describe csr csr-m724n

    Example output

    Name:               csr-m724n
    Labels:             <none>
    Annotations:        <none>
    CreationTimestamp:  Sun, 19 Jul 2020 15:59:37 +0200
    Requesting User:    system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper
    Signer:             kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet
    Status:             Pending
    Subject:
             Common Name:    system:node:ocp4-lk6b4-worker1.ocp4.example.org
             Serial Number:
             Organization:   system:nodes
    Events:  <none>

  5. If the CSR information is correct, approve the request:

    $ oc adm certificate approve csr-m724n
  6. Wait for the installation process to finish:

    $ openshift-install wait-for install-complete --dir $ASSETS_DIR --log-level debug

    When the installation completes, the command line displays the URL of the OpenShift Container Platform web console and the administrator user name and password.

15.7.24. Telemetry access for OpenShift Container Platform

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.8, the Telemetry service, which runs by default to provide metrics about cluster health and the success of updates, requires internet access. If your cluster is connected to the internet, Telemetry runs automatically, and your cluster is registered to the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager (OCM).

After you confirm that your Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager inventory is correct, either maintained automatically by Telemetry or manually by using OCM, use subscription watch to track your OpenShift Container Platform subscriptions at the account or multi-cluster level.

Additional resources

15.8. Installing a cluster on RHV in a restricted network

In OpenShift Container Platform version 4.8, you can install a customized OpenShift Container Platform cluster on Red Hat Virtualization (RHV) in a restricted network by creating an internal mirror of the installation release content.

15.8.1. Prerequisites

The following items are required to install an OpenShift Container Platform cluster on a RHV environment.

15.8.2. About installations in restricted networks

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.8, you can perform an installation that does not require an active connection to the internet to obtain software components. Restricted network installations can be completed using installer-provisioned infrastructure or user-provisioned infrastructure, depending on the cloud platform to which you are installing the cluster.

If you choose to perform a restricted network installation on a cloud platform, you still require access to its cloud APIs. Some cloud functions, like Amazon Web Service’s IAM service, require internet access, so you might still require internet access. Depending on your network, you might require less internet access for an installation on bare metal hardware or on VMware vSphere.

To complete a restricted network installation, you must create a registry that mirrors the contents of the OpenShift Container Platform registry and contains the installation media. You can create this registry on a mirror host, which can access both the internet and your closed network, or by using other methods that meet your restrictions.

15.8.2.1. Additional limits

Clusters in restricted networks have the following additional limitations and restrictions:

  • The ClusterVersion status includes an Unable to retrieve available updates error.
  • By default, you cannot use the contents of the Developer Catalog because you cannot access the required image stream tags.

15.8.3. Internet access for OpenShift Container Platform

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.8, you require access to the internet to obtain the images that are necessary to install your cluster.

You must have internet access to:

  • Access the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager page to download the installation program and perform subscription management. If the cluster has internet access and you do not disable Telemetry, that service automatically entitles your cluster.
  • Access Quay.io to obtain the packages that are required to install your cluster.
  • Obtain the packages that are required to perform cluster updates.
Important

If your cluster cannot have direct internet access, you can perform a restricted network installation on some types of infrastructure that you provision. During that process, you download the content that is required and use it to populate a mirror registry with the packages that you need to install a cluster and generate the installation program. With some installation types, the environment that you install your cluster in will not require internet access. Before you update the cluster, you update the content of the mirror registry.

15.8.4. Requirements for the RHV environment

To install and run an OpenShift Container Platform version 4.8 cluster, the RHV environment must meet the following requirements.

Not meeting these requirements can cause the installation or process to fail. Additionally, not meeting these requirements can cause the OpenShift Container Platform cluster to fail days or weeks after installation.

The following requirements for CPU, memory, and storage resources are based on default values multiplied by the default number of virtual machines the installation program creates. These resources must be available in addition to what the RHV environment uses for non-OpenShift Container Platform operations.

By default, the installation program creates seven virtual machines during the installation process. First, it creates a bootstrap virtual machine to provide temporary services and a control plane while it creates the rest of the OpenShift Container Platform cluster. When the installation program finishes creating the cluster, deleting the bootstrap machine frees up its resources.

If you increase the number of virtual machines in the RHV environment, you must increase the resources accordingly.

Requirements

  • The RHV version is 4.4.
  • The RHV environment has one data center whose state is Up.
  • The RHV data center contains an RHV cluster.
  • The RHV cluster has the following resources exclusively for the OpenShift Container Platform cluster:

    • Minimum 28 vCPUs: four for each of the seven virtual machines created during installation.
    • 112 GiB RAM or more, including:

      • 16 GiB or more for the bootstrap machine, which provides the temporary control plane.
      • 16 GiB or more for each of the three control plane machines which provide the control plane.
      • 16 GiB or more for each of the three compute machines, which run the application workloads.
  • The RHV storage domain must meet these etcd backend performance requirements.
  • In production environments, each virtual machine must have 120 GiB or more. Therefore, the storage domain must provide 840 GiB or more for the default OpenShift Container Platform cluster. In resource-constrained or non-production environments, each virtual machine must have 32 GiB or more, so the storage domain must have 230 GiB or more for the default OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • To download images from the Red Hat Ecosystem Catalog during installation and update procedures, the RHV cluster must have access to an internet connection. The Telemetry service also needs an internet connection to simplify the subscription and entitlement process.
  • The RHV cluster must have a virtual network with access to the REST API on the RHV Manager. Ensure that DHCP is enabled on this network, because the VMs that the installer creates obtain their IP address by using DHCP.
  • A user account and group with the following least privileges for installing and managing an OpenShift Container Platform cluster on the target RHV cluster:

    • DiskOperator
    • DiskCreator
    • UserTemplateBasedVm
    • TemplateOwner
    • TemplateCreator
    • ClusterAdmin on the target cluster
Warning

Apply the principle of least privilege: Avoid using an administrator account with SuperUser privileges on RHV during the installation process. The installation program saves the credentials you provide to a temporary ovirt-config.yaml file that might be compromised.

15.8.5. Verifying the requirements for the RHV environment

Verify that the RHV environment meets the requirements to install and run an OpenShift Container Platform cluster. Not meeting these requirements can cause failures.

Important

These requirements are based on the default resources the installation program uses to create control plane and compute machines. These resources include vCPUs, memory, and storage. If you change these resources or increase the number of OpenShift Container Platform machines, adjust these requirements accordingly.

Procedure

  1. Check that the RHV version supports installation of OpenShift Container Platform version 4.8.

    1. In the RHV Administration Portal, click the ? help icon in the upper-right corner and select About.
    2. In the window that opens, make a note of the RHV Software Version.
    3. Confirm that the RHV version is 4.4. For more information about supported version combinations, see Support Matrix for OpenShift Container Platform on RHV.
  2. Inspect the data center, cluster, and storage.

    1. In the RHV Administration Portal, click ComputeData Centers.
    2. Confirm that the data center where you plan to install OpenShift Container Platform is accessible.
    3. Click the name of that data center.
    4. In the data center details, on the Storage tab, confirm the storage domain where you plan to install OpenShift Container Platform is Active.
    5. Record the Domain Name for use later on.
    6. Confirm Free Space has at least 230 GiB.
    7. Confirm that the storage domain meets these etcd backend performance requirements, which you can measure by using the fio performance benchmarking tool.
    8. In the data center details, click the Clusters tab.
    9. Find the RHV cluster where you plan to install OpenShift Container Platform. Record the cluster name for use later on.
  3. Inspect the RHV host resources.

    1. In the RHV Administration Portal, click Compute > Clusters.
    2. Click the cluster where you plan to install OpenShift Container Platform.
    3. In the cluster details, click the Hosts tab.
    4. Inspect the hosts and confirm they have a combined total of at least 28 Logical CPU Cores available exclusively for the OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
    5. Record the number of available Logical CPU Cores for use later on.
    6. Confirm that these CPU cores are distributed so that each of the seven virtual machines created during installation can have four cores.
    7. Confirm that, all together, the hosts have 112 GiB of Max free Memory for scheduling new virtual machines distributed to meet the requirements for each of the following OpenShift Container Platform machines:

      • 16 GiB required for the bootstrap machine
      • 16 GiB required for each of the three control plane machines
      • 16 GiB for each of the three compute machines
    8. Record the amount of Max free Memory for scheduling new virtual machines for use later on.
  4. Verify that the virtual network for installing OpenShift Container Platform has access to the RHV Manager’s REST API. From a virtual machine on this network, use curl to reach the RHV Manager’s REST API:

    $ curl -k -u <username>@<profile>:<password> \ 1
    https://<engine-fqdn>/ovirt-engine/api 2
    1
    For <username>, specify the user name of an RHV account with privileges to create and manage an OpenShift Container Platform cluster on RHV. For <profile>, specify the login profile, which you can get by going to the RHV Administration Portal login page and reviewing the Profile dropdown list. For <password>, specify the password for that user name.
    2
    For <engine-fqdn>, specify the fully qualified domain name of the RHV environment.

    For example:

    $ curl -k -u ocpadmin@internal:pw123 \
    https://rhv-env.virtlab.example.com/ovirt-engine/api

15.8.6. Networking requirements for user-provisioned infrastructure

All the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) machines require networking to be configured in initramfs during boot to fetch their Ignition config files.

Firewall

Configure your firewall so your cluster has access to required sites.

See also:

DNS

Configure infrastructure-provided DNS to allow the correct resolution of the main components and services. If you use only one load balancer, these DNS records can point to the same IP address.

  • Create DNS records for api.<cluster_name>.<base_domain> (internal and external resolution) and api-int.<cluster_name>.<base_domain> (internal resolution) that point to the load balancer for the control plane machines.
  • Create a DNS record for *.apps.<cluster_name>.<base_domain> that points to the load balancer for the Ingress router. For example, ports 443 and 80 of the compute machines.

15.8.6.1. Network connectivity requirements

You must configure the network connectivity between machines to allow OpenShift Container Platform cluster components to communicate. Each machine must be able to resolve the hostnames of all other machines in the cluster.

This section provides details about the ports that are required.

Important

In connected OpenShift Container Platform environments, all nodes are required to have internet access to pull images for platform containers and provide telemetry data to Red Hat.

Table 15.10. Ports used for all-machine to all-machine communications

ProtocolPortDescription

ICMP

N/A

Network reachability tests

TCP

1936

Metrics

9000-9999

Host level services, including the node exporter on ports 9100-9101 and the Cluster Version Operator on port 9099.

10250-10259

The default ports that Kubernetes reserves

10256

openshift-sdn

UDP

4789

VXLAN and Geneve

6081

VXLAN and Geneve

9000-9999

Host level services, including the node exporter on ports 9100-9101.

TCP/UDP

30000-32767

Kubernetes node port

Table 15.11. Ports used for all-machine to control plane communications

ProtocolPortDescription

TCP

6443

Kubernetes API

Table 15.12. Ports used for control plane machine to control plane machine communications

ProtocolPortDescription

TCP

2379-2380

etcd server and peer ports

15.8.7. User-provisioned DNS requirements

In OpenShift Container Platform deployments, DNS name resolution is required for the following components:

  • The Kubernetes API
  • The OpenShift Container Platform application wildcard
  • The bootstrap, control plane, and compute machines

Reverse DNS resolution is also required for the Kubernetes API, the bootstrap machine, the control plane machines, and the compute machines.

DNS A/AAAA or CNAME records are used for name resolution and PTR records are used for reverse name resolution. The reverse records are important because Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) uses the reverse records to set the hostnames for all the nodes, unless the hostnames are provided by DHCP. Additionally, the reverse records are used to generate the certificate signing requests (CSR) that OpenShift Container Platform needs to operate.

The following DNS records are required for a user-provisioned OpenShift Container Platform cluster and they must be in place before installation. In each record, <cluster_name> is the cluster name and <base_domain> is the base domain that you specify in the install-config.yaml file. A complete DNS record takes the form: <component>.<cluster_name>.<base_domain>..

Table 15.13. Required DNS records

ComponentRecordDescription

Kubernetes API

api.<cluster_name>.<base_domain>.

A DNS A/AAAA or CNAME record, and a DNS PTR record, to identify the API load balancer. These records must be resolvable by both clients external to the cluster and from all the nodes within the cluster.

api-int.<cluster_name>.<base_domain>.

A DNS A/AAAA or CNAME record, and a DNS PTR record, to internally identify the API load balancer. These records must be resolvable from all the nodes within the cluster.

Important

The API server must be able to resolve the worker nodes by the hostnames that are recorded in Kubernetes. If the API server cannot resolve the node names, then proxied API calls can fail, and you cannot retrieve logs from pods.

Routes

*.apps.<cluster_name>.<base_domain>.

A wildcard DNS A/AAAA or CNAME record that refers to the application ingress load balancer. The application ingress load balancer targets the machines that run the Ingress Controller pods. The Ingress Controller pods run on the compute machines by default. These records must be resolvable by both clients external to the cluster and from all the nodes within the cluster.

For example, console-openshift-console.apps.<cluster_name>.<base_domain> is used as a wildcard route to the OpenShift Container Platform console.

Bootstrap machine

bootstrap.<cluster_name>.<base_domain>.

A DNS A/AAAA or CNAME record, and a DNS PTR record, to identify the bootstrap machine. These records must be resolvable by the nodes within the cluster.

Control plane machines

<master><n>.<cluster_name>.<base_domain>.

DNS A/AAAA or CNAME records and DNS PTR records to identify each machine for the control plane nodes (also known as the master nodes). These records must be resolvable by the nodes within the cluster.

Compute machines

<worker><n>.<cluster_name>.<base_domain>.

DNS A/AAAA or CNAME records and DNS PTR records to identify each machine for the worker nodes. These records must be resolvable by the nodes within the cluster.

Note

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.4 and later, you do not need to specify etcd host and SRV records in your DNS configuration.

Tip

You can use the dig command to verify name and reverse name resolution. See the section on Validating DNS resolution for user-provisioned infrastructure for detailed validation steps.

15.8.7.1. Example DNS configuration for user-provisioned clusters

This section provides A and PTR record configuration samples that meet the DNS requirements for deploying OpenShift Container Platform on user-provisioned infrastructure. The samples are not meant to provide advice for choosing one DNS solution over another.

In the examples, the cluster name is ocp4 and the base domain is example.com.

Example DNS A record configuration for a user-provisioned cluster

The following example is a BIND zone file that shows sample A records for name resolution in a user-provisioned cluster.

Example 15.1. Sample DNS zone database

$TTL 1W
@	IN	SOA	ns1.example.com.	root (
			2019070700	; serial
			3H		; refresh (3 hours)
			30M		; retry (30 minutes)
			2W		; expiry (2 weeks)
			1W )		; minimum (1 week)
	IN	NS	ns1.example.com.
	IN	MX 10	smtp.example.com.
;
;
ns1.example.com.		IN	A	192.168.1.5
smtp.example.com.		IN	A	192.168.1.5
;
helper.example.com.		IN	A	192.168.1.5
helper.ocp4.example.com.	IN	A	192.168.1.5
;
api.ocp4.example.com.		IN	A	192.168.1.5 1
api-int.ocp4.example.com.	IN	A	192.168.1.5 2
;
*.apps.ocp4.example.com.	IN	A	192.168.1.5 3
;
bootstrap.ocp4.example.com.	IN	A	192.168.1.96 4
;
master0.ocp4.example.com.	IN	A	192.168.1.97 5
master1.ocp4.example.com.	IN	A	192.168.1.98 6
master2.ocp4.example.com.	IN	A	192.168.1.99 7
;
worker0.ocp4.example.com.	IN	A	192.168.1.11 8
worker1.ocp4.example.com.	IN	A	192.168.1.7 9
;
;EOF
1
Provides name resolution for the Kubernetes API. The record refers to the IP address of the API load balancer.
2
Provides name resolution for the Kubernetes API. The record refers to the IP address of the API load balancer and is used for internal cluster communications.
3
Provides name resolution for the wildcard routes. The record refers to the IP address of the application ingress load balancer. The application ingress load balancer targets the machines that run the Ingress Controller pods. The Ingress Controller pods run on the compute machines by default.
Note

In the example, the same load balancer is used for the Kubernetes API and application ingress traffic. In production scenarios, you can deploy the API and application ingress load balancers separately so that you can scale the load balancer infrastructure for each in isolation.

4
Provides name resolution for the bootstrap machine.
5 6 7
Provides name resolution for the control plane machines.
8 9
Provides name resolution for the compute machines.

Example DNS PTR record configuration for a user-provisioned cluster

The following example BIND zone file shows sample PTR records for reverse name resolution in a user-provisioned cluster.

Example 15.2. Sample DNS zone database for reverse records

$TTL 1W
@	IN	SOA	ns1.example.com.	root (
			2019070700	; serial
			3H		; refresh (3 hours)
			30M		; retry (30 minutes)
			2W		; expiry (2 weeks)
			1W )		; minimum (1 week)
	IN	NS	ns1.example.com.
;
5.1.168.192.in-addr.arpa.	IN	PTR	api.ocp4.example.com. 1
5.1.168.192.in-addr.arpa.	IN	PTR	api-int.ocp4.example.com. 2
;
96.1.168.192.in-addr.arpa.	IN	PTR	bootstrap.ocp4.example.com. 3
;
97.1.168.192.in-addr.arpa.	IN	PTR	master0.ocp4.example.com. 4
98.1.168.192.in-addr.arpa.	IN	PTR	master1.ocp4.example.com. 5
99.1.168.192.in-addr.arpa.	IN	PTR	master2.ocp4.example.com. 6
;
11.1.168.192.in-addr.arpa.	IN	PTR	worker0.ocp4.example.com. 7
7.1.168.192.in-addr.arpa.	IN	PTR	worker1.ocp4.example.com. 8
;
;EOF
1
Provides reverse DNS resolution for the Kubernetes API. The PTR record refers to the record name of the API load balancer.
2
Provides reverse DNS resolution for the Kubernetes API. The PTR record refers to the record name of the API load balancer and is used for internal cluster communications.
3
Provides reverse DNS resolution for the bootstrap machine.
4 5 6
Provides reverse DNS resolution for the control plane machines.
7 8
Provides reverse DNS resolution for the compute machines.
Note

A PTR record is not required for the OpenShift Container Platform application wildcard.

15.8.7.2. Load balancing requirements for user-provisioned infrastructure

Before you install OpenShift Container Platform, you must provision the API and application ingress load balancing infrastructure. In production scenarios, you can deploy the API and application ingress load balancers separately so that you can scale the load balancer infrastructure for each in isolation.

The load balancing infrastructure must meet the following requirements:

  1. API load balancer: Provides a common endpoint for users, both human and machine, to interact with and configure the platform. Configure the following conditions:

    • Layer 4 load balancing only. This can be referred to as Raw TCP, SSL Passthrough, or SSL Bridge mode. If you use SSL Bridge mode, you must enable Server Name Indication (SNI) for the API routes.
    • A stateless load balancing algorithm. The options vary based on the load balancer implementation.
    Note

    Session persistence is not required for the API load balancer to function properly.

    Configure the following ports on both the front and back of the load balancers:

    Table 15.14. API load balancer

    PortBack-end machines (pool members)InternalExternalDescription

    6443

    Bootstrap and control plane. You remove the bootstrap machine from the load balancer after the bootstrap machine initializes the cluster control plane. You must configure the /readyz endpoint for the API server health check probe.

    X

    X

    Kubernetes API server

    22623

    Bootstrap and control plane. You remove the bootstrap machine from the load balancer after the bootstrap machine initializes the cluster control plane.

    X

     

    Machine config server

    Note

    The load balancer must be configured to take a maximum of 30 seconds from the time the API server turns off the /readyz endpoint to the removal of the API server instance from the pool. Within the time frame after /readyz returns an error or becomes healthy, the endpoint must have been removed or added. Probing every 5 or 10 seconds, with two successful requests to become healthy and three to become unhealthy, are well-tested values.

  2. Application ingress load balancer: Provides an ingress point for application traffic flowing in from outside the cluster. Configure the following conditions:

    • Layer 4 load balancing only. This can be referred to as Raw TCP, SSL Passthrough, or SSL Bridge mode. If you use SSL Bridge mode, you must enable Server Name Indication (SNI) for the ingress routes.
    • A connection-based or session-based persistence is recommended, based on the options available and types of applications that will be hosted on the platform.
    Tip

    If the true IP address of the client can be seen by the application ingress load balancer, enabling source IP-based session persistence can improve performance for applications that use end-to-end TLS encryption.

    Configure the following ports on both the front and back of the load balancers:

    Table 15.15. Application ingress load balancer

    PortBack-end machines (pool members)InternalExternalDescription

    443

    The machines that run the Ingress Controller pods, compute, or worker, by default.

    X

    X

    HTTPS traffic

    80

    The machines that run the Ingress Controller pods, compute, or worker, by default.

    X

    X

    HTTP traffic

Note

If you are deploying a three-node cluster with zero compute nodes, the Ingress Controller pods run on the control plane nodes. In three-node cluster deployments, you must configure your application ingress load balancer to route HTTP and HTTPS traffic to the control plane nodes.

Note

A working configuration for the Ingress router is required for an OpenShift Container Platform cluster. You must configure the Ingress router after the control plane initializes.

15.8.7.2.1. Example load balancer configuration for user-provisioned clusters

This section provides an example API and application ingress load balancer configuration that meets the load balancing requirements for user-provisioned clusters. The sample is an /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg configuration for an HAProxy load balancer. The example is not meant to provide advice for choosing one load balancing solution over another.

Note

In the example, the same load balancer is used for the Kubernetes API and application ingress traffic. In production scenarios you can deploy the API and application ingress load balancers separately so that you can scale the load balancer infrastructure for each in isolation.

Example 15.3. Sample API and application ingress load balancer configuration

global
  log         127.0.0.1 local2
  pidfile     /var/run/haproxy.pid
  maxconn     4000
  daemon
defaults
  mode                    http
  log                     global
  option                  dontlognull
  option http-server-close
  option                  redispatch
  retries                 3
  timeout http-request    10s
  timeout queue           1m
  timeout connect         10s
  timeout client          1m
  timeout server          1m
  timeout http-keep-alive 10s
  timeout check           10s
  maxconn                 3000
frontend stats
  bind *:1936
  mode            http
  log             global
  maxconn 10
  stats enable
  stats hide-version
  stats refresh 30s
  stats show-node
  stats show-desc Stats for ocp4 cluster 1
  stats auth admin:ocp4
  stats uri /stats
listen api-server-6443 2
  bind *:6443
  mode tcp
  server bootstrap bootstrap.ocp4.example.com:6443 check inter 1s backup 3
  server master0 master0.ocp4.example.com:6443 check inter 1s
  server master1 master1.ocp4.example.com:6443 check inter 1s
  server master2 master2.ocp4.example.com:6443 check inter 1s
listen machine-config-server-22623 4
  bind *:22623
  mode tcp
  server bootstrap bootstrap.ocp4.example.com:22623 check inter 1s backup 5
  server master0 master0.ocp4.example.com:22623 check inter 1s
  server master1 master1.ocp4.example.com:22623 check inter 1s
  server master2 master2.ocp4.example.com:22623 check inter 1s
listen ingress-router-443 6
  bind *:443
  mode tcp
  balance source
  server worker0 worker0.ocp4.example.com:443 check inter 1s
  server worker1 worker1.ocp4.example.com:443 check inter 1s
listen ingress-router-80 7
  bind *:80
  mode tcp
  balance source
  server worker0 worker0.ocp4.example.com:80 check inter 1s
  server worker1 worker1.ocp4.example.com:80 check inter 1s
1
In the example, the cluster name is ocp4.
2
Port 6443 handles the Kubernetes API traffic and points to the control plane machines.
3 5
The bootstrap entries must be in place before the OpenShift Container Platform cluster installation and they must be removed after the bootstrap process is complete.
4
Port 22623 handles the machine config server traffic and points to the control plane machines.
6
Port 443 handles the HTTPS traffic and points to the machines that run the Ingress Controller pods. The Ingress Controller pods run on the compute machines by default.
7
Port 80 handles the HTTP traffic and points to the machines that run the Ingress Controller pods. The Ingress Controller pods run on the compute machines by default.
Note

If you are deploying a three-node cluster with zero compute nodes, the Ingress Controller pods run on the control plane nodes. In three-node cluster deployments, you must configure your application ingress load balancer to route HTTP and HTTPS traffic to the control plane nodes.

Tip

If you are using HAProxy as a load balancer, you can check that the haproxy process is listening on ports 6443, 22623, 443, and 80 by running netstat -nltupe on the HAProxy node.

Note

If you are using HAProxy as a load balancer and SELinux is set to enforcing, you must ensure that the HAProxy service can bind to the configured TCP port by running setsebool -P haproxy_connect_any=1.

15.8.8. Setting up the installation machine

To run the binary openshift-install installation program and Ansible scripts, set up the RHV Manager or an Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) computer with network access to the RHV environment and the REST API on the Manager.

Procedure

  1. Update or install Python3 and Ansible. For example:

    # dnf update python3 ansible
  2. Install the python3-ovirt-engine-sdk4 package to get the Python Software Development Kit.
  3. Install the ovirt.image-template Ansible role. On the RHV Manager and other Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) machines, this role is distributed as the ovirt-ansible-image-template package. For example, enter:

    # dnf install ovirt-ansible-image-template
  4. Install the ovirt.vm-infra Ansible role. On the RHV Manager and other RHEL machines, this role is distributed as the ovirt-ansible-vm-infra package.

    # dnf install ovirt-ansible-vm-infra
  5. Create an environment variable and assign an absolute or relative path to it. For example, enter:

    $ export ASSETS_DIR=./wrk
    Note

    The installation program uses this variable to create a directory where it saves important installation-related files. Later, the installation process reuses this variable to locate those asset files. Avoid deleting this assets directory; it is required for uninstalling the cluster.

15.8.9. Setting up the CA certificate for RHV

Download the CA certificate from the Red Hat Virtualization (RHV) Manager and set it up on the installation machine.

You can download the certificate from a webpage on the RHV Manager or by using a curl command.

Later, you provide the certificate to the installation program.

Procedure

  1. Use either of these two methods to download the CA certificate:

    • Go to the Manager’s webpage, https://<engine-fqdn>/ovirt-engine/. Then, under Downloads, click the CA Certificate link.
    • Run the following command:

      $ curl -k 'https://<engine-fqdn>/ovirt-engine/services/pki-resource?resource=ca-certificate&format=X509-PEM-CA' -o /tmp/ca.pem  1
      1
      For <engine-fqdn>, specify the fully qualified domain name of the RHV Manager, such as rhv-env.virtlab.example.com.
  2. Configure the CA file to grant rootless user access to the Manager. Set the CA file permissions to have an octal value of 0644 (symbolic value: -rw-r—​r--):

    $ sudo chmod 0644 /tmp/ca.pem
  3. For Linux, copy the CA certificate to the directory for server certificates. Use -p to preserve the permissions:

    $ sudo cp -p /tmp/ca.pem /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors/ca.pem
  4. Add the certificate to the certificate manager for your operating system:

    • For macOS, double-click the certificate file and use the Keychain Access utility to add the file to the System keychain.
    • For Linux, update the CA trust:

      $ sudo update-ca-trust
      Note

      If you use your own certificate authority, make sure the system trusts it.

Additional Resources

To learn more, see Authentication and Security in the RHV documentation.

15.8.10. Generating a key pair for cluster node SSH access

During an OpenShift Container Platform installation, you can provide an SSH public key to the installation program. The key is passed to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) nodes through their Ignition config files and is used to authenticate SSH access to the nodes. The key is added to the ~/.ssh/authorized_keys list for the core user on each node, which enables password-less authentication.

After the key is passed to the nodes, you can use the key pair to SSH in to the RHCOS nodes as the user core. To access the nodes through SSH, the private key identity must be managed by SSH for your local user.

If you want to SSH in to your cluster nodes to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, you must provide the SSH public key during the installation process. The ./openshift-install gather command also requires the SSH public key to be in place on the cluster nodes.

Important

Do not skip this procedure in production environments, where disaster recovery and debugging is required.

Procedure

  1. If you do not have an existing SSH key pair on your local machine to use for authentication onto your cluster nodes, create one. For example, on a computer that uses a Linux operating system, run the following command:

    $ ssh-keygen -t ed25519 -N '' -f <path>/<file_name> 1
    1
    Specify the path and file name, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa, of the new SSH key. If you have an existing key pair, ensure your public key is in the your ~/.ssh directory.
    Note

    If you plan to install an OpenShift Container Platform cluster that uses FIPS Validated / Modules in Process cryptographic libraries on the x86_64 architecture, do not create a key that uses the ed25519 algorithm. Instead, create a key that uses the rsa or ecdsa algorithm.

  2. View the public SSH key:

    $ cat <path>/<file_name>.pub

    For example, run the following to view the ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub public key:

    $ cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
  3. Add the SSH private key identity to the SSH agent for your local user, if it has not already been added. SSH agent management of the key is required for password-less SSH authentication onto your cluster nodes, or if you want to use the ./openshift-install gather command.

    Note

    On some distributions, default SSH private key identities such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa and ~/.ssh/id_dsa are managed automatically.

    1. If the ssh-agent process is not already running for your local user, start it as a background task:

      $ eval "$(ssh-agent -s)"

      Example output

      Agent pid 31874

      Note

      If your cluster is in FIPS mode, only use FIPS-compliant algorithms to generate the SSH key. The key must be either RSA or ECDSA.

  4. Add your SSH private key to the ssh-agent:

    $ ssh-add <path>/<file_name> 1
    1
    Specify the path and file name for your SSH private key, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa

    Example output

    Identity added: /home/<you>/<path>/<file_name> (<computer_name>)

  5. Set the GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS environment variable to the full path to your service account private key file.

    $ export GOOGLE_APPLICATION_CREDENTIALS="<your_service_account_file>"
  6. Verify that the credentials were applied.

    $ gcloud auth list

Next steps

  • When you install OpenShift Container Platform, provide the SSH public key to the installation program.

15.8.11. Downloading the Ansible playbooks

Download the Ansible playbooks for installing OpenShift Container Platform version 4.8 on RHV.

Procedure

  • On your installation machine, run the following commands:

    $ mkdir playbooks
    $ cd playbooks
    $ curl -s -L -X GET https://api.github.com/repos/openshift/installer/contents/upi/ovirt?ref=release-4.8 |
    grep 'download_url.*\.yml' |
    awk '{ print $2 }' | sed -r 's/("|",)//g' |
    xargs -n 1 curl -O

Next steps

  • After you download these Ansible playbooks, you must also create the environment variable for the assets directory and customize the inventory.yml file before you create an installation configuration file by running the installation program.

15.8.12. The inventory.yml file

You use the inventory.yml file to define and create elements of the OpenShift Container Platform cluster you are installing. This includes elements such as the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) image, virtual machine templates, bootstrap machine, control plane nodes, and worker nodes. You also use inventory.yml to destroy the cluster.

The following inventory.yml example shows you the parameters and their default values. The quantities and numbers in these default values meet the requirements for running a production OpenShift Container Platform cluster in a RHV environment.

Example inventory.yml file

---
all:
  vars:

    ovirt_cluster: "Default"
    ocp:
      assets_dir: "{{ lookup('env', 'ASSETS_DIR') }}"
      ovirt_config_path: "{{ lookup('env', 'HOME') }}/.ovirt/ovirt-config.yaml"

    # ---
    # {op-system} section
    # ---
    rhcos:
      image_url: "https://mirror.openshift.com/pub/openshift-v4/dependencies/rhcos/4.8/latest/rhcos-openstack.x86_64.qcow2.gz"
      local_cmp_image_path: "/tmp/rhcos.qcow2.gz"
      local_image_path: "/tmp/rhcos.qcow2"

    # ---
    # Profiles section
    # ---
    control_plane:
      cluster: "{{ ovirt_cluster }}"
      memory: 16GiB
      sockets: 4
      cores: 1
      template: rhcos_tpl
      operating_system: "rhcos_x64"
      type: high_performance
      graphical_console:
        headless_mode: false
        protocol:
        - spice
        - vnc
      disks:
      - size: 120GiB
        name: os
        interface: virtio_scsi
        storage_domain: depot_nvme
      nics:
      - name: nic1
        network: lab
        profile: lab

    compute:
      cluster: "{{ ovirt_cluster }}"
      memory: 16GiB
      sockets: 4
      cores: 1
      template: worker_rhcos_tpl
      operating_system: "rhcos_x64"
      type: high_performance
      graphical_console:
        headless_mode: false
        protocol:
        - spice
        - vnc
      disks:
      - size: 120GiB
        name: os
        interface: virtio_scsi
        storage_domain: depot_nvme
      nics:
      - name: nic1
        network: lab
        profile: lab

    # ---
    # Virtual machines section
    # ---
    vms:
    - name: "{{ metadata.infraID }}-bootstrap"
      ocp_type: bootstrap
      profile: "{{ control_plane }}"
      type: server
    - name: "{{ metadata.infraID }}-master0"
      ocp_type: master
      profile: "{{ control_plane }}"
    - name: "{{ metadata.infraID }}-master1"
      ocp_type: master
      profile: "{{ control_plane }}"
    - name: "{{ metadata.infraID }}-master2"
      ocp_type: master
      profile: "{{ control_plane }}"
    - name: "{{ metadata.infraID }}-worker0"
      ocp_type: worker
      profile: "{{ compute }}"
    - name: "{{ metadata.infraID }}-worker1"
      ocp_type: worker
      profile: "{{ compute }}"
    - name: "{{ metadata.infraID }}-worker2"
      ocp_type: worker
      profile: "{{ compute }}"

Important

Enter values for parameters whose descriptions begin with "Enter." Otherwise, you can use the default value or replace it with a new value.

General section

  • ovirt_cluster: Enter the name of an existing RHV cluster in which to install the OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • ocp.assets_dir: The path of a directory the openshift-install installation program creates to store the files that it generates.
  • ocp.ovirt_config_path: The path of the ovirt-config.yaml file the installation program generates, for example, ./wrk/install-config.yaml. This file contains the credentials required to interact with the REST API of the Manager.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) section

  • image_url: Enter the URL of the RHCOS image you specified for download.
  • local_cmp_image_path: The path of a local download directory for the compressed RHCOS image.
  • local_image_path: The path of a local directory for the extracted RHCOS image.

Profiles section

This section consists of two profiles:

  • control_plane: The profile of the bootstrap and control plane nodes.
  • compute: The profile of workers nodes in the compute plane.

These profiles have the following parameters. The default values of the parameters meet the minimum requirements for running a production cluster. You can increase or customize these values to meet your workload requirements.

  • cluster: The value gets the cluster name from ovirt_cluster in the General Section.
  • memory: The amount of memory, in GB, for the virtual machine.
  • sockets: The number of sockets for the virtual machine.
  • cores: The number of cores for the virtual machine.
  • template: The name of the virtual machine template. If plan to install multiple clusters, and these clusters use templates that contain different specifications, prepend the template name with the ID of the cluster.
  • operating_system: The type of guest operating system in the virtual machine. With oVirt/RHV version 4.4, this value must be rhcos_x64 so the value of Ignition script can be passed to the VM.
  • type: Enter server as the type of the virtual machine.

    Important

    You must change the value of the type parameter from high_performance to server.

  • disks: The disk specifications. The control_plane and compute nodes can have different storage domains.
  • size: The minimum disk size.
  • name: Enter the name of a disk connected to the target cluster in RHV.
  • interface: Enter the interface type of the disk you specified.
  • storage_domain: Enter the storage domain of the disk you specified.
  • nics: Enter the name and network the virtual machines use. You can also specify the virtual network interface profile. By default, NICs obtain their MAC addresses from the oVirt/RHV MAC pool.

Virtual machines section

This final section, vms, defines the virtual machines you plan to create and deploy in the cluster. By default, it provides the minimum number of control plane and worker nodes for a production environment.

vms contains three required elements:

  • name: The name of the virtual machine. In this case, metadata.infraID prepends the virtual machine name with the infrastructure ID from the metadata.yml file.
  • ocp_type: The role of the virtual machine in the OpenShift Container Platform cluster. Possible values are bootstrap, master, worker.
  • profile: The name of the profile from which each virtual machine inherits specifications. Possible values in this example are control_plane or compute.

    You can override the value a virtual machine inherits from its profile. To do this, you add the name of the profile attribute to the virtual machine in inventory.yml and assign it an overriding value. To see an example of this, examine the name: "{{ metadata.infraID }}-bootstrap" virtual machine in the preceding inventory.yml example: It has a type attribute whose value, server, overrides the value of the type attribute this virtual machine would otherwise inherit from the control_plane profile.

Metadata variables

For virtual machines, metadata.infraID prepends the name of the virtual machine with the infrastructure ID from the metadata.json file you create when you build the Ignition files.

The playbooks use the following code to read infraID from the specific file located in the ocp.assets_dir.

---
- name: include metadata.json vars
  include_vars:
    file: "{{ ocp.assets_dir }}/metadata.json"
    name: metadata

  ...

15.8.13. Specifying the RHCOS image settings

Update the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) image settings of the inventory.yml file. Later, when you run this file one of the playbooks, it downloads a compressed Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) image from the image_url URL to the local_cmp_image_path directory. The playbook then uncompresses the image to the local_image_path directory and uses it to create oVirt/RHV templates.

Procedure

  1. Locate the RHCOS image download page for the version of OpenShift Container Platform you are installing, such as Index of /pub/openshift-v4/dependencies/rhcos/latest/latest.
  2. From that download page, copy the URL of an OpenStack qcow2 image, such as https://mirror.openshift.com/pub/openshift-v4/dependencies/rhcos/4.8/latest/rhcos-openstack.x86_64.qcow2.gz.
  3. Edit the inventory.yml playbook you downloaded earlier. In it, paste the URL as the value for image_url. For example:

    rhcos:
      "https://mirror.openshift.com/pub/openshift-v4/dependencies/rhcos/4.8/latest/rhcos-openstack.x86_64.qcow2.gz"

15.8.14. Creating the install config file

You create an installation configuration file by running the installation program, openshift-install, and responding to its prompts with information you specified or gathered earlier.

When you finish responding to the prompts, the installation program creates an initial version of the install-config.yaml file in the assets directory you specified earlier, for example, ./wrk/install-config.yaml

The installation program also creates a file, $HOME/.ovirt/ovirt-config.yaml, that contains all the connection parameters that are required to reach the Manager and use its REST API.

NOTE: The installation process does not use values you supply for some parameters, such as Internal API virtual IP and Ingress virtual IP, because you have already configured them in your infrastructure DNS.

It also uses the values you supply for parameters in inventory.yml, like the ones for oVirt cluster, oVirt storage, and oVirt network. And uses a script to remove or replace these same values from install-config.yaml with the previously mentioned virtual IPs.

Procedure

  1. Run the installation program:

    $ openshift-install create install-config --dir $ASSETS_DIR
  2. Respond to the installation program’s prompts with information about your system.

    Example output

    ? SSH Public Key /home/user/.ssh/id_dsa.pub
    ? Platform <ovirt>
    ? Engine FQDN[:PORT] [? for help] <engine.fqdn>
    ? Enter ovirt-engine username <ocpadmin@internal>
    ? Enter password <******>
    ? oVirt cluster <cluster>
    ? oVirt storage <storage>
    ? oVirt network <net>
    ? Internal API virtual IP <172.16.0.252>
    ? Ingress virtual IP <172.16.0.251>
    ? Base Domain <example.org>
    ? Cluster Name <ocp4>
    ? Pull Secret [? for help] <********>

For Internal API virtual IP and Ingress virtual IP, supply the IP addresses you specified when you configured the DNS service.

Together, the values you enter for the oVirt cluster and Base Domain prompts form the FQDN portion of URLs for the REST API and any applications you create, such as https://api.ocp4.example.org:6443/ and https://console-openshift-console.apps.ocp4.example.org.

To get your pull secret, visit https://console.redhat.com/openshift/install/pull-secret.

15.8.15. Sample install-config.yaml file for IBM Z

15.8.16. Sample install-config.yaml file for RHV

You can customize the install-config.yaml file to specify more details about your OpenShift Container Platform cluster’s platform or modify the values of the required parameters.

apiVersion: v1
baseDomain: example.com 1
compute: 2
- hyperthreading: Enabled 3
  name: worker
  replicas: 0 4
controlPlane: 5
  hyperthreading: Enabled 6
  name: master
  replicas: 3 7
metadata:
  name: test 8
networking:
  clusterNetwork:
  - cidr: 10.128.0.0/14 9
    hostPrefix: 23 10
  networkType: OpenShiftSDN
  serviceNetwork: 11
  - 172.30.0.0/16
platform:
  none: {} 12
fips: false 13
pullSecret: '{"auths": ...}' 14
sshKey: 'ssh-ed25519 AAAA...' 15
1
The base domain of the cluster. All DNS records must be sub-domains of this base and include the cluster name.
2 5
The controlPlane section is a single mapping, but the compute section is a sequence of mappings. To meet the requirements of the different data structures, the first line of the compute section must begin with a hyphen, -, and the first line of the controlPlane section must not. Although both sections currently define a single machine pool, it is possible that future versions of OpenShift Container Platform will support defining multiple compute pools during installation. Only one control plane pool is used.
3 6
Specifies whether to enable or disable simultaneous multithreading (SMT), or hyperthreading. By default, SMT is enabled to increase the performance of the cores in your machines. You can disable it by setting the parameter value to Disabled. If you disable SMT, you must disable it in all cluster machines; this includes both control plane and compute machines.
Note

Simultaneous multithreading (SMT) is enabled by default. If SMT is not enabled in your BIOS settings, the hyperthreading parameter has no effect.

Important

If you disable hyperthreading, whether in the BIOS or in the install-config.yaml, ensure that your capacity planning accounts for the dramatically decreased machine performance.

4
You must set this value to 0 when you install OpenShift Container Platform on user-provisioned infrastructure. In installer-provisioned installations, the parameter controls the number of compute machines that the cluster creates and manages for you. In user-provisioned installations, you must manually deploy the compute machines before you finish installing the cluster.
Note

If you are installing a three-node cluster, do not deploy any compute machines when you install the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) machines.

7
The number of control plane machines that you add to the cluster. Because the cluster uses these values as the number of etcd endpoints in the cluster, the value must match the number of control plane machines that you deploy.
8
The cluster name that you specified in your DNS records.
9
A block of IP addresses from which pod IP addresses are allocated. This block must not overlap with existing physical networks. These IP addresses are used for the pod network. If you need to access the pods from an external network, you must configure load balancers and routers to manage the traffic.
10
The subnet prefix length to assign to each individual node. For example, if hostPrefix is set to 23, then each node is assigned a /23 subnet out of the given cidr, which allows for 510 (2^(32 - 23) - 2) pod IP addresses. If you are required to provide access to nodes from an external network, configure load balancers and routers to manage the traffic.
11
The IP address pool to use for service IP addresses. You can enter only one IP address pool. If you need to access the services from an external network, configure load balancers and routers to manage the traffic.
12
You must set the platform to none. You cannot provide additional platform configuration variables for IBM Z infrastructure. RHV infrastructure.
Warning

Red Hat Virtualization does not currently support installation with user-provisioned infrastructure on the oVirt platform. Therefore, you must set the platform to none, allowing OpenShift Container Platform to identify each node as a bare-metal node and the cluster as a bare-metal cluster. This is the same as installing a cluster on any platform, and has the following limitations:

  1. There will be no cluster provider so you must manually add each machine and there will be no node scaling capabilities.
  2. The oVirt CSI driver will not be installed and there will be no CSI capabilities.
13
Whether to enable or disable FIPS mode. By default, FIPS mode is not enabled. If FIPS mode is enabled, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) machines that OpenShift Container Platform runs on bypass the default Kubernetes cryptography suite and use the cryptography modules that are provided with RHCOS instead.
Important

The use of FIPS Validated / Modules in Process cryptographic libraries is only supported on OpenShift Container Platform deployments on the x86_64 architecture.

14
The pull secret that you obtained from the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site. This pull secret allows you to authenticate with the services that are provided by the included authorities, including Quay.io, which serves the container images for OpenShift Container Platform components.
15
The SSH public key for the core user in Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS).
Note

For production OpenShift Container Platform clusters on which you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, specify an SSH key that your ssh-agent process uses.

15.8.16.1. Configuring the cluster-wide proxy during installation

Production environments can deny direct access to the internet and instead have an HTTP or HTTPS proxy available. You can configure a new OpenShift Container Platform cluster to use a proxy by configuring the proxy settings in the install-config.yaml file.

Prerequisites

  • You have an existing install-config.yaml file.
  • You reviewed the sites that your cluster requires access to and determined whether any of them need to bypass the proxy. By default, all cluster egress traffic is proxied, including calls to hosting cloud provider APIs. You added sites to the Proxy object’s spec.noProxy field to bypass the proxy if necessary.

    Note

    The Proxy object status.noProxy field is populated with the values of the networking.machineNetwork[].cidr, networking.clusterNetwork[].cidr, and networking.serviceNetwork[] fields from your installation configuration.

    For installations on Amazon Web Services (AWS), Google Cloud Platform (GCP), Microsoft Azure, and Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP), the Proxy object status.noProxy field is also populated with the instance metadata endpoint (169.254.169.254).

  • If your cluster is on AWS, you added the ec2.<region>.amazonaws.com, elasticloadbalancing.<region>.amazonaws.com, and s3.<region>.amazonaws.com endpoints to your VPC endpoint. These endpoints are required to complete requests from the nodes to the AWS EC2 API. Because the proxy works on the container level, not the node level, you must route these requests to the AWS EC2 API through the AWS private network. Adding the public IP address of the EC2 API to your allowlist in your proxy server is not sufficient.

Procedure

  1. Edit your install-config.yaml file and add the proxy settings. For example:

    apiVersion: v1
    baseDomain: my.domain.com
    proxy:
      httpProxy: http://<username>:<pswd>@<ip>:<port> 1
      httpsProxy: https://<username>:<pswd>@<ip>:<port> 2
      noProxy: example.com 3
    additionalTrustBundle: | 4
        -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
        <MY_TRUSTED_CA_CERT>
        -----END CERTIFICATE-----
    ...
    1
    A proxy URL to use for creating HTTP connections outside the cluster. The URL scheme must be http. If you use an MITM transparent proxy network that does not require additional proxy configuration but requires additional CAs, you must not specify an httpProxy value.
    2
    A proxy URL to use for creating HTTPS connections outside the cluster. If you use an MITM transparent proxy network that does not require additional proxy configuration but requires additional CAs, you must not specify an httpsProxy value.
    3
    A comma-separated list of destination domain names, IP addresses, or other network CIDRs to exclude from proxying. Preface a domain with . to match subdomains only. For example, .y.com matches x.y.com, but not y.com. Use * to bypass the proxy for all destinations.
    4
    If provided, the installation program generates a config map that is named user-ca-bundle in the openshift-config namespace that contains one or more additional CA certificates that are required for proxying HTTPS connections. The Cluster Network Operator then creates a trusted-ca-bundle config map that merges these contents with the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) trust bundle, and this config map is referenced in the trustedCA field of the Proxy object. The additionalTrustBundle field is required unless the proxy’s identity certificate is signed by an authority from the RHCOS trust bundle. If you use an MITM transparent proxy network that does not require additional proxy configuration but requires additional CAs, you must provide the MITM CA certificate.
    Note

    The installation program does not support the proxy readinessEndpoints field.

  2. Save the file and reference it when installing OpenShift Container Platform.

The installation program creates a cluster-wide proxy that is named cluster that uses the proxy settings in the provided install-config.yaml file. If no proxy settings are provided, a cluster Proxy object is still created, but it will have a nil spec.

Note

Only the Proxy object named cluster is supported, and no additional proxies can be created.

15.8.17. Customizing install-config.yaml

Here, you use three Python scripts to override some of the installation program’s default behaviors:

  • By default, the installation program uses the machine API to create nodes. To override this default behavior, you set the number of compute nodes to zero replicas. Later, you use Ansible playbooks to create the compute nodes.
  • By default, the installation program sets the IP range of the machine network for nodes. To override this default behavior, you set the IP range to match your infrastructure.
  • By default, the installation program sets the platform to ovirt. However, installing a cluster on user-provisioned infrastructure is more similar to installing a cluster on bare metal. Therefore, you delete the ovirt platform section from install-config.yaml and change the platform to none. Instead, you use inventory.yml to specify all of the required settings.
Note

These snippets work with Python 3 and Python 2.

Procedure

  1. Set the number of compute nodes to zero replicas:

    $ python3 -c 'import os, yaml
    path = "%s/install-config.yaml" % os.environ["ASSETS_DIR"]
    conf = yaml.safe_load(open(path))
    conf["compute"][0]["replicas"] = 0
    open(path, "w").write(yaml.dump(conf, default_flow_style=False))'
  2. Set the IP range of the machine network. For example, to set the range to 172.16.0.0/16, enter:

    $ python3 -c 'import os, yaml
    path = "%s/install-config.yaml" % os.environ["ASSETS_DIR"]
    conf = yaml.safe_load(open(path))
    conf["networking"]["machineNetwork"][0]["cidr"] = "172.16.0.0/16"
    open(path, "w").write(yaml.dump(conf, default_flow_style=False))'
  3. Remove the ovirt section and change the platform to none:

    $ python3 -c 'import os, yaml
    path = "%s/install-config.yaml" % os.environ["ASSETS_DIR"]
    conf = yaml.safe_load(open(path))
    platform = conf["platform"]
    del platform["ovirt"]
    platform["none"] = {}
    open(path, "w").write(yaml.dump(conf, default_flow_style=False))'
    Warning

    Red Hat Virtualization does not currently support installation with user-provisioned infrastructure on the oVirt platform. Therefore, you must set the platform to none, allowing OpenShift Container Platform to identify each node as a bare-metal node and the cluster as a bare-metal cluster. This is the same as installing a cluster on any platform, and has the following limitations:

    1. There will be no cluster provider so you must manually add each machine and there will be no node scaling capabilities.
    2. The oVirt CSI driver will not be installed and there will be no CSI capabilities.

15.8.18. Generate manifest files

Use the installation program to generate a set of manifest files in the assets directory.

The command to generate the manifest files displays a warning message before it consumes the install-config.yaml file.

If you plan to reuse the install-config.yaml file, create a backup copy of it before you back it up before you generate the manifest files.

Procedure

  1. Optional: Create a backup copy of the install-config.yaml file:

    $ cp install-config.yaml install-config.yaml.backup
  2. Generate a set of manifests in your assets directory:

    $ openshift-install create manifests --dir $ASSETS_DIR

    This command displays the following messages.

    Example output

    INFO Consuming Install Config from target directory
    WARNING Making control-plane schedulable by setting MastersSchedulable to true for Scheduler cluster settings

    The command generates the following manifest files:

    Example output

    $ tree
    .
    └── wrk
        ├── manifests
        │   ├── 04-openshift-machine-config-operator.yaml
        │   ├── cluster-config.yaml
        │   ├── cluster-dns-02-config.yml
        │   ├── cluster-infrastructure-02-config.yml
        │   ├── cluster-ingress-02-config.yml
        │   ├── cluster-network-01-crd.yml
        │   ├── cluster-network-02-config.yml
        │   ├── cluster-proxy-01-config.yaml
        │   ├── cluster-scheduler-02-config.yml
        │   ├── cvo-overrides.yaml
        │   ├── etcd-ca-bundle-configmap.yaml
        │   ├── etcd-client-secret.yaml
        │   ├── etcd-host-service-endpoints.yaml
        │   ├── etcd-host-service.yaml
        │   ├── etcd-metric-client-secret.yaml
        │   ├── etcd-metric-serving-ca-configmap.yaml
        │   ├── etcd-metric-signer-secret.yaml
        │   ├── etcd-namespace.yaml
        │   ├── etcd-service.yaml
        │   ├── etcd-serving-ca-configmap.yaml
        │   ├── etcd-signer-secret.yaml
        │   ├── kube-cloud-config.yaml
        │   ├── kube-system-configmap-root-ca.yaml
        │   ├── machine-config-server-tls-secret.yaml
        │   └── openshift-config-secret-pull-secret.yaml
        └── openshift
            ├── 99_kubeadmin-password-secret.yaml
            ├── 99_openshift-cluster-api_master-user-data-secret.yaml
            ├── 99_openshift-cluster-api_worker-user-data-secret.yaml
            ├── 99_openshift-machineconfig_99-master-ssh.yaml
            ├── 99_openshift-machineconfig_99-worker-ssh.yaml
            └── openshift-install-manifests.yaml

Next steps

  • Make control plane nodes non-schedulable.

15.8.19. Making control-plane nodes non-schedulable

Because you are manually creating and deploying the control plane machines, you must configure a manifest file to make the control plane nodes non-schedulable.

Procedure

  1. To make the control plane nodes non-schedulable, enter:

    $ python3 -c 'import os, yaml
    path = "%s/manifests/cluster-scheduler-02-config.yml" % os.environ["ASSETS_DIR"]
    data = yaml.safe_load(open(path))
    data["spec"]["mastersSchedulable"] = False
    open(path, "w").write(yaml.dump(data, default_flow_style=False))'

15.8.20. Building the Ignition files

To build the Ignition files from the manifest files you just generated and modified, you run the installation program. This action creates a Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) machine, initramfs, which fetches the Ignition files and performs the configurations needed to create a node.

In addition to the Ignition files, the installation program generates the following:

  • An auth directory that contains the admin credentials for connecting to the cluster with the oc and kubectl utilities.
  • A metadata.json file that contains information such as the OpenShift Container Platform cluster name, cluster ID, and infrastructure ID for the current installation.

The Ansible playbooks for this installation process use the value of infraID as a prefix for the virtual machines they create. This prevents naming conflicts when there are multiple installations in the same oVirt/RHV cluster.

Note

Certificates in Ignition configuration files expire after 24 hours. Complete the cluster installation and keep the cluster running in a non-degraded state for 24 hours so that the first certificate rotation can finish.

Procedure

  1. To build the Ignition files, enter:

    $ openshift-install create ignition-configs --dir $ASSETS_DIR

    Example output

    $ tree
    .
    └── wrk
        ├── auth
        │   ├── kubeadmin-password
        │   └── kubeconfig
        ├── bootstrap.ign
        ├── master.ign
        ├── metadata.json
        └── worker.ign

15.8.21. Creating templates and virtual machines

After confirming the variables in the inventory.yml, you run the first Ansible provisioning playbook, create-templates-and-vms.yml.

This playbook uses the connection parameters for the RHV Manager from $HOME/.ovirt/ovirt-config.yaml and reads metadata.json in the assets directory.

If a local Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) image is not already present, the playbook downloads one from the URL you specified for image_url in inventory.yml. It extracts the image and uploads it to RHV to create templates.

The playbook creates a template based on the control_plane and compute profiles in the inventory.yml file. If these profiles have different names, it creates two templates.

When the playbook finishes, the virtual machines it creates are stopped. You can get information from them to help configure other infrastructure elements. For example, you can get the virtual machines' MAC addresses to configure DHCP to assign permanent IP addresses to the virtual machines.

Procedure

  1. In inventory.yml, under the control_plane and compute variables, change both instances of type: high_performance to type: server.
  2. Optional: If you plan to perform multiple installations to the same cluster, create different templates for each OpenShift Container Platform installation. In the inventory.yml file, prepend the value of template with infraID. For example:

      control_plane:
        cluster: "{{ ovirt_cluster }}"
        memory: 16GiB
        sockets: 4
        cores: 1
        template: "{{ metadata.infraID }}-rhcos_tpl"
        operating_system: "rhcos_x64"
        ...
  3. Create the templates and virtual machines:

    $ ansible-playbook -i inventory.yml create-templates-and-vms.yml

15.8.22. Creating the bootstrap machine

You create a bootstrap machine by running the bootstrap.yml playbook. This playbook starts the bootstrap virtual machine, and passes it the bootstrap.ign Ignition file from the assets directory. The bootstrap node configures itself so it can serve Ignition files to the control plane nodes.

To monitor the bootstrap process, you use the console in the RHV Administration Portal or connect to the virtual machine by using SSH.

Procedure

  1. Create the bootstrap machine:

    $ ansible-playbook -i inventory.yml bootstrap.yml
  2. Connect to the bootstrap machine using a console in the Administration Portal or SSH. Replace <bootstrap_ip> with the bootstrap node IP address. To use SSH, enter:

    $ ssh core@<boostrap.ip>
  3. Collect bootkube.service journald unit logs for the release image service from the bootstrap node:

    [core@ocp4-lk6b4-bootstrap ~]$ journalctl -b -f -u release-image.service -u bootkube.service
    Note

    The bootkube.service log on the bootstrap node outputs etcd connection refused errors, indicating that the bootstrap server is unable to connect to etcd on control plane nodes (also known as the master nodes). After etcd has started on each control plane node and the nodes have joined the cluster, the errors should stop.

15.8.23. Creating the control plane nodes

You create the control plane nodes by running the masters.yml playbook. This playbook passes the master.ign Ignition file to each of the virtual machines. The Ignition file contains a directive for the control plane node to get the Ignition from a URL such as https://api-int.ocp4.example.org:22623/config/master. The port number in this URL is managed by the load balancer, and is accessible only inside the cluster.

Procedure

  1. Create the control plane nodes:

    $ ansible-playbook -i inventory.yml masters.yml
  2. While the playbook creates your control plane, monitor the bootstrapping process:

    $ openshift-install wait-for bootstrap-complete --dir $ASSETS_DIR

    Example output

    INFO API v1.18.3+b74c5ed up
    INFO Waiting up to 40m0s for bootstrapping to complete...

  3. When all the pods on the control plane nodes and etcd are up and running, the installation program displays the following output.

    Example output

    INFO It is now safe to remove the bootstrap resources

15.8.24. Verifying cluster status

You can verify your OpenShift Container Platform cluster’s status during or after installation.

Procedure

  1. In the cluster environment, export the administrator’s kubeconfig file:

    $ export KUBECONFIG=$ASSETS_DIR/auth/kubeconfig

    The kubeconfig file contains information about the cluster that is used by the CLI to connect a client to the correct cluster and API server.

  2. View the control plane and compute machines created after a deployment:

    $ oc get nodes
  3. View your cluster’s version:

    $ oc get clusterversion
  4. View your Operators' status:

    $ oc get clusteroperator
  5. View all running pods in the cluster:

    $ oc get pods -A

15.8.25. Removing the bootstrap machine

After the wait-for command shows that the bootstrap process is complete, you must remove the bootstrap virtual machine to free up compute, memory, and storage resources. Also, remove settings for the bootstrap machine from the load balancer directives.

Procedure

  1. To remove the bootstrap machine from the cluster, enter:

    $ ansible-playbook -i inventory.yml retire-bootstrap.yml
  2. Remove settings for the bootstrap machine from the load balancer directives.

15.8.26. Creating the worker nodes and completing the installation

Creating worker nodes is similar to creating control plane nodes. However, worker nodes workers do not automatically join the cluster. To add them to the cluster, you review and approve the workers' pending CSRs (Certificate Signing Requests).

After approving the first requests, you continue approving CSR until all of the worker nodes are approved. When you complete this process, the worker nodes become Ready and can have pods scheduled to run on them.

Finally, monitor the command line to see when the installation process completes.

Procedure

  1. Create the worker nodes:

    $ ansible-playbook -i inventory.yml workers.yml
  2. To list all of the CSRs, enter:

    $ oc get csr -A

    Eventually, this command displays one CSR per node. For example:

    Example output

    NAME        AGE    SIGNERNAME                                    REQUESTOR                                                                   CONDITION
    csr-2lnxd   63m    kubernetes.io/kubelet-serving                 system:node:ocp4-lk6b4-master0.ocp4.example.org                             Approved,Issued
    csr-hff4q   64m    kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Approved,Issued
    csr-hsn96   60m    kubernetes.io/kubelet-serving                 system:node:ocp4-lk6b4-master2.ocp4.example.org                             Approved,Issued
    csr-m724n   6m2s   kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending
    csr-p4dz2   60m    kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Approved,Issued
    csr-t9vfj   60m    kubernetes.io/kubelet-serving                 system:node:ocp4-lk6b4-master1.ocp4.example.org                             Approved,Issued
    csr-tggtr   61m    kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Approved,Issued
    csr-wcbrf   7m6s   kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending

  3. To filter the list and see only pending CSRs, enter:

    $ watch "oc get csr -A | grep pending -i"

    This command refreshes the output every two seconds and displays only pending CSRs. For example:

    Example output

    Every 2.0s: oc get csr -A | grep pending -i
    
    csr-m724n   10m   kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending
    csr-wcbrf   11m   kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending

  4. Inspect each pending request. For example:

    Example output

    $ oc describe csr csr-m724n

    Example output

    Name:               csr-m724n
    Labels:             <none>
    Annotations:        <none>
    CreationTimestamp:  Sun, 19 Jul 2020 15:59:37 +0200
    Requesting User:    system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper
    Signer:             kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet
    Status:             Pending
    Subject:
             Common Name:    system:node:ocp4-lk6b4-worker1.ocp4.example.org
             Serial Number:
             Organization:   system:nodes
    Events:  <none>

  5. If the CSR information is correct, approve the request:

    $ oc adm certificate approve csr-m724n
  6. Wait for the installation process to finish:

    $ openshift-install wait-for install-complete --dir $ASSETS_DIR --log-level debug

    When the installation completes, the command line displays the URL of the OpenShift Container Platform web console and the administrator user name and password.

15.8.27. Telemetry access for OpenShift Container Platform

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.8, the Telemetry service, which runs by default to provide metrics about cluster health and the success of updates, requires internet access. If your cluster is connected to the internet, Telemetry runs automatically, and your cluster is registered to the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager (OCM).

After you confirm that your Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager inventory is correct, either maintained automatically by Telemetry or manually by using OCM, use subscription watch to track your OpenShift Container Platform subscriptions at the account or multi-cluster level.

Additional resources

15.8.28. Disabling the default OperatorHub sources

Operator catalogs that source content provided by Red Hat and community projects are configured for OperatorHub by default during an OpenShift Container Platform installation. In a restricted network environment, you must disable the default catalogs as a cluster administrator.

Procedure

  • Disable the sources for the default catalogs by adding disableAllDefaultSources: true to the OperatorHub object:

    $ oc patch OperatorHub cluster --type json \
        -p '[{"op": "add", "path": "/spec/disableAllDefaultSources", "value": true}]'
Tip

Alternatively, you can use the web console to manage catalog sources. From the AdministrationCluster SettingsGlobal ConfigurationOperatorHub page, click the Sources tab, where you can create, delete, disable, and enable individual sources.

15.9. Uninstalling a cluster on RHV

You can remove an OpenShift Container Platform cluster from Red Hat Virtualization (RHV).

15.9.1. Removing a cluster that uses installer-provisioned infrastructure

You can remove a cluster that uses installer-provisioned infrastructure from your cloud.

Note

After uninstallation, check your cloud provider for any resources not removed properly, especially with User Provisioned Infrastructure (UPI) clusters. There might be resources that the installer did not create or that the installer is unable to access. For example, some Google Cloud resources require IAM permissions in shared VPC host projects, or there might be unused health checks that must be deleted.

Prerequisites

  • Have a copy of the installation program that you used to deploy the cluster.
  • Have the files that the installation program generated when you created your cluster.

Procedure

  1. From the directory that contains the installation program on the computer that you used to install the cluster, run the following command:

    $ ./openshift-install destroy cluster \
    --dir=<installation_directory> --log-level=info 1 2
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the path to the directory that you stored the installation files in.
    2
    To view different details, specify warn, debug, or error instead of info.
    Note

    You must specify the directory that contains the cluster definition files for your cluster. The installation program requires the metadata.json file in this directory to delete the cluster.

  2. Optional: Delete the <installation_directory> directory and the OpenShift Container Platform installation program.

15.9.2. Removing a cluster that uses user-provisioned infrastructure

When you are finished using the cluster, you can remove a cluster that uses user-provisioned infrastructure from your cloud.

Prerequisites

  • Have the original playbook files, assets directory and files, and $ASSETS_DIR environment variable that you used to you install the cluster. Typically, you can achieve this by using the same computer you used when you installed the cluster.

Procedure

  1. To remove the cluster, enter:

    $ ansible-playbook -i inventory.yml \
        retire-bootstrap.yml \
        retire-masters.yml   \
        retire-workers.yml
  2. Remove any configurations you added to DNS, load balancers, and any other infrastructure for this cluster.