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Chapter 14. OVN-Kubernetes default CNI network provider

14.1. About the OVN-Kubernetes default Container Network Interface (CNI) network provider

The OpenShift Container Platform cluster uses a virtualized network for pod and service networks. The OVN-Kubernetes Container Network Interface (CNI) plug-in is a network provider for the default cluster network. OVN-Kubernetes is based on Open Virtual Network (OVN) and provides an overlay-based networking implementation. A cluster that uses the OVN-Kubernetes network provider also runs Open vSwitch (OVS) on each node. OVN configures OVS on each node to implement the declared network configuration.

14.1.1. OVN-Kubernetes features

The OVN-Kubernetes Container Network Interface (CNI) cluster network provider implements the following features:

  • Uses OVN (Open Virtual Network) to manage network traffic flows. OVN is a community developed, vendor-agnostic network virtualization solution.
  • Implements Kubernetes network policy support, including ingress and egress rules.
  • Uses the Geneve (Generic Network Virtualization Encapsulation) protocol rather than VXLAN to create an overlay network between nodes.

14.1.2. Supported default CNI network provider feature matrix

OpenShift Container Platform offers two supported choices, OpenShift SDN and OVN-Kubernetes, for the default Container Network Interface (CNI) network provider. The following table summarizes the current feature support for both network providers:

Table 14.1. Default CNI network provider feature comparison

FeatureOVN-KubernetesOpenShift SDN

Egress IPs

Supported

Supported

Egress firewall [1]

Supported

Supported

Egress router

Not supported

Supported

Kubernetes network policy

Supported

Partially supported [2]

Multicast

Supported

Supported

  1. Egress firewall is also known as egress network policy in OpenShift SDN. This is not the same as network policy egress.
  2. Does not support egress rules and some ipBlock rules.

14.1.3. OVN-Kubernetes limitations

The OVN-Kubernetes Container Network Interface (CNI) cluster network provider has a limitation that is related to traffic policies. The network provider does not support setting the external traffic policy or internal traffic policy for a Kubernetes service to local. The default value, cluster, is supported for both parameters. This limitation can affect you when you add a service of type LoadBalancer, NodePort, or add a service with an external IP.

14.2. Migrating from the OpenShift SDN cluster network provider

As a cluster administrator, you can migrate to the OVN-Kubernetes Container Network Interface (CNI) cluster network provider from the OpenShift SDN CNI cluster network provider.

To learn more about OVN-Kubernetes, read About the OVN-Kubernetes network provider.

14.2.1. Migration to the OVN-Kubernetes network provider

Migrating to the OVN-Kubernetes Container Network Interface (CNI) default network provider is a manual process that includes some downtime during which your cluster is unreachable. Although a rollback procedure is provided, the migration is intended to be a one-way process.

Note

A migration to the OVN-Kubernetes network provider is supported on installer-provisioned clusters on only bare metal hardware.

Performing a migration on a user-provisioned cluster on bare metal hardware is not supported.

14.2.1.1. Considerations for migrating to the OVN-Kubernetes network provider

The subnets assigned to nodes and the IP addresses assigned to individual pods are not preserved during the migration.

While the OVN-Kubernetes network provider implements many of the capabilities present in the OpenShift SDN network provider, the configuration is not the same.

  • If your cluster uses any of the following OpenShift SDN capabilities, you must manually configure the same capability in OVN-Kubernetes:

    • Namespace isolation
    • Egress IP addresses
    • Egress network policies
    • Egress router pods
    • Multicast
  • If your cluster uses any part of the 100.64.0.0/16 IP address range, you cannot migrate to OVN-Kubernetes because it uses this IP address range internally.

The following sections highlight the differences in configuration between the aforementioned capabilities in OVN-Kubernetes and OpenShift SDN.

Namespace isolation

OVN-Kubernetes supports only the network policy isolation mode.

Important

If your cluster uses OpenShift SDN configured in either the multitenant or subnet isolation modes, you cannot migrate to the OVN-Kubernetes network provider.

Egress IP addresses

The differences in configuring an egress IP address between OVN-Kubernetes and OpenShift SDN is described in the following table:

Table 14.2. Differences in egress IP address configuration

OVN-KubernetesOpenShift SDN
  • Create an EgressIPs object
  • Add an annotation on a Node object
  • Patch a NetNamespace object
  • Patch a HostSubnet object

For more information on using egress IP addresses in OVN-Kubernetes, see "Configuring an egress IP address".

Egress network policies

The difference in configuring an egress network policy, also known as an egress firewall, between OVN-Kubernetes and OpenShift SDN is described in the following table:

Table 14.3. Differences in egress network policy configuration

OVN-KubernetesOpenShift SDN
  • Create an EgressFirewall object in a namespace
  • Create an EgressNetworkPolicy object in a namespace

For more information on using an egress firewall in OVN-Kubernetes, see "Configuring an egress firewall for a project".

Egress router pods

OVN-Kubernetes does not support using egress router pods in OpenShift Container Platform 4.6.

Multicast

The difference between enabling multicast traffic on OVN-Kubernetes and OpenShift SDN is described in the following table:

Table 14.4. Differences in multicast configuration

OVN-KubernetesOpenShift SDN
  • Add an annotation on a Namespace object
  • Add an annotation on a NetNamespace object

For more information on using multicast in OVN-Kubernetes, see "Enabling multicast for a project".

Network policies

OVN-Kubernetes fully supports the Kubernetes NetworkPolicy API in the networking.k8s.io/v1 API group. No changes are necessary in your network policies when migrating from OpenShift SDN.

14.2.1.2. How the migration process works

The migration process works as follows:

  1. Set a temporary annotation set on the Cluster Network Operator (CNO) configuration object. This annotation triggers the CNO to watch for a change to the defaultNetwork field.
  2. Suspend the Machine Config Operator (MCO) to ensure that it does not interrupt the migration.
  3. Update the defaultNetwork field. The update causes the CNO to destroy the OpenShift SDN control plane pods and deploy the OVN-Kubernetes control plane pods. Additionally, it updates the Multus objects to reflect the new cluster network provider.
  4. Reboot each node in the cluster. Because the existing pods in the cluster are unaware of the change to the cluster network provider, rebooting each node ensures that each node is drained of pods. New pods are attached to the new cluster network provided by OVN-Kubernetes.
  5. Enable the MCO after all nodes in the cluster reboot. The MCO rolls out an update to the systemd configuration necessary to complete the migration. The MCO updates a single machine per pool at a time by default, so the total time the migration takes increases with the size of the cluster.

14.2.2. Migrating to the OVN-Kubernetes default CNI network provider

As a cluster administrator, you can change the default Container Network Interface (CNI) network provider for your cluster to OVN-Kubernetes. During the migration, you must reboot every node in your cluster.

Important

While performing the migration, your cluster is unavailable and workloads might be interrupted. Perform the migration only when an interruption in service is acceptable.

Prerequisites

  • A cluster installed on bare metal installer-provisioned infrastructure and configured with the OpenShift SDN default CNI network provider in the network policy isolation mode.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.
  • A recent backup of the etcd database is available.
  • The cluster is in a known good state, without any errors.

Procedure

  1. To backup the configuration for the cluster network, enter the following command:

    $ oc get Network.config.openshift.io cluster -o yaml > cluster-openshift-sdn.yaml
  2. To enable the migration, set an annotation on the Cluster Network Operator configuration object by entering the following command:

    $ oc annotate Network.operator.openshift.io cluster \
      'networkoperator.openshift.io/network-migration'=""
  3. Stop all of the machine configuration pools managed by the Machine Config Operator (MCO):

    • Stop the master configuration pool:

      $ oc patch MachineConfigPool master --type='merge' --patch \
        '{ "spec": { "paused": true } }'
    • Stop the worker configuration pool:

      $ oc patch MachineConfigPool worker --type='merge' --patch \
        '{ "spec":{ "paused" :true } }'
  4. To configure the OVN-Kubernetes cluster network provider, enter the following command:

    $ oc patch Network.config.openshift.io cluster \
      --type='merge' --patch '{ "spec": { "networkType": "OVNKubernetes" } }'
  5. Optional: You can customize the following settings for OVN-Kubernetes to meet your network infrastructure requirements:

    • Maximum transmission unit (MTU)
    • Geneve (Generic Network Virtualization Encapsulation) overlay network port

    To customize either of the previously noted settings, enter and customize the following command. If you do not need to change the default value, omit the key from the patch.

    $ oc patch Network.operator.openshift.io cluster --type=merge \
      --patch '{
        "spec":{
          "defaultNetwork":{
            "ovnKubernetesConfig":{
              "mtu":<mtu>,
              "genevePort":<port>
        }}}}'
    mtu
    The MTU for the Geneve overlay network. This value is normally configured automatically, but if the nodes in your cluster do not all use the same MTU, then you must set this explicitly to 100 less than the smallest node MTU value.
    port
    The UDP port for the Geneve overlay network.

    Example patch command to update mtu field

    $ oc patch Network.operator.openshift.io cluster --type=merge \
      --patch '{
        "spec":{
          "defaultNetwork":{
            "ovnKubernetesConfig":{
              "mtu":1200
        }}}}'

  6. Wait until the Multus daemon set rollout completes.

    $ oc -n openshift-multus rollout status daemonset/multus

    The name of the Multus pods is in form of multus-<xxxxx> where <xxxxx> is a random sequence of letters. It might take several moments for the pods to restart.

    Example output

    Waiting for daemon set "multus" rollout to finish: 1 out of 6 new pods have been updated...
    ...
    Waiting for daemon set "multus" rollout to finish: 5 of 6 updated pods are available...
    daemon set "multus" successfully rolled out

  7. To complete the migration, reboot each node in your cluster. For example, you can use a bash script similar to the following example. The script assumes that you can connect to each host by using ssh and that you have configured sudo to not prompt for a password.

    #!/bin/bash
    
    for ip in $(oc get nodes  -o jsonpath='{.items[*].status.addresses[?(@.type=="InternalIP")].address}')
    do
       echo "reboot node $ip"
       ssh -o StrictHostKeyChecking=no core@$ip sudo shutdown -r -t 3
    done

    If ssh access is not available, you might be able to reboot each node through the management portal for your infrastructure provider.

  8. After the nodes in your cluster have rebooted, start all of the machine configuration pools:

    • Start the master configuration pool:

      $ oc patch MachineConfigPool master --type='merge' --patch \
        '{ "spec": { "paused": false } }'
    • Start the worker configuration pool:

      $ oc patch MachineConfigPool worker --type='merge' --patch \
        '{ "spec": { "paused": false } }'

    As the MCO updates machines in each config pool, it reboots each node.

    By default the MCO updates a single machine per pool at a time, so the time that the migration requires to complete grows with the size of the cluster.

  9. Confirm the status of the new machine configuration on the hosts:

    1. To list the machine configuration state and the name of the applied machine configuration, enter the following command:

      $ oc describe node | egrep "hostname|machineconfig"

      Example output

      kubernetes.io/hostname=master-0
      machineconfiguration.openshift.io/currentConfig: rendered-master-c53e221d9d24e1c8bb6ee89dd3d8ad7b
      machineconfiguration.openshift.io/desiredConfig: rendered-master-c53e221d9d24e1c8bb6ee89dd3d8ad7b
      machineconfiguration.openshift.io/reason:
      machineconfiguration.openshift.io/state: Done

      Verify that the following statements are true:

      • The value of machineconfiguration.openshift.io/state field is Done.
      • The value of the machineconfiguration.openshift.io/currentConfig field is equal to the value of the machineconfiguration.openshift.io/desiredConfig field.
    2. To confirm that the machine config is correct, enter the following command:

      $ oc get machineconfig <config_name> -o yaml | grep ExecStart

      where <config_name> is the name of the machine config from the machineconfiguration.openshift.io/currentConfig field.

      The machine config must include the following update to the systemd configuration:

      ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/configure-ovs.sh OVNKubernetes
  10. Confirm that the migration succeeded:

    1. To confirm that the default CNI network provider is OVN-Kubernetes, enter the following command. The value of status.networkType must be OVNKubernetes.

      $ oc get network.config/cluster -o jsonpath='{.status.networkType}{"\n"}'
    2. To confirm that the cluster nodes are in the Ready state, enter the following command:

      $ oc get nodes
    3. If a node is stuck in the NotReady state, investigate the machine config daemon pod logs and resolve any errors.

      1. To list the pods, enter the following command:

        $ oc get pod -n openshift-machine-config-operator

        Example output

        NAME                                         READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
        machine-config-controller-75f756f89d-sjp8b   1/1     Running   0          37m
        machine-config-daemon-5cf4b                  2/2     Running   0          43h
        machine-config-daemon-7wzcd                  2/2     Running   0          43h
        machine-config-daemon-fc946                  2/2     Running   0          43h
        machine-config-daemon-g2v28                  2/2     Running   0          43h
        machine-config-daemon-gcl4f                  2/2     Running   0          43h
        machine-config-daemon-l5tnv                  2/2     Running   0          43h
        machine-config-operator-79d9c55d5-hth92      1/1     Running   0          37m
        machine-config-server-bsc8h                  1/1     Running   0          43h
        machine-config-server-hklrm                  1/1     Running   0          43h
        machine-config-server-k9rtx                  1/1     Running   0          43h

        The names for the config daemon pods are in the following format: machine-config-daemon-<seq>. The <seq> value is a random five character alphanumeric sequence.

      2. Display the pod log for the first machine config daemon pod shown in the previous output by enter the following command:

        $ oc logs <pod> -n openshift-machine-config-operator

        where pod is the name of a machine config daemon pod.

      3. Resolve any errors in the logs shown by the output from the previous command.
    4. To confirm that your pods are not in an error state, enter the following command:

      $ oc get pods --all-namespaces -o wide --sort-by='{.spec.nodeName}'

      If pods on a node are in an error state, reboot that node.

  11. Complete the following steps only if the migration succeeds and your cluster is in a good state:

    1. To remove the migration annotation from the Cluster Network Operator configuration object, enter the following command:

      $ oc annotate Network.operator.openshift.io cluster \
        networkoperator.openshift.io/network-migration-
    2. To remove the OpenShift SDN network provider namespace, enter the following command:

      $ oc delete namespace openshift-sdn

14.2.3. Additional resources

14.3. Rolling back to the OpenShift SDN network provider

As a cluster administrator, you can rollback to the OpenShift SDN Container Network Interface (CNI) cluster network provider from the OVN-Kubernetes CNI cluster network provider if the migration to OVN-Kubernetes is unsuccessful.

14.3.1. Rolling back the default CNI network provider to OpenShift SDN

As a cluster administrator, you can rollback your cluster to the OpenShift SDN default Container Network Interface (CNI) network provider. During the rollback, you must reboot every node in your cluster.

Important

Only rollback to OpenShift SDN if the migration to OVN-Kubernetes fails.

Prerequisites

  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.
  • A cluster installed on bare metal infrastructure configured with the OVN-Kubernetes default CNI network provider.

Procedure

  1. To enable the migration, set an annotation on the Cluster Network Operator configuration object by entering the following command:

    $ oc annotate Network.operator.openshift.io cluster \
      'networkoperator.openshift.io/network-migration'=""
  2. Stop all of the machine configuration pools managed by the Machine Config Operator (MCO):

    • Stop the master configuration pool:

      $ oc patch MachineConfigPool master --type='merge' --patch \
        '{ "spec": { "paused": true } }'
    • Stop the worker configuration pool:

      $ oc patch MachineConfigPool worker --type='merge' --patch \
        '{ "spec":{ "paused" :true } }'
  3. To configure the OpenShift SDN cluster network provider, enter the following command:

    $ oc patch Network.config.openshift.io cluster \
      --type='merge' --patch '{ "spec": { "networkType": "OpenShiftSDN" } }'
  4. Optional: You can customize the following settings for OpenShift SDN to meet your network infrastructure requirements:

    • Maximum transmission unit (MTU)
    • VXLAN port

    To customize either or both of the previously noted settings, customize and enter the following command. If you do not need to change the default value, omit the key from the patch.

    $ oc patch Network.operator.openshift.io cluster --type=merge \
      --patch '{
        "spec":{
          "defaultNetwork":{
            "openshiftSDNConfig":{
              "mtu":<mtu>,
              "vxlanPort":<port>
        }}}}'
    mtu
    The MTU for the Geneve overlay network. This value is normally configured automatically, but if the nodes in your cluster do not all use the same MTU, then you must set this explicitly to 100 less than the smallest node MTU value.
    port
    The UDP port for the Geneve overlay network.

    Example patch command

    $ oc patch Network.operator.openshift.io cluster --type=merge \
      --patch '{
        "spec":{
          "defaultNetwork":{
            "openshiftSDNConfig":{
              "mtu":1200
        }}}}'

  5. Wait until the Multus daemon set rollout completes.

    $ oc -n openshift-multus rollout status daemonset/multus

    The name of the Multus pods is in form of multus-<xxxxx> where <xxxxx> is a random sequence of letters. It might take several moments for the pods to restart.

    Example output

    Waiting for daemon set "multus" rollout to finish: 1 out of 6 new pods have been updated...
    ...
    Waiting for daemon set "multus" rollout to finish: 5 of 6 updated pods are available...
    daemon set "multus" successfully rolled out

  6. To complete the rollback, reboot each node in your cluster. For example, you could use a bash script similar to the following. The script assumes that you can connect to each host by using ssh and that you have configured sudo to not prompt for a password.

    #!/bin/bash
    
    for ip in $(oc get nodes  -o jsonpath='{.items[*].status.addresses[?(@.type=="InternalIP")].address}')
    do
       echo "reboot node $ip"
       ssh -o StrictHostKeyChecking=no core@$ip sudo shutdown -r -t 3
    done
  7. After the nodes in your cluster have rebooted, start all of the machine configuration pools:

    • Start the master configuration pool:

      $ oc patch MachineConfigPool master --type='merge' --patch \
        '{ "spec": { "paused": false } }'
    • Start the worker configuration pool:

      $ oc patch MachineConfigPool worker --type='merge' --patch \
        '{ "spec": { "paused": false } }'

    As the MCO updates machines in each config pool, it reboots each node.

    By default the MCO updates a single machine per pool at a time, so the time that the migration requires to complete grows with the size of the cluster.

  8. Confirm the status of the new machine configuration on the hosts:

    1. To list the machine configuration state and the name of the applied machine configuration, enter the following command:

      $ oc describe node | egrep "hostname|machineconfig"

      Example output

      kubernetes.io/hostname=master-0
      machineconfiguration.openshift.io/currentConfig: rendered-master-c53e221d9d24e1c8bb6ee89dd3d8ad7b
      machineconfiguration.openshift.io/desiredConfig: rendered-master-c53e221d9d24e1c8bb6ee89dd3d8ad7b
      machineconfiguration.openshift.io/reason:
      machineconfiguration.openshift.io/state: Done

      Verify that the following statements are true:

      • The value of machineconfiguration.openshift.io/state field is Done.
      • The value of the machineconfiguration.openshift.io/currentConfig field is equal to the value of the machineconfiguration.openshift.io/desiredConfig field.
    2. To confirm that the machine config is correct, enter the following command:

      $ oc get machineconfig <config_name> -o yaml

      where <config_name> is the name of the machine config from the machineconfiguration.openshift.io/currentConfig field.

  9. Confirm that the migration succeeded:

    1. To confirm that the default CNI network provider is OVN-Kubernetes, enter the following command. The value of status.networkType must be OpenShiftSDN.

      $ oc get network.config/cluster -o jsonpath='{.status.networkType}{"\n"}'
    2. To confirm that the cluster nodes are in the Ready state, enter the following command:

      $ oc get nodes
    3. If a node is stuck in the NotReady state, investigate the machine config daemon pod logs and resolve any errors.

      1. To list the pods, enter the following command:

        $ oc get pod -n openshift-machine-config-operator

        Example output

        NAME                                         READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
        machine-config-controller-75f756f89d-sjp8b   1/1     Running   0          37m
        machine-config-daemon-5cf4b                  2/2     Running   0          43h
        machine-config-daemon-7wzcd                  2/2     Running   0          43h
        machine-config-daemon-fc946                  2/2     Running   0          43h
        machine-config-daemon-g2v28                  2/2     Running   0          43h
        machine-config-daemon-gcl4f                  2/2     Running   0          43h
        machine-config-daemon-l5tnv                  2/2     Running   0          43h
        machine-config-operator-79d9c55d5-hth92      1/1     Running   0          37m
        machine-config-server-bsc8h                  1/1     Running   0          43h
        machine-config-server-hklrm                  1/1     Running   0          43h
        machine-config-server-k9rtx                  1/1     Running   0          43h

        The names for the config daemon pods are in the following format: machine-config-daemon-<seq>. The <seq> value is a random five character alphanumeric sequence.

      2. To display the pod log for each machine config daemon pod shown in the previous output, enter the following command:

        $ oc logs <pod> -n openshift-machine-config-operator

        where pod is the name of a machine config daemon pod.

      3. Resolve any errors in the logs shown by the output from the previous command.
    4. To confirm that your pods are not in an error state, enter the following command:

      $ oc get pods --all-namespaces -o wide --sort-by='{.spec.nodeName}'

      If pods on a node are in an error state, reboot that node.

  10. Complete the following steps only if the migration succeeds and your cluster is in a good state:

    1. To remove the migration annotation from the Cluster Network Operator configuration object, enter the following command:

      $ oc annotate Network.operator.openshift.io cluster \
        networkoperator.openshift.io/network-migration-
    2. To remove the OVN-Kubernetes network provider namespace, enter the following command:

      $ oc delete namespace openshift-ovn-kubernetes

14.4. Configuring an egress firewall for a project

As a cluster administrator, you can create an egress firewall for a project that restricts egress traffic leaving your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

14.4.1. How an egress firewall works in a project

As a cluster administrator, you can use an egress firewall to limit the external hosts that some or all pods can access from within the cluster. An egress firewall supports the following scenarios:

  • A pod can only connect to internal hosts and cannot initiate connections to the public Internet.
  • A pod can only connect to the public Internet and cannot initiate connections to internal hosts that are outside the OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • A pod cannot reach specified internal subnets or hosts outside the OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • A pod can connect to only specific external hosts.

For example, you can allow one project access to a specified IP range but deny the same access to a different project. Or you can restrict application developers from updating from Python pip mirrors, and force updates to come only from approved sources.

You configure an egress firewall policy by creating an EgressFirewall custom resource (CR) object. The egress firewall matches network traffic that meets any of the following criteria:

  • An IP address range in CIDR format
  • A port number
  • A protocol that is one of the following protocols: TCP, UDP, and SCTP
Important

If your egress firewall includes a deny rule for 0.0.0.0/0, access to your OpenShift Container Platform API servers is blocked. To ensure that pods can continue to access the OpenShift Container Platform API servers, you must include the IP address range that the API servers listen on in your egress firewall rules, as in the following example:

apiVersion: k8s.ovn.org/v1
kind: EgressFirewall
metadata:
  name: default
  namespace: <namespace> 1
spec:
  egress:
  - to:
      cidrSelector: <api_server_address_range> 2
    type: Allow
# ...
  - to:
      cidrSelector: 0.0.0.0/0 3
    type: Deny
1
The namespace for the egress firewall.
2
The IP address range that includes your OpenShift Container Platform API servers.
3
A global deny rule prevents access to the OpenShift Container Platform API servers.

To find the IP address for your API servers, run oc get ep kubernetes -n default.

For more information, see BZ#1988324.

Warning

Egress firewall rules do not apply to traffic that goes through routers. Any user with permission to create a Route CR object can bypass egress firewall policy rules by creating a route that points to a forbidden destination.

14.4.1.1. Limitations of an egress firewall

An egress firewall has the following limitations:

  • No project can have more than one EgressFirewall object.
  • A maximum of one EgressFirewall object with a maximum of 8,000 rules can be defined per project.

Violating any of these restrictions results in a broken egress firewall for the project, and may cause all external network traffic to be dropped.

14.4.1.2. Matching order for egress firewall policy rules

The egress firewall policy rules are evaluated in the order that they are defined, from first to last. The first rule that matches an egress connection from a pod applies. Any subsequent rules are ignored for that connection.

14.4.2. EgressFirewall custom resource (CR) object

You can define one or more rules for an egress firewall. A rule is either an Allow rule or a Deny rule, with a specification for the traffic that the rule applies to.

The following YAML describes an EgressFirewall CR object:

EgressFirewall object

apiVersion: k8s.ovn.org/v1
kind: EgressFirewall
metadata:
  name: <name> 1
spec:
  egress: 2
    ...

1
The name for the object must be default.
2
A collection of one or more egress network policy rules as described in the following section.

14.4.2.1. EgressFirewall rules

The following YAML describes an egress firewall rule object. The egress stanza expects an array of one or more objects.

Egress policy rule stanza

egress:
- type: <type> 1
  to: 2
    cidrSelector: <cidr> 3
  ports: 4
      ...

1
The type of rule. The value must be either Allow or Deny.
2
A stanza describing an egress traffic match rule.
3
An IP address range in CIDR format.
4
Optional: A stanza describing a collection of network ports and protocols for the rule.

Ports stanza

ports:
- port: <port> 1
  protocol: <protocol> 2

1
A network port, such as 80 or 443. If you specify a value for this field, you must also specify a value for protocol.
2
A network protocol. The value must be either TCP, UDP, or SCTP.

14.4.2.2. Example EgressFirewall CR objects

The following example defines several egress firewall policy rules:

apiVersion: k8s.ovn.org/v1
kind: EgressFirewall
metadata:
  name: default
spec:
  egress: 1
  - type: Allow
    to:
      cidrSelector: 1.2.3.0/24
  - type: Deny
    to:
      cidrSelector: 0.0.0.0/0
1
A collection of egress firewall policy rule objects.

The following example defines a policy rule that denies traffic to the host at the 172.16.1.1 IP address, if the traffic is using either the TCP protocol and destination port 80 or any protocol and destination port 443.

apiVersion: k8s.ovn.org/v1
kind: EgressFirewall
metadata:
  name: default
spec:
  egress:
  - type: Deny
    to:
      cidrSelector: 172.16.1.1
    ports:
    - port: 80
      protocol: TCP
    - port: 443

14.4.3. Creating an egress firewall policy object

As a cluster administrator, you can create an egress firewall policy object for a project.

Important

If the project already has an EgressFirewall object defined, you must edit the existing policy to make changes to the egress firewall rules.

Prerequisites

  • A cluster that uses the OVN-Kubernetes default Container Network Interface (CNI) network provider plug-in.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • You must log in to the cluster as a cluster administrator.

Procedure

  1. Create a policy rule:

    1. Create a <policy_name>.yaml file where <policy_name> describes the egress policy rules.
    2. In the file you created, define an egress policy object.
  2. Enter the following command to create the policy object. Replace <policy_name> with the name of the policy and <project> with the project that the rule applies to.

    $ oc create -f <policy_name>.yaml -n <project>

    In the following example, a new EgressFirewall object is created in a project named project1:

    $ oc create -f default.yaml -n project1

    Example output

    egressfirewall.k8s.ovn.org/v1 created

  3. Optional: Save the <policy_name>.yaml file so that you can make changes later.

14.5. Viewing an egress firewall for a project

As a cluster administrator, you can list the names of any existing egress firewalls and view the traffic rules for a specific egress firewall.

14.5.1. Viewing an EgressFirewall object

You can view an EgressFirewall object in your cluster.

Prerequisites

  • A cluster using the OVN-Kubernetes default Container Network Interface (CNI) network provider plug-in.
  • Install the OpenShift Command-line Interface (CLI), commonly known as oc.
  • You must log in to the cluster.

Procedure

  1. Optional: To view the names of the EgressFirewall objects defined in your cluster, enter the following command:

    $ oc get egressfirewall --all-namespaces
  2. To inspect a policy, enter the following command. Replace <policy_name> with the name of the policy to inspect.

    $ oc describe egressfirewall <policy_name>

    Example output

    Name:		default
    Namespace:	project1
    Created:	20 minutes ago
    Labels:		<none>
    Annotations:	<none>
    Rule:		Allow to 1.2.3.0/24
    Rule:		Allow to www.example.com
    Rule:		Deny to 0.0.0.0/0

14.6. Editing an egress firewall for a project

As a cluster administrator, you can modify network traffic rules for an existing egress firewall.

14.6.1. Editing an EgressFirewall object

As a cluster administrator, you can update the egress firewall for a project.

Prerequisites

  • A cluster using the OVN-Kubernetes default Container Network Interface (CNI) network provider plug-in.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • You must log in to the cluster as a cluster administrator.

Procedure

  1. Find the name of the EgressFirewall object for the project. Replace <project> with the name of the project.

    $ oc get -n <project> egressfirewall
  2. Optional: If you did not save a copy of the EgressFirewall object when you created the egress network firewall, enter the following command to create a copy.

    $ oc get -n <project> egressfirewall <name> -o yaml > <filename>.yaml

    Replace <project> with the name of the project. Replace <name> with the name of the object. Replace <filename> with the name of the file to save the YAML to.

  3. After making changes to the policy rules, enter the following command to replace the EgressFirewall object. Replace <filename> with the name of the file containing the updated EgressFirewall object.

    $ oc replace -f <filename>.yaml

14.7. Removing an egress firewall from a project

As a cluster administrator, you can remove an egress firewall from a project to remove all restrictions on network traffic from the project that leaves the OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

14.7.1. Removing an EgressFirewall object

As a cluster administrator, you can remove an egress firewall from a project.

Prerequisites

  • A cluster using the OVN-Kubernetes default Container Network Interface (CNI) network provider plug-in.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • You must log in to the cluster as a cluster administrator.

Procedure

  1. Find the name of the EgressFirewall object for the project. Replace <project> with the name of the project.

    $ oc get -n <project> egressfirewall
  2. Enter the following command to delete the EgressFirewall object. Replace <project> with the name of the project and <name> with the name of the object.

    $ oc delete -n <project> egressfirewall <name>

14.8. Configuring an egress IP address

As a cluster administrator, you can configure the OVN-Kubernetes default Container Network Interface (CNI) network provider to assign one or more egress IP addresses to a namespace, or to specific pods in a namespace.

14.8.1. Egress IP address architectural design and implementation

The OpenShift Container Platform egress IP address functionality allows you to ensure that the traffic from one or more pods in one or more namespaces has a consistent source IP address for services outside the cluster network.

For example, you might have a pod that periodically queries a database that is hosted on a server outside of your cluster. To enforce access requirements for the server, a packet filtering device is configured to allow traffic only from specific IP addresses. To ensure that you can reliably allow access to the server from only that specific pod, you can configure a specific egress IP address for the pod that makes the requests to the server.

An egress IP address is implemented as an additional IP address on the primary network interface of a node and must be in the same subnet as the primary IP address of the node. The additional IP address must not be assigned to any other node in the cluster.

In some cluster configurations, application pods and ingress router pods run on the same node. If you configure an egress IP for an application project in this scenario, the IP is not used when you send a request to a route from the application project.

14.8.1.1. Platform support

Support for the egress IP address functionality on various platforms is summarized in the following table:

Important

The egress IP address implementation is not compatible with Amazon Web Services (AWS), Azure Cloud, or any other public cloud platform incompatible with the automatic layer 2 network manipulation required by the egress IP feature.

PlatformSupported

Bare metal

Yes

vSphere

Yes

Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP)

No

Public cloud

No

14.8.1.2. Assignment of egress IPs to pods

To assign one or more egress IPs to a namespace or specific pods in a namespace, the following conditions must be satisfied:

  • At least one node in your cluster must have the k8s.ovn.org/egress-assignable: "" label.
  • An EgressIP object exists that defines one or more egress IP addresses to use as the source IP address for traffic leaving the cluster from pods in a namespace.
Important

If you create EgressIP objects prior to labeling any nodes in your cluster for egress IP assignment, OpenShift Container Platform might assign every egress IP address to the first node with the k8s.ovn.org/egress-assignable: "" label.

To ensure that egress IP addresses are widely distributed across nodes in the cluster, always apply the label to the nodes you intent to host the egress IP addresses before creating any EgressIP objects.

14.8.1.3. Assignment of egress IPs to nodes

When creating an EgressIP object, the following conditions apply to nodes that are labeled with the k8s.ovn.org/egress-assignable: "" label:

  • An egress IP address is never assigned to more than one node at a time.
  • An egress IP address is equally balanced between available nodes that can host the egress IP address.
  • If the spec.EgressIPs array in an EgressIP object specifies more than one IP address, no node will ever host more than one of the specified addresses.
  • If a node becomes unavailable, any egress IP addresses assigned to it are automatically reassigned, subject to the previously described conditions.

When a pod matches the selector for multiple EgressIP objects, there is no guarantee which of the egress IP addresses that are specified in the EgressIP objects is assigned as the egress IP address for the pod.

Additionally, if an EgressIP object specifies multiple egress IP addresses, there is no guarantee which of the egress IP addresses might be used. For example, if a pod matches a selector for an EgressIP object with two egress IP addresses, 10.10.20.1 and 10.10.20.2, either might be used for each TCP connection or UDP conversation.

14.8.1.4. Architectural diagram of an egress IP address configuration

The following diagram depicts an egress IP address configuration. The diagram describes four pods in two different namespaces running on three nodes in a cluster. The nodes are assigned IP addresses from the 192.168.126.0/18 CIDR block on the host network.

Both Node 1 and Node 3 are labeled with k8s.ovn.org/egress-assignable: "" and thus available for the assignment of egress IP addresses.

The dashed lines in the diagram depict the traffic flow from pod1, pod2, and pod3 traveling through the pod network to egress the cluster from Node 1 and Node 3. When an external service receives traffic from any of the pods selected by the example EgressIP object, the source IP address is either 192.168.126.10 or 192.168.126.102.

The following resources from the diagram are illustrated in detail:

Namespace objects

The namespaces are defined in the following manifest:

Namespace objects

apiVersion: v1
kind: Namespace
metadata:
  name: namespace1
  labels:
    env: prod
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Namespace
metadata:
  name: namespace2
  labels:
    env: prod

EgressIP object

The following EgressIP object describes a configuration that selects all pods in any namespace with the env label set to prod. The egress IP addresses for the selected pods are 192.168.126.10 and 192.168.126.102.

EgressIP object

apiVersion: k8s.ovn.org/v1
kind: EgressIP
metadata:
  name: egressips-prod
spec:
  egressIPs:
  - 192.168.126.10
  - 192.168.126.102
  namespaceSelector:
    matchLabels:
      env: prod
status:
  assignments:
  - node: node1
    egressIP: 192.168.126.10
  - node: node3
    egressIP: 192.168.126.102

For the configuration in the previous example, OpenShift Container Platform assigns both egress IP addresses to the available nodes. The status field reflects whether and where the egress IP addresses are assigned.

14.8.2. EgressIP object

The following YAML describes the API for the EgressIP object. The scope of the object is cluster-wide; it is not created in a namespace.

apiVersion: k8s.ovn.org/v1
kind: EgressIP
metadata:
  name: <name> 1
spec:
  egressIPs: 2
  - <ip_address>
  namespaceSelector: 3
    ...
  podSelector: 4
    ...
1
The name for the EgressIPs object.
2
An array of one or more IP addresses.
3
One or more selectors for the namespaces to associate the egress IP addresses with.
4
Optional: One or more selectors for pods in the specified namespaces to associate egress IP addresses with. Applying these selectors allows for the selection of a subset of pods within a namespace.

The following YAML describes the stanza for the namespace selector:

Namespace selector stanza

namespaceSelector: 1
  matchLabels:
    <label_name>: <label_value>

1
One or more matching rules for namespaces. If more than one match rule is provided, all matching namespaces are selected.

The following YAML describes the optional stanza for the pod selector:

Pod selector stanza

podSelector: 1
  matchLabels:
    <label_name>: <label_value>

1
Optional: One or more matching rules for pods in the namespaces that match the specified namespaceSelector rules. If specified, only pods that match are selected. Others pods in the namespace are not selected.

In the following example, the EgressIP object associates the 192.168.126.11 and 192.168.126.102 egress IP addresses with pods that have the app label set to web and are in the namespaces that have the env label set to prod:

Example EgressIP object

apiVersion: k8s.ovn.org/v1
kind: EgressIP
metadata:
  name: egress-group1
spec:
  egressIPs:
  - 192.168.126.11
  - 192.168.126.102
  podSelector:
    matchLabels:
      app: web
  namespaceSelector:
    matchLabels:
      env: prod

In the following example, the EgressIP object associates the 192.168.127.30 and 192.168.127.40 egress IP addresses with any pods that do not have the environment label set to development:

Example EgressIP object

apiVersion: k8s.ovn.org/v1
kind: EgressIP
metadata:
  name: egress-group2
spec:
  egressIPs:
  - 192.168.127.30
  - 192.168.127.40
  namespaceSelector:
    matchExpressions:
    - key: environment
      operator: NotIn
      values:
      - development

14.8.3. Labeling a node to host egress IP addresses

You can apply the k8s.ovn.org/egress-assignable="" label to a node in your cluster so that OpenShift Container Platform can assign one or more egress IP addresses to the node.

Prerequisites

  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Log in to the cluster as a cluster administrator.

Procedure

  • To label a node so that it can host one or more egress IP addresses, enter the following command:

    $ oc label nodes <node_name> k8s.ovn.org/egress-assignable="" 1
    1
    The name of the node to label.

14.8.4. Next steps

14.8.5. Additional resources

14.9. Assigning an egress IP address

As a cluster administrator, you can assign an egress IP address for traffic leaving the cluster from a namespace or from specific pods in a namespace.

14.9.1. Assigning an egress IP address to a namespace

You can assign one or more egress IP addresses to a namespace or to specific pods in a namespace.

Prerequisites

  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Log in to the cluster as a cluster administrator.
  • Configure at least one node to host an egress IP address.

Procedure

  1. Create an EgressIP object:

    1. Create a <egressips_name>.yaml file where <egressips_name> is the name of the object.
    2. In the file that you created, define an EgressIP object, as in the following example:

      apiVersion: k8s.ovn.org/v1
      kind: EgressIP
      metadata:
        name: egress-project1
      spec:
        egressIPs:
        - 192.168.127.10
        - 192.168.127.11
        namespaceSelector:
          matchLabels:
            env: qa
  2. To create the object, enter the following command.

    $ oc apply -f <egressips_name>.yaml 1
    1
    Replace <egressips_name> with the name of the object.

    Example output

    egressips.k8s.ovn.org/<egressips_name> created

  3. Optional: Save the <egressips_name>.yaml file so that you can make changes later.
  4. Add labels to the namespace that requires egress IP addresses. To add a label to the namespace of an EgressIP object defined in step 1, run the following command:

    $ oc label ns <namespace> env=qa 1
    1
    Replace <namespace> with the namespace that requires egress IP addresses.

14.9.2. Additional resources

14.10. Enabling multicast for a project

14.10.1. About multicast

With IP multicast, data is broadcast to many IP addresses simultaneously.

Important

At this time, multicast is best used for low-bandwidth coordination or service discovery and not a high-bandwidth solution.

Multicast traffic between OpenShift Container Platform pods is disabled by default. If you are using the OVN-Kubernetes default Container Network Interface (CNI) network provider, you can enable multicast on a per-project basis.

14.10.2. Enabling multicast between pods

You can enable multicast between pods for your project.

Prerequisites

  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • You must log in to the cluster with a user that has the cluster-admin role.

Procedure

  • Run the following command to enable multicast for a project. Replace <namespace> with the namespace for the project you want to enable multicast for.

    $ oc annotate namespace <namespace> \
        k8s.ovn.org/multicast-enabled=true

Verification

To verify that multicast is enabled for a project, complete the following procedure:

  1. Change your current project to the project that you enabled multicast for. Replace <project> with the project name.

    $ oc project <project>
  2. Create a pod to act as a multicast receiver:

    $ cat <<EOF| oc create -f -
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      name: mlistener
      labels:
        app: multicast-verify
    spec:
      containers:
        - name: mlistener
          image: registry.access.redhat.com/ubi8
          command: ["/bin/sh", "-c"]
          args:
            ["dnf -y install socat hostname && sleep inf"]
          ports:
            - containerPort: 30102
              name: mlistener
              protocol: UDP
    EOF
  3. Create a pod to act as a multicast sender:

    $ cat <<EOF| oc create -f -
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      name: msender
      labels:
        app: multicast-verify
    spec:
      containers:
        - name: msender
          image: registry.access.redhat.com/ubi8
          command: ["/bin/sh", "-c"]
          args:
            ["dnf -y install socat && sleep inf"]
    EOF
  4. In a new terminal window or tab, start the multicast listener.

    1. Get the IP address for the Pod:

      $ POD_IP=$(oc get pods mlistener -o jsonpath='{.status.podIP}')
    2. Start the multicast listener by entering the following command:

      $ oc exec mlistener -i -t -- \
          socat UDP4-RECVFROM:30102,ip-add-membership=224.1.0.1:$POD_IP,fork EXEC:hostname
  5. Start the multicast transmitter.

    1. Get the pod network IP address range:

      $ CIDR=$(oc get Network.config.openshift.io cluster \
          -o jsonpath='{.status.clusterNetwork[0].cidr}')
    2. To send a multicast message, enter the following command:

      $ oc exec msender -i -t -- \
          /bin/bash -c "echo | socat STDIO UDP4-DATAGRAM:224.1.0.1:30102,range=$CIDR,ip-multicast-ttl=64"

      If multicast is working, the previous command returns the following output:

      mlistener

14.11. Disabling multicast for a project

14.11.1. Disabling multicast between pods

You can disable multicast between pods for your project.

Prerequisites

  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • You must log in to the cluster with a user that has the cluster-admin role.

Procedure

  • Disable multicast by running the following command:

    $ oc annotate namespace <namespace> \ 1
        k8s.ovn.org/multicast-enabled-
    1
    The namespace for the project you want to disable multicast for.

14.12. Configuring hybrid networking

As a cluster administrator, you can configure the OVN-Kubernetes Container Network Interface (CNI) cluster network provider to allow Linux and Windows nodes to host Linux and Windows workloads, respectively.

14.12.1. Configuring hybrid networking with OVN-Kubernetes

You can configure your cluster to use hybrid networking with OVN-Kubernetes. This allows a hybrid cluster that supports different node networking configurations. For example, this is necessary to run both Linux and Windows nodes in a cluster.

Important

You must configure hybrid networking with OVN-Kubernetes during the installation of your cluster. You cannot switch to hybrid networking after the installation process.

Prerequisites

  • You defined OVNKubernetes for the networking.networkType parameter in the install-config.yaml file. See the installation documentation for configuring OpenShift Container Platform network customizations on your chosen cloud provider for more information.

Procedure

  1. Change to the directory that contains the installation program and create the manifests:

    $ ./openshift-install create manifests --dir <installation_directory>

    where:

    <installation_directory>
    Specifies the name of the directory that contains the install-config.yaml file for your cluster.
  2. Create a stub manifest file for the advanced network configuration that is named cluster-network-03-config.yml in the <installation_directory>/manifests/ directory:

    $ cat <<EOF > <installation_directory>/manifests/cluster-network-03-config.yml
    apiVersion: operator.openshift.io/v1
    kind: Network
    metadata:
      name: cluster
    spec:
    EOF

    where:

    <installation_directory>
    Specifies the directory name that contains the manifests/ directory for your cluster.
  3. Open the cluster-network-03-config.yml file in an editor and configure OVN-Kubernetes with hybrid networking, such as in the following example:

    Specify a hybrid networking configuration

    apiVersion: operator.openshift.io/v1
    kind: Network
    metadata:
      name: cluster
    spec:
      defaultNetwork:
        ovnKubernetesConfig:
          hybridOverlayConfig:
            hybridClusterNetwork: 1
            - cidr: 10.132.0.0/14
              hostPrefix: 23
            hybridOverlayVXLANPort: 9898 2

    1
    Specify the CIDR configuration used for nodes on the additional overlay network. The hybridClusterNetwork CIDR cannot overlap with the clusterNetwork CIDR.
    2
    Specify a custom VXLAN port for the additional overlay network. This is required for running Windows nodes in a cluster installed on vSphere, and must not be configured for any other cloud provider. The custom port can be any open port excluding the default 4789 port. For more information on this requirement, see the Microsoft documentation on Pod-to-pod connectivity between hosts is broken.
  4. Save the cluster-network-03-config.yml file and quit the text editor.
  5. Optional: Back up the manifests/cluster-network-03-config.yml file. The installation program deletes the manifests/ directory when creating the cluster.

Complete any further installation configurations, and then create your cluster. Hybrid networking is enabled when the installation process is finished.

14.12.2. Additional resources