Installing on AWS

OpenShift Container Platform 4.6

Installing OpenShift Container Platform AWS clusters

Red Hat OpenShift Documentation Team

Abstract

This document provides instructions for installing and uninstalling OpenShift Container Platform clusters on Amazon Web Services.

Chapter 1. Installing on AWS

1.1. Configuring an AWS account

Before you can install OpenShift Container Platform, you must configure an Amazon Web Services (AWS) account.

1.1.1. Configuring Route53

To install OpenShift Container Platform, the Amazon Web Services (AWS) account you use must have a dedicated public hosted zone in your Route53 service. This zone must be authoritative for the domain. The Route53 service provides cluster DNS resolution and name lookup for external connections to the cluster.

Procedure

  1. Identify your domain, or subdomain, and registrar. You can transfer an existing domain and registrar or obtain a new one through AWS or another source.

    Note

    If you purchase a new domain through AWS, it takes time for the relevant DNS changes to propagate. For more information about purchasing domains through AWS, see Registering Domain Names Using Amazon Route 53 in the AWS documentation.

  2. If you are using an existing domain and registrar, migrate its DNS to AWS. See Making Amazon Route 53 the DNS Service for an Existing Domain in the AWS documentation.
  3. Create a public hosted zone for your domain or subdomain. See Creating a Public Hosted Zone in the AWS documentation.

    Use an appropriate root domain, such as openshiftcorp.com, or subdomain, such as clusters.openshiftcorp.com.

  4. Extract the new authoritative name servers from the hosted zone records. See Getting the Name Servers for a Public Hosted Zone in the AWS documentation.
  5. Update the registrar records for the AWS Route53 name servers that your domain uses. For example, if you registered your domain to a Route53 service in a different accounts, see the following topic in the AWS documentation: Adding or Changing Name Servers or Glue Records.
  6. If you are using a subdomain, add its delegation records to the parent domain. This gives Amazon Route53 responsibility for the subdomain. Follow the delegation procedure outlined by the DNS provider of the parent domain. See Creating a subdomain that uses Amazon Route 53 as the DNS service without migrating the parent domain in the AWS documentation for an example high level procedure.

1.1.1.1. Ingress Operator endpoint configuration for AWS Route53

If you install in either Amazon Web Services (AWS) GovCloud (US) US-West or US-East region, the Ingress Operator uses us-gov-west-1 region for Route53 and tagging API clients.

The Ingress Operator uses https://tagging.us-gov-west-1.amazonaws.com as the tagging API endpoint if a tagging custom endpoint is configured that includes the string 'us-gov-east-1'.

For more information on AWS GovCloud (US) Endpoints, see the Service Endpoints in the AWS documentation about GovCloud (US).

Important

Private, disconnected installations are not supported for AWS GovCloud when you install in the us-gov-east-1 region.

Example Route53 configuration

platform:
  aws:
    region: us-gov-west-1
    serviceEndpoints:
    - name: ec2
       url: https://ec2.us-gov-west-1.amazonaws.com
    - name: elasticloadbalancing
       url: https://elasticloadbalancing.us-gov-west-1.amazonaws.com
    - name: route53
       url: https://route53.us-gov.amazonaws.com 1
    - name: tagging
       url: https://tagging.us-gov-west-1.amazonaws.com 2

1
Route53 defaults to https://route53.us-gov.amazonaws.com for both AWS GovCloud (US) regions.
2
Only the US-West region has endpoints for tagging. Omit this parameter if your cluster is in another region.

1.1.2. AWS account limits

The OpenShift Container Platform cluster uses a number of Amazon Web Services (AWS) components, and the default Service Limits affect your ability to install OpenShift Container Platform clusters. If you use certain cluster configurations, deploy your cluster in certain AWS regions, or run multiple clusters from your account, you might need to request additional resources for your AWS account.

The following table summarizes the AWS components whose limits can impact your ability to install and run OpenShift Container Platform clusters.

ComponentNumber of clusters available by defaultDefault AWS limitDescription

Instance Limits

Varies

Varies

By default, each cluster creates the following instances:

  • One bootstrap machine, which is removed after installation
  • Three master nodes
  • Three worker nodes

These instance type counts are within a new account’s default limit. To deploy more worker nodes, enable autoscaling, deploy large workloads, or use a different instance type, review your account limits to ensure that your cluster can deploy the machines that you need.

In most regions, the bootstrap and worker machines uses an m4.large machines and the master machines use m4.xlarge instances. In some regions, including all regions that do not support these instance types, m5.large and m5.xlarge instances are used instead.

Elastic IPs (EIPs)

0 to 1

5 EIPs per account

To provision the cluster in a highly available configuration, the installation program creates a public and private subnet for each availability zone within a region. Each private subnet requires a NAT Gateway, and each NAT gateway requires a separate elastic IP. Review the AWS region map to determine how many availability zones are in each region. To take advantage of the default high availability, install the cluster in a region with at least three availability zones. To install a cluster in a region with more than five availability zones, you must increase the EIP limit.

Important

To use the us-east-1 region, you must increase the EIP limit for your account.

Virtual Private Clouds (VPCs)

5

5 VPCs per region

Each cluster creates its own VPC.

Elastic Load Balancing (ELB/NLB)

3

20 per region

By default, each cluster creates internal and external network load balancers for the master API server and a single classic elastic load balancer for the router. Deploying more Kubernetes LoadBalancer Service objects will create additional load balancers.

NAT Gateways

5

5 per availability zone

The cluster deploys one NAT gateway in each availability zone.

Elastic Network Interfaces (ENIs)

At least 12

350 per region

The default installation creates 21 ENIs and an ENI for each availability zone in your region. For example, the us-east-1 region contains six availability zones, so a cluster that is deployed in that zone uses 27 ENIs. Review the AWS region map to determine how many availability zones are in each region.

Additional ENIs are created for additional machines and elastic load balancers that are created by cluster usage and deployed workloads.

VPC Gateway

20

20 per account

Each cluster creates a single VPC Gateway for S3 access.

S3 buckets

99

100 buckets per account

Because the installation process creates a temporary bucket and the registry component in each cluster creates a bucket, you can create only 99 OpenShift Container Platform clusters per AWS account.

Security Groups

250

2,500 per account

Each cluster creates 10 distinct security groups.

1.1.3. Required AWS permissions

When you attach the AdministratorAccess policy to the IAM user that you create in Amazon Web Services (AWS), you grant that user all of the required permissions. To deploy all components of an OpenShift Container Platform cluster, the IAM user requires the following permissions:

Example 1.1. Required EC2 permissions for installation

  • tag:TagResources
  • tag:UntagResources
  • ec2:AllocateAddress
  • ec2:AssociateAddress
  • ec2:AuthorizeSecurityGroupEgress
  • ec2:AuthorizeSecurityGroupIngress
  • ec2:CopyImage
  • ec2:CreateNetworkInterface
  • ec2:AttachNetworkInterface
  • ec2:CreateSecurityGroup
  • ec2:CreateTags
  • ec2:CreateVolume
  • ec2:DeleteSecurityGroup
  • ec2:DeleteSnapshot
  • ec2:DeregisterImage
  • ec2:DescribeAccountAttributes
  • ec2:DescribeAddresses
  • ec2:DescribeAvailabilityZones
  • ec2:DescribeDhcpOptions
  • ec2:DescribeImages
  • ec2:DescribeInstanceAttribute
  • ec2:DescribeInstanceCreditSpecifications
  • ec2:DescribeInstances
  • ec2:DescribeInternetGateways
  • ec2:DescribeKeyPairs
  • ec2:DescribeNatGateways
  • ec2:DescribeNetworkAcls
  • ec2:DescribeNetworkInterfaces
  • ec2:DescribePrefixLists
  • ec2:DescribeRegions
  • ec2:DescribeRouteTables
  • ec2:DescribeSecurityGroups
  • ec2:DescribeSubnets
  • ec2:DescribeTags
  • ec2:DescribeVolumes
  • ec2:DescribeVpcAttribute
  • ec2:DescribeVpcClassicLink
  • ec2:DescribeVpcClassicLinkDnsSupport
  • ec2:DescribeVpcEndpoints
  • ec2:DescribeVpcs
  • ec2:GetEbsDefaultKmsKeyId
  • ec2:ModifyInstanceAttribute
  • ec2:ModifyNetworkInterfaceAttribute
  • ec2:ReleaseAddress
  • ec2:RevokeSecurityGroupEgress
  • ec2:RevokeSecurityGroupIngress
  • ec2:RunInstances
  • ec2:TerminateInstances

Example 1.2. Required permissions for creating network resources during installation

  • ec2:AssociateDhcpOptions
  • ec2:AssociateRouteTable
  • ec2:AttachInternetGateway
  • ec2:CreateDhcpOptions
  • ec2:CreateInternetGateway
  • ec2:CreateNatGateway
  • ec2:CreateRoute
  • ec2:CreateRouteTable
  • ec2:CreateSubnet
  • ec2:CreateVpc
  • ec2:CreateVpcEndpoint
  • ec2:ModifySubnetAttribute
  • ec2:ModifyVpcAttribute
Note

If you use an existing VPC, your account does not require these permissions for creating network resources.

Example 1.3. Required Elasticloadbalancing permissions for installation

  • elasticloadbalancing:AddTags
  • elasticloadbalancing:ApplySecurityGroupsToLoadBalancer
  • elasticloadbalancing:AttachLoadBalancerToSubnets
  • elasticloadbalancing:ConfigureHealthCheck
  • elasticloadbalancing:CreateListener
  • elasticloadbalancing:CreateLoadBalancer
  • elasticloadbalancing:CreateLoadBalancerListeners
  • elasticloadbalancing:CreateTargetGroup
  • elasticloadbalancing:DeleteLoadBalancer
  • elasticloadbalancing:DeregisterInstancesFromLoadBalancer
  • elasticloadbalancing:DeregisterTargets
  • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeInstanceHealth
  • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeListeners
  • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeLoadBalancerAttributes
  • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeLoadBalancers
  • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeTags
  • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeTargetGroupAttributes
  • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeTargetHealth
  • elasticloadbalancing:ModifyLoadBalancerAttributes
  • elasticloadbalancing:ModifyTargetGroup
  • elasticloadbalancing:ModifyTargetGroupAttributes
  • elasticloadbalancing:RegisterInstancesWithLoadBalancer
  • elasticloadbalancing:RegisterTargets
  • elasticloadbalancing:SetLoadBalancerPoliciesOfListener

Example 1.4. Required IAM permissions for installation

  • iam:AddRoleToInstanceProfile
  • iam:CreateInstanceProfile
  • iam:CreateRole
  • iam:DeleteInstanceProfile
  • iam:DeleteRole
  • iam:DeleteRolePolicy
  • iam:GetInstanceProfile
  • iam:GetRole
  • iam:GetRolePolicy
  • iam:GetUser
  • iam:ListInstanceProfilesForRole
  • iam:ListRoles
  • iam:ListUsers
  • iam:PassRole
  • iam:PutRolePolicy
  • iam:RemoveRoleFromInstanceProfile
  • iam:SimulatePrincipalPolicy
  • iam:TagRole

Example 1.5. Required Route53 permissions for installation

  • route53:ChangeResourceRecordSets
  • route53:ChangeTagsForResource
  • route53:CreateHostedZone
  • route53:DeleteHostedZone
  • route53:GetChange
  • route53:GetHostedZone
  • route53:ListHostedZones
  • route53:ListHostedZonesByName
  • route53:ListResourceRecordSets
  • route53:ListTagsForResource
  • route53:UpdateHostedZoneComment

Example 1.6. Required S3 permissions for installation

  • s3:CreateBucket
  • s3:DeleteBucket
  • s3:GetAccelerateConfiguration
  • s3:GetBucketAcl
  • s3:GetBucketCors
  • s3:GetBucketLocation
  • s3:GetBucketLogging
  • s3:GetBucketObjectLockConfiguration
  • s3:GetBucketReplication
  • s3:GetBucketRequestPayment
  • s3:GetBucketTagging
  • s3:GetBucketVersioning
  • s3:GetBucketWebsite
  • s3:GetEncryptionConfiguration
  • s3:GetLifecycleConfiguration
  • s3:GetReplicationConfiguration
  • s3:ListBucket
  • s3:PutBucketAcl
  • s3:PutBucketTagging
  • s3:PutEncryptionConfiguration

Example 1.7. S3 permissions that cluster Operators require

  • s3:DeleteObject
  • s3:GetObject
  • s3:GetObjectAcl
  • s3:GetObjectTagging
  • s3:GetObjectVersion
  • s3:PutObject
  • s3:PutObjectAcl
  • s3:PutObjectTagging

Example 1.8. Required permissions to delete base cluster resources

  • autoscaling:DescribeAutoScalingGroups
  • ec2:DeleteNetworkInterface
  • ec2:DeleteVolume
  • elasticloadbalancing:DeleteTargetGroup
  • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeTargetGroups
  • iam:DeleteAccessKey
  • iam:DeleteUser
  • iam:ListInstanceProfiles
  • iam:ListRolePolicies
  • iam:ListUserPolicies
  • s3:DeleteObject
  • s3:ListBucketVersions
  • tag:GetResources

Example 1.9. Required permissions to delete network resources

  • ec2:DeleteDhcpOptions
  • ec2:DeleteInternetGateway
  • ec2:DeleteNatGateway
  • ec2:DeleteRoute
  • ec2:DeleteRouteTable
  • ec2:DeleteSubnet
  • ec2:DeleteVpc
  • ec2:DeleteVpcEndpoints
  • ec2:DetachInternetGateway
  • ec2:DisassociateRouteTable
  • ec2:ReplaceRouteTableAssociation
Note

If you use an existing VPC, your account does not require these permissions to delete network resources.

Example 1.10. Additional IAM and S3 permissions that are required to create manifests

  • iam:CreateAccessKey
  • iam:CreateUser
  • iam:DeleteAccessKey
  • iam:DeleteUser
  • iam:DeleteUserPolicy
  • iam:GetUserPolicy
  • iam:ListAccessKeys
  • iam:PutUserPolicy
  • iam:TagUser
  • iam:GetUserPolicy
  • iam:ListAccessKeys
  • s3:PutBucketPublicAccessBlock
  • s3:GetBucketPublicAccessBlock
  • s3:PutLifecycleConfiguration
  • s3:HeadBucket
  • s3:ListBucketMultipartUploads
  • s3:AbortMultipartUpload

1.1.4. Creating an IAM user

Each Amazon Web Services (AWS) account contains a root user account that is based on the email address you used to create the account. This is a highly-privileged account, and it is recommended to use it for only initial account and billing configuration, creating an initial set of users, and securing the account.

Before you install OpenShift Container Platform, create a secondary IAM administrative user. As you complete the Creating an IAM User in Your AWS Account procedure in the AWS documentation, set the following options:

Procedure

  1. Specify the IAM user name and select Programmatic access.
  2. Attach the AdministratorAccess policy to ensure that the account has sufficient permission to create the cluster. This policy provides the cluster with the ability to grant credentials to each OpenShift Container Platform component. The cluster grants the components only the credentials that they require.

    Note

    While it is possible to create a policy that grants the all of the required AWS permissions and attach it to the user, this is not the preferred option. The cluster will not have the ability to grant additional credentials to individual components, so the same credentials are used by all components.

  3. Optional: Add metadata to the user by attaching tags.
  4. Confirm that the user name that you specified is granted the AdministratorAccess policy.
  5. Record the access key ID and secret access key values. You must use these values when you configure your local machine to run the installation program.

    Important

    You cannot use a temporary session token that you generated while using a multi-factor authentication device to authenticate to AWS when you deploy a cluster. The cluster continues to use your current AWS credentials to create AWS resources for the entire life of the cluster, so you must use key-based, long-lived credentials.

1.1.5. Supported AWS regions

You can deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster to the following public regions:

  • ap-northeast-1 (Tokyo)
  • ap-northeast-2 (Seoul)
  • ap-south-1 (Mumbai)
  • ap-southeast-1 (Singapore)
  • ap-southeast-2 (Sydney)
  • ca-central-1 (Central)
  • eu-central-1 (Frankfurt)
  • eu-north-1 (Stockholm)
  • eu-west-1 (Ireland)
  • eu-west-2 (London)
  • eu-west-3 (Paris)
  • me-south-1 (Bahrain)
  • sa-east-1 (São Paulo)
  • us-east-1 (N. Virginia)
  • us-east-2 (Ohio)
  • us-west-1 (N. California)
  • us-west-2 (Oregon)

The following AWS GovCloud regions are supported:

  • us-gov-west-1
  • us-gov-east-1

1.1.6. Next steps

1.2. Manually creating IAM for AWS

1.2.1. Manually create IAM

The Cloud Credential Operator (CCO) can be put into manual mode prior to installation in environments where the cloud identity and access management (IAM) APIs are not reachable, or the administrator prefers not to store an administrator-level credential secret in the cluster kube-system namespace.

Procedure

  1. Create the install-config.yaml file:

    $ openshift-install create install-config --dir=<installation_directory>
  2. Edit the install-config.yaml configuration file so that it contains the credentialsMode parameter set to Manual.

    Example install-config.yaml configuration file

    apiVersion: v1
    baseDomain: cluster1.example.com
    credentialsMode: Manual 1
    compute:
    - architecture: amd64
      hyperthreading: Enabled
    ...

    1
    This line is added to set the credentialsMode parameter to Manual.
  3. Run the OpenShift Container Platform installer to generate manifests:

    $ openshift-install create manifests --dir=<installation_directory> 1
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the directory name to store the files that the installation program creates.
  4. Remove the admin credential secret created using your local cloud credentials. This removal prevents your admin credential from being stored in the cluster:

    $ rm mycluster/openshift/99_cloud-creds-secret.yaml
  5. Obtain the OpenShift Container Platform release image your openshift-install binary is built to use:

    $ openshift-install version

    Example output

    release image quay.io/openshift-release-dev/ocp-release:4.y.z-x86_64

  6. Locate all CredentialsRequests in this release image that target the cloud you are deploying on:

    $ oc adm release extract quay.io/openshift-release-dev/ocp-release:4.y.z-x86_64 --credentials-requests --cloud=aws

    This displays the details for each request.

    Sample CredentialsRequest

    apiVersion: cloudcredential.openshift.io/v1
    kind: CredentialsRequest
    metadata:
      name: cloud-credential-operator-iam-ro
      namespace: openshift-cloud-credential-operator
    spec:
      secretRef:
        name: cloud-credential-operator-iam-ro-creds
        namespace: openshift-cloud-credential-operator
      providerSpec:
        apiVersion: cloudcredential.openshift.io/v1
        kind: AWSProviderSpec
        statementEntries:
        - effect: Allow
          action:
          - iam:GetUser
          - iam:GetUserPolicy
          - iam:ListAccessKeys
          resource: "*"

  7. Create YAML files for secrets in the openshift-install manifests directory that you generated previously. The secrets must be stored using the namespace and secret name defined in the spec.secretRef for each credentialsRequest. The format for the secret data varies for each cloud provider.
  8. Proceed with cluster creation:

    $ openshift-install create cluster --dir=<installation_directory>
    Important

    Before upgrading a cluster that uses manually maintained credentials, you must ensure that the CCO is in an upgradeable state. For details, see the Upgrading clusters with manually maintained credentials section of the installation content for your cloud provider.

1.2.2. Admin credentials root secret format

Each cloud provider uses a credentials root secret in the kube-system namespace by convention, which is then used to satisfy all CredentialsRequests and create their respective secrets. This is done either by minting new credentials, with mint mode, or by copying the credentials root secret, with passthrough mode.

The format for the secret varies by cloud, and is also used for each CredentialsRequest secret.

Amazon Web Services (AWS) secret format

apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
  namespace: kube-system
  name: aws-creds
stringData:
  aws_access_key_id: <AccessKeyID>
  aws_secret_access_key: <SecretAccessKey>

1.2.3. Upgrading clusters with manually maintained credentials

If credentials are added in a future release, the Cloud Credential Operator (CCO) upgradable status for a cluster with manually maintained credentials changes to false. For minor release, for example, from 4.5 to 4.6, this status prevents you from upgrading until you have addressed any updated permissions. For z-stream releases, for example, from 4.5.10 to 4.5.11, the upgrade is not blocked, but the credentials must still be updated for the new release.

Use the Administrator perspective of the web console to determine if the CCO is upgradeable.

  1. Navigate to AdministrationCluster Settings.
  2. To view the CCO status details, click cloud-credential in the Cluster Operators list.
  3. If the Upgradeable status in the Conditions section is False, examine the credentialsRequests for the new release and update the manually maintained credentials on your cluster to match before upgrading.

In addition to creating new credentials for the release image that you are upgrading to, you must review the required permissions for existing credentials and accommodate any new permissions requirements for existing components in the new release. The CCO cannot detect these mismatches and will not set upgradable to false in this case.

The Manually creating IAM section of the installation content for your cloud provider explains how to obtain and use the credentials required for your cloud.

1.2.4. Mint Mode

Mint Mode is supported for AWS, GCP, and Azure.

The default and recommended best practice for running OpenShift Container Platform is to run the installer with an administrator-level cloud credential. The admin credential is stored in the kube-system namespace, and then used by the Cloud Credential Operator to process the CredentialRequests in the cluster and create new users for each with specific permissions.

The benefits of Mint Mode include:

  • Each cluster component only has the permissions it requires.
  • Automatic, on-going reconciliation for cloud credentials including upgrades, which might require additional credentials or permissions.

One drawback is that Mint Mode requires admin credential storage in a cluster kube-system secret.

1.2.5. Mint Mode with removal or rotation of the admin credential

Currently, this mode is only supported on AWS.

In this mode, a user installs OpenShift Container Platform with an admin credential just like the normal mint mode. However, this mode removes the admin credential secret from the cluster post-installation.

The administrator can have the Cloud Credential Operator make its own request for a read-only credential that allows it to verify if all CredentialsRequests have their required permissions, thus the admin credential is not required unless something needs to be changed. After the associated credential is removed, it can be destroyed on the underlying cloud, if desired.

Prior to upgrade, the admin credential should be restored. In the future, upgrade might be blocked if the credential is not present.

The admin credential is not stored in the cluster permanently.

This mode still requires the admin credential in the cluster for brief periods of time. It also requires manually re-instating the secret with admin credentials for each upgrade.

1.3. Installing a cluster quickly on AWS

In OpenShift Container Platform version 4.5, you can install a cluster on Amazon Web Services (AWS) that uses the default configuration options.

1.3.1. Prerequisites

  • Review details about the OpenShift Container Platform installation and update processes.
  • Configure an AWS account to host the cluster.

    Important

    If you have an AWS profile stored on your computer, it must not use a temporary session token that you generated while using a multi-factor authentication device. The cluster continues to use your current AWS credentials to create AWS resources for the entire life of the cluster, so you must use key-based, long-lived credentials. To generate appropriate keys, see Managing Access Keys for IAM Users in the AWS documentation. You can supply the keys when you run the installation program.

  • If you use a firewall, you must configure it to allow the sites that your cluster requires access to.
  • If you do not allow the system to manage identity and access management (IAM), then a cluster administrator can manually create and maintain IAM credentials. Manual mode can also be used in environments where the cloud IAM APIs are not reachable.

1.3.2. Internet and Telemetry access for OpenShift Container Platform

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.5, you require access to the internet to install your cluster. The Telemetry service, which runs by default to provide metrics about cluster health and the success of updates, also requires internet access. If your cluster is connected to the internet, Telemetry runs automatically, and your cluster is registered to the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager (OCM).

Once you confirm that your Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager inventory is correct, either maintained automatically by Telemetry or manually using OCM, use subscription watch to track your OpenShift Container Platform subscriptions at the account or multi-cluster level.

You must have internet access to:

  • Access the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager page to download the installation program and perform subscription management. If the cluster has internet access and you do not disable Telemetry, that service automatically entitles your cluster.
  • Access Quay.io to obtain the packages that are required to install your cluster.
  • Obtain the packages that are required to perform cluster updates.
Important

If your cluster cannot have direct internet access, you can perform a restricted network installation on some types of infrastructure that you provision. During that process, you download the content that is required and use it to populate a mirror registry with the packages that you need to install a cluster and generate the installation program. With some installation types, the environment that you install your cluster in will not require internet access. Before you update the cluster, you update the content of the mirror registry.

1.3.3. Generating an SSH private key and adding it to the agent

If you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery on your cluster, you must provide an SSH key to both your ssh-agent and the installation program. You can use this key to access the bootstrap machine in a public cluster to troubleshoot installation issues.

Note

In a production environment, you require disaster recovery and debugging.

You can use this key to SSH into the master nodes as the user core. When you deploy the cluster, the key is added to the core user’s ~/.ssh/authorized_keys list.

Note

You must use a local key, not one that you configured with platform-specific approaches such as AWS key pairs.

Procedure

  1. If you do not have an SSH key that is configured for password-less authentication on your computer, create one. For example, on a computer that uses a Linux operating system, run the following command:

    $ ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -N '' \
        -f <path>/<file_name> 1
    1
    Specify the path and file name, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa, of the new SSH key.

    Running this command generates an SSH key that does not require a password in the location that you specified.

  2. Start the ssh-agent process as a background task:

    $ eval "$(ssh-agent -s)"

    Example output

    Agent pid 31874

  3. Add your SSH private key to the ssh-agent:

    $ ssh-add <path>/<file_name> 1

    Example output

    Identity added: /home/<you>/<path>/<file_name> (<computer_name>)

    1
    Specify the path and file name for your SSH private key, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa

Next steps

  • When you install OpenShift Container Platform, provide the SSH public key to the installation program.

1.3.4. Obtaining the installation program

Before you install OpenShift Container Platform, download the installation file on a local computer.

Prerequisites

  • A computer that runs Linux or macOS, with 500 MB of local disk space

Procedure

  1. Access the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site. If you have a Red Hat account, log in with your credentials. If you do not, create an account.
  2. Navigate to the page for your installation type, download the installation program for your operating system, and place the file in the directory where you will store the installation configuration files.

    Important

    The installation program creates several files on the computer that you use to install your cluster. You must keep both the installation program and the files that the installation program creates after you finish installing the cluster.

    Important

    Deleting the files created by the installation program does not remove your cluster, even if the cluster failed during installation. To remove your cluster, complete the OpenShift Container Platform uninstallation procedures for your specific cloud provider.

  3. Extract the installation program. For example, on a computer that uses a Linux operating system, run the following command:

    $ tar xvf openshift-install-linux.tar.gz
  4. From the Pull Secret page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site, download your installation pull secret as a .txt file. This pull secret allows you to authenticate with the services that are provided by the included authorities, including Quay.io, which serves the container images for OpenShift Container Platform components.

1.3.5. Deploying the cluster

You can install OpenShift Container Platform on a compatible cloud platform.

Important

You can run the create cluster command of the installation program only once, during initial installation.

Prerequisites

  • Configure an account with the cloud platform that hosts your cluster.
  • Obtain the OpenShift Container Platform installation program and the pull secret for your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Run the installation program:

    $ ./openshift-install create cluster --dir=<installation_directory> \ 1
        --log-level=info 2
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the directory name to store the files that the installation program creates.
    2
    To view different installation details, specify warn, debug, or error instead of info.
    Important

    Specify an empty directory. Some installation assets, like bootstrap X.509 certificates have short expiration intervals, so you must not reuse an installation directory. If you want to reuse individual files from another cluster installation, you can copy them into your directory. However, the file names for the installation assets might change between releases. Use caution when copying installation files from an earlier OpenShift Container Platform version.

    Provide values at the prompts:

    1. Optional: Select an SSH key to use to access your cluster machines.

      Note

      For production OpenShift Container Platform clusters on which you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, specify an SSH key that your ssh-agent process uses.

    2. Select aws as the platform to target.
    3. If you do not have an Amazon Web Services (AWS) profile stored on your computer, enter the AWS access key ID and secret access key for the user that you configured to run the installation program.
    4. Select the AWS region to deploy the cluster to.
    5. Select the base domain for the Route53 service that you configured for your cluster.
    6. Enter a descriptive name for your cluster.
    7. Paste the pull secret that you obtained from the Pull Secret page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.
    Note

    If the cloud provider account that you configured on your host does not have sufficient permissions to deploy the cluster, the installation process stops, and the missing permissions are displayed.

    When the cluster deployment completes, directions for accessing your cluster, including a link to its web console and credentials for the kubeadmin user, display in your terminal.

    Important

    The Ignition config files that the installation program generates contain certificates that expire after 24 hours. You must keep the cluster running for 24 hours in a non-degraded state to ensure that the first certificate rotation has finished.

    Important

    You must not delete the installation program or the files that the installation program creates. Both are required to delete the cluster.

  2. Optional: Remove or disable the AdministratorAccess policy from the IAM account that you used to install the cluster.

1.3.6. Installing the CLI by downloading the binary

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) in order to interact with OpenShift Container Platform from a command-line interface. You can install oc on Linux, Windows, or macOS.

Important

If you installed an earlier version of oc, you cannot use it to complete all of the commands in OpenShift Container Platform 4.5. Download and install the new version of oc.

1.3.6.1. Installing the CLI on Linux

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on Linux by using the following procedure.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.
  2. Select your infrastructure provider, and, if applicable, your installation type.
  3. In the Command-line interface section, select Linux from the drop-down menu and click Download command-line tools.
  4. Unpack the archive:

    $ tar xvzf <file>
  5. Place the oc binary in a directory that is on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, execute the following command:

    $ echo $PATH

After you install the CLI, it is available using the oc command:

$ oc <command>

1.3.6.2. Installing the CLI on Windows

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on Windows by using the following procedure.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.
  2. Select your infrastructure provider, and, if applicable, your installation type.
  3. In the Command-line interface section, select Windows from the drop-down menu and click Download command-line tools.
  4. Unzip the archive with a ZIP program.
  5. Move the oc binary to a directory that is on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, open the command prompt and execute the following command:

    C:\> path

After you install the CLI, it is available using the oc command:

C:\> oc <command>

1.3.6.3. Installing the CLI on macOS

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on macOS by using the following procedure.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.
  2. Select your infrastructure provider, and, if applicable, your installation type.
  3. In the Command-line interface section, select MacOS from the drop-down menu and click Download command-line tools.
  4. Unpack and unzip the archive.
  5. Move the oc binary to a directory on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, open a terminal and execute the following command:

    $ echo $PATH

After you install the CLI, it is available using the oc command:

$ oc <command>

1.3.7. Logging in to the cluster

You can log in to your cluster as a default system user by exporting the cluster kubeconfig file. The kubeconfig file contains information about the cluster that is used by the CLI to connect a client to the correct cluster and API server. The file is specific to a cluster and is created during OpenShift Container Platform installation.

Prerequisites

  • Deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • Install the oc CLI.

Procedure

  1. Export the kubeadmin credentials:

    $ export KUBECONFIG=<installation_directory>/auth/kubeconfig 1
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the path to the directory that you stored the installation files in.
  2. Verify you can run oc commands successfully using the exported configuration:

    $ oc whoami

    Example output

    system:admin

1.3.8. Next steps

1.4. Installing a cluster on AWS with customizations

In OpenShift Container Platform version 4.5, you can install a customized cluster on infrastructure that the installation program provisions on Amazon Web Services (AWS). To customize the installation, you modify parameters in the install-config.yaml file before you install the cluster.

1.4.1. Prerequisites

  • Review details about the OpenShift Container Platform installation and update processes.
  • Configure an AWS account to host the cluster.

    Important

    If you have an AWS profile stored on your computer, it must not use a temporary session token that you generated while using a multi-factor authentication device. The cluster continues to use your current AWS credentials to create AWS resources for the entire life of the cluster, so you must use long-lived credentials. To generate appropriate keys, see Managing Access Keys for IAM Users in the AWS documentation. You can supply the keys when you run the installation program.

  • If you use a firewall, you must configure it to allow the sites that your cluster requires access to.
  • If you do not allow the system to manage identity and access management (IAM), then a cluster administrator can manually create and maintain IAM credentials. Manual mode can also be used in environments where the cloud IAM APIs are not reachable.

1.4.2. Internet and Telemetry access for OpenShift Container Platform

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.5, you require access to the internet to install your cluster. The Telemetry service, which runs by default to provide metrics about cluster health and the success of updates, also requires internet access. If your cluster is connected to the internet, Telemetry runs automatically, and your cluster is registered to the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager (OCM).

Once you confirm that your Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager inventory is correct, either maintained automatically by Telemetry or manually using OCM, use subscription watch to track your OpenShift Container Platform subscriptions at the account or multi-cluster level.

You must have internet access to:

  • Access the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager page to download the installation program and perform subscription management. If the cluster has internet access and you do not disable Telemetry, that service automatically entitles your cluster.
  • Access Quay.io to obtain the packages that are required to install your cluster.
  • Obtain the packages that are required to perform cluster updates.
Important

If your cluster cannot have direct internet access, you can perform a restricted network installation on some types of infrastructure that you provision. During that process, you download the content that is required and use it to populate a mirror registry with the packages that you need to install a cluster and generate the installation program. With some installation types, the environment that you install your cluster in will not require internet access. Before you update the cluster, you update the content of the mirror registry.

1.4.3. Generating an SSH private key and adding it to the agent

If you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery on your cluster, you must provide an SSH key to both your ssh-agent and the installation program. You can use this key to access the bootstrap machine in a public cluster to troubleshoot installation issues.

Note

In a production environment, you require disaster recovery and debugging.

You can use this key to SSH into the master nodes as the user core. When you deploy the cluster, the key is added to the core user’s ~/.ssh/authorized_keys list.

Note

You must use a local key, not one that you configured with platform-specific approaches such as AWS key pairs.

Procedure

  1. If you do not have an SSH key that is configured for password-less authentication on your computer, create one. For example, on a computer that uses a Linux operating system, run the following command:

    $ ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -N '' \
        -f <path>/<file_name> 1
    1
    Specify the path and file name, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa, of the new SSH key.

    Running this command generates an SSH key that does not require a password in the location that you specified.

  2. Start the ssh-agent process as a background task:

    $ eval "$(ssh-agent -s)"

    Example output

    Agent pid 31874

  3. Add your SSH private key to the ssh-agent:

    $ ssh-add <path>/<file_name> 1

    Example output

    Identity added: /home/<you>/<path>/<file_name> (<computer_name>)

    1
    Specify the path and file name for your SSH private key, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa

Next steps

  • When you install OpenShift Container Platform, provide the SSH public key to the installation program.

1.4.4. Obtaining the installation program

Before you install OpenShift Container Platform, download the installation file on a local computer.

Prerequisites

  • A computer that runs Linux or macOS, with 500 MB of local disk space

Procedure

  1. Access the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site. If you have a Red Hat account, log in with your credentials. If you do not, create an account.
  2. Navigate to the page for your installation type, download the installation program for your operating system, and place the file in the directory where you will store the installation configuration files.

    Important

    The installation program creates several files on the computer that you use to install your cluster. You must keep both the installation program and the files that the installation program creates after you finish installing the cluster.

    Important

    Deleting the files created by the installation program does not remove your cluster, even if the cluster failed during installation. To remove your cluster, complete the OpenShift Container Platform uninstallation procedures for your specific cloud provider.

  3. Extract the installation program. For example, on a computer that uses a Linux operating system, run the following command:

    $ tar xvf openshift-install-linux.tar.gz
  4. From the Pull Secret page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site, download your installation pull secret as a .txt file. This pull secret allows you to authenticate with the services that are provided by the included authorities, including Quay.io, which serves the container images for OpenShift Container Platform components.

1.4.5. Creating the installation configuration file

You can customize the OpenShift Container Platform cluster you install on Amazon Web Services (AWS).

Prerequisites

  • Obtain the OpenShift Container Platform installation program and the pull secret for your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Create the install-config.yaml file.

    1. Run the following command:

      $ ./openshift-install create install-config --dir=<installation_directory> 1
      1
      For <installation_directory>, specify the directory name to store the files that the installation program creates.
      Important

      Specify an empty directory. Some installation assets, like bootstrap X.509 certificates have short expiration intervals, so you must not reuse an installation directory. If you want to reuse individual files from another cluster installation, you can copy them into your directory. However, the file names for the installation assets might change between releases. Use caution when copying installation files from an earlier OpenShift Container Platform version.

    2. At the prompts, provide the configuration details for your cloud:

      1. Optional: Select an SSH key to use to access your cluster machines.

        Note

        For production OpenShift Container Platform clusters on which you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, specify an SSH key that your ssh-agent process uses.

      2. Select AWS as the platform to target.
      3. If you do not have an Amazon Web Services (AWS) profile stored on your computer, enter the AWS access key ID and secret access key for the user that you configured to run the installation program.
      4. Select the AWS region to deploy the cluster to.
      5. Select the base domain for the Route53 service that you configured for your cluster.
      6. Enter a descriptive name for your cluster.
      7. Paste the pull secret that you obtained from the Pull Secret page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.
  2. Modify the install-config.yaml file. You can find more information about the available parameters in the Installation configuration parameters section.
  3. Back up the install-config.yaml file so that you can use it to install multiple clusters.

    Important

    The install-config.yaml file is consumed during the installation process. If you want to reuse the file, you must back it up now.

1.4.5.1. Installation configuration parameters

Before you deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster, you provide parameter values to describe your account on the cloud platform that hosts your cluster and optionally customize your cluster’s platform. When you create the install-config.yaml installation configuration file, you provide values for the required parameters through the command line. If you customize your cluster, you can modify the install-config.yaml file to provide more details about the platform.

Note

After installation, you cannot modify these parameters in the install-config.yaml file.

Table 1.1. Required parameters

ParameterDescriptionValues

apiVersion

The API version for the install-config.yaml content. The current version is v1. The installer may also support older API versions.

String

baseDomain

The base domain of your cloud provider. The base domain is used to create routes to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster components. The full DNS name for your cluster is a combination of the baseDomain and metadata.name parameter values that uses the <metadata.name>.<baseDomain> format.

A fully-qualified domain or subdomain name, such as example.com.

metadata

Kubernetes resource ObjectMeta, from which only the name parameter is consumed.

Object

metadata.name

The name of the cluster. DNS records for the cluster are all subdomains of {{.metadata.name}}.{{.baseDomain}}.

String of lowercase letters, hyphens (-), and periods (.), such as dev.

platform

The configuration for the specific platform upon which to perform the installation: aws, baremetal, azure, openstack, ovirt, vsphere. For additional information about platform.<platform> parameters, consult the following table for your specific platform.

Object

pullSecret

Get this pull secret from https://cloud.redhat.com/openshift/install/pull-secret to authenticate downloading container images for OpenShift Container Platform components from services such as Quay.io.

{
   "auths":{
      "cloud.openshift.com":{
         "auth":"b3Blb=",
         "email":"you@example.com"
      },
      "quay.io":{
         "auth":"b3Blb=",
         "email":"you@example.com"
      }
   }
}

Table 1.2. Optional parameters

ParameterDescriptionValues

additionalTrustBundle

A PEM-encoded X.509 certificate bundle that is added to the nodes' trusted certificate store. This trust bundle may also be used when a proxy has been configured.

String

compute

The configuration for the machines that comprise the compute nodes.

Array of machine-pool objects. For details, see the following "Machine-pool" table.

compute.architecture

Determines the instruction set architecture of the machines in the pool. Currently, heteregeneous clusters are not supported, so all pools must specify the same architecture. Valid values are amd64 (the default).

String

compute.hyperthreading

Whether to enable or disable simultaneous multithreading, or hyperthreading, on compute machines. By default, simultaneous multithreading is enabled to increase the performance of your machines' cores.

Important

If you disable simultaneous multithreading, ensure that your capacity planning accounts for the dramatically decreased machine performance.

Enabled or Disabled

compute.name

Required if you use compute. The name of the machine pool.

worker

compute.platform

Required if you use compute. Use this parameter to specify the cloud provider to host the worker machines. This parameter value must match the controlPlane.platform parameter value.

aws, azure, gcp, openstack, ovirt, vsphere, or {}

compute.replicas

The number of compute machines, which are also known as worker machines, to provision.

A positive integer greater than or equal to 2. The default value is 3.

controlPlane

The configuration for the machines that comprise the control plane.

Array of machine-pool objects. For details, see the following "Machine-pool" table.

controlPlane.architecture

Determines the instruction set architecture of the machines in the pool. Currently, heteregeneous clusters are not supported, so all pools must specify the same architecture. Valid values are amd64 (the default).

String

controlPlane.hyperthreading

Whether to enable or disable simultaneous multithreading, or hyperthreading, on control plane machines. By default, simultaneous multithreading is enabled to increase the performance of your machines' cores.

Important

If you disable simultaneous multithreading, ensure that your capacity planning accounts for the dramatically decreased machine performance.

Enabled or Disabled

controlPlane.name

Required if you use controlPlane. The name of the machine pool.

master

controlPlane.platform

Required if you use controlPlane. Use this parameter to specify the cloud provider that hosts the control plane machines. This parameter value must match the compute.platform parameter value.

aws, azure, gcp, openstack, ovirt, vsphere, or {}

controlPlane.replicas

The number of control plane machines to provision.

A positive integer greater than or equal to 3. The default value is 3.

credentialsMode

The Cloud Credential Operator (CCO) mode. If no mode is specified, the CCO dynamically tries to determine the capabilities of the provided credentials, with a preference for mint mode on the platforms where multiple modes are supported.

Note

Not all CCO modes are supported for all cloud providers. For more information on CCO modes, see the Cloud Credential Operator entry in the Red Hat Operators reference content.

Mint, Passthrough, Manual, or an empty string ("").

fips

Enable or disable FIPS mode. The default is false (disabled). If FIPS mode is enabled, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) machines that OpenShift Container Platform runs on bypass the default Kubernetes cryptography suite and use the cryptography modules that are provided with RHCOS instead.

false or true

imageContentSources

Sources and repositories for the release-image content.

Array of objects. Includes a source and, optionally, mirrors, as described in the following rows of this table.

imageContentSources.source

Required if you use imageContentSources. Specify the repository that users refer to, for example, in image pull specifications.

String

imageContentSources.mirrors

Specify one or more repositories that may also contain the same images.

Array of strings

networking

The configuration for the Pod network provider in the cluster.

Object

networking.clusterNetwork

The IP address pools for pods. The default is 10.128.0.0/14 with a host prefix of /23.

Array of objects

networking.clusterNetwork.cidr

Required if you use networking.clusterNetwork. The IP block address pool.

IP network. IP networks are represented as strings using Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation with a traditional IP address or network number, followed by the forward slash (/) character, followed by a decimal value between 0 and 32 that describes the number of significant bits. For example, 10.0.0.0/16 represents IP addresses 10.0.0.0 through 10.0.255.255.

networking.clusterNetwork.hostPrefix

Required if you use networking.clusterNetwork. The prefix size to allocate to each node from the CIDR. For example, 24 would allocate 2^8=256 adresses to each node.

Integer

networking.machineNetwork

The IP address pools for machines.

Array of objects

networking.machineNetwork.cidr

Required if you use networking.machineNetwork. The IP block address pool. The default is 10.0.0.0/16 for all platforms other than libvirt. For libvirt, the default is 192.168.126.0/24.

IP network. IP networks are represented as strings using Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation with a traditional IP address or network number, followed by the forward slash (/) character, followed by a decimal value between 0 and 32 that describes the number of significant bits. For example, 10.0.0.0/16 represents IP addresses 10.0.0.0 through 10.0.255.255.

networking.networkType

The type of network to install. The default is OpenShiftSDN.

String

networking.serviceNetwork

The IP address pools for services. The default is 172.30.0.0/16.

Array of IP networks. IP networks are represented as strings using Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation with a traditional IP address or network number, followed by the forward slash (/) character, followed by a decimal value between 0 and 32 that describes the number of significant bits. For example, 10.0.0.0/16 represents IP addresses 10.0.0.0 through 10.0.255.255.

publish

How to publish or expose the user-facing endpoints of your cluster, such as the Kubernetes API, OpenShift routes.

Internal or External. To deploy a private cluster, which cannot be accessed from the internet, set publish to Internal. The default value is External.

sshKey

The SSH key or keys to authenticate access your cluster machines.

Note

For production OpenShift Container Platform clusters on which you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, specify an SSH key that your ssh-agent process uses.

One or more keys. For example:

sshKey:
  <key1>
  <key2>
  <key3>

Table 1.3. Optional AWS parameters

ParameterDescriptionValues

compute.platform.aws.amiID

The AWS AMI used to boot compute machines for the cluster. This is required for regions that require a custom RHCOS AMI.

Any published or custom RHCOS AMI that belongs to the set AWS region.

compute.platform.aws.rootVolume.iops

The Input/Output Operations Per Second (IOPS) that is reserved for the root volume.

Integer, for example 4000.

compute.platform.aws.rootVolume.size

The size in GiB of the root volume.

Integer, for example 500.

compute.platform.aws.rootVolume.type

The instance type of the root volume.

Valid AWS EBS instance type, such as io1.

compute.platform.aws.type

The EC2 instance type for the compute machines.

Valid AWS instance type, such as c5.9xlarge.

compute.platform.aws.zones

The availability zones where the installation program creates machines for the compute MachinePool. If you provide your own VPC, you must provide a subnet in that availability zone.

A list of valid AWS availability zones, such as us-east-1c, in a YAML sequence.

compute.aws.region

The AWS region that the installation program creates compute resources in.

Any valid AWS region, such as us-east-1.

controlPlane.platform.aws.amiID

The AWS AMI used to boot control plane machines for the cluster. This is required for regions that require a custom RHCOS AMI.

Any published or custom RHCOS AMI that belongs to the set AWS region.

controlPlane.platform.aws.type

The EC2 instance type for the control plane machines.

Valid AWS instance type, such as c5.9xlarge.

controlPlane.platform.aws.zones

The availability zones where the installation program creates machines for the control plane MachinePool.

A list of valid AWS availability zones, such as us-east-1c, in a YAML sequence.

controlPlane.aws.region

The AWS region that the installation program creates control plane resources in.

Valid AWS region, such as us-east-1.

platform.aws.amiID

The AWS AMI used to boot all machines for the cluster. If set, the AMI must belong to the same region as the cluster. This is required for regions that require a custom RHCOS AMI.

Any published or custom RHCOS AMI that belongs to the set AWS region.

platform.aws.serviceEndpoints.name

The AWS service endpoint name. Custom endpoints are only required for cases where alternative AWS endpoints, like FIPS, must be used. Custom API endpoints can be specified for EC2, S3, IAM, Elastic Load Balancing, Tagging, Route 53, and STS AWS services.

Valid AWS service endpoint name.

platform.aws.serviceEndpoints.url

The AWS service endpoint URL. The URL must use the https protocol and the host must trust the certificate.

Valid AWS service endpoint URL.

platform.aws.userTags

A map of keys and values that the installation program adds as tags to all resources that it creates.

Any valid YAML map, such as key value pairs in the <key>: <value> format. For more information about AWS tags, see Tagging Your Amazon EC2 Resources in the AWS documentation.

platform.aws.subnets

If you provide the VPC instead of allowing the installation program to create the VPC for you, specify the subnet for the cluster to use. The subnet must be part of the same machineNetwork[].cidr ranges that you specify. For a standard cluster, specify a public and a private subnet for each availability zone. For a private cluster, specify a private subnet for each availability zone.

Valid subnet IDs.

1.4.5.2. Sample customized install-config.yaml file for AWS

You can customize the install-config.yaml file to specify more details about your OpenShift Container Platform cluster’s platform or modify the values of the required parameters.

Important

This sample YAML file is provided for reference only. You must obtain your install-config.yaml file by using the installation program and modify it.

apiVersion: v1
baseDomain: example.com 1
credentialsMode: Mint 2
controlPlane: 3 4
  hyperthreading: Enabled 5
  name: master
  platform:
    aws:
      zones:
      - us-west-2a
      - us-west-2b
      rootVolume:
        iops: 4000
        size: 500
        type: io1 6
      type: m5.xlarge
  replicas: 3
compute: 7
- hyperthreading: Enabled 8
  name: worker
  platform:
    aws:
      rootVolume:
        iops: 2000
        size: 500
        type: io1 9
      type: c5.4xlarge
      zones:
      - us-west-2c
  replicas: 3
metadata:
  name: test-cluster 10
networking:
  clusterNetwork:
  - cidr: 10.128.0.0/14
    hostPrefix: 23
  machineNetwork:
  - cidr: 10.0.0.0/16
  networkType: OpenShiftSDN
  serviceNetwork:
  - 172.30.0.0/16
platform:
  aws:
    region: us-west-2 11
    userTags:
      adminContact: jdoe
      costCenter: 7536
    amiID: ami-96c6f8f7 12
    serviceEndpoints: 13
      - name: ec2
        url: https://vpce-id.ec2.us-west-2.vpce.amazonaws.com
pullSecret: '{"auths": ...}' 14
fips: false 15
sshKey: ssh-ed25519 AAAA... 16
1 10 11 14
Required. The installation program prompts you for this value.
2
Optional: Add this parameter to force the Cloud Credential Operator (CCO) to use the specified mode, instead of having the CCO dynamically try to determine the capabilities of the credentials. For details about CCO modes, see the Cloud Credential Operator entry in the Red Hat Operators reference content.
3 7
If you do not provide these parameters and values, the installation program provides the default value.
4
The controlPlane section is a single mapping, but the compute section is a sequence of mappings. To meet the requirements of the different data structures, the first line of the compute section must begin with a hyphen, -, and the first line of the controlPlane section must not. Although both sections currently define a single machine pool, it is possible that future versions of OpenShift Container Platform will support defining multiple compute pools during installation. Only one control plane pool is used.
5 8
Whether to enable or disable simultaneous multithreading, or hyperthreading. By default, simultaneous multithreading is enabled to increase the performance of your machines' cores. You can disable it by setting the parameter value to Disabled. If you disable simultaneous multithreading in some cluster machines, you must disable it in all cluster machines.
Important

If you disable simultaneous multithreading, ensure that your capacity planning accounts for the dramatically decreased machine performance. Use larger instance types, such as m4.2xlarge or m5.2xlarge, for your machines if you disable simultaneous multithreading.

6 9
To configure faster storage for etcd, especially for larger clusters, set the storage type as io1 and set iops to 2000.
12
The ID of the AMI used to boot machines for the cluster. If set, the AMI must belong to the same region as the cluster.
13
The AWS service endpoints. Custom endpoints are required when installing to an unknown AWS region. The endpoint URL must use the https protocol and the host must trust the certificate.
15
Whether to enable or disable FIPS mode. By default, FIPS mode is not enabled. If FIPS mode is enabled, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) machines that OpenShift Container Platform runs on bypass the default Kubernetes cryptography suite and use the cryptography modules that are provided with RHCOS instead.
16
You can optionally provide the sshKey value that you use to access the machines in your cluster.
Note

For production OpenShift Container Platform clusters on which you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, specify an SSH key that your ssh-agent process uses.

1.4.6. Deploying the cluster

You can install OpenShift Container Platform on a compatible cloud platform.

Important

You can run the create cluster command of the installation program only once, during initial installation.

Prerequisites

  • Configure an account with the cloud platform that hosts your cluster.
  • Obtain the OpenShift Container Platform installation program and the pull secret for your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Run the installation program:

    $ ./openshift-install create cluster --dir=<installation_directory> \ 1
        --log-level=info 2
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the location of your customized ./install-config.yaml file.
    2
    To view different installation details, specify warn, debug, or error instead of info.
    Note

    If the cloud provider account that you configured on your host does not have sufficient permissions to deploy the cluster, the installation process stops, and the missing permissions are displayed.

    When the cluster deployment completes, directions for accessing your cluster, including a link to its web console and credentials for the kubeadmin user, display in your terminal.

    Important

    The Ignition config files that the installation program generates contain certificates that expire after 24 hours. You must keep the cluster running for 24 hours in a non-degraded state to ensure that the first certificate rotation has finished.

    Important

    You must not delete the installation program or the files that the installation program creates. Both are required to delete the cluster.

  2. Optional: Remove or disable the AdministratorAccess policy from the IAM account that you used to install the cluster.

1.4.7. Installing the CLI by downloading the binary

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) in order to interact with OpenShift Container Platform from a command-line interface. You can install oc on Linux, Windows, or macOS.

Important

If you installed an earlier version of oc, you cannot use it to complete all of the commands in OpenShift Container Platform 4.5. Download and install the new version of oc.

1.4.7.1. Installing the CLI on Linux

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on Linux by using the following procedure.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.
  2. Select your infrastructure provider, and, if applicable, your installation type.
  3. In the Command-line interface section, select Linux from the drop-down menu and click Download command-line tools.
  4. Unpack the archive:

    $ tar xvzf <file>
  5. Place the oc binary in a directory that is on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, execute the following command:

    $ echo $PATH

After you install the CLI, it is available using the oc command:

$ oc <command>

1.4.7.2. Installing the CLI on Windows

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on Windows by using the following procedure.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.
  2. Select your infrastructure provider, and, if applicable, your installation type.
  3. In the Command-line interface section, select Windows from the drop-down menu and click Download command-line tools.
  4. Unzip the archive with a ZIP program.
  5. Move the oc binary to a directory that is on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, open the command prompt and execute the following command:

    C:\> path

After you install the CLI, it is available using the oc command:

C:\> oc <command>

1.4.7.3. Installing the CLI on macOS

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on macOS by using the following procedure.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.
  2. Select your infrastructure provider, and, if applicable, your installation type.
  3. In the Command-line interface section, select MacOS from the drop-down menu and click Download command-line tools.
  4. Unpack and unzip the archive.
  5. Move the oc binary to a directory on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, open a terminal and execute the following command:

    $ echo $PATH

After you install the CLI, it is available using the oc command:

$ oc <command>

1.4.8. Logging in to the cluster

You can log in to your cluster as a default system user by exporting the cluster kubeconfig file. The kubeconfig file contains information about the cluster that is used by the CLI to connect a client to the correct cluster and API server. The file is specific to a cluster and is created during OpenShift Container Platform installation.

Prerequisites

  • Deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • Install the oc CLI.

Procedure

  1. Export the kubeadmin credentials:

    $ export KUBECONFIG=<installation_directory>/auth/kubeconfig 1
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the path to the directory that you stored the installation files in.
  2. Verify you can run oc commands successfully using the exported configuration:

    $ oc whoami

    Example output

    system:admin

1.4.9. Next steps

1.5. Installing a cluster on AWS with network customizations

In OpenShift Container Platform version 4.5, you can install a cluster on Amazon Web Services (AWS) with customized network configuration options. By customizing your network configuration, your cluster can coexist with existing IP address allocations in your environment and integrate with existing MTU and VXLAN configurations.

You must set most of the network configuration parameters during installation, and you can modify only kubeProxy configuration parameters in a running cluster.

1.5.1. Prerequisites

  • Review details about the OpenShift Container Platform installation and update processes.
  • Configure an AWS account to host the cluster.

    Important

    If you have an AWS profile stored on your computer, it must not use a temporary session token that you generated while using a multi-factor authentication device. The cluster continues to use your current AWS credentials to create AWS resources for the entire life of the cluster, so you must use key-based, long-lived credentials. To generate appropriate keys, see Managing Access Keys for IAM Users in the AWS documentation. You can supply the keys when you run the installation program.

  • If you use a firewall, you must configure it to allow the sites that your cluster requires access to.
  • If you do not allow the system to manage identity and access management (IAM), then a cluster administrator can manually create and maintain IAM credentials. Manual mode can also be used in environments where the cloud IAM APIs are not reachable.

1.5.2. Internet and Telemetry access for OpenShift Container Platform

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.5, you require access to the internet to install your cluster. The Telemetry service, which runs by default to provide metrics about cluster health and the success of updates, also requires internet access. If your cluster is connected to the internet, Telemetry runs automatically, and your cluster is registered to the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager (OCM).

Once you confirm that your Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager inventory is correct, either maintained automatically by Telemetry or manually using OCM, use subscription watch to track your OpenShift Container Platform subscriptions at the account or multi-cluster level.

You must have internet access to:

  • Access the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager page to download the installation program and perform subscription management. If the cluster has internet access and you do not disable Telemetry, that service automatically entitles your cluster.
  • Access Quay.io to obtain the packages that are required to install your cluster.
  • Obtain the packages that are required to perform cluster updates.
Important

If your cluster cannot have direct internet access, you can perform a restricted network installation on some types of infrastructure that you provision. During that process, you download the content that is required and use it to populate a mirror registry with the packages that you need to install a cluster and generate the installation program. With some installation types, the environment that you install your cluster in will not require internet access. Before you update the cluster, you update the content of the mirror registry.

1.5.3. Generating an SSH private key and adding it to the agent

If you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery on your cluster, you must provide an SSH key to both your ssh-agent and the installation program. You can use this key to access the bootstrap machine in a public cluster to troubleshoot installation issues.

Note

In a production environment, you require disaster recovery and debugging.

You can use this key to SSH into the master nodes as the user core. When you deploy the cluster, the key is added to the core user’s ~/.ssh/authorized_keys list.

Note

You must use a local key, not one that you configured with platform-specific approaches such as AWS key pairs.

Procedure

  1. If you do not have an SSH key that is configured for password-less authentication on your computer, create one. For example, on a computer that uses a Linux operating system, run the following command:

    $ ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -N '' \
        -f <path>/<file_name> 1
    1
    Specify the path and file name, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa, of the new SSH key.

    Running this command generates an SSH key that does not require a password in the location that you specified.

  2. Start the ssh-agent process as a background task:

    $ eval "$(ssh-agent -s)"

    Example output

    Agent pid 31874

  3. Add your SSH private key to the ssh-agent:

    $ ssh-add <path>/<file_name> 1

    Example output

    Identity added: /home/<you>/<path>/<file_name> (<computer_name>)

    1
    Specify the path and file name for your SSH private key, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa

Next steps

  • When you install OpenShift Container Platform, provide the SSH public key to the installation program.

1.5.4. Obtaining the installation program

Before you install OpenShift Container Platform, download the installation file on a local computer.

Prerequisites

  • A computer that runs Linux or macOS, with 500 MB of local disk space

Procedure

  1. Access the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site. If you have a Red Hat account, log in with your credentials. If you do not, create an account.
  2. Navigate to the page for your installation type, download the installation program for your operating system, and place the file in the directory where you will store the installation configuration files.

    Important

    The installation program creates several files on the computer that you use to install your cluster. You must keep both the installation program and the files that the installation program creates after you finish installing the cluster.

    Important

    Deleting the files created by the installation program does not remove your cluster, even if the cluster failed during installation. To remove your cluster, complete the OpenShift Container Platform uninstallation procedures for your specific cloud provider.

  3. Extract the installation program. For example, on a computer that uses a Linux operating system, run the following command:

    $ tar xvf openshift-install-linux.tar.gz
  4. From the Pull Secret page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site, download your installation pull secret as a .txt file. This pull secret allows you to authenticate with the services that are provided by the included authorities, including Quay.io, which serves the container images for OpenShift Container Platform components.

1.5.5. Creating the installation configuration file

You can customize the OpenShift Container Platform cluster you install on Amazon Web Services (AWS).

Prerequisites

  • Obtain the OpenShift Container Platform installation program and the pull secret for your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Create the install-config.yaml file.

    1. Run the following command:

      $ ./openshift-install create install-config --dir=<installation_directory> 1
      1
      For <installation_directory>, specify the directory name to store the files that the installation program creates.
      Important

      Specify an empty directory. Some installation assets, like bootstrap X.509 certificates have short expiration intervals, so you must not reuse an installation directory. If you want to reuse individual files from another cluster installation, you can copy them into your directory. However, the file names for the installation assets might change between releases. Use caution when copying installation files from an earlier OpenShift Container Platform version.

    2. At the prompts, provide the configuration details for your cloud:

      1. Optional: Select an SSH key to use to access your cluster machines.

        Note

        For production OpenShift Container Platform clusters on which you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, specify an SSH key that your ssh-agent process uses.

      2. Select AWS as the platform to target.
      3. If you do not have an Amazon Web Services (AWS) profile stored on your computer, enter the AWS access key ID and secret access key for the user that you configured to run the installation program.
      4. Select the AWS region to deploy the cluster to.
      5. Select the base domain for the Route53 service that you configured for your cluster.
      6. Enter a descriptive name for your cluster.
      7. Paste the pull secret that you obtained from the Pull Secret page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.
  2. Modify the install-config.yaml file. You can find more information about the available parameters in the Installation configuration parameters section.
  3. Back up the install-config.yaml file so that you can use it to install multiple clusters.

    Important

    The install-config.yaml file is consumed during the installation process. If you want to reuse the file, you must back it up now.

1.5.5.1. Installation configuration parameters

Before you deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster, you provide parameter values to describe your account on the cloud platform that hosts your cluster and optionally customize your cluster’s platform. When you create the install-config.yaml installation configuration file, you provide values for the required parameters through the command line. If you customize your cluster, you can modify the install-config.yaml file to provide more details about the platform.

Note

After installation, you cannot modify these parameters in the install-config.yaml file.

Table 1.4. Required parameters

ParameterDescriptionValues

apiVersion

The API version for the install-config.yaml content. The current version is v1. The installer may also support older API versions.

String

baseDomain

The base domain of your cloud provider. The base domain is used to create routes to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster components. The full DNS name for your cluster is a combination of the baseDomain and metadata.name parameter values that uses the <metadata.name>.<baseDomain> format.

A fully-qualified domain or subdomain name, such as example.com.

metadata

Kubernetes resource ObjectMeta, from which only the name parameter is consumed.

Object

metadata.name

The name of the cluster. DNS records for the cluster are all subdomains of {{.metadata.name}}.{{.baseDomain}}.

String of lowercase letters, hyphens (-), and periods (.), such as dev.

platform

The configuration for the specific platform upon which to perform the installation: aws, baremetal, azure, openstack, ovirt, vsphere. For additional information about platform.<platform> parameters, consult the following table for your specific platform.

Object

pullSecret

Get this pull secret from https://cloud.redhat.com/openshift/install/pull-secret to authenticate downloading container images for OpenShift Container Platform components from services such as Quay.io.

{
   "auths":{
      "cloud.openshift.com":{
         "auth":"b3Blb=",
         "email":"you@example.com"
      },
      "quay.io":{
         "auth":"b3Blb=",
         "email":"you@example.com"
      }
   }
}

Table 1.5. Optional parameters

ParameterDescriptionValues

additionalTrustBundle

A PEM-encoded X.509 certificate bundle that is added to the nodes' trusted certificate store. This trust bundle may also be used when a proxy has been configured.

String

compute

The configuration for the machines that comprise the compute nodes.

Array of machine-pool objects. For details, see the following "Machine-pool" table.

compute.architecture

Determines the instruction set architecture of the machines in the pool. Currently, heteregeneous clusters are not supported, so all pools must specify the same architecture. Valid values are amd64 (the default).

String

compute.hyperthreading

Whether to enable or disable simultaneous multithreading, or hyperthreading, on compute machines. By default, simultaneous multithreading is enabled to increase the performance of your machines' cores.

Important

If you disable simultaneous multithreading, ensure that your capacity planning accounts for the dramatically decreased machine performance.

Enabled or Disabled

compute.name

Required if you use compute. The name of the machine pool.

worker

compute.platform

Required if you use compute. Use this parameter to specify the cloud provider to host the worker machines. This parameter value must match the controlPlane.platform parameter value.

aws, azure, gcp, openstack, ovirt, vsphere, or {}

compute.replicas

The number of compute machines, which are also known as worker machines, to provision.

A positive integer greater than or equal to 2. The default value is 3.

controlPlane

The configuration for the machines that comprise the control plane.

Array of machine-pool objects. For details, see the following "Machine-pool" table.

controlPlane.architecture

Determines the instruction set architecture of the machines in the pool. Currently, heteregeneous clusters are not supported, so all pools must specify the same architecture. Valid values are amd64 (the default).

String

controlPlane.hyperthreading

Whether to enable or disable simultaneous multithreading, or hyperthreading, on control plane machines. By default, simultaneous multithreading is enabled to increase the performance of your machines' cores.

Important

If you disable simultaneous multithreading, ensure that your capacity planning accounts for the dramatically decreased machine performance.

Enabled or Disabled

controlPlane.name

Required if you use controlPlane. The name of the machine pool.

master

controlPlane.platform

Required if you use controlPlane. Use this parameter to specify the cloud provider that hosts the control plane machines. This parameter value must match the compute.platform parameter value.

aws, azure, gcp, openstack, ovirt, vsphere, or {}

controlPlane.replicas

The number of control plane machines to provision.

A positive integer greater than or equal to 3. The default value is 3.

credentialsMode

The Cloud Credential Operator (CCO) mode. If no mode is specified, the CCO dynamically tries to determine the capabilities of the provided credentials, with a preference for mint mode on the platforms where multiple modes are supported.

Note

Not all CCO modes are supported for all cloud providers. For more information on CCO modes, see the Cloud Credential Operator entry in the Red Hat Operators reference content.

Mint, Passthrough, Manual, or an empty string ("").

fips

Enable or disable FIPS mode. The default is false (disabled). If FIPS mode is enabled, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) machines that OpenShift Container Platform runs on bypass the default Kubernetes cryptography suite and use the cryptography modules that are provided with RHCOS instead.

false or true

imageContentSources

Sources and repositories for the release-image content.

Array of objects. Includes a source and, optionally, mirrors, as described in the following rows of this table.

imageContentSources.source

Required if you use imageContentSources. Specify the repository that users refer to, for example, in image pull specifications.

String

imageContentSources.mirrors

Specify one or more repositories that may also contain the same images.

Array of strings

networking

The configuration for the Pod network provider in the cluster.

Object

networking.clusterNetwork

The IP address pools for pods. The default is 10.128.0.0/14 with a host prefix of /23.

Array of objects

networking.clusterNetwork.cidr

Required if you use networking.clusterNetwork. The IP block address pool.

IP network. IP networks are represented as strings using Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation with a traditional IP address or network number, followed by the forward slash (/) character, followed by a decimal value between 0 and 32 that describes the number of significant bits. For example, 10.0.0.0/16 represents IP addresses 10.0.0.0 through 10.0.255.255.

networking.clusterNetwork.hostPrefix

Required if you use networking.clusterNetwork. The prefix size to allocate to each node from the CIDR. For example, 24 would allocate 2^8=256 adresses to each node.

Integer

networking.machineNetwork

The IP address pools for machines.

Array of objects

networking.machineNetwork.cidr

Required if you use networking.machineNetwork. The IP block address pool. The default is 10.0.0.0/16 for all platforms other than libvirt. For libvirt, the default is 192.168.126.0/24.

IP network. IP networks are represented as strings using Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation with a traditional IP address or network number, followed by the forward slash (/) character, followed by a decimal value between 0 and 32 that describes the number of significant bits. For example, 10.0.0.0/16 represents IP addresses 10.0.0.0 through 10.0.255.255.

networking.networkType

The type of network to install. The default is OpenShiftSDN.

String

networking.serviceNetwork

The IP address pools for services. The default is 172.30.0.0/16.

Array of IP networks. IP networks are represented as strings using Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation with a traditional IP address or network number, followed by the forward slash (/) character, followed by a decimal value between 0 and 32 that describes the number of significant bits. For example, 10.0.0.0/16 represents IP addresses 10.0.0.0 through 10.0.255.255.

publish

How to publish or expose the user-facing endpoints of your cluster, such as the Kubernetes API, OpenShift routes.

Internal or External. To deploy a private cluster, which cannot be accessed from the internet, set publish to Internal. The default value is External.

sshKey

The SSH key or keys to authenticate access your cluster machines.

Note

For production OpenShift Container Platform clusters on which you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, specify an SSH key that your ssh-agent process uses.

One or more keys. For example:

sshKey:
  <key1>
  <key2>
  <key3>

Table 1.6. Optional AWS parameters

ParameterDescriptionValues

compute.platform.aws.amiID

The AWS AMI used to boot compute machines for the cluster. This is required for regions that require a custom RHCOS AMI.

Any published or custom RHCOS AMI that belongs to the set AWS region.

compute.platform.aws.rootVolume.iops

The Input/Output Operations Per Second (IOPS) that is reserved for the root volume.

Integer, for example 4000.

compute.platform.aws.rootVolume.size

The size in GiB of the root volume.

Integer, for example 500.

compute.platform.aws.rootVolume.type

The instance type of the root volume.

Valid AWS EBS instance type, such as io1.

compute.platform.aws.type

The EC2 instance type for the compute machines.

Valid AWS instance type, such as c5.9xlarge.

compute.platform.aws.zones

The availability zones where the installation program creates machines for the compute MachinePool. If you provide your own VPC, you must provide a subnet in that availability zone.

A list of valid AWS availability zones, such as us-east-1c, in a YAML sequence.

compute.aws.region

The AWS region that the installation program creates compute resources in.

Any valid AWS region, such as us-east-1.

controlPlane.platform.aws.amiID

The AWS AMI used to boot control plane machines for the cluster. This is required for regions that require a custom RHCOS AMI.

Any published or custom RHCOS AMI that belongs to the set AWS region.

controlPlane.platform.aws.type

The EC2 instance type for the control plane machines.

Valid AWS instance type, such as c5.9xlarge.

controlPlane.platform.aws.zones

The availability zones where the installation program creates machines for the control plane MachinePool.

A list of valid AWS availability zones, such as us-east-1c, in a YAML sequence.

controlPlane.aws.region

The AWS region that the installation program creates control plane resources in.

Valid AWS region, such as us-east-1.

platform.aws.amiID

The AWS AMI used to boot all machines for the cluster. If set, the AMI must belong to the same region as the cluster. This is required for regions that require a custom RHCOS AMI.

Any published or custom RHCOS AMI that belongs to the set AWS region.

platform.aws.serviceEndpoints.name

The AWS service endpoint name. Custom endpoints are only required for cases where alternative AWS endpoints, like FIPS, must be used. Custom API endpoints can be specified for EC2, S3, IAM, Elastic Load Balancing, Tagging, Route 53, and STS AWS services.

Valid AWS service endpoint name.

platform.aws.serviceEndpoints.url

The AWS service endpoint URL. The URL must use the https protocol and the host must trust the certificate.

Valid AWS service endpoint URL.

platform.aws.userTags

A map of keys and values that the installation program adds as tags to all resources that it creates.

Any valid YAML map, such as key value pairs in the <key>: <value> format. For more information about AWS tags, see Tagging Your Amazon EC2 Resources in the AWS documentation.

platform.aws.subnets

If you provide the VPC instead of allowing the installation program to create the VPC for you, specify the subnet for the cluster to use. The subnet must be part of the same machineNetwork[].cidr ranges that you specify. For a standard cluster, specify a public and a private subnet for each availability zone. For a private cluster, specify a private subnet for each availability zone.

Valid subnet IDs.

1.5.5.2. Network configuration parameters

You can modify your cluster network configuration parameters in the install-config.yaml configuration file. The following table describes the parameters.

Note

You cannot modify these parameters in the install-config.yaml file after installation.

Table 1.7. Required network parameters

ParameterDescriptionValue

networking.networkType

The default Container Network Interface (CNI) network provider plug-in to deploy.

Either OpenShiftSDN or OVNKubernetes. The default value is OpenShiftSDN.

networking.clusterNetwork[].cidr

A block of IP addresses from which Pod IP addresses are allocated. The OpenShiftSDN network plug-in supports multiple cluster networks. The address blocks for multiple cluster networks must not overlap. Select address pools large enough to fit your anticipated workload.

An IP address allocation in CIDR format. The default value is 10.128.0.0/14.

networking.clusterNetwork[].hostPrefix

The subnet prefix length to assign to each individual node. For example, if hostPrefix is set to 23, then each node is assigned a /23 subnet out of the given cidr, allowing for 510 (2^(32 - 23) - 2) Pod IP addresses.

A subnet prefix. The default value is 23.

networking.serviceNetwork[]

A block of IP addresses for services. OpenShiftSDN allows only one serviceNetwork block. The address block must not overlap with any other network block.

An IP address allocation in CIDR format. The default value is 172.30.0.0/16.

networking.machineNetwork[].cidr

A block of IP addresses assigned to nodes created by the OpenShift Container Platform installation program while installing the cluster. The address block must not overlap with any other network block. Multiple CIDR ranges may be specified.

An IP address allocation in CIDR format. The default value is 10.0.0.0/16.

1.5.5.3. Sample customized install-config.yaml file for AWS

You can customize the install-config.yaml file to specify more details about your OpenShift Container Platform cluster’s platform or modify the values of the required parameters.

Important

This sample YAML file is provided for reference only. You must obtain your install-config.yaml file by using the installation program and modify it.

apiVersion: v1
baseDomain: example.com 1
credentialsMode: Mint 2
controlPlane: 3 4
  hyperthreading: Enabled 5
  name: master
  platform:
    aws:
      zones:
      - us-west-2a
      - us-west-2b
      rootVolume:
        iops: 4000
        size: 500
        type: io1 6
      type: m5.xlarge
  replicas: 3
compute: 7
- hyperthreading: Enabled 8
  name: worker
  platform:
    aws:
      rootVolume:
        iops: 2000
        size: 500
        type: io1 9
      type: c5.4xlarge
      zones:
      - us-west-2c
  replicas: 3
metadata:
  name: test-cluster 10
networking: 11
  clusterNetwork:
  - cidr: 10.128.0.0/14
    hostPrefix: 23
  machineNetwork:
  - cidr: 10.0.0.0/16
  networkType: OpenShiftSDN
  serviceNetwork:
  - 172.30.0.0/16
platform:
  aws:
    region: us-west-2 12
    userTags:
      adminContact: jdoe
      costCenter: 7536
    amiID: ami-96c6f8f7 13
    serviceEndpoints: 14
      - name: ec2
        url: https://vpce-id.ec2.us-west-2.vpce.amazonaws.com
pullSecret: '{"auths": ...}' 15
fips: false 16
sshKey: ssh-ed25519 AAAA... 17
1 10 12 15
Required. The installation program prompts you for this value.
2
Optional: Add this parameter to force the Cloud Credential Operator (CCO) to use the specified mode, instead of having the CCO dynamically try to determine the capabilities of the credentials. For details about CCO modes, see the Cloud Credential Operator entry in the Red Hat Operators reference content.
3 7 11
If you do not provide these parameters and values, the installation program provides the default value.
4
The controlPlane section is a single mapping, but the compute section is a sequence of mappings. To meet the requirements of the different data structures, the first line of the compute section must begin with a hyphen, -, and the first line of the controlPlane section must not. Although both sections currently define a single machine pool, it is possible that future versions of OpenShift Container Platform will support defining multiple compute pools during installation. Only one control plane pool is used.
5 8
Whether to enable or disable simultaneous multithreading, or hyperthreading. By default, simultaneous multithreading is enabled to increase the performance of your machines' cores. You can disable it by setting the parameter value to Disabled. If you disable simultaneous multithreading in some cluster machines, you must disable it in all cluster machines.
Important

If you disable simultaneous multithreading, ensure that your capacity planning accounts for the dramatically decreased machine performance. Use larger instance types, such as m4.2xlarge or m5.2xlarge, for your machines if you disable simultaneous multithreading.

6 9
To configure faster storage for etcd, especially for larger clusters, set the storage type as io1 and set iops to 2000.
13
The ID of the AMI used to boot machines for the cluster. If set, the AMI must belong to the same region as the cluster.
14
The AWS service endpoints. Custom endpoints are required when installing to an unknown AWS region. The endpoint URL must use the https protocol and the host must trust the certificate.
16
Whether to enable or disable FIPS mode. By default, FIPS mode is not enabled. If FIPS mode is enabled, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) machines that OpenShift Container Platform runs on bypass the default Kubernetes cryptography suite and use the cryptography modules that are provided with RHCOS instead.
17
You can optionally provide the sshKey value that you use to access the machines in your cluster.
Note

For production OpenShift Container Platform clusters on which you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, specify an SSH key that your ssh-agent process uses.

1.5.6. Modifying advanced network configuration parameters

You can modify the advanced network configuration parameters only before you install the cluster. Advanced configuration customization lets you integrate your cluster into your existing network environment by specifying an MTU or VXLAN port, by allowing customization of kube-proxy settings, and by specifying a different mode for the openshiftSDNConfig parameter.

Important

Modifying the OpenShift Container Platform manifest files directly is not supported.

Prerequisites

  • Create the install-config.yaml file and complete any modifications to it.

Procedure

  1. Use the following command to create manifests:

    $ ./openshift-install create manifests --dir=<installation_directory> 1
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the name of the directory that contains the install-config.yaml file for your cluster.
  2. Create a file that is named cluster-network-03-config.yml in the <installation_directory>/manifests/ directory:

    $ touch <installation_directory>/manifests/cluster-network-03-config.yml 1
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the directory name that contains the manifests/ directory for your cluster.

    After creating the file, several network configuration files are in the manifests/ directory, as shown:

    $ ls <installation_directory>/manifests/cluster-network-*

    Example output

    cluster-network-01-crd.yml
    cluster-network-02-config.yml
    cluster-network-03-config.yml

  3. Open the cluster-network-03-config.yml file in an editor and enter a CR that describes the Operator configuration you want:

    apiVersion: operator.openshift.io/v1
    kind: Network
    metadata:
      name: cluster
    spec: 1
      clusterNetwork:
      - cidr: 10.128.0.0/14
        hostPrefix: 23
      serviceNetwork:
      - 172.30.0.0/16
      defaultNetwork:
        type: OpenShiftSDN
        openshiftSDNConfig:
          mode: NetworkPolicy
          mtu: 1450
          vxlanPort: 4789
    1
    The parameters for the spec parameter are only an example. Specify your configuration for the Cluster Network Operator in the CR.

    The CNO provides default values for the parameters in the CR, so you must specify only the parameters that you want to change.

  4. Save the cluster-network-03-config.yml file and quit the text editor.
  5. Optional: Back up the manifests/cluster-network-03-config.yml file. The installation program deletes the manifests/ directory when creating the cluster.
Note

For more information on using a Network Load Balancer(NLB) on AWS, see Configuring Ingress cluster traffic on AWS using a Network Load Balancer.

1.5.7. Configuring an Ingress Controller Network Load Balancer on a new AWS cluster

You can create an Ingress Controller backed by an AWS Network Load Balancer (NLB) on a new cluster.

Prerequisites

  • Create the install-config.yaml file and complete any modifications to it.

Procedure

Create an Ingress Controller backed by an AWS NLB on a new cluster.

  1. Use the following command to create manifests:

    $ ./openshift-install create manifests --dir=<installation_directory> 1
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the name of the directory that contains the install-config.yaml file for your cluster.
  2. Create a file that is named cluster-ingress-default-ingresscontroller.yaml in the <installation_directory>/manifests/ directory:

    $ touch <installation_directory>/manifests/cluster-ingress-default-ingresscontroller.yaml 1
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the directory name that contains the manifests/ directory for your cluster.

    After creating the file, several network configuration files are in the manifests/ directory, as shown:

    $ ls <installation_directory>/manifests/cluster-ingress-default-ingresscontroller.yaml

    Example output

    cluster-ingress-default-ingresscontroller.yaml

  3. Open the cluster-ingress-default-ingresscontroller.yaml file in an editor and enter a CR that describes the Operator configuration you want:

    apiVersion: operator.openshift.io/v1
    kind: IngressController
    metadata:
      creationTimestamp: null
      name: default
      namespace: openshift-ingress-operator
    spec:
      endpointPublishingStrategy:
        loadBalancer:
          scope: External
          providerParameters:
            type: AWS
            aws:
              type: NLB
        type: LoadBalancerService
  4. Save the cluster-ingress-default-ingresscontroller.yaml file and quit the text editor.
  5. Optional: Back up the manifests/cluster-ingress-default-ingresscontroller.yaml file. The installation program deletes the manifests/ directory when creating the cluster.

1.5.8. Cluster Network Operator configuration

The configuration for the cluster network is specified as part of the Cluster Network Operator (CNO) configuration and stored in a CR object that is named cluster. The CR specifies the parameters for the Network API in the operator.openshift.io API group.

You can specify the cluster network configuration for your OpenShift Container Platform cluster by setting the parameter values for the defaultNetwork parameter in the CNO CR. The following CR displays the default configuration for the CNO and explains both the parameters you can configure and the valid parameter values:

Cluster Network Operator CR

apiVersion: operator.openshift.io/v1
kind: Network
metadata:
  name: cluster
spec:
  clusterNetwork: 1
  - cidr: 10.128.0.0/14
    hostPrefix: 23
  serviceNetwork: 2
  - 172.30.0.0/16
  defaultNetwork: 3
    ...
  kubeProxyConfig: 4
    iptablesSyncPeriod: 30s 5
    proxyArguments:
      iptables-min-sync-period: 6
      - 0s

1 2
Specified in the install-config.yaml file.
3
Configures the default Container Network Interface (CNI) network provider for the cluster network.
4
The parameters for this object specify the kube-proxy configuration. If you do not specify the parameter values, the Cluster Network Operator applies the displayed default parameter values. If you are using the OVN-Kubernetes default CNI network provider, the kube-proxy configuration has no effect.
5
The refresh period for iptables rules. The default value is 30s. Valid suffixes include s, m, and h and are described in the Go time package documentation.
Note

Because of performance improvements introduced in OpenShift Container Platform 4.3 and greater, adjusting the iptablesSyncPeriod parameter is no longer necessary.

6
The minimum duration before refreshing iptables rules. This parameter ensures that the refresh does not happen too frequently. Valid suffixes include s, m, and h and are described in the Go time package.

1.5.8.1. Configuration parameters for the OpenShift SDN default CNI network provider

The following YAML object describes the configuration parameters for the OpenShift SDN default Container Network Interface (CNI) network provider.

defaultNetwork:
  type: OpenShiftSDN 1
  openshiftSDNConfig: 2
    mode: NetworkPolicy 3
    mtu: 1450 4
    vxlanPort: 4789 5
1
Specified in the install-config.yaml file.
2
Specify only if you want to override part of the OpenShift SDN configuration.
3
Configures the network isolation mode for OpenShift SDN. The allowed values are Multitenant, Subnet, or NetworkPolicy. The default value is NetworkPolicy.
4
The maximum transmission unit (MTU) for the VXLAN overlay network. This value is normally configured automatically, but if the nodes in your cluster do not all use the same MTU, then you must set this explicitly to 50 less than the smallest node MTU value.
5
The port to use for all VXLAN packets. The default value is 4789. If you are running in a virtualized environment with existing nodes that are part of another VXLAN network, then you might be required to change this. For example, when running an OpenShift SDN overlay on top of VMware NSX-T, you must select an alternate port for VXLAN, since both SDNs use the same default VXLAN port number.

On Amazon Web Services (AWS), you can select an alternate port for the VXLAN between port 9000 and port 9999.

1.5.8.2. Configuration parameters for the OVN-Kubernetes default CNI network provider

The following YAML object describes the configuration parameters for the OVN-Kubernetes default CNI network provider.

defaultNetwork:
  type: OVNKubernetes 1
  ovnKubernetesConfig: 2
    mtu: 1400 3
    genevePort: 6081 4
1
Specified in the install-config.yaml file.
2
Specify only if you want to override part of the OVN-Kubernetes configuration.
3
The MTU for the Geneve (Generic Network Virtualization Encapsulation) overlay network. This value is normally configured automatically, but if the nodes in your cluster do not all use the same MTU, then you must set this explicitly to 100 less than the smallest node MTU value.
4
The UDP port for the Geneve overlay network.

1.5.8.3. Cluster Network Operator example configuration

A complete CR object for the CNO is displayed in the following example:

Cluster Network Operator example CR

apiVersion: operator.openshift.io/v1
kind: Network
metadata:
  name: cluster
spec:
  clusterNetwork:
  - cidr: 10.128.0.0/14
    hostPrefix: 23
  serviceNetwork:
  - 172.30.0.0/16
  defaultNetwork:
    type: OpenShiftSDN
    openshiftSDNConfig:
      mode: NetworkPolicy
      mtu: 1450
      vxlanPort: 4789
  kubeProxyConfig:
    iptablesSyncPeriod: 30s
    proxyArguments:
      iptables-min-sync-period:
      - 0s

1.5.9. Deploying the cluster

You can install OpenShift Container Platform on a compatible cloud platform.

Important

You can run the create cluster command of the installation program only once, during initial installation.

Prerequisites

  • Configure an account with the cloud platform that hosts your cluster.
  • Obtain the OpenShift Container Platform installation program and the pull secret for your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Run the installation program:

    $ ./openshift-install create cluster --dir=<installation_directory> \ 1
        --log-level=info 2
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the location of your customized ./install-config.yaml file.
    2
    To view different installation details, specify warn, debug, or error instead of info.
    Note

    If the cloud provider account that you configured on your host does not have sufficient permissions to deploy the cluster, the installation process stops, and the missing permissions are displayed.

    When the cluster deployment completes, directions for accessing your cluster, including a link to its web console and credentials for the kubeadmin user, display in your terminal.

    Important

    The Ignition config files that the installation program generates contain certificates that expire after 24 hours. You must keep the cluster running for 24 hours in a non-degraded state to ensure that the first certificate rotation has finished.

    Important

    You must not delete the installation program or the files that the installation program creates. Both are required to delete the cluster.

  2. Optional: Remove or disable the AdministratorAccess policy from the IAM account that you used to install the cluster.

1.5.10. Installing the CLI by downloading the binary

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) in order to interact with OpenShift Container Platform from a command-line interface. You can install oc on Linux, Windows, or macOS.

Important

If you installed an earlier version of oc, you cannot use it to complete all of the commands in OpenShift Container Platform 4.5. Download and install the new version of oc.

1.5.10.1. Installing the CLI on Linux

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on Linux by using the following procedure.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.
  2. Select your infrastructure provider, and, if applicable, your installation type.
  3. In the Command-line interface section, select Linux from the drop-down menu and click Download command-line tools.
  4. Unpack the archive:

    $ tar xvzf <file>
  5. Place the oc binary in a directory that is on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, execute the following command:

    $ echo $PATH

After you install the CLI, it is available using the oc command:

$ oc <command>

1.5.10.2. Installing the CLI on Windows

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on Windows by using the following procedure.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.
  2. Select your infrastructure provider, and, if applicable, your installation type.
  3. In the Command-line interface section, select Windows from the drop-down menu and click Download command-line tools.
  4. Unzip the archive with a ZIP program.
  5. Move the oc binary to a directory that is on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, open the command prompt and execute the following command:

    C:\> path

After you install the CLI, it is available using the oc command:

C:\> oc <command>

1.5.10.3. Installing the CLI on macOS

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on macOS by using the following procedure.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.
  2. Select your infrastructure provider, and, if applicable, your installation type.
  3. In the Command-line interface section, select MacOS from the drop-down menu and click Download command-line tools.
  4. Unpack and unzip the archive.
  5. Move the oc binary to a directory on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, open a terminal and execute the following command:

    $ echo $PATH

After you install the CLI, it is available using the oc command:

$ oc <command>

1.5.11. Logging in to the cluster

You can log in to your cluster as a default system user by exporting the cluster kubeconfig file. The kubeconfig file contains information about the cluster that is used by the CLI to connect a client to the correct cluster and API server. The file is specific to a cluster and is created during OpenShift Container Platform installation.

Prerequisites

  • Deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • Install the oc CLI.

Procedure

  1. Export the kubeadmin credentials:

    $ export KUBECONFIG=<installation_directory>/auth/kubeconfig 1
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the path to the directory that you stored the installation files in.
  2. Verify you can run oc commands successfully using the exported configuration:

    $ oc whoami

    Example output

    system:admin

1.5.12. Next steps

1.6. Installing a cluster on AWS into an existing VPC

In OpenShift Container Platform version 4.5, you can install a cluster into an existing Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) on Amazon Web Services (AWS). The installation program provisions the rest of the required infrastructure, which you can further customize. To customize the installation, you modify parameters in the install-config.yaml file before you install the cluster.

1.6.1. Prerequisites

  • Review details about the OpenShift Container Platform installation and update processes.
  • Configure an AWS account to host the cluster.

    Important

    If you have an AWS profile stored on your computer, it must not use a temporary session token that you generated while using a multi-factor authentication device. The cluster continues to use your current AWS credentials to create AWS resources for the entire life of the cluster, so you must use long-lived credentials. To generate appropriate keys, see Managing Access Keys for IAM Users in the AWS documentation. You can supply the keys when you run the installation program.

  • If you use a firewall, you must configure it to allow the sites that your cluster requires access to.
  • If you do not allow the system to manage identity and access management (IAM), then a cluster administrator can manually create and maintain IAM credentials. Manual mode can also be used in environments where the cloud IAM APIs are not reachable.

1.6.2. About using a custom VPC

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.5, you can deploy a cluster into existing subnets in an existing Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) in Amazon Web Services (AWS). By deploying OpenShift Container Platform into an existing AWS VPC, you might be able to avoid limit constraints in new accounts or more easily abide by the operational constraints that your company’s guidelines set. If you cannot obtain the infrastructure creation permissions that are required to create the VPC yourself, use this installation option.

Because the installation program cannot know what other components are also in your existing subnets, it cannot choose subnet CIDRs and so forth on your behalf. You must configure networking for the subnets that you install your cluster to yourself.

1.6.2.1. Requirements for using your VPC

The installation program no longer creates the following components:

  • Internet gateways
  • NAT gateways
  • Subnets
  • Route tables
  • VPCs
  • VPC DHCP options
  • VPC endpoints

If you use a custom VPC, you must correctly configure it and its subnets for the installation program and the cluster to use. The installation program cannot subdivide network ranges for the cluster to use, set route tables for the subnets, or set VPC options like DHCP, so you must do so before you install the cluster.

Your VPC must meet the following characteristics:

  • The VPC’s CIDR block must contain the Networking.MachineCIDR range, which is the IP address pool for cluster machines.
  • The VPC must not use the kubernetes.io/cluster/.*: owned tag.
  • You must enable the enableDnsSupport and enableDnsHostnames attributes in your VPC so that the cluster can use the Route53 zones that are attached to the VPC to resolve cluster’s internal DNS records. See DNS Support in Your VPC in the AWS documentation.

If you use a cluster with public access, you must create a public and a private subnet for each availability zone that your cluster uses. The installation program modifies your subnets to add the kubernetes.io/cluster/.*: shared tag, so your subnets must have at least one free tag slot available for it. Review the current Tag Restrictions in the AWS documentation to ensure that the installation program can add a tag to each subnet that you specify.

If you are working in a disconnected environment, you are unable to reach the public IP addresses for EC2 and ELB endpoints. To resolve this, you must create a VPC endpoint and attach it to the subnet that the clusters are using. The endpoints should be named as follows:

  • ec2.<region>.amazonaws.com
  • elasticloadbalancing.<region>.amazonaws.com
  • s3.<region>.amazonaws.com

Required VPC components

You must provide a suitable VPC and subnets that allow communication to your machines.

ComponentAWS typeDescription

VPC

  • AWS::EC2::VPC
  • AWS::EC2::VPCEndpoint

You must provide a public VPC for the cluster to use. The VPC uses an endpoint that references the route tables for each subnet to improve communication with the registry that is hosted in S3.

Public subnets

  • AWS::EC2::Subnet
  • AWS::EC2::SubnetNetworkAclAssociation

Your VPC must have public subnets for between 1 and 3 availability zones and associate them with appropriate Ingress rules.

Internet gateway

  • AWS::EC2::InternetGateway
  • AWS::EC2::VPCGatewayAttachment
  • AWS::EC2::RouteTable
  • AWS::EC2::Route
  • AWS::EC2::SubnetRouteTableAssociation
  • AWS::EC2::NatGateway
  • AWS::EC2::EIP

You must have a public internet gateway, with public routes, attached to the VPC. In the provided templates, each public subnet has a NAT gateway with an EIP address. These NAT gateways allow cluster resources, like private subnet instances, to reach the internet and are not required for some restricted network or proxy scenarios.

Network access control

  • AWS::EC2::NetworkAcl
  • AWS::EC2::NetworkAclEntry

You must allow the VPC to access the following ports:

Port

Reason

80

Inbound HTTP traffic

443

Inbound HTTPS traffic

22

Inbound SSH traffic

1024 - 65535

Inbound ephemeral traffic

0 - 65535

Outbound ephemeral traffic

Private subnets

  • AWS::EC2::Subnet
  • AWS::EC2::RouteTable
  • AWS::EC2::SubnetRouteTableAssociation

Your VPC can have private subnets. The provided CloudFormation templates can create private subnets for between 1 and 3 availability zones. If you use private subnets, you must provide appropriate routes and tables for them.

1.6.2.2. VPC validation

To ensure that the subnets that you provide are suitable, the installation program confirms the following data:

  • All the subnets that you specify exist.
  • You provide private subnets.
  • The subnet CIDRs belong to the machine CIDR that you specified.
  • You provide subnets for each availability zone. Each availability zone contains no more than one public and one private subnet. If you use a private cluster, provide only a private subnet for each availability zone. Otherwise, provide exactly one public and private subnet for each availability zone.
  • You provide a public subnet for each private subnet availability zone. Machines are not provisioned in availability zones that you do not provide private subnets for.

If you destroy a cluster that uses an existing VPC, the VPC is not deleted. When you remove the OpenShift Container Platform cluster from a VPC, the kubernetes.io/cluster/.*: shared tag is removed from the subnets that it used.

1.6.2.3. Division of permissions

Starting with OpenShift Container Platform 4.3, you do not need all of the permissions that are required for an installation program-provisioned infrastructure cluster to deploy a cluster. This change mimics the division of permissions that you might have at your company: some individuals can create different resource in your clouds than others. For example, you might be able to create application-specific items, like instances, buckets, and load balancers, but not networking-related components such as VPCs, subnets, or ingress rules.

The AWS credentials that you use when you create your cluster do not need the networking permissions that are required to make VPCs and core networking components within the VPC, such as subnets, routing tables, internet gateways, NAT, and VPN. You still need permission to make the application resources that the machines within the cluster require, such as ELBs, security groups, S3 buckets, and nodes.

1.6.2.4. Isolation between clusters

If you deploy OpenShift Container Platform to an existing network, the isolation of cluster services is reduced in the following ways:

  • You can install multiple OpenShift Container Platform clusters in the same VPC.
  • ICMP ingress is allowed from the entire network.
  • TCP 22 ingress (SSH) is allowed to the entire network.
  • Control plane TCP 6443 ingress (Kubernetes API) is allowed to the entire network.
  • Control plane TCP 22623 ingress (MCS) is allowed to the entire network.

1.6.3. Internet and Telemetry access for OpenShift Container Platform

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.5, you require access to the internet to install your cluster. The Telemetry service, which runs by default to provide metrics about cluster health and the success of updates, also requires internet access. If your cluster is connected to the internet, Telemetry runs automatically, and your cluster is registered to the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager (OCM).

Once you confirm that your Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager inventory is correct, either maintained automatically by Telemetry or manually using OCM, use subscription watch to track your OpenShift Container Platform subscriptions at the account or multi-cluster level.

You must have internet access to:

  • Access the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager page to download the installation program and perform subscription management. If the cluster has internet access and you do not disable Telemetry, that service automatically entitles your cluster.
  • Access Quay.io to obtain the packages that are required to install your cluster.
  • Obtain the packages that are required to perform cluster updates.
Important

If your cluster cannot have direct internet access, you can perform a restricted network installation on some types of infrastructure that you provision. During that process, you download the content that is required and use it to populate a mirror registry with the packages that you need to install a cluster and generate the installation program. With some installation types, the environment that you install your cluster in will not require internet access. Before you update the cluster, you update the content of the mirror registry.

1.6.4. Generating an SSH private key and adding it to the agent

If you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery on your cluster, you must provide an SSH key to both your ssh-agent and the installation program. You can use this key to access the bootstrap machine in a public cluster to troubleshoot installation issues.

Note

In a production environment, you require disaster recovery and debugging.

You can use this key to SSH into the master nodes as the user core. When you deploy the cluster, the key is added to the core user’s ~/.ssh/authorized_keys list.

Note

You must use a local key, not one that you configured with platform-specific approaches such as AWS key pairs.

Procedure

  1. If you do not have an SSH key that is configured for password-less authentication on your computer, create one. For example, on a computer that uses a Linux operating system, run the following command:

    $ ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -N '' \
        -f <path>/<file_name> 1
    1
    Specify the path and file name, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa, of the new SSH key.

    Running this command generates an SSH key that does not require a password in the location that you specified.

  2. Start the ssh-agent process as a background task:

    $ eval "$(ssh-agent -s)"

    Example output

    Agent pid 31874

  3. Add your SSH private key to the ssh-agent:

    $ ssh-add <path>/<file_name> 1

    Example output

    Identity added: /home/<you>/<path>/<file_name> (<computer_name>)

    1
    Specify the path and file name for your SSH private key, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa

Next steps

  • When you install OpenShift Container Platform, provide the SSH public key to the installation program.

1.6.5. Obtaining the installation program

Before you install OpenShift Container Platform, download the installation file on a local computer.

Prerequisites

  • A computer that runs Linux or macOS, with 500 MB of local disk space

Procedure

  1. Access the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site. If you have a Red Hat account, log in with your credentials. If you do not, create an account.
  2. Navigate to the page for your installation type, download the installation program for your operating system, and place the file in the directory where you will store the installation configuration files.

    Important

    The installation program creates several files on the computer that you use to install your cluster. You must keep both the installation program and the files that the installation program creates after you finish installing the cluster.

    Important

    Deleting the files created by the installation program does not remove your cluster, even if the cluster failed during installation. To remove your cluster, complete the OpenShift Container Platform uninstallation procedures for your specific cloud provider.

  3. Extract the installation program. For example, on a computer that uses a Linux operating system, run the following command:

    $ tar xvf openshift-install-linux.tar.gz
  4. From the Pull Secret page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site, download your installation pull secret as a .txt file. This pull secret allows you to authenticate with the services that are provided by the included authorities, including Quay.io, which serves the container images for OpenShift Container Platform components.

1.6.6. Creating the installation configuration file

You can customize the OpenShift Container Platform cluster you install on Amazon Web Services (AWS).

Prerequisites

  • Obtain the OpenShift Container Platform installation program and the pull secret for your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Create the install-config.yaml file.

    1. Run the following command:

      $ ./openshift-install create install-config --dir=<installation_directory> 1
      1
      For <installation_directory>, specify the directory name to store the files that the installation program creates.
      Important

      Specify an empty directory. Some installation assets, like bootstrap X.509 certificates have short expiration intervals, so you must not reuse an installation directory. If you want to reuse individual files from another cluster installation, you can copy them into your directory. However, the file names for the installation assets might change between releases. Use caution when copying installation files from an earlier OpenShift Container Platform version.

    2. At the prompts, provide the configuration details for your cloud:

      1. Optional: Select an SSH key to use to access your cluster machines.

        Note

        For production OpenShift Container Platform clusters on which you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, specify an SSH key that your ssh-agent process uses.

      2. Select AWS as the platform to target.
      3. If you do not have an Amazon Web Services (AWS) profile stored on your computer, enter the AWS access key ID and secret access key for the user that you configured to run the installation program.
      4. Select the AWS region to deploy the cluster to.
      5. Select the base domain for the Route53 service that you configured for your cluster.
      6. Enter a descriptive name for your cluster.
      7. Paste the pull secret that you obtained from the Pull Secret page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.
  2. Modify the install-config.yaml file. You can find more information about the available parameters in the Installation configuration parameters section.
  3. Back up the install-config.yaml file so that you can use it to install multiple clusters.

    Important

    The install-config.yaml file is consumed during the installation process. If you want to reuse the file, you must back it up now.

1.6.6.1. Installation configuration parameters

Before you deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster, you provide parameter values to describe your account on the cloud platform that hosts your cluster and optionally customize your cluster’s platform. When you create the install-config.yaml installation configuration file, you provide values for the required parameters through the command line. If you customize your cluster, you can modify the install-config.yaml file to provide more details about the platform.

Note

After installation, you cannot modify these parameters in the install-config.yaml file.

Table 1.8. Required parameters

ParameterDescriptionValues

apiVersion

The API version for the install-config.yaml content. The current version is v1. The installer may also support older API versions.

String

baseDomain

The base domain of your cloud provider. The base domain is used to create routes to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster components. The full DNS name for your cluster is a combination of the baseDomain and metadata.name parameter values that uses the <metadata.name>.<baseDomain> format.

A fully-qualified domain or subdomain name, such as example.com.

metadata

Kubernetes resource ObjectMeta, from which only the name parameter is consumed.

Object

metadata.name

The name of the cluster. DNS records for the cluster are all subdomains of {{.metadata.name}}.{{.baseDomain}}.

String of lowercase letters, hyphens (-), and periods (.), such as dev.

platform

The configuration for the specific platform upon which to perform the installation: aws, baremetal, azure, openstack, ovirt, vsphere. For additional information about platform.<platform> parameters, consult the following table for your specific platform.

Object

pullSecret

Get this pull secret from https://cloud.redhat.com/openshift/install/pull-secret to authenticate downloading container images for OpenShift Container Platform components from services such as Quay.io.

{
   "auths":{
      "cloud.openshift.com":{
         "auth":"b3Blb=",
         "email":"you@example.com"
      },
      "quay.io":{
         "auth":"b3Blb=",
         "email":"you@example.com"
      }
   }
}

Table 1.9. Optional parameters

ParameterDescriptionValues

additionalTrustBundle

A PEM-encoded X.509 certificate bundle that is added to the nodes' trusted certificate store. This trust bundle may also be used when a proxy has been configured.

String

compute

The configuration for the machines that comprise the compute nodes.

Array of machine-pool objects. For details, see the following "Machine-pool" table.

compute.architecture

Determines the instruction set architecture of the machines in the pool. Currently, heteregeneous clusters are not supported, so all pools must specify the same architecture. Valid values are amd64 (the default).

String

compute.hyperthreading

Whether to enable or disable simultaneous multithreading, or hyperthreading, on compute machines. By default, simultaneous multithreading is enabled to increase the performance of your machines' cores.

Important

If you disable simultaneous multithreading, ensure that your capacity planning accounts for the dramatically decreased machine performance.

Enabled or Disabled

compute.name

Required if you use compute. The name of the machine pool.

worker

compute.platform

Required if you use compute. Use this parameter to specify the cloud provider to host the worker machines. This parameter value must match the controlPlane.platform parameter value.

aws, azure, gcp, openstack, ovirt, vsphere, or {}

compute.replicas

The number of compute machines, which are also known as worker machines, to provision.

A positive integer greater than or equal to 2. The default value is 3.

controlPlane

The configuration for the machines that comprise the control plane.

Array of machine-pool objects. For details, see the following "Machine-pool" table.

controlPlane.architecture

Determines the instruction set architecture of the machines in the pool. Currently, heteregeneous clusters are not supported, so all pools must specify the same architecture. Valid values are amd64 (the default).

String

controlPlane.hyperthreading

Whether to enable or disable simultaneous multithreading, or hyperthreading, on control plane machines. By default, simultaneous multithreading is enabled to increase the performance of your machines' cores.

Important

If you disable simultaneous multithreading, ensure that your capacity planning accounts for the dramatically decreased machine performance.

Enabled or Disabled

controlPlane.name

Required if you use controlPlane. The name of the machine pool.

master

controlPlane.platform

Required if you use controlPlane. Use this parameter to specify the cloud provider that hosts the control plane machines. This parameter value must match the compute.platform parameter value.

aws, azure, gcp, openstack, ovirt, vsphere, or {}

controlPlane.replicas

The number of control plane machines to provision.

A positive integer greater than or equal to 3. The default value is 3.

credentialsMode

The Cloud Credential Operator (CCO) mode. If no mode is specified, the CCO dynamically tries to determine the capabilities of the provided credentials, with a preference for mint mode on the platforms where multiple modes are supported.

Note

Not all CCO modes are supported for all cloud providers. For more information on CCO modes, see the Cloud Credential Operator entry in the Red Hat Operators reference content.

Mint, Passthrough, Manual, or an empty string ("").

fips

Enable or disable FIPS mode. The default is false (disabled). If FIPS mode is enabled, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) machines that OpenShift Container Platform runs on bypass the default Kubernetes cryptography suite and use the cryptography modules that are provided with RHCOS instead.

false or true

imageContentSources

Sources and repositories for the release-image content.

Array of objects. Includes a source and, optionally, mirrors, as described in the following rows of this table.

imageContentSources.source

Required if you use imageContentSources. Specify the repository that users refer to, for example, in image pull specifications.

String

imageContentSources.mirrors

Specify one or more repositories that may also contain the same images.

Array of strings

networking

The configuration for the Pod network provider in the cluster.

Object

networking.clusterNetwork

The IP address pools for pods. The default is 10.128.0.0/14 with a host prefix of /23.

Array of objects

networking.clusterNetwork.cidr

Required if you use networking.clusterNetwork. The IP block address pool.

IP network. IP networks are represented as strings using Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation with a traditional IP address or network number, followed by the forward slash (/) character, followed by a decimal value between 0 and 32 that describes the number of significant bits. For example, 10.0.0.0/16 represents IP addresses 10.0.0.0 through 10.0.255.255.

networking.clusterNetwork.hostPrefix

Required if you use networking.clusterNetwork. The prefix size to allocate to each node from the CIDR. For example, 24 would allocate 2^8=256 adresses to each node.

Integer

networking.machineNetwork

The IP address pools for machines.

Array of objects

networking.machineNetwork.cidr

Required if you use networking.machineNetwork. The IP block address pool. The default is 10.0.0.0/16 for all platforms other than libvirt. For libvirt, the default is 192.168.126.0/24.

IP network. IP networks are represented as strings using Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation with a traditional IP address or network number, followed by the forward slash (/) character, followed by a decimal value between 0 and 32 that describes the number of significant bits. For example, 10.0.0.0/16 represents IP addresses 10.0.0.0 through 10.0.255.255.

networking.networkType

The type of network to install. The default is OpenShiftSDN.

String

networking.serviceNetwork

The IP address pools for services. The default is 172.30.0.0/16.

Array of IP networks. IP networks are represented as strings using Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation with a traditional IP address or network number, followed by the forward slash (/) character, followed by a decimal value between 0 and 32 that describes the number of significant bits. For example, 10.0.0.0/16 represents IP addresses 10.0.0.0 through 10.0.255.255.

publish

How to publish or expose the user-facing endpoints of your cluster, such as the Kubernetes API, OpenShift routes.

Internal or External. To deploy a private cluster, which cannot be accessed from the internet, set publish to Internal. The default value is External.

sshKey

The SSH key or keys to authenticate access your cluster machines.

Note

For production OpenShift Container Platform clusters on which you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, specify an SSH key that your ssh-agent process uses.

One or more keys. For example:

sshKey:
  <key1>
  <key2>
  <key3>

Table 1.10. Optional AWS parameters

ParameterDescriptionValues

compute.platform.aws.amiID

The AWS AMI used to boot compute machines for the cluster. This is required for regions that require a custom RHCOS AMI.

Any published or custom RHCOS AMI that belongs to the set AWS region.

compute.platform.aws.rootVolume.iops

The Input/Output Operations Per Second (IOPS) that is reserved for the root volume.

Integer, for example 4000.

compute.platform.aws.rootVolume.size

The size in GiB of the root volume.

Integer, for example 500.

compute.platform.aws.rootVolume.type

The instance type of the root volume.

Valid AWS EBS instance type, such as io1.

compute.platform.aws.type

The EC2 instance type for the compute machines.

Valid AWS instance type, such as c5.9xlarge.

compute.platform.aws.zones

The availability zones where the installation program creates machines for the compute MachinePool. If you provide your own VPC, you must provide a subnet in that availability zone.

A list of valid AWS availability zones, such as us-east-1c, in a YAML sequence.

compute.aws.region

The AWS region that the installation program creates compute resources in.

Any valid AWS region, such as us-east-1.

controlPlane.platform.aws.amiID

The AWS AMI used to boot control plane machines for the cluster. This is required for regions that require a custom RHCOS AMI.

Any published or custom RHCOS AMI that belongs to the set AWS region.

controlPlane.platform.aws.type

The EC2 instance type for the control plane machines.

Valid AWS instance type, such as c5.9xlarge.

controlPlane.platform.aws.zones

The availability zones where the installation program creates machines for the control plane MachinePool.

A list of valid AWS availability zones, such as us-east-1c, in a YAML sequence.

controlPlane.aws.region

The AWS region that the installation program creates control plane resources in.

Valid AWS region, such as us-east-1.

platform.aws.amiID

The AWS AMI used to boot all machines for the cluster. If set, the AMI must belong to the same region as the cluster. This is required for regions that require a custom RHCOS AMI.

Any published or custom RHCOS AMI that belongs to the set AWS region.

platform.aws.serviceEndpoints.name

The AWS service endpoint name. Custom endpoints are only required for cases where alternative AWS endpoints, like FIPS, must be used. Custom API endpoints can be specified for EC2, S3, IAM, Elastic Load Balancing, Tagging, Route 53, and STS AWS services.

Valid AWS service endpoint name.

platform.aws.serviceEndpoints.url

The AWS service endpoint URL. The URL must use the https protocol and the host must trust the certificate.

Valid AWS service endpoint URL.

platform.aws.userTags

A map of keys and values that the installation program adds as tags to all resources that it creates.

Any valid YAML map, such as key value pairs in the <key>: <value> format. For more information about AWS tags, see Tagging Your Amazon EC2 Resources in the AWS documentation.

platform.aws.subnets

If you provide the VPC instead of allowing the installation program to create the VPC for you, specify the subnet for the cluster to use. The subnet must be part of the same machineNetwork[].cidr ranges that you specify. For a standard cluster, specify a public and a private subnet for each availability zone. For a private cluster, specify a private subnet for each availability zone.

Valid subnet IDs.

1.6.6.2. Sample customized install-config.yaml file for AWS

You can customize the install-config.yaml file to specify more details about your OpenShift Container Platform cluster’s platform or modify the values of the required parameters.

Important

This sample YAML file is provided for reference only. You must obtain your install-config.yaml file by using the installation program and modify it.

apiVersion: v1
baseDomain: example.com 1
credentialsMode: Mint 2
controlPlane: 3 4
  hyperthreading: Enabled 5
  name: master
  platform:
    aws:
      zones:
      - us-west-2a
      - us-west-2b
      rootVolume:
        iops: 4000
        size: 500
        type: io1 6
      type: m5.xlarge
  replicas: 3
compute: 7
- hyperthreading: Enabled 8
  name: worker
  platform:
    aws:
      rootVolume:
        iops: 2000
        size: 500
        type: io1 9
      type: c5.4xlarge
      zones:
      - us-west-2c
  replicas: 3
metadata:
  name: test-cluster 10
networking:
  clusterNetwork:
  - cidr: 10.128.0.0/14
    hostPrefix: 23
  machineNetwork:
  - cidr: 10.0.0.0/16
  networkType: OpenShiftSDN
  serviceNetwork:
  - 172.30.0.0/16
platform:
  aws:
    region: us-west-2 11
    userTags:
      adminContact: jdoe
      costCenter: 7536
    subnets: 12
    - subnet-1
    - subnet-2
    - subnet-3
    amiID: ami-96c6f8f7 13
    serviceEndpoints: 14
      - name: ec2
        url: https://vpce-id.ec2.us-west-2.vpce.amazonaws.com
pullSecret: '{"auths": ...}' 15
fips: false 16
sshKey: ssh-ed25519 AAAA... 17
1 10 11 15
Required. The installation program prompts you for this value.
2
Optional: Add this parameter to force the Cloud Credential Operator (CCO) to use the specified mode, instead of having the CCO dynamically try to determine the capabilities of the credentials. For details about CCO modes, see the Cloud Credential Operator entry in the Red Hat Operators reference content.
3 7
If you do not provide these parameters and values, the installation program provides the default value.
4
The controlPlane section is a single mapping, but the compute section is a sequence of mappings. To meet the requirements of the different data structures, the first line of the compute section must begin with a hyphen, -, and the first line of the controlPlane section must not. Although both sections currently define a single machine pool, it is possible that future versions of OpenShift Container Platform will support defining multiple compute pools during installation. Only one control plane pool is used.
5 8
Whether to enable or disable simultaneous multithreading, or hyperthreading. By default, simultaneous multithreading is enabled to increase the performance of your machines' cores. You can disable it by setting the parameter value to Disabled. If you disable simultaneous multithreading in some cluster machines, you must disable it in all cluster machines.
Important

If you disable simultaneous multithreading, ensure that your capacity planning accounts for the dramatically decreased machine performance. Use larger instance types, such as m4.2xlarge or m5.2xlarge, for your machines if you disable simultaneous multithreading.

6 9
To configure faster storage for etcd, especially for larger clusters, set the storage type as io1 and set iops to 2000.
12
If you provide your own VPC, specify subnets for each availability zone that your cluster uses.
13
The ID of the AMI used to boot machines for the cluster. If set, the AMI must belong to the same region as the cluster.
14
The AWS service endpoints. Custom endpoints are required when installing to an unknown AWS region. The endpoint URL must use the https protocol and the host must trust the certificate.
16
Whether to enable or disable FIPS mode. By default, FIPS mode is not enabled. If FIPS mode is enabled, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) machines that OpenShift Container Platform runs on bypass the default Kubernetes cryptography suite and use the cryptography modules that are provided with RHCOS instead.
17
You can optionally provide the sshKey value that you use to access the machines in your cluster.
Note

For production OpenShift Container Platform clusters on which you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, specify an SSH key that your ssh-agent process uses.

1.6.6.3. Configuring the cluster-wide proxy during installation

Production environments can deny direct access to the Internet and instead have an HTTP or HTTPS proxy available. You can configure a new OpenShift Container Platform cluster to use a proxy by configuring the proxy settings in the install-config.yaml file.

Prerequisites

  • An existing install-config.yaml file.
  • Review the sites that your cluster requires access to and determine whether any need to bypass the proxy. By default, all cluster egress traffic is proxied, including calls to hosting cloud provider APIs. Add sites to the Proxy object’s spec.noProxy field to bypass the proxy if necessary.

    Note

    The Proxy object status.noProxy field is populated with the values of the networking.machineNetwork[].cidr, networking.clusterNetwork[].cidr, and networking.serviceNetwork[] fields from your installation configuration.

    For installations on Amazon Web Services (AWS), Google Cloud Platform (GCP), Microsoft Azure, and Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP), the Proxy object status.noProxy field is also populated with the instance metadata endpoint (169.254.169.254).

Procedure

  1. Edit your install-config.yaml file and add the proxy settings. For example:

    apiVersion: v1
    baseDomain: my.domain.com
    proxy:
      httpProxy: http://<username>:<pswd>@<ip>:<port> 1
      httpsProxy: http://<username>:<pswd>@<ip>:<port> 2
      noProxy: example.com 3
    additionalTrustBundle: | 4
        -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
        <MY_TRUSTED_CA_CERT>
        -----END CERTIFICATE-----
    ...
    1
    A proxy URL to use for creating HTTP connections outside the cluster. The URL scheme must be http. If you use an MITM transparent proxy network that does not require additional proxy configuration but requires additional CAs, you must not specify an httpProxy value.
    2
    A proxy URL to use for creating HTTPS connections outside the cluster. If this field is not specified, then httpProxy is used for both HTTP and HTTPS connections. If you use an MITM transparent proxy network that does not require additional proxy configuration but requires additional CAs, you must not specify an httpsProxy value.
    3
    A comma-separated list of destination domain names, domains, IP addresses, or other network CIDRs to exclude proxying. Preface a domain with . to include all subdomains of that domain. Use * to bypass proxy for all destinations.
    4
    If provided, the installation program generates a ConfigMap that is named user-ca-bundle in the openshift-config namespace that contains one or more additional CA certificates that are required for proxying HTTPS connections. The Cluster Network Operator then creates a trusted-ca-bundle ConfigMap that merges these contents with the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) trust bundle, and this ConfigMap is referenced in the Proxy object’s trustedCA field. The additionalTrustBundle field is required unless the proxy’s identity certificate is signed by an authority from the RHCOS trust bundle. If you use an MITM transparent proxy network that does not require additional proxy configuration but requires additional CAs, you must provide the MITM CA certificate.
    Note

    The installation program does not support the proxy readinessEndpoints field.

  2. Save the file and reference it when installing OpenShift Container Platform.

The installation program creates a cluster-wide proxy that is named cluster that uses the proxy settings in the provided install-config.yaml file. If no proxy settings are provided, a cluster Proxy object is still created, but it will have a nil spec.

Note

Only the Proxy object named cluster is supported, and no additional proxies can be created.

1.6.7. Deploying the cluster

You can install OpenShift Container Platform on a compatible cloud platform.

Important

You can run the create cluster command of the installation program only once, during initial installation.

Prerequisites

  • Configure an account with the cloud platform that hosts your cluster.
  • Obtain the OpenShift Container Platform installation program and the pull secret for your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Run the installation program:

    $ ./openshift-install create cluster --dir=<installation_directory> \ 1
        --log-level=info 2
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the location of your customized ./install-config.yaml file.
    2
    To view different installation details, specify warn, debug, or error instead of info.
    Note

    If the cloud provider account that you configured on your host does not have sufficient permissions to deploy the cluster, the installation process stops, and the missing permissions are displayed.

    When the cluster deployment completes, directions for accessing your cluster, including a link to its web console and credentials for the kubeadmin user, display in your terminal.

    Important

    The Ignition config files that the installation program generates contain certificates that expire after 24 hours. You must keep the cluster running for 24 hours in a non-degraded state to ensure that the first certificate rotation has finished.

    Important

    You must not delete the installation program or the files that the installation program creates. Both are required to delete the cluster.

  2. Optional: Remove or disable the AdministratorAccess policy from the IAM account that you used to install the cluster.

1.6.8. Installing the CLI by downloading the binary

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) in order to interact with OpenShift Container Platform from a command-line interface. You can install oc on Linux, Windows, or macOS.

Important

If you installed an earlier version of oc, you cannot use it to complete all of the commands in OpenShift Container Platform 4.5. Download and install the new version of oc.

1.6.8.1. Installing the CLI on Linux

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on Linux by using the following procedure.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.
  2. Select your infrastructure provider, and, if applicable, your installation type.
  3. In the Command-line interface section, select Linux from the drop-down menu and click Download command-line tools.
  4. Unpack the archive:

    $ tar xvzf <file>
  5. Place the oc binary in a directory that is on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, execute the following command:

    $ echo $PATH

After you install the CLI, it is available using the oc command:

$ oc <command>

1.6.8.2. Installing the CLI on Windows

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on Windows by using the following procedure.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.
  2. Select your infrastructure provider, and, if applicable, your installation type.
  3. In the Command-line interface section, select Windows from the drop-down menu and click Download command-line tools.
  4. Unzip the archive with a ZIP program.
  5. Move the oc binary to a directory that is on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, open the command prompt and execute the following command:

    C:\> path

After you install the CLI, it is available using the oc command:

C:\> oc <command>

1.6.8.3. Installing the CLI on macOS

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on macOS by using the following procedure.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.
  2. Select your infrastructure provider, and, if applicable, your installation type.
  3. In the Command-line interface section, select MacOS from the drop-down menu and click Download command-line tools.
  4. Unpack and unzip the archive.
  5. Move the oc binary to a directory on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, open a terminal and execute the following command:

    $ echo $PATH

After you install the CLI, it is available using the oc command:

$ oc <command>

1.6.9. Logging in to the cluster

You can log in to your cluster as a default system user by exporting the cluster kubeconfig file. The kubeconfig file contains information about the cluster that is used by the CLI to connect a client to the correct cluster and API server. The file is specific to a cluster and is created during OpenShift Container Platform installation.

Prerequisites

  • Deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • Install the oc CLI.

Procedure

  1. Export the kubeadmin credentials:

    $ export KUBECONFIG=<installation_directory>/auth/kubeconfig 1
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the path to the directory that you stored the installation files in.
  2. Verify you can run oc commands successfully using the exported configuration:

    $ oc whoami

    Example output

    system:admin

1.6.10. Next steps

1.7. Installing a private cluster on AWS

In OpenShift Container Platform version 4.5, you can install a private cluster into an existing VPC on Amazon Web Services (AWS). The installation program provisions the rest of the required infrastructure, which you can further customize. To customize the installation, you modify parameters in the install-config.yaml file before you install the cluster.

1.7.1. Prerequisites

  • Review details about the OpenShift Container Platform installation and update processes.
  • Configure an AWS account to host the cluster.

    Important

    If you have an AWS profile stored on your computer, it must not use a temporary session token that you generated while using a multi-factor authentication device. The cluster continues to use your current AWS credentials to create AWS resources for the entire life of the cluster, so you must use long-lived credentials. To generate appropriate keys, see Managing Access Keys for IAM Users in the AWS documentation. You can supply the keys when you run the installation program.

  • If you use a firewall, you must configure it to allow the sites that your cluster requires access to.
  • If you do not allow the system to manage identity and access management (IAM), then a cluster administrator can manually create and maintain IAM credentials. Manual mode can also be used in environments where the cloud IAM APIs are not reachable.

1.7.2. Private clusters

You can deploy a private OpenShift Container Platform cluster that does not expose external endpoints. Private clusters are accessible from only an internal network and are not visible to the Internet.

By default, OpenShift Container Platform is provisioned to use publicly-accessible DNS and endpoints. A private cluster sets the DNS, Ingress Controller, and API server to private when you deploy your cluster. This means that the cluster resources are only accessible from your internal network and are not visible to the internet.

To deploy a private cluster, you must use existing networking that meets your requirements. Your cluster resources might be shared between other clusters on the network.

Additionally, you must deploy a private cluster from a machine that has access the API services for the cloud you provision to, the hosts on the network that you provision, and to the internet to obtain installation media. You can use any machine that meets these access requirements and follows your company’s guidelines. For example, this machine can be a bastion host on your cloud network or a machine that has access to the network through a VPN.

1.7.2.1. Private clusters in AWS

To create a private cluster on Amazon Web Services (AWS), you must provide an existing private VPC and subnets to host the cluster. The installation program must also be able to resolve the DNS records that the cluster requires. The installation program configures the Ingress Operator and API server for access from only the private network.

The cluster still requires access to Internet to access the AWS APIs.

The following items are not required or created when you install a private cluster:

  • Public subnets
  • Public load balancers, which support public ingress
  • A public Route 53 Zone that matches the baseDomain for the cluster

The installation program does use the baseDomain that you specify to create a private Route 53 Zone and the required records for the cluster. The cluster is configured so that the Operators do not create public records for the cluster and all cluster machines are placed in the private subnets that you specify.

1.7.2.1.1. Limitations

The ability to add public functionality to a private cluster is limited.

  • You cannot make the Kubernetes API endpoints public after installation without taking additional actions, including creating public subnets in the VPC for each availablity zone in use, creating a public load balancer, and configuring the control plane security groups to allow traffic from Internet on 6443 (Kubernetes API port).
  • If you use a public Service type load balancer, you must tag a public subnet in each availability zone with kubernetes.io/cluster/<cluster-infra-id>: shared so that AWS can use them to create public load balancers.

1.7.3. About using a custom VPC

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.5, you can deploy a cluster into existing subnets in an existing Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) in Amazon Web Services (AWS). By deploying OpenShift Container Platform into an existing AWS VPC, you might be able to avoid limit constraints in new accounts or more easily abide by the operational constraints that your company’s guidelines set. If you cannot obtain the infrastructure creation permissions that are required to create the VPC yourself, use this installation option.

Because the installation program cannot know what other components are also in your existing subnets, it cannot choose subnet CIDRs and so forth on your behalf. You must configure networking for the subnets that you install your cluster to yourself.

1.7.3.1. Requirements for using your VPC

The installation program no longer creates the following components:

  • Internet gateways
  • NAT gateways
  • Subnets
  • Route tables
  • VPCs
  • VPC DHCP options
  • VPC endpoints

If you use a custom VPC, you must correctly configure it and its subnets for the installation program and the cluster to use. The installation program cannot subdivide network ranges for the cluster to use, set route tables for the subnets, or set VPC options like DHCP, so you must do so before you install the cluster.

Your VPC must meet the following characteristics:

  • The VPC’s CIDR block must contain the Networking.MachineCIDR range, which is the IP address pool for cluster machines.
  • The VPC must not use the kubernetes.io/cluster/.*: owned tag.
  • You must enable the enableDnsSupport and enableDnsHostnames attributes in your VPC so that the cluster can use the Route53 zones that are attached to the VPC to resolve cluster’s internal DNS records. See DNS Support in Your VPC in the AWS documentation.

If you use a cluster with public access, you must create a public and a private subnet for each availability zone that your cluster uses. The installation program modifies your subnets to add the kubernetes.io/cluster/.*: shared tag, so your subnets must have at least one free tag slot available for it. Review the current Tag Restrictions in the AWS documentation to ensure that the installation program can add a tag to each subnet that you specify.

If you are working in a disconnected environment, you are unable to reach the public IP addresses for EC2 and ELB endpoints. To resolve this, you must create a VPC endpoint and attach it to the subnet that the clusters are using. The endpoints should be named as follows:

  • ec2.<region>.amazonaws.com
  • elasticloadbalancing.<region>.amazonaws.com
  • s3.<region>.amazonaws.com

Required VPC components

You must provide a suitable VPC and subnets that allow communication to your machines.

ComponentAWS typeDescription

VPC

  • AWS::EC2::VPC
  • AWS::EC2::VPCEndpoint

You must provide a public VPC for the cluster to use. The VPC uses an endpoint that references the route tables for each subnet to improve communication with the registry that is hosted in S3.

Public subnets

  • AWS::EC2::Subnet
  • AWS::EC2::SubnetNetworkAclAssociation

Your VPC must have public subnets for between 1 and 3 availability zones and associate them with appropriate Ingress rules.

Internet gateway

  • AWS::EC2::InternetGateway
  • AWS::EC2::VPCGatewayAttachment
  • AWS::EC2::RouteTable
  • AWS::EC2::Route
  • AWS::EC2::SubnetRouteTableAssociation
  • AWS::EC2::NatGateway
  • AWS::EC2::EIP

You must have a public internet gateway, with public routes, attached to the VPC. In the provided templates, each public subnet has a NAT gateway with an EIP address. These NAT gateways allow cluster resources, like private subnet instances, to reach the internet and are not required for some restricted network or proxy scenarios.

Network access control

  • AWS::EC2::NetworkAcl
  • AWS::EC2::NetworkAclEntry

You must allow the VPC to access the following ports:

Port

Reason

80

Inbound HTTP traffic

443

Inbound HTTPS traffic

22

Inbound SSH traffic

1024 - 65535

Inbound ephemeral traffic

0 - 65535

Outbound ephemeral traffic

Private subnets

  • AWS::EC2::Subnet
  • AWS::EC2::RouteTable
  • AWS::EC2::SubnetRouteTableAssociation

Your VPC can have private subnets. The provided CloudFormation templates can create private subnets for between 1 and 3 availability zones. If you use private subnets, you must provide appropriate routes and tables for them.

1.7.3.2. VPC validation

To ensure that the subnets that you provide are suitable, the installation program confirms the following data:

  • All the subnets that you specify exist.
  • You provide private subnets.
  • The subnet CIDRs belong to the machine CIDR that you specified.
  • You provide subnets for each availability zone. Each availability zone contains no more than one public and one private subnet. If you use a private cluster, provide only a private subnet for each availability zone. Otherwise, provide exactly one public and private subnet for each availability zone.
  • You provide a public subnet for each private subnet availability zone. Machines are not provisioned in availability zones that you do not provide private subnets for.

If you destroy a cluster that uses an existing VPC, the VPC is not deleted. When you remove the OpenShift Container Platform cluster from a VPC, the kubernetes.io/cluster/.*: shared tag is removed from the subnets that it used.

1.7.3.3. Division of permissions

Starting with OpenShift Container Platform 4.3, you do not need all of the permissions that are required for an installation program-provisioned infrastructure cluster to deploy a cluster. This change mimics the division of permissions that you might have at your company: some individuals can create different resource in your clouds than others. For example, you might be able to create application-specific items, like instances, buckets, and load balancers, but not networking-related components such as VPCs, subnets, or ingress rules.

The AWS credentials that you use when you create your cluster do not need the networking permissions that are required to make VPCs and core networking components within the VPC, such as subnets, routing tables, internet gateways, NAT, and VPN. You still need permission to make the application resources that the machines within the cluster require, such as ELBs, security groups, S3 buckets, and nodes.

1.7.3.4. Isolation between clusters

If you deploy OpenShift Container Platform to an existing network, the isolation of cluster services is reduced in the following ways:

  • You can install multiple OpenShift Container Platform clusters in the same VPC.
  • ICMP ingress is allowed from the entire network.
  • TCP 22 ingress (SSH) is allowed to the entire network.
  • Control plane TCP 6443 ingress (Kubernetes API) is allowed to the entire network.
  • Control plane TCP 22623 ingress (MCS) is allowed to the entire network.

1.7.4. Internet and Telemetry access for OpenShift Container Platform

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.5, you require access to the internet to install your cluster. The Telemetry service, which runs by default to provide metrics about cluster health and the success of updates, also requires internet access. If your cluster is connected to the internet, Telemetry runs automatically, and your cluster is registered to the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager (OCM).

Once you confirm that your Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager inventory is correct, either maintained automatically by Telemetry or manually using OCM, use subscription watch to track your OpenShift Container Platform subscriptions at the account or multi-cluster level.

You must have internet access to:

  • Access the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager page to download the installation program and perform subscription management. If the cluster has internet access and you do not disable Telemetry, that service automatically entitles your cluster.
  • Access Quay.io to obtain the packages that are required to install your cluster.
  • Obtain the packages that are required to perform cluster updates.
Important

If your cluster cannot have direct internet access, you can perform a restricted network installation on some types of infrastructure that you provision. During that process, you download the content that is required and use it to populate a mirror registry with the packages that you need to install a cluster and generate the installation program. With some installation types, the environment that you install your cluster in will not require internet access. Before you update the cluster, you update the content of the mirror registry.

1.7.5. Generating an SSH private key and adding it to the agent

If you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery on your cluster, you must provide an SSH key to both your ssh-agent and the installation program. You can use this key to access the bootstrap machine in a public cluster to troubleshoot installation issues.

Note

In a production environment, you require disaster recovery and debugging.

You can use this key to SSH into the master nodes as the user core. When you deploy the cluster, the key is added to the core user’s ~/.ssh/authorized_keys list.

Note

You must use a local key, not one that you configured with platform-specific approaches such as AWS key pairs.

Procedure

  1. If you do not have an SSH key that is configured for password-less authentication on your computer, create one. For example, on a computer that uses a Linux operating system, run the following command:

    $ ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -N '' \
        -f <path>/<file_name> 1
    1
    Specify the path and file name, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa, of the new SSH key.

    Running this command generates an SSH key that does not require a password in the location that you specified.

  2. Start the ssh-agent process as a background task:

    $ eval "$(ssh-agent -s)"

    Example output

    Agent pid 31874

  3. Add your SSH private key to the ssh-agent:

    $ ssh-add <path>/<file_name> 1

    Example output

    Identity added: /home/<you>/<path>/<file_name> (<computer_name>)

    1
    Specify the path and file name for your SSH private key, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa

Next steps

  • When you install OpenShift Container Platform, provide the SSH public key to the installation program.

1.7.6. Obtaining the installation program

Before you install OpenShift Container Platform, download the installation file on a local computer.

Prerequisites

  • A computer that runs Linux or macOS, with 500 MB of local disk space

Procedure

  1. Access the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site. If you have a Red Hat account, log in with your credentials. If you do not, create an account.
  2. Navigate to the page for your installation type, download the installation program for your operating system, and place the file in the directory where you will store the installation configuration files.

    Important

    The installation program creates several files on the computer that you use to install your cluster. You must keep both the installation program and the files that the installation program creates after you finish installing the cluster.

    Important

    Deleting the files created by the installation program does not remove your cluster, even if the cluster failed during installation. To remove your cluster, complete the OpenShift Container Platform uninstallation procedures for your specific cloud provider.

  3. Extract the installation program. For example, on a computer that uses a Linux operating system, run the following command:

    $ tar xvf openshift-install-linux.tar.gz
  4. From the Pull Secret page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site, download your installation pull secret as a .txt file. This pull secret allows you to authenticate with the services that are provided by the included authorities, including Quay.io, which serves the container images for OpenShift Container Platform components.

1.7.7. Manually creating the installation configuration file

For installations of a private OpenShift Container Platform cluster that are only accessible from an internal network and are not visible to the Internet, you must manually generate your installation configuration file.

Prerequisites

  • Obtain the OpenShift Container Platform installation program and the access token for your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Create an installation directory to store your required installation assets in:

    $ mkdir <installation_directory>
    Important

    You must create a directory. Some installation assets, like bootstrap X.509 certificates have short expiration intervals, so you must not reuse an installation directory. If you want to reuse individual files from another cluster installation, you can copy them into your directory. However, the file names for the installation assets might change between releases. Use caution when copying installation files from an earlier OpenShift Container Platform version.

  2. Customize the following install-config.yaml file template and save it in the <installation_directory>.

    Note

    You must name this configuration file install-config.yaml.

  3. Back up the install-config.yaml file so that you can use it to install multiple clusters.

    Important

    The install-config.yaml file is consumed during the next step of the installation process. You must back it up now.

1.7.7.1. Installation configuration parameters

Before you deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster, you provide parameter values to describe your account on the cloud platform that hosts your cluster and optionally customize your cluster’s platform. When you create the install-config.yaml installation configuration file, you provide values for the required parameters through the command line. If you customize your cluster, you can modify the install-config.yaml file to provide more details about the platform.

Note

After installation, you cannot modify these parameters in the install-config.yaml file.

Table 1.11. Required parameters

ParameterDescriptionValues

apiVersion

The API version for the install-config.yaml content. The current version is v1. The installer may also support older API versions.

String

baseDomain

The base domain of your cloud provider. The base domain is used to create routes to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster components. The full DNS name for your cluster is a combination of the baseDomain and metadata.name parameter values that uses the <metadata.name>.<baseDomain> format.

A fully-qualified domain or subdomain name, such as example.com.

metadata

Kubernetes resource ObjectMeta, from which only the name parameter is consumed.

Object

metadata.name

The name of the cluster. DNS records for the cluster are all subdomains of {{.metadata.name}}.{{.baseDomain}}.

String of lowercase letters, hyphens (-), and periods (.), such as dev.

platform

The configuration for the specific platform upon which to perform the installation: aws, baremetal, azure, openstack, ovirt, vsphere. For additional information about platform.<platform> parameters, consult the following table for your specific platform.

Object

pullSecret

Get this pull secret from https://cloud.redhat.com/openshift/install/pull-secret to authenticate downloading container images for OpenShift Container Platform components from services such as Quay.io.

{
   "auths":{
      "cloud.openshift.com":{
         "auth":"b3Blb=",
         "email":"you@example.com"
      },
      "quay.io":{
         "auth":"b3Blb=",
         "email":"you@example.com"
      }
   }
}

Table 1.12. Optional parameters

ParameterDescriptionValues

additionalTrustBundle

A PEM-encoded X.509 certificate bundle that is added to the nodes' trusted certificate store. This trust bundle may also be used when a proxy has been configured.

String

compute

The configuration for the machines that comprise the compute nodes.

Array of machine-pool objects. For details, see the following "Machine-pool" table.

compute.architecture

Determines the instruction set architecture of the machines in the pool. Currently, heteregeneous clusters are not supported, so all pools must specify the same architecture. Valid values are amd64 (the default).

String

compute.hyperthreading

Whether to enable or disable simultaneous multithreading, or hyperthreading, on compute machines. By default, simultaneous multithreading is enabled to increase the performance of your machines' cores.

Important

If you disable simultaneous multithreading, ensure that your capacity planning accounts for the dramatically decreased machine performance.

Enabled or Disabled

compute.name

Required if you use compute. The name of the machine pool.

worker

compute.platform

Required if you use compute. Use this parameter to specify the cloud provider to host the worker machines. This parameter value must match the controlPlane.platform parameter value.

aws, azure, gcp, openstack, ovirt, vsphere, or {}

compute.replicas

The number of compute machines, which are also known as worker machines, to provision.

A positive integer greater than or equal to 2. The default value is 3.

controlPlane

The configuration for the machines that comprise the control plane.

Array of machine-pool objects. For details, see the following "Machine-pool" table.

controlPlane.architecture

Determines the instruction set architecture of the machines in the pool. Currently, heteregeneous clusters are not supported, so all pools must specify the same architecture. Valid values are amd64 (the default).

String

controlPlane.hyperthreading

Whether to enable or disable simultaneous multithreading, or hyperthreading, on control plane machines. By default, simultaneous multithreading is enabled to increase the performance of your machines' cores.

Important

If you disable simultaneous multithreading, ensure that your capacity planning accounts for the dramatically decreased machine performance.

Enabled or Disabled

controlPlane.name

Required if you use controlPlane. The name of the machine pool.

master

controlPlane.platform

Required if you use controlPlane. Use this parameter to specify the cloud provider that hosts the control plane machines. This parameter value must match the compute.platform parameter value.

aws, azure, gcp, openstack, ovirt, vsphere, or {}

controlPlane.replicas

The number of control plane machines to provision.

A positive integer greater than or equal to 3. The default value is 3.

credentialsMode

The Cloud Credential Operator (CCO) mode. If no mode is specified, the CCO dynamically tries to determine the capabilities of the provided credentials, with a preference for mint mode on the platforms where multiple modes are supported.

Note

Not all CCO modes are supported for all cloud providers. For more information on CCO modes, see the Cloud Credential Operator entry in the Red Hat Operators reference content.

Mint, Passthrough, Manual, or an empty string ("").

fips

Enable or disable FIPS mode. The default is false (disabled). If FIPS mode is enabled, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) machines that OpenShift Container Platform runs on bypass the default Kubernetes cryptography suite and use the cryptography modules that are provided with RHCOS instead.

false or true

imageContentSources

Sources and repositories for the release-image content.

Array of objects. Includes a source and, optionally, mirrors, as described in the following rows of this table.

imageContentSources.source

Required if you use imageContentSources. Specify the repository that users refer to, for example, in image pull specifications.

String

imageContentSources.mirrors

Specify one or more repositories that may also contain the same images.

Array of strings

networking

The configuration for the Pod network provider in the cluster.

Object

networking.clusterNetwork

The IP address pools for pods. The default is 10.128.0.0/14 with a host prefix of /23.

Array of objects

networking.clusterNetwork.cidr

Required if you use networking.clusterNetwork. The IP block address pool.

IP network. IP networks are represented as strings using Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation with a traditional IP address or network number, followed by the forward slash (/) character, followed by a decimal value between 0 and 32 that describes the number of significant bits. For example, 10.0.0.0/16 represents IP addresses 10.0.0.0 through 10.0.255.255.

networking.clusterNetwork.hostPrefix

Required if you use networking.clusterNetwork. The prefix size to allocate to each node from the CIDR. For example, 24 would allocate 2^8=256 adresses to each node.

Integer

networking.machineNetwork

The IP address pools for machines.

Array of objects

networking.machineNetwork.cidr

Required if you use networking.machineNetwork. The IP block address pool. The default is 10.0.0.0/16 for all platforms other than libvirt. For libvirt, the default is 192.168.126.0/24.

IP network. IP networks are represented as strings using Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation with a traditional IP address or network number, followed by the forward slash (/) character, followed by a decimal value between 0 and 32 that describes the number of significant bits. For example, 10.0.0.0/16 represents IP addresses 10.0.0.0 through 10.0.255.255.

networking.networkType

The type of network to install. The default is OpenShiftSDN.

String

networking.serviceNetwork

The IP address pools for services. The default is 172.30.0.0/16.

Array of IP networks. IP networks are represented as strings using Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation with a traditional IP address or network number, followed by the forward slash (/) character, followed by a decimal value between 0 and 32 that describes the number of significant bits. For example, 10.0.0.0/16 represents IP addresses 10.0.0.0 through 10.0.255.255.

publish

How to publish or expose the user-facing endpoints of your cluster, such as the Kubernetes API, OpenShift routes.

Internal or External. To deploy a private cluster, which cannot be accessed from the internet, set publish to Internal. The default value is External.

sshKey

The SSH key or keys to authenticate access your cluster machines.

Note

For production OpenShift Container Platform clusters on which you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, specify an SSH key that your ssh-agent process uses.

One or more keys. For example:

sshKey:
  <key1>
  <key2>
  <key3>

Table 1.13. Optional AWS parameters

ParameterDescriptionValues

compute.platform.aws.amiID

The AWS AMI used to boot compute machines for the cluster. This is required for regions that require a custom RHCOS AMI.

Any published or custom RHCOS AMI that belongs to the set AWS region.

compute.platform.aws.rootVolume.iops

The Input/Output Operations Per Second (IOPS) that is reserved for the root volume.

Integer, for example 4000.

compute.platform.aws.rootVolume.size

The size in GiB of the root volume.

Integer, for example 500.

compute.platform.aws.rootVolume.type

The instance type of the root volume.

Valid AWS EBS instance type, such as io1.

compute.platform.aws.type

The EC2 instance type for the compute machines.

Valid AWS instance type, such as c5.9xlarge.

compute.platform.aws.zones

The availability zones where the installation program creates machines for the compute MachinePool. If you provide your own VPC, you must provide a subnet in that availability zone.

A list of valid AWS availability zones, such as us-east-1c, in a YAML sequence.

compute.aws.region

The AWS region that the installation program creates compute resources in.

Any valid AWS region, such as us-east-1.

controlPlane.platform.aws.amiID

The AWS AMI used to boot control plane machines for the cluster. This is required for regions that require a custom RHCOS AMI.

Any published or custom RHCOS AMI that belongs to the set AWS region.

controlPlane.platform.aws.type

The EC2 instance type for the control plane machines.

Valid AWS instance type, such as c5.9xlarge.

controlPlane.platform.aws.zones

The availability zones where the installation program creates machines for the control plane MachinePool.

A list of valid AWS availability zones, such as us-east-1c, in a YAML sequence.

controlPlane.aws.region

The AWS region that the installation program creates control plane resources in.

Valid AWS region, such as us-east-1.

platform.aws.amiID

The AWS AMI used to boot all machines for the cluster. If set, the AMI must belong to the same region as the cluster. This is required for regions that require a custom RHCOS AMI.

Any published or custom RHCOS AMI that belongs to the set AWS region.

platform.aws.serviceEndpoints.name

The AWS service endpoint name. Custom endpoints are only required for cases where alternative AWS endpoints, like FIPS, must be used. Custom API endpoints can be specified for EC2, S3, IAM, Elastic Load Balancing, Tagging, Route 53, and STS AWS services.

Valid AWS service endpoint name.

platform.aws.serviceEndpoints.url

The AWS service endpoint URL. The URL must use the https protocol and the host must trust the certificate.

Valid AWS service endpoint URL.

platform.aws.userTags

A map of keys and values that the installation program adds as tags to all resources that it creates.

Any valid YAML map, such as key value pairs in the <key>: <value> format. For more information about AWS tags, see Tagging Your Amazon EC2 Resources in the AWS documentation.

platform.aws.subnets

If you provide the VPC instead of allowing the installation program to create the VPC for you, specify the subnet for the cluster to use. The subnet must be part of the same machineNetwork[].cidr ranges that you specify. For a standard cluster, specify a public and a private subnet for each availability zone. For a private cluster, specify a private subnet for each availability zone.

Valid subnet IDs.

1.7.7.2. Sample customized install-config.yaml file for AWS

You can customize the install-config.yaml file to specify more details about your OpenShift Container Platform cluster’s platform or modify the values of the required parameters.

Important

This sample YAML file is provided for reference only. You must obtain your install-config.yaml file by using the installation program and modify it.

apiVersion: v1
baseDomain: example.com 1
credentialsMode: Mint 2
controlPlane: 3 4
  hyperthreading: Enabled 5
  name: master
  platform:
    aws:
      zones:
      - us-west-2a
      - us-west-2b
      rootVolume:
        iops: 4000
        size: 500
        type: io1 6
      type: m5.xlarge
  replicas: 3
compute: 7
- hyperthreading: Enabled 8
  name: worker
  platform:
    aws:
      rootVolume:
        iops: 2000
        size: 500
        type: io1 9
      type: c5.4xlarge
      zones:
      - us-west-2c
  replicas: 3
metadata:
  name: test-cluster 10
networking:
  clusterNetwork:
  - cidr: 10.128.0.0/14
    hostPrefix: 23
  machineNetwork:
  - cidr: 10.0.0.0/16
  networkType: OpenShiftSDN
  serviceNetwork:
  - 172.30.0.0/16
platform:
  aws:
    region: us-west-2 11
    userTags:
      adminContact: jdoe
      costCenter: 7536
    subnets: 12
    - subnet-1
    - subnet-2
    - subnet-3
    amiID: ami-96c6f8f7 13
    serviceEndpoints: 14
      - name: ec2
        url: https://vpce-id.ec2.us-west-2.vpce.amazonaws.com
pullSecret: '{"auths": ...}' 15
fips: false 16
sshKey: ssh-ed25519 AAAA... 17
publish: Internal 18
1 10 11 15
Required. The installation program prompts you for this value.
2
Optional: Add this parameter to force the Cloud Credential Operator (CCO) to use the specified mode, instead of having the CCO dynamically try to determine the capabilities of the credentials. For details about CCO modes, see the Cloud Credential Operator entry in the Red Hat Operators reference content.
3 7
If you do not provide these parameters and values, the installation program provides the default value.
4
The controlPlane section is a single mapping, but the compute section is a sequence of mappings. To meet the requirements of the different data structures, the first line of the compute section must begin with a hyphen, -, and the first line of the controlPlane section must not. Although both sections currently define a single machine pool, it is possible that future versions of OpenShift Container Platform will support defining multiple compute pools during installation. Only one control plane pool is used.
5 8
Whether to enable or disable simultaneous multithreading, or hyperthreading. By default, simultaneous multithreading is enabled to increase the performance of your machines' cores. You can disable it by setting the parameter value to Disabled. If you disable simultaneous multithreading in some cluster machines, you must disable it in all cluster machines.
Important

If you disable simultaneous multithreading, ensure that your capacity planning accounts for the dramatically decreased machine performance. Use larger instance types, such as m4.2xlarge or m5.2xlarge, for your machines if you disable simultaneous multithreading.

6 9
To configure faster storage for etcd, especially for larger clusters, set the storage type as io1 and set iops to 2000.
12
If you provide your own VPC, specify subnets for each availability zone that your cluster uses.
13
The ID of the AMI used to boot machines for the cluster. If set, the AMI must belong to the same region as the cluster.
14
The AWS service endpoints. Custom endpoints are required when installing to an unknown AWS region. The endpoint URL must use the https protocol and the host must trust the certificate.
16
Whether to enable or disable FIPS mode. By default, FIPS mode is not enabled. If FIPS mode is enabled, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) machines that OpenShift Container Platform runs on bypass the default Kubernetes cryptography suite and use the cryptography modules that are provided with RHCOS instead.
17
You can optionally provide the sshKey value that you use to access the machines in your cluster.
Note

For production OpenShift Container Platform clusters on which you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, specify an SSH key that your ssh-agent process uses.

18
How to publish the user-facing endpoints of your cluster. Set publish to Internal to deploy a private cluster, which cannot be accessed from the internet. The default value is External.

1.7.7.3. Configuring the cluster-wide proxy during installation

Production environments can deny direct access to the Internet and instead have an HTTP or HTTPS proxy available. You can configure a new OpenShift Container Platform cluster to use a proxy by configuring the proxy settings in the install-config.yaml file.

Prerequisites

  • An existing install-config.yaml file.
  • Review the sites that your cluster requires access to and determine whether any need to bypass the proxy. By default, all cluster egress traffic is proxied, including calls to hosting cloud provider APIs. Add sites to the Proxy object’s spec.noProxy field to bypass the proxy if necessary.

    Note

    The Proxy object status.noProxy field is populated with the values of the networking.machineNetwork[].cidr, networking.clusterNetwork[].cidr, and networking.serviceNetwork[] fields from your installation configuration.

    For installations on Amazon Web Services (AWS), Google Cloud Platform (GCP), Microsoft Azure, and Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP), the Proxy object status.noProxy field is also populated with the instance metadata endpoint (169.254.169.254).

Procedure

  1. Edit your install-config.yaml file and add the proxy settings. For example:

    apiVersion: v1
    baseDomain: my.domain.com
    proxy:
      httpProxy: http://<username>:<pswd>@<ip>:<port> 1
      httpsProxy: http://<username>:<pswd>@<ip>:<port> 2
      noProxy: example.com 3
    additionalTrustBundle: | 4
        -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
        <MY_TRUSTED_CA_CERT>
        -----END CERTIFICATE-----
    ...
    1
    A proxy URL to use for creating HTTP connections outside the cluster. The URL scheme must be http. If you use an MITM transparent proxy network that does not require additional proxy configuration but requires additional CAs, you must not specify an httpProxy value.
    2
    A proxy URL to use for creating HTTPS connections outside the cluster. If this field is not specified, then httpProxy is used for both HTTP and HTTPS connections. If you use an MITM transparent proxy network that does not require additional proxy configuration but requires additional CAs, you must not specify an httpsProxy value.
    3
    A comma-separated list of destination domain names, domains, IP addresses, or other network CIDRs to exclude proxying. Preface a domain with . to include all subdomains of that domain. Use * to bypass proxy for all destinations.
    4
    If provided, the installation program generates a ConfigMap that is named user-ca-bundle in the openshift-config namespace that contains one or more additional CA certificates that are required for proxying HTTPS connections. The Cluster Network Operator then creates a trusted-ca-bundle ConfigMap that merges these contents with the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) trust bundle, and this ConfigMap is referenced in the Proxy object’s trustedCA field. The additionalTrustBundle field is required unless the proxy’s identity certificate is signed by an authority from the RHCOS trust bundle. If you use an MITM transparent proxy network that does not require additional proxy configuration but requires additional CAs, you must provide the MITM CA certificate.
    Note

    The installation program does not support the proxy readinessEndpoints field.

  2. Save the file and reference it when installing OpenShift Container Platform.

The installation program creates a cluster-wide proxy that is named cluster that uses the proxy settings in the provided install-config.yaml file. If no proxy settings are provided, a cluster Proxy object is still created, but it will have a nil spec.

Note

Only the Proxy object named cluster is supported, and no additional proxies can be created.

1.7.8. Deploying the cluster

You can install OpenShift Container Platform on a compatible cloud platform.

Important

You can run the create cluster command of the installation program only once, during initial installation.

Prerequisites

  • Configure an account with the cloud platform that hosts your cluster.
  • Obtain the OpenShift Container Platform installation program and the pull secret for your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Run the installation program:

    $ ./openshift-install create cluster --dir=<installation_directory> \ 1
        --log-level=info 2
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the
    2
    To view different installation details, specify warn, debug, or error instead of info.
    Note

    If the cloud provider account that you configured on your host does not have sufficient permissions to deploy the cluster, the installation process stops, and the missing permissions are displayed.

    When the cluster deployment completes, directions for accessing your cluster, including a link to its web console and credentials for the kubeadmin user, display in your terminal.

    Important

    The Ignition config files that the installation program generates contain certificates that expire after 24 hours. You must keep the cluster running for 24 hours in a non-degraded state to ensure that the first certificate rotation has finished.

    Important

    You must not delete the installation program or the files that the installation program creates. Both are required to delete the cluster.

1.7.9. Installing the CLI by downloading the binary

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) in order to interact with OpenShift Container Platform from a command-line interface. You can install oc on Linux, Windows, or macOS.

Important

If you installed an earlier version of oc, you cannot use it to complete all of the commands in OpenShift Container Platform 4.5. Download and install the new version of oc.

1.7.9.1. Installing the CLI on Linux

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on Linux by using the following procedure.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.
  2. Select your infrastructure provider, and, if applicable, your installation type.
  3. In the Command-line interface section, select Linux from the drop-down menu and click Download command-line tools.
  4. Unpack the archive:

    $ tar xvzf <file>
  5. Place the oc binary in a directory that is on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, execute the following command:

    $ echo $PATH

After you install the CLI, it is available using the oc command:

$ oc <command>

1.7.9.2. Installing the CLI on Windows

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on Windows by using the following procedure.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.
  2. Select your infrastructure provider, and, if applicable, your installation type.
  3. In the Command-line interface section, select Windows from the drop-down menu and click Download command-line tools.
  4. Unzip the archive with a ZIP program.
  5. Move the oc binary to a directory that is on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, open the command prompt and execute the following command:

    C:\> path

After you install the CLI, it is available using the oc command:

C:\> oc <command>

1.7.9.3. Installing the CLI on macOS

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on macOS by using the following procedure.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.
  2. Select your infrastructure provider, and, if applicable, your installation type.
  3. In the Command-line interface section, select MacOS from the drop-down menu and click Download command-line tools.
  4. Unpack and unzip the archive.
  5. Move the oc binary to a directory on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, open a terminal and execute the following command:

    $ echo $PATH

After you install the CLI, it is available using the oc command:

$ oc <command>

1.7.10. Logging in to the cluster

You can log in to your cluster as a default system user by exporting the cluster kubeconfig file. The kubeconfig file contains information about the cluster that is used by the CLI to connect a client to the correct cluster and API server. The file is specific to a cluster and is created during OpenShift Container Platform installation.

Prerequisites

  • Deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • Install the oc CLI.

Procedure

  1. Export the kubeadmin credentials:

    $ export KUBECONFIG=<installation_directory>/auth/kubeconfig 1
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the path to the directory that you stored the installation files in.
  2. Verify you can run oc commands successfully using the exported configuration:

    $ oc whoami

    Example output

    system:admin

1.7.11. Next steps

1.8. Installing a cluster on AWS into a government region

In OpenShift Container Platform version 4.5, you can install a cluster on Amazon Web Services (AWS) into a government region. To configure the government region, modify parameters in the install-config.yaml file before you install the cluster.

1.8.1. Prerequisites

  • Review details about the OpenShift Container Platform installation and update processes.
  • Configure an AWS account to host the cluster.

    Important

    If you have an AWS profile stored on your computer, it must not use a temporary session token that you generated while using a multi-factor authentication device. The cluster continues to use your current AWS credentials to create AWS resources for the entire life of the cluster, so you must use long-lived credentials. To generate appropriate keys, see Managing Access Keys for IAM Users in the AWS documentation. You can supply the keys when you run the installation program.

  • If you use a firewall, you must configure it to allow the sites that your cluster requires access to.
  • If you do not allow the system to manage identity and access management (IAM), then a cluster administrator can manually create and maintain IAM credentials. Manual mode can also be used in environments where the cloud IAM APIs are not reachable.

1.8.2. AWS government regions

OpenShift Container Platform supports deploying a cluster to AWS GovCloud (US) regions. AWS GovCloud is specifically designed for US government agencies at the federal, state, and local level, as well as contractors, educational institutions, and other US customers that must run sensitive workloads in the cloud.

These regions do not have published Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) Amazon Machine Images (AMI) to select, so you must upload a custom AMI that belongs to that region.

The following AWS GovCloud partitions are supported:

  • us-gov-west-1
  • us-gov-east-1

The AWS GovCloud region and custom AMI must be manually configured in the install-config.yaml file since RHCOS AMIs are not provided by Red Hat for those regions.

1.8.3. Private clusters

You can deploy a private OpenShift Container Platform cluster that does not expose external endpoints. Private clusters are accessible from only an internal network and are not visible to the Internet.

Note

Public zones are not supported in Route53 in AWS GovCloud. Therefore, clusters must be private if they are deployed to an AWS government region.

By default, OpenShift Container Platform is provisioned to use publicly-accessible DNS and endpoints. A private cluster sets the DNS, Ingress Controller, and API server to private when you deploy your cluster. This means that the cluster resources are only accessible from your internal network and are not visible to the internet.

To deploy a private cluster, you must use existing networking that meets your requirements. Your cluster resources might be shared between other clusters on the network.

Additionally, you must deploy a private cluster from a machine that has access the API services for the cloud you provision to, the hosts on the network that you provision, and to the internet to obtain installation media. You can use any machine that meets these access requirements and follows your company’s guidelines. For example, this machine can be a bastion host on your cloud network or a machine that has access to the network through a VPN.

1.8.3.1. Private clusters in AWS

To create a private cluster on Amazon Web Services (AWS), you must provide an existing private VPC and subnets to host the cluster. The installation program must also be able to resolve the DNS records that the cluster requires. The installation program configures the Ingress Operator and API server for access from only the private network.

The cluster still requires access to Internet to access the AWS APIs.

The following items are not required or created when you install a private cluster:

  • Public subnets
  • Public load balancers, which support public ingress
  • A public Route 53 Zone that matches the baseDomain for the cluster

The installation program does use the baseDomain that you specify to create a private Route 53 Zone and the required records for the cluster. The cluster is configured so that the Operators do not create public records for the cluster and all cluster machines are placed in the private subnets that you specify.

1.8.3.1.1. Limitations

The ability to add public functionality to a private cluster is limited.

  • You cannot make the Kubernetes API endpoints public after installation without taking additional actions, including creating public subnets in the VPC for each availablity zone in use, creating a public load balancer, and configuring the control plane security groups to allow traffic from Internet on 6443 (Kubernetes API port).
  • If you use a public Service type load balancer, you must tag a public subnet in each availability zone with kubernetes.io/cluster/<cluster-infra-id>: shared so that AWS can use them to create public load balancers.

1.8.4. About using a custom VPC

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.5, you can deploy a cluster into existing subnets in an existing Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) in Amazon Web Services (AWS). By deploying OpenShift Container Platform into an existing AWS VPC, you might be able to avoid limit constraints in new accounts or more easily abide by the operational constraints that your company’s guidelines set. If you cannot obtain the infrastructure creation permissions that are required to create the VPC yourself, use this installation option.

Because the installation program cannot know what other components are also in your existing subnets, it cannot choose subnet CIDRs and so forth on your behalf. You must configure networking for the subnets that you install your cluster to yourself.

1.8.4.1. Requirements for using your VPC

The installation program no longer creates the following components:

  • Internet gateways
  • NAT gateways
  • Subnets
  • Route tables
  • VPCs
  • VPC DHCP options
  • VPC endpoints

If you use a custom VPC, you must correctly configure it and its subnets for the installation program and the cluster to use. The installation program cannot subdivide network ranges for the cluster to use, set route tables for the subnets, or set VPC options like DHCP, so you must do so before you install the cluster.

Your VPC must meet the following characteristics:

  • The VPC’s CIDR block must contain the Networking.MachineCIDR range, which is the IP address pool for cluster machines.
  • The VPC must not use the kubernetes.io/cluster/.*: owned tag.
  • You must enable the enableDnsSupport and enableDnsHostnames attributes in your VPC so that the cluster can use the Route53 zones that are attached to the VPC to resolve cluster’s internal DNS records. See DNS Support in Your VPC in the AWS documentation.

If you use a cluster with public access, you must create a public and a private subnet for each availability zone that your cluster uses. The installation program modifies your subnets to add the kubernetes.io/cluster/.*: shared tag, so your subnets must have at least one free tag slot available for it. Review the current Tag Restrictions in the AWS documentation to ensure that the installation program can add a tag to each subnet that you specify.

If you are working in a disconnected environment, you are unable to reach the public IP addresses for EC2 and ELB endpoints. To resolve this, you must create a VPC endpoint and attach it to the subnet that the clusters are using. The endpoints should be named as follows:

  • ec2.<region>.amazonaws.com
  • elasticloadbalancing.<region>.amazonaws.com
  • s3.<region>.amazonaws.com

Required VPC components

You must provide a suitable VPC and subnets that allow communication to your machines.

ComponentAWS typeDescription

VPC

  • AWS::EC2::VPC
  • AWS::EC2::VPCEndpoint

You must provide a public VPC for the cluster to use. The VPC uses an endpoint that references the route tables for each subnet to improve communication with the registry that is hosted in S3.

Public subnets

  • AWS::EC2::Subnet
  • AWS::EC2::SubnetNetworkAclAssociation

Your VPC must have public subnets for between 1 and 3 availability zones and associate them with appropriate Ingress rules.

Internet gateway

  • AWS::EC2::InternetGateway
  • AWS::EC2::VPCGatewayAttachment
  • AWS::EC2::RouteTable
  • AWS::EC2::Route
  • AWS::EC2::SubnetRouteTableAssociation
  • AWS::EC2::NatGateway
  • AWS::EC2::EIP

You must have a public internet gateway, with public routes, attached to the VPC. In the provided templates, each public subnet has a NAT gateway with an EIP address. These NAT gateways allow cluster resources, like private subnet instances, to reach the internet and are not required for some restricted network or proxy scenarios.

Network access control

  • AWS::EC2::NetworkAcl
  • AWS::EC2::NetworkAclEntry

You must allow the VPC to access the following ports:

Port

Reason

80

Inbound HTTP traffic

443

Inbound HTTPS traffic

22

Inbound SSH traffic

1024 - 65535

Inbound ephemeral traffic

0 - 65535

Outbound ephemeral traffic

Private subnets

  • AWS::EC2::Subnet
  • AWS::EC2::RouteTable
  • AWS::EC2::SubnetRouteTableAssociation

Your VPC can have private subnets. The provided CloudFormation templates can create private subnets for between 1 and 3 availability zones. If you use private subnets, you must provide appropriate routes and tables for them.

1.8.4.2. VPC validation

To ensure that the subnets that you provide are suitable, the installation program confirms the following data:

  • All the subnets that you specify exist.
  • You provide private subnets.
  • The subnet CIDRs belong to the machine CIDR that you specified.
  • You provide subnets for each availability zone. Each availability zone contains no more than one public and one private subnet. If you use a private cluster, provide only a private subnet for each availability zone. Otherwise, provide exactly one public and private subnet for each availability zone.
  • You provide a public subnet for each private subnet availability zone. Machines are not provisioned in availability zones that you do not provide private subnets for.

If you destroy a cluster that uses an existing VPC, the VPC is not deleted. When you remove the OpenShift Container Platform cluster from a VPC, the kubernetes.io/cluster/.*: shared tag is removed from the subnets that it used.

1.8.4.3. Division of permissions

Starting with OpenShift Container Platform 4.3, you do not need all of the permissions that are required for an installation program-provisioned infrastructure cluster to deploy a cluster. This change mimics the division of permissions that you might have at your company: some individuals can create different resource in your clouds than others. For example, you might be able to create application-specific items, like instances, buckets, and load balancers, but not networking-related components such as VPCs, subnets, or ingress rules.

The AWS credentials that you use when you create your cluster do not need the networking permissions that are required to make VPCs and core networking components within the VPC, such as subnets, routing tables, internet gateways, NAT, and VPN. You still need permission to make the application resources that the machines within the cluster require, such as ELBs, security groups, S3 buckets, and nodes.

1.8.4.4. Isolation between clusters

If you deploy OpenShift Container Platform to an existing network, the isolation of cluster services is reduced in the following ways:

  • You can install multiple OpenShift Container Platform clusters in the same VPC.
  • ICMP ingress is allowed from the entire network.
  • TCP 22 ingress (SSH) is allowed to the entire network.
  • Control plane TCP 6443 ingress (Kubernetes API) is allowed to the entire network.
  • Control plane TCP 22623 ingress (MCS) is allowed to the entire network.

1.8.5. Internet and Telemetry access for OpenShift Container Platform

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.5, you require access to the internet to install your cluster. The Telemetry service, which runs by default to provide metrics about cluster health and the success of updates, also requires internet access. If your cluster is connected to the internet, Telemetry runs automatically, and your cluster is registered to the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager (OCM).

Once you confirm that your Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager inventory is correct, either maintained automatically by Telemetry or manually using OCM, use subscription watch to track your OpenShift Container Platform subscriptions at the account or multi-cluster level.

You must have internet access to:

  • Access the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager page to download the installation program and perform subscription management. If the cluster has internet access and you do not disable Telemetry, that service automatically entitles your cluster.
  • Access Quay.io to obtain the packages that are required to install your cluster.
  • Obtain the packages that are required to perform cluster updates.
Important

If your cluster cannot have direct internet access, you can perform a restricted network installation on some types of infrastructure that you provision. During that process, you download the content that is required and use it to populate a mirror registry with the packages that you need to install a cluster and generate the installation program. With some installation types, the environment that you install your cluster in will not require internet access. Before you update the cluster, you update the content of the mirror registry.

1.8.6. Generating an SSH private key and adding it to the agent

If you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery on your cluster, you must provide an SSH key to both your ssh-agent and the installation program. You can use this key to access the bootstrap machine in a public cluster to troubleshoot installation issues.

Note

In a production environment, you require disaster recovery and debugging.

You can use this key to SSH into the master nodes as the user core. When you deploy the cluster, the key is added to the core user’s ~/.ssh/authorized_keys list.

Note

You must use a local key, not one that you configured with platform-specific approaches such as AWS key pairs.

Procedure

  1. If you do not have an SSH key that is configured for password-less authentication on your computer, create one. For example, on a computer that uses a Linux operating system, run the following command:

    $ ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -N '' \
        -f <path>/<file_name> 1
    1
    Specify the path and file name, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa, of the new SSH key.

    Running this command generates an SSH key that does not require a password in the location that you specified.

  2. Start the ssh-agent process as a background task:

    $ eval "$(ssh-agent -s)"

    Example output

    Agent pid 31874

  3. Add your SSH private key to the ssh-agent:

    $ ssh-add <path>/<file_name> 1

    Example output

    Identity added: /home/<you>/<path>/<file_name> (<computer_name>)

    1
    Specify the path and file name for your SSH private key, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa

Next steps

  • When you install OpenShift Container Platform, provide the SSH public key to the installation program.

1.8.7. Obtaining the installation program

Before you install OpenShift Container Platform, download the installation file on a local computer.

Prerequisites

  • A computer that runs Linux or macOS, with 500 MB of local disk space

Procedure

  1. Access the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site. If you have a Red Hat account, log in with your credentials. If you do not, create an account.
  2. Navigate to the page for your installation type, download the installation program for your operating system, and place the file in the directory where you will store the installation configuration files.

    Important

    The installation program creates several files on the computer that you use to install your cluster. You must keep both the installation program and the files that the installation program creates after you finish installing the cluster.

    Important

    Deleting the files created by the installation program does not remove your cluster, even if the cluster failed during installation. To remove your cluster, complete the OpenShift Container Platform uninstallation procedures for your specific cloud provider.

  3. Extract the installation program. For example, on a computer that uses a Linux operating system, run the following command:

    $ tar xvf openshift-install-linux.tar.gz
  4. From the Pull Secret page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site, download your installation pull secret as a .txt file. This pull secret allows you to authenticate with the services that are provided by the included authorities, including Quay.io, which serves the container images for OpenShift Container Platform components.

1.8.8. Manually creating the installation configuration file

When installing OpenShift Container Platform on Amazon Web Services (AWS) into a region requiring a custom Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) AMI, you must manually generate your installation configuration file.

Prerequisites

  • Obtain the OpenShift Container Platform installation program and the access token for your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Create an installation directory to store your required installation assets in:

    $ mkdir <installation_directory>
    Important

    You must create a directory. Some installation assets, like bootstrap X.509 certificates have short expiration intervals, so you must not reuse an installation directory. If you want to reuse individual files from another cluster installation, you can copy them into your directory. However, the file names for the installation assets might change between releases. Use caution when copying installation files from an earlier OpenShift Container Platform version.

  2. Customize the following install-config.yaml file template and save it in the <installation_directory>.

    Note

    You must name this configuration file install-config.yaml.

  3. Back up the install-config.yaml file so that you can use it to install multiple clusters.

    Important

    The install-config.yaml file is consumed during the next step of the installation process. You must back it up now.

1.8.8.1. Installation configuration parameters

Before you deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster, you provide parameter values to describe your account on the cloud platform that hosts your cluster and optionally customize your cluster’s platform. When you create the install-config.yaml installation configuration file, you provide values for the required parameters through the command line. If you customize your cluster, you can modify the install-config.yaml file to provide more details about the platform.

Note

After installation, you cannot modify these parameters in the install-config.yaml file.

Table 1.14. Required parameters

ParameterDescriptionValues

apiVersion

The API version for the install-config.yaml content. The current version is v1. The installer may also support older API versions.

String

baseDomain

The base domain of your cloud provider. The base domain is used to create routes to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster components. The full DNS name for your cluster is a combination of the baseDomain and metadata.name parameter values that uses the <metadata.name>.<baseDomain> format.

A fully-qualified domain or subdomain name, such as example.com.

metadata

Kubernetes resource ObjectMeta, from which only the name parameter is consumed.

Object

metadata.name

The name of the cluster. DNS records for the cluster are all subdomains of {{.metadata.name}}.{{.baseDomain}}.

String of lowercase letters, hyphens (-), and periods (.), such as dev.

platform

The configuration for the specific platform upon which to perform the installation: aws, baremetal, azure, openstack, ovirt, vsphere. For additional information about platform.<platform> parameters, consult the following table for your specific platform.

Object

pullSecret

Get this pull secret from https://cloud.redhat.com/openshift/install/pull-secret to authenticate downloading container images for OpenShift Container Platform components from services such as Quay.io.

{
   "auths":{
      "cloud.openshift.com":{
         "auth":"b3Blb=",
         "email":"you@example.com"
      },
      "quay.io":{
         "auth":"b3Blb=",
         "email":"you@example.com"
      }
   }
}

Table 1.15. Optional parameters

ParameterDescriptionValues

additionalTrustBundle

A PEM-encoded X.509 certificate bundle that is added to the nodes' trusted certificate store. This trust bundle may also be used when a proxy has been configured.

String

compute

The configuration for the machines that comprise the compute nodes.

Array of machine-pool objects. For details, see the following "Machine-pool" table.

compute.architecture

Determines the instruction set architecture of the machines in the pool. Currently, heteregeneous clusters are not supported, so all pools must specify the same architecture. Valid values are amd64 (the default).

String

compute.hyperthreading

Whether to enable or disable simultaneous multithreading, or hyperthreading, on compute machines. By default, simultaneous multithreading is enabled to increase the performance of your machines' cores.

Important

If you disable simultaneous multithreading, ensure that your capacity planning accounts for the dramatically decreased machine performance.

Enabled or Disabled

compute.name

Required if you use compute. The name of the machine pool.

worker

compute.platform

Required if you use compute. Use this parameter to specify the cloud provider to host the worker machines. This parameter value must match the controlPlane.platform parameter value.

aws, azure, gcp, openstack, ovirt, vsphere, or {}

compute.replicas

The number of compute machines, which are also known as worker machines, to provision.

A positive integer greater than or equal to 2. The default value is 3.

controlPlane

The configuration for the machines that comprise the control plane.

Array of machine-pool objects. For details, see the following "Machine-pool" table.

controlPlane.architecture

Determines the instruction set architecture of the machines in the pool. Currently, heteregeneous clusters are not supported, so all pools must specify the same architecture. Valid values are amd64 (the default).

String

controlPlane.hyperthreading

Whether to enable or disable simultaneous multithreading, or hyperthreading, on control plane machines. By default, simultaneous multithreading is enabled to increase the performance of your machines' cores.

Important

If you disable simultaneous multithreading, ensure that your capacity planning accounts for the dramatically decreased machine performance.

Enabled or Disabled

controlPlane.name

Required if you use controlPlane. The name of the machine pool.

master

controlPlane.platform

Required if you use controlPlane. Use this parameter to specify the cloud provider that hosts the control plane machines. This parameter value must match the compute.platform parameter value.

aws, azure, gcp, openstack, ovirt, vsphere, or {}

controlPlane.replicas

The number of control plane machines to provision.

A positive integer greater than or equal to 3. The default value is 3.

credentialsMode

The Cloud Credential Operator (CCO) mode. If no mode is specified, the CCO dynamically tries to determine the capabilities of the provided credentials, with a preference for mint mode on the platforms where multiple modes are supported.

Note

Not all CCO modes are supported for all cloud providers. For more information on CCO modes, see the Cloud Credential Operator entry in the Red Hat Operators reference content.

Mint, Passthrough, Manual, or an empty string ("").

fips

Enable or disable FIPS mode. The default is false (disabled). If FIPS mode is enabled, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) machines that OpenShift Container Platform runs on bypass the default Kubernetes cryptography suite and use the cryptography modules that are provided with RHCOS instead.

false or true

imageContentSources

Sources and repositories for the release-image content.

Array of objects. Includes a source and, optionally, mirrors, as described in the following rows of this table.

imageContentSources.source

Required if you use imageContentSources. Specify the repository that users refer to, for example, in image pull specifications.

String

imageContentSources.mirrors

Specify one or more repositories that may also contain the same images.

Array of strings

networking

The configuration for the Pod network provider in the cluster.

Object

networking.clusterNetwork

The IP address pools for pods. The default is 10.128.0.0/14 with a host prefix of /23.

Array of objects

networking.clusterNetwork.cidr

Required if you use networking.clusterNetwork. The IP block address pool.

IP network. IP networks are represented as strings using Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation with a traditional IP address or network number, followed by the forward slash (/) character, followed by a decimal value between 0 and 32 that describes the number of significant bits. For example, 10.0.0.0/16 represents IP addresses 10.0.0.0 through 10.0.255.255.

networking.clusterNetwork.hostPrefix

Required if you use networking.clusterNetwork. The prefix size to allocate to each node from the CIDR. For example, 24 would allocate 2^8=256 adresses to each node.

Integer

networking.machineNetwork

The IP address pools for machines.

Array of objects

networking.machineNetwork.cidr

Required if you use networking.machineNetwork. The IP block address pool. The default is 10.0.0.0/16 for all platforms other than libvirt. For libvirt, the default is 192.168.126.0/24.

IP network. IP networks are represented as strings using Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation with a traditional IP address or network number, followed by the forward slash (/) character, followed by a decimal value between 0 and 32 that describes the number of significant bits. For example, 10.0.0.0/16 represents IP addresses 10.0.0.0 through 10.0.255.255.

networking.networkType

The type of network to install. The default is OpenShiftSDN.

String

networking.serviceNetwork

The IP address pools for services. The default is 172.30.0.0/16.

Array of IP networks. IP networks are represented as strings using Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation with a traditional IP address or network number, followed by the forward slash (/) character, followed by a decimal value between 0 and 32 that describes the number of significant bits. For example, 10.0.0.0/16 represents IP addresses 10.0.0.0 through 10.0.255.255.

publish

How to publish or expose the user-facing endpoints of your cluster, such as the Kubernetes API, OpenShift routes.

Internal or External. To deploy a private cluster, which cannot be accessed from the internet, set publish to Internal. The default value is External.

sshKey

The SSH key or keys to authenticate access your cluster machines.

Note

For production OpenShift Container Platform clusters on which you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, specify an SSH key that your ssh-agent process uses.

One or more keys. For example:

sshKey:
  <key1>
  <key2>
  <key3>

Table 1.16. Optional AWS parameters

ParameterDescriptionValues

compute.platform.aws.amiID

The AWS AMI used to boot compute machines for the cluster. This is required for regions that require a custom RHCOS AMI.

Any published or custom RHCOS AMI that belongs to the set AWS region.

compute.platform.aws.rootVolume.iops

The Input/Output Operations Per Second (IOPS) that is reserved for the root volume.

Integer, for example 4000.

compute.platform.aws.rootVolume.size

The size in GiB of the root volume.

Integer, for example 500.

compute.platform.aws.rootVolume.type

The instance type of the root volume.

Valid AWS EBS instance type, such as io1.

compute.platform.aws.type

The EC2 instance type for the compute machines.

Valid AWS instance type, such as c5.9xlarge.

compute.platform.aws.zones

The availability zones where the installation program creates machines for the compute MachinePool. If you provide your own VPC, you must provide a subnet in that availability zone.

A list of valid AWS availability zones, such as us-east-1c, in a YAML sequence.

compute.aws.region

The AWS region that the installation program creates compute resources in.

Any valid AWS region, such as us-east-1.

controlPlane.platform.aws.amiID

The AWS AMI used to boot control plane machines for the cluster. This is required for regions that require a custom RHCOS AMI.

Any published or custom RHCOS AMI that belongs to the set AWS region.

controlPlane.platform.aws.type

The EC2 instance type for the control plane machines.

Valid AWS instance type, such as c5.9xlarge.

controlPlane.platform.aws.zones

The availability zones where the installation program creates machines for the control plane MachinePool.

A list of valid AWS availability zones, such as us-east-1c, in a YAML sequence.

controlPlane.aws.region

The AWS region that the installation program creates control plane resources in.

Valid AWS region, such as us-east-1.

platform.aws.amiID

The AWS AMI used to boot all machines for the cluster. If set, the AMI must belong to the same region as the cluster. This is required for regions that require a custom RHCOS AMI.

Any published or custom RHCOS AMI that belongs to the set AWS region.

platform.aws.serviceEndpoints.name

The AWS service endpoint name. Custom endpoints are only required for cases where alternative AWS endpoints, like FIPS, must be used. Custom API endpoints can be specified for EC2, S3, IAM, Elastic Load Balancing, Tagging, Route 53, and STS AWS services.

Valid AWS service endpoint name.

platform.aws.serviceEndpoints.url

The AWS service endpoint URL. The URL must use the https protocol and the host must trust the certificate.

Valid AWS service endpoint URL.

platform.aws.userTags

A map of keys and values that the installation program adds as tags to all resources that it creates.

Any valid YAML map, such as key value pairs in the <key>: <value> format. For more information about AWS tags, see Tagging Your Amazon EC2 Resources in the AWS documentation.

platform.aws.subnets

If you provide the VPC instead of allowing the installation program to create the VPC for you, specify the subnet for the cluster to use. The subnet must be part of the same machineNetwork[].cidr ranges that you specify. For a standard cluster, specify a public and a private subnet for each availability zone. For a private cluster, specify a private subnet for each availability zone.

Valid subnet IDs.

1.8.8.2. Sample customized install-config.yaml file for AWS

You can customize the install-config.yaml file to specify more details about your OpenShift Container Platform cluster’s platform or modify the values of the required parameters.

Important

This sample YAML file is provided for reference only. You must obtain your install-config.yaml file by using the installation program and modify it.

apiVersion: v1
baseDomain: example.com 1
credentialsMode: Mint 2
controlPlane: 3 4
  hyperthreading: Enabled 5
  name: master
  platform:
    aws:
      zones:
      - us-gov-west-1a
      - us-gov-west-1b
      rootVolume:
        iops: 4000
        size: 500
        type: io1 6
      type: m5.xlarge
  replicas: 3
compute: 7
- hyperthreading: Enabled 8
  name: worker
  platform:
    aws:
      rootVolume:
        iops: 2000
        size: 500
        type: io1 9
      type: c5.4xlarge
      zones:
      - us-gov-west-1c
  replicas: 3
metadata:
  name: test-cluster 10
networking:
  clusterNetwork:
  - cidr: 10.128.0.0/14
    hostPrefix: 23
  machineNetwork:
  - cidr: 10.0.0.0/16
  networkType: OpenShiftSDN
  serviceNetwork:
  - 172.30.0.0/16
platform:
  aws:
    region: us-gov-west-1
    userTags:
      adminContact: jdoe
      costCenter: 7536
    subnets: 11
    - subnet-1
    - subnet-2
    - subnet-3
    amiID: ami-96c6f8f7 12
    serviceEndpoints: 13
      - name: ec2
        url: https://vpce-id.ec2.us-west-2.vpce.amazonaws.com
pullSecret: '{"auths": ...}' 14
fips: false 15
sshKey: ssh-ed25519 AAAA... 16
publish: Internal 17
1 10 14
Required.
2
Optional: Add this parameter to force the Cloud Credential Operator (CCO) to use the specified mode, instead of having the CCO dynamically try to determine the capabilities of the credentials. For details about CCO modes, see the Cloud Credential Operator entry in the Red Hat Operators reference content.
3 7
If you do not provide these parameters and values, the installation program provides the default value.
4
The controlPlane section is a single mapping, but the compute section is a sequence of mappings. To meet the requirements of the different data structures, the first line of the compute section must begin with a hyphen, -, and the first line of the controlPlane section must not. Although both sections currently define a single machine pool, it is possible that future versions of OpenShift Container Platform will support defining multiple compute pools during installation. Only one control plane pool is used.
5 8
Whether to enable or disable simultaneous multithreading, or hyperthreading. By default, simultaneous multithreading is enabled to increase the performance of your machines' cores. You can disable it by setting the parameter value to Disabled. If you disable simultaneous multithreading in some cluster machines, you must disable it in all cluster machines.
Important

If you disable simultaneous multithreading, ensure that your capacity planning accounts for the dramatically decreased machine performance. Use larger instance types, such as m4.2xlarge or m5.2xlarge, for your machines if you disable simultaneous multithreading.

6 9
To configure faster storage for etcd, especially for larger clusters, set the storage type as io1 and set iops to 2000.
11
If you provide your own VPC, specify subnets for each availability zone that your cluster uses.
12
The ID of the AMI used to boot machines for the cluster. If set, the AMI must belong to the same region as the cluster.
13
The AWS service endpoints. Custom endpoints are required when installing to an unknown AWS region. The endpoint URL must use the https protocol and the host must trust the certificate.
15
Whether to enable or disable FIPS mode. By default, FIPS mode is not enabled. If FIPS mode is enabled, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) machines that OpenShift Container Platform runs on bypass the default Kubernetes cryptography suite and use the cryptography modules that are provided with RHCOS instead.
16
You can optionally provide the sshKey value that you use to access the machines in your cluster.
Note

For production OpenShift Container Platform clusters on which you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, specify an SSH key that your ssh-agent process uses.

17
How to publish the user-facing endpoints of your cluster. Set publish to Internal to deploy a private cluster, which cannot be accessed from the internet. The default value is External.

1.8.8.3. AWS regions without a published RHCOS AMI

You can deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster to Amazon Web Services (AWS) regions without native support for a Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) Amazon Machine Image (AMI) or the AWS software development kit (SDK). If a published AMI is not available for an AWS region, you can upload a custom AMI prior to installing the cluster. This is required if you are deploying your cluster to an AWS government region.

If you are deploying to a non-government region that does not have a published RHCOS AMI, and you do not specify a custom AMI, the installation program copies the us-east-1 AMI to the user account automatically. Then the installation program creates the control plane machines with encrypted EBS volumes using the default or user-specified Key Management Service (KMS) key. This allows the AMI to follow the same process workflow as published RHCOS AMIs.

A region without native support for an RHCOS AMI is not available to select from the terminal during cluster creation because it is not published. However, you can install to this region by configuring the custom AMI in the install-config.yaml file.

1.8.8.4. Uploading a custom RHCOS AMI in AWS

If you are deploying to a custom Amazon Web Services (AWS) region, you must upload a custom Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) Amazon Machine Image (AMI) that belongs to that region.

Prerequisites

  • Configure an AWS account.
  • Create an Amazon S3 bucket with the required IAM service role.
  • Upload your RHCOS VMDK file to Amazon S3. The RHCOS VMDK file must be the highest version that is less than or equal to the OpenShift Container Platform version you are installing.
  • Download the AWS CLI and install it on your computer. See Install the AWS CLI Using the Bundled Installer.

Procedure

  1. Export your AWS profile as an environment variable:

    $ export AWS_PROFILE=<aws_profile> 1
    1
    The AWS profile name that holds your AWS credentials, like govcloud.
  2. Export the region to associate with your custom AMI as an environment variable:

    $ export AWS_DEFAULT_REGION=<aws_region> 1
    1
    The AWS region, like us-gov-east-1.
  3. Export the version of RHCOS you uploaded to Amazon S3 as an environment variable:

    $ export RHCOS_VERSION=<version> 1
    1
    The RHCOS VMDK version, like 4.6.0.
  4. Export the Amazon S3 bucket name as an environment variable:

    $ export VMIMPORT_BUCKET_NAME=<s3_bucket_name>
  5. Create the containers.json file and define your RHCOS VMDK file:

    $ cat <<EOF > containers.json
    {
       "Description": "rhcos-${RHCOS_VERSION}-x86_64-aws.x86_64",
       "Format": "vmdk",
       "UserBucket": {
          "S3Bucket": "${VMIMPORT_BUCKET_NAME}",
          "S3Key": "rhcos-${RHCOS_VERSION}-x86_64-aws.x86_64.vmdk"
       }
    }
    EOF
  6. Import the RHCOS disk as an Amazon EBS snapshot:

    $ aws ec2 import-snapshot --region ${AWS_DEFAULT_REGION} \
         --description "<description>" \ 1
         --disk-container <file_path>/containers.json 2
    1
    The description of your RHCOS disk being imported, like rhcos-${RHCOS_VERSION}-x86_64-aws.x86_64.
    2
    The file path to the JSON file describing your RHCOS disk. The JSON file should contain your Amazon S3 bucket name and key.
  7. Check the status of the image import:

    $ watch -n 5 aws ec2 describe-import-snapshot-tasks --region ${AWS_DEFAULT_REGION}

    Example output

    {
        "ImportSnapshotTasks": [
            {
                "Description": "rhcos-4.6.0-x86_64-aws.x86_64",
                "ImportTaskId": "import-snap-fh6i8uil",
                "SnapshotTaskDetail": {
                    "Description": "rhcos-4.6.0-x86_64-aws.x86_64",
                    "DiskImageSize": 819056640.0,
                    "Format": "VMDK",
                    "SnapshotId": "snap-06331325870076318",
                    "Status": "completed",
                    "UserBucket": {
                        "S3Bucket": "external-images",
                        "S3Key": "rhcos-4.6.0-x86_64-aws.x86_64.vmdk"
                    }
                }
            }
        ]
    }

    Copy the SnapshotId to register the image.

  8. Create a custom RHCOS AMI from the RHCOS snapshot:

    $ aws ec2 register-image \
       --region ${AWS_DEFAULT_REGION} \
       --architecture x86_64 \ 1
       --description "rhcos-${RHCOS_VERSION}-x86_64-aws.x86_64" \ 2
       --ena-support \
       --name "rhcos-${RHCOS_VERSION}-x86_64-aws.x86_64" \ 3
       --virtualization-type hvm \
       --root-device-name '/dev/xvda' \
       --block-device-mappings 'DeviceName=/dev/xvda,Ebs={DeleteOnTermination=true,SnapshotId=<snapshot_ID>}' 4
    1
    The RHCOS VMDK architecture type, like x86_64, s390x, or ppc64le.
    2
    The Description from the imported snapshot.
    3
    The name of the RHCOS AMI.
    4
    The SnapshotID from the imported snapshot.

To learn more about these APIs, see the AWS documentation for importing snapshots and creating EBS-backed AMIs.

1.8.8.5. Configuring the cluster-wide proxy during installation

Production environments can deny direct access to the Internet and instead have an HTTP or HTTPS proxy available. You can configure a new OpenShift Container Platform cluster to use a proxy by configuring the proxy settings in the install-config.yaml file.

Prerequisites

  • An existing install-config.yaml file.
  • Review the sites that your cluster requires access to and determine whether any need to bypass the proxy. By default, all cluster egress traffic is proxied, including calls to hosting cloud provider APIs. Add sites to the Proxy object’s spec.noProxy field to bypass the proxy if necessary.

    Note

    The Proxy object status.noProxy field is populated with the values of the networking.machineNetwork[].cidr, networking.clusterNetwork[].cidr, and networking.serviceNetwork[] fields from your installation configuration.

    For installations on Amazon Web Services (AWS), Google Cloud Platform (GCP), Microsoft Azure, and Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP), the Proxy object status.noProxy field is also populated with the instance metadata endpoint (169.254.169.254).

Procedure

  1. Edit your install-config.yaml file and add the proxy settings. For example:

    apiVersion: v1
    baseDomain: my.domain.com
    proxy:
      httpProxy: http://<username>:<pswd>@<ip>:<port> 1
      httpsProxy: http://<username>:<pswd>@<ip>:<port> 2
      noProxy: example.com 3
    additionalTrustBundle: | 4
        -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
        <MY_TRUSTED_CA_CERT>
        -----END CERTIFICATE-----
    ...
    1
    A proxy URL to use for creating HTTP connections outside the cluster. The URL scheme must be http. If you use an MITM transparent proxy network that does not require additional proxy configuration but requires additional CAs, you must not specify an httpProxy value.
    2
    A proxy URL to use for creating HTTPS connections outside the cluster. If this field is not specified, then httpProxy is used for both HTTP and HTTPS connections. If you use an MITM transparent proxy network that does not require additional proxy configuration but requires additional CAs, you must not specify an httpsProxy value.
    3
    A comma-separated list of destination domain names, domains, IP addresses, or other network CIDRs to exclude proxying. Preface a domain with . to include all subdomains of that domain. Use * to bypass proxy for all destinations.
    4
    If provided, the installation program generates a ConfigMap that is named user-ca-bundle in the openshift-config namespace that contains one or more additional CA certificates that are required for proxying HTTPS connections. The Cluster Network Operator then creates a trusted-ca-bundle ConfigMap that merges these contents with the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) trust bundle, and this ConfigMap is referenced in the Proxy object’s trustedCA field. The additionalTrustBundle field is required unless the proxy’s identity certificate is signed by an authority from the RHCOS trust bundle. If you use an MITM transparent proxy network that does not require additional proxy configuration but requires additional CAs, you must provide the MITM CA certificate.
    Note

    The installation program does not support the proxy readinessEndpoints field.

  2. Save the file and reference it when installing OpenShift Container Platform.

The installation program creates a cluster-wide proxy that is named cluster that uses the proxy settings in the provided install-config.yaml file. If no proxy settings are provided, a cluster Proxy object is still created, but it will have a nil spec.

Note

Only the Proxy object named cluster is supported, and no additional proxies can be created.

1.8.9. Deploying the cluster

You can install OpenShift Container Platform on a compatible cloud platform.

Important

You can run the create cluster command of the installation program only once, during initial installation.

Prerequisites

  • Configure an account with the cloud platform that hosts your cluster.
  • Obtain the OpenShift Container Platform installation program and the pull secret for your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Run the installation program:

    $ ./openshift-install create cluster --dir=<installation_directory> \ 1
        --log-level=info 2
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the location of your customized ./install-config.yaml file.
    2
    To view different installation details, specify warn, debug, or error instead of info.
    Note

    If the cloud provider account that you configured on your host does not have sufficient permissions to deploy the cluster, the installation process stops, and the missing permissions are displayed.

    When the cluster deployment completes, directions for accessing your cluster, including a link to its web console and credentials for the kubeadmin user, display in your terminal.

    Important

    The Ignition config files that the installation program generates contain certificates that expire after 24 hours. You must keep the cluster running for 24 hours in a non-degraded state to ensure that the first certificate rotation has finished.

    Important

    You must not delete the installation program or the files that the installation program creates. Both are required to delete the cluster.

  2. Optional: Remove or disable the AdministratorAccess policy from the IAM account that you used to install the cluster.

1.8.10. Installing the CLI by downloading the binary

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) in order to interact with OpenShift Container Platform from a command-line interface. You can install oc on Linux, Windows, or macOS.

Important

If you installed an earlier version of oc, you cannot use it to complete all of the commands in OpenShift Container Platform 4.5. Download and install the new version of oc.

1.8.10.1. Installing the CLI on Linux

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on Linux by using the following procedure.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.
  2. Select your infrastructure provider, and, if applicable, your installation type.
  3. In the Command-line interface section, select Linux from the drop-down menu and click Download command-line tools.
  4. Unpack the archive:

    $ tar xvzf <file>
  5. Place the oc binary in a directory that is on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, execute the following command:

    $ echo $PATH

After you install the CLI, it is available using the oc command:

$ oc <command>

1.8.10.2. Installing the CLI on Windows

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on Windows by using the following procedure.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.
  2. Select your infrastructure provider, and, if applicable, your installation type.
  3. In the Command-line interface section, select Windows from the drop-down menu and click Download command-line tools.
  4. Unzip the archive with a ZIP program.
  5. Move the oc binary to a directory that is on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, open the command prompt and execute the following command:

    C:\> path

After you install the CLI, it is available using the oc command:

C:\> oc <command>

1.8.10.3. Installing the CLI on macOS

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on macOS by using the following procedure.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.
  2. Select your infrastructure provider, and, if applicable, your installation type.
  3. In the Command-line interface section, select MacOS from the drop-down menu and click Download command-line tools.
  4. Unpack and unzip the archive.
  5. Move the oc binary to a directory on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, open a terminal and execute the following command:

    $ echo $PATH

After you install the CLI, it is available using the oc command:

$ oc <command>

1.8.11. Logging in to the cluster

You can log in to your cluster as a default system user by exporting the cluster kubeconfig file. The kubeconfig file contains information about the cluster that is used by the CLI to connect a client to the correct cluster and API server. The file is specific to a cluster and is created during OpenShift Container Platform installation.

Prerequisites

  • Deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • Install the oc CLI.

Procedure

  1. Export the kubeadmin credentials:

    $ export KUBECONFIG=<installation_directory>/auth/kubeconfig 1
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the path to the directory that you stored the installation files in.
  2. Verify you can run oc commands successfully using the exported configuration:

    $ oc whoami

    Example output

    system:admin

1.8.12. Next steps

1.9. Installing a cluster on user-provisioned infrastructure in AWS by using CloudFormation templates

In OpenShift Container Platform version 4.5, you can install a cluster on Amazon Web Services (AWS) that uses infrastructure that you provide.

One way to create this infrastructure is to use the provided CloudFormation templates. You can modify the templates to customize your infrastructure or use the information that they contain to create AWS objects according to your company’s policies.

1.9.1. Prerequisites

1.9.2. Internet and Telemetry access for OpenShift Container Platform

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.5, you require access to the internet to install your cluster. The Telemetry service, which runs by default to provide metrics about cluster health and the success of updates, also requires internet access. If your cluster is connected to the internet, Telemetry runs automatically, and your cluster is registered to the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager (OCM).

Once you confirm that your Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager inventory is correct, either maintained automatically by Telemetry or manually using OCM, use subscription watch to track your OpenShift Container Platform subscriptions at the account or multi-cluster level.

You must have internet access to:

  • Access the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager page to download the installation program and perform subscription management. If the cluster has internet access and you do not disable Telemetry, that service automatically entitles your cluster.
  • Access Quay.io to obtain the packages that are required to install your cluster.
  • Obtain the packages that are required to perform cluster updates.
Important

If your cluster cannot have direct internet access, you can perform a restricted network installation on some types of infrastructure that you provision. During that process, you download the content that is required and use it to populate a mirror registry with the packages that you need to install a cluster and generate the installation program. With some installation types, the environment that you install your cluster in will not require internet access. Before you update the cluster, you update the content of the mirror registry.

1.9.3. Required AWS infrastructure components

To install OpenShift Container Platform on user-provisioned infrastructure in Amazon Web Services (AWS), you must manually create both the machines and their supporting infrastructure.

For more information about the integration testing for different platforms, see the OpenShift Container Platform 4.x Tested Integrations page.

You can use the provided CloudFormation templates to create this infrastructure, you can manually create the components, or you can reuse existing infrastructure that meets the cluster requirements. Review the CloudFormation templates for more details about how the components interrelate.

1.9.3.1. Cluster machines

You need AWS::EC2::Instance objects for the following machines:

  • A bootstrap machine. This machine is required during installation, but you can remove it after your cluster deploys.
  • At least three control plane machines. The control plane machines are not governed by a MachineSet.
  • Compute machines. You must create at least two compute machines, which are also known as worker machines, during installation. These machines are not governed by a MachineSet.

You can use the following instance types for the cluster machines with the provided CloudFormation templates.

Important

If m4 instance types are not available in your region, such as with eu-west-3, use m5 types instead.

Table 1.17. Instance types for machines

Instance typeBootstrapControl planeCompute

i3.large

x

  

m4.large

  

x

m4.xlarge

 

x

x

m4.2xlarge

 

x

x

m4.4xlarge

 

x

x

m4.8xlarge

 

x

x

m4.10xlarge

 

x

x

m4.16xlarge

 

x

x

m5.large

  

x

m5.xlarge

 

x

x

m5.2xlarge

 

x

x

m5.4xlarge

 

x

x

m5.8xlarge

 

x

x

m5.10xlarge

 

x

x

m5.16xlarge

 

x

x

c4.large

  

x

c4.xlarge

  

x

c4.2xlarge

 

x

x

c4.4xlarge

 

x

x

c4.8xlarge

 

x

x

r4.large

  

x

r4.xlarge

 

x

x

r4.2xlarge

 

x

x

r4.4xlarge

 

x

x

r4.8xlarge

 

x

x

r4.16xlarge

 

x

x

You might be able to use other instance types that meet the specifications of these instance types.

1.9.3.2. Certificate signing requests management

Because your cluster has limited access to automatic machine management when you use infrastructure that you provision, you must provide a mechanism for approving cluster certificate signing requests (CSRs) after installation. The kube-controller-manager only approves the kubelet client CSRs. The machine-approver cannot guarantee the validity of a serving certificate that is requested by using kubelet credentials because it cannot confirm that the correct machine issued the request. You must determine and implement a method of verifying the validity of the kubelet serving certificate requests and approving them.

1.9.3.3. Other infrastructure components

  • A VPC
  • DNS entries
  • Load balancers (classic or network) and listeners
  • A public and a private Route53 zone
  • Security groups
  • IAM roles
  • S3 buckets

If you are working in a disconnected environment, you are unable to reach the public IP addresses for EC2 and ELB endpoints. To resolve this, you must create a VPC endpoint and attach it to the subnet that the clusters are using. The endpoints should be named as follows:

  • ec2.<region>.amazonaws.com
  • elasticloadbalancing.<region>.amazonaws.com
  • s3.<region>.amazonaws.com

Required VPC components

You must provide a suitable VPC and subnets that allow communication to your machines.

ComponentAWS typeDescription

VPC

  • AWS::EC2::VPC
  • AWS::EC2::VPCEndpoint

You must provide a public VPC for the cluster to use. The VPC uses an endpoint that references the route tables for each subnet to improve communication with the registry that is hosted in S3.

Public subnets

  • AWS::EC2::Subnet
  • AWS::EC2::SubnetNetworkAclAssociation

Your VPC must have public subnets for between 1 and 3 availability zones and associate them with appropriate Ingress rules.

Internet gateway

  • AWS::EC2::InternetGateway
  • AWS::EC2::VPCGatewayAttachment
  • AWS::EC2::RouteTable
  • AWS::EC2::Route
  • AWS::EC2::SubnetRouteTableAssociation
  • AWS::EC2::NatGateway
  • AWS::EC2::EIP

You must have a public internet gateway, with public routes, attached to the VPC. In the provided templates, each public subnet has a NAT gateway with an EIP address. These NAT gateways allow cluster resources, like private subnet instances, to reach the internet and are not required for some restricted network or proxy scenarios.

Network access control

  • AWS::EC2::NetworkAcl
  • AWS::EC2::NetworkAclEntry

You must allow the VPC to access the following ports:

Port

Reason

80

Inbound HTTP traffic

443

Inbound HTTPS traffic

22

Inbound SSH traffic

1024 - 65535

Inbound ephemeral traffic

0 - 65535

Outbound ephemeral traffic

Private subnets

  • AWS::EC2::Subnet
  • AWS::EC2::RouteTable
  • AWS::EC2::SubnetRouteTableAssociation

Your VPC can have private subnets. The provided CloudFormation templates can create private subnets for between 1 and 3 availability zones. If you use private subnets, you must provide appropriate routes and tables for them.

Required DNS and load balancing components

Your DNS and load balancer configuration needs to use a public hosted zone and can use a private hosted zone similar to the one that the installation program uses if it provisions the cluster’s infrastructure. You must create a DNS entry that resolves to your load balancer. An entry for api.<cluster_name>.<domain> must point to the external load balancer, and an entry for api-int.<cluster_name>.<domain> must point to the internal load balancer.

The cluster also requires load balancers and listeners for port 6443, which are required for the Kubernetes API and its extensions, and port 22623, which are required for the Ignition config files for new machines. The targets will be the master nodes. Port 6443 must be accessible to both clients external to the cluster and nodes within the cluster. Port 22623 must be accessible to nodes within the cluster.

ComponentAWS typeDescription

DNS

AWS::Route53::HostedZone

The hosted zone for your internal DNS.

etcd record sets

AWS::Route53::RecordSet

The registration records for etcd for your control plane machines.

Public load balancer

AWS::ElasticLoadBalancingV2::LoadBalancer

The load balancer for your public subnets.

External API server record

AWS::Route53::RecordSetGroup

Alias records for the external API server.

External listener

AWS::ElasticLoadBalancingV2::Listener

A listener on port 6443 for the external load balancer.

External target group

AWS::ElasticLoadBalancingV2::TargetGroup

The target group for the external load balancer.

Private load balancer

AWS::ElasticLoadBalancingV2::LoadBalancer

The load balancer for your private subnets.

Internal API server record

AWS::Route53::RecordSetGroup

Alias records for the internal API server.

Internal listener

AWS::ElasticLoadBalancingV2::Listener

A listener on port 22623 for the internal load balancer.

Internal target group

AWS::ElasticLoadBalancingV2::TargetGroup

The target group for the Internal load balancer.

Internal listener

AWS::ElasticLoadBalancingV2::Listener

A listener on port 6443 for the internal load balancer.

Internal target group

AWS::ElasticLoadBalancingV2::TargetGroup

The target group for the internal load balancer.

Security groups

The control plane and worker machines require access to the following ports:

GroupTypeIP ProtocolPort range

MasterSecurityGroup

AWS::EC2::SecurityGroup

icmp

0

tcp

22

tcp

6443

tcp

22623

WorkerSecurityGroup

AWS::EC2::SecurityGroup

icmp

0

tcp

22

BootstrapSecurityGroup

AWS::EC2::SecurityGroup

tcp

22

tcp

19531

Control plane Ingress

The control plane machines require the following Ingress groups. Each Ingress group is a AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress resource.

Ingress groupDescriptionIP protocolPort range

MasterIngressEtcd

etcd

tcp

2379- 2380

MasterIngressVxlan

Vxlan packets

udp

4789

MasterIngressWorkerVxlan

Vxlan packets

udp

4789

MasterIngressInternal

Internal cluster communication and Kubernetes proxy metrics

tcp

9000 - 9999

MasterIngressWorkerInternal

Internal cluster communication

tcp

9000 - 9999

MasterIngressKube

Kubernetes kubelet, scheduler and controller manager

tcp

10250 - 10259

MasterIngressWorkerKube

Kubernetes kubelet, scheduler and controller manager

tcp

10250 - 10259

MasterIngressIngressServices

Kubernetes Ingress services

tcp

30000 - 32767

MasterIngressWorkerIngressServices

Kubernetes Ingress services

tcp

30000 - 32767

Worker Ingress

The worker machines require the following Ingress groups. Each Ingress group is a AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress resource.

Ingress groupDescriptionIP protocolPort range

WorkerIngressVxlan

Vxlan packets

udp

4789

WorkerIngressWorkerVxlan

Vxlan packets

udp

4789

WorkerIngressInternal

Internal cluster communication

tcp

9000 - 9999

WorkerIngressWorkerInternal

Internal cluster communication

tcp

9000 - 9999

WorkerIngressKube

Kubernetes kubelet, scheduler and controller manager

tcp

10250

WorkerIngressWorkerKube

Kubernetes kubelet, scheduler and controller manager

tcp

10250

WorkerIngressIngressServices

Kubernetes Ingress services

tcp

30000 - 32767

WorkerIngressWorkerIngressServices

Kubernetes Ingress services

tcp

30000 - 32767

Roles and instance profiles

You must grant the machines permissions in AWS. The provided CloudFormation templates grant the machines permission the following AWS::IAM::Role objects and provide a AWS::IAM::InstanceProfile for each set of roles. If you do not use the templates, you can grant the machines the following broad permissions or the following individual permissions.

RoleEffectActionResource

Master

Allow

ec2:*

*

Allow

elasticloadbalancing:*

*

Allow

iam:PassRole

*

Allow

s3:GetObject

*

Worker

Allow

ec2:Describe*

*

Bootstrap

Allow

ec2:Describe*

*

Allow

ec2:AttachVolume

*

Allow

ec2:DetachVolume

*

1.9.3.4. Required AWS permissions

When you attach the AdministratorAccess policy to the IAM user that you create in Amazon Web Services (AWS), you grant that user all of the required permissions. To deploy all components of an OpenShift Container Platform cluster, the IAM user requires the following permissions:

Example 1.11. Required EC2 permissions for installation

  • tag:TagResources
  • tag:UntagResources
  • ec2:AllocateAddress
  • ec2:AssociateAddress
  • ec2:AuthorizeSecurityGroupEgress
  • ec2:AuthorizeSecurityGroupIngress
  • ec2:CopyImage
  • ec2:CreateNetworkInterface
  • ec2:AttachNetworkInterface
  • ec2:CreateSecurityGroup
  • ec2:CreateTags
  • ec2:CreateVolume
  • ec2:DeleteSecurityGroup
  • ec2:DeleteSnapshot
  • ec2:DeregisterImage
  • ec2:DescribeAccountAttributes
  • ec2:DescribeAddresses
  • ec2:DescribeAvailabilityZones
  • ec2:DescribeDhcpOptions
  • ec2:DescribeImages
  • ec2:DescribeInstanceAttribute
  • ec2:DescribeInstanceCreditSpecifications
  • ec2:DescribeInstances
  • ec2:DescribeInternetGateways
  • ec2:DescribeKeyPairs
  • ec2:DescribeNatGateways
  • ec2:DescribeNetworkAcls
  • ec2:DescribeNetworkInterfaces
  • ec2:DescribePrefixLists
  • ec2:DescribeRegions
  • ec2:DescribeRouteTables
  • ec2:DescribeSecurityGroups
  • ec2:DescribeSubnets
  • ec2:DescribeTags
  • ec2:DescribeVolumes
  • ec2:DescribeVpcAttribute
  • ec2:DescribeVpcClassicLink
  • ec2:DescribeVpcClassicLinkDnsSupport
  • ec2:DescribeVpcEndpoints
  • ec2:DescribeVpcs
  • ec2:GetEbsDefaultKmsKeyId
  • ec2:ModifyInstanceAttribute
  • ec2:ModifyNetworkInterfaceAttribute
  • ec2:ReleaseAddress
  • ec2:RevokeSecurityGroupEgress
  • ec2:RevokeSecurityGroupIngress
  • ec2:RunInstances
  • ec2:TerminateInstances

Example 1.12. Required permissions for creating network resources during installation

  • ec2:AssociateDhcpOptions
  • ec2:AssociateRouteTable
  • ec2:AttachInternetGateway
  • ec2:CreateDhcpOptions
  • ec2:CreateInternetGateway
  • ec2:CreateNatGateway
  • ec2:CreateRoute
  • ec2:CreateRouteTable
  • ec2:CreateSubnet
  • ec2:CreateVpc
  • ec2:CreateVpcEndpoint
  • ec2:ModifySubnetAttribute
  • ec2:ModifyVpcAttribute
Note

If you use an existing VPC, your account does not require these permissions for creating network resources.

Example 1.13. Required Elasticloadbalancing permissions for installation

  • elasticloadbalancing:AddTags
  • elasticloadbalancing:ApplySecurityGroupsToLoadBalancer
  • elasticloadbalancing:AttachLoadBalancerToSubnets
  • elasticloadbalancing:ConfigureHealthCheck
  • elasticloadbalancing:CreateListener
  • elasticloadbalancing:CreateLoadBalancer
  • elasticloadbalancing:CreateLoadBalancerListeners
  • elasticloadbalancing:CreateTargetGroup
  • elasticloadbalancing:DeleteLoadBalancer
  • elasticloadbalancing:DeregisterInstancesFromLoadBalancer
  • elasticloadbalancing:DeregisterTargets
  • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeInstanceHealth
  • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeListeners
  • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeLoadBalancerAttributes
  • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeLoadBalancers
  • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeTags
  • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeTargetGroupAttributes
  • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeTargetHealth
  • elasticloadbalancing:ModifyLoadBalancerAttributes
  • elasticloadbalancing:ModifyTargetGroup
  • elasticloadbalancing:ModifyTargetGroupAttributes
  • elasticloadbalancing:RegisterInstancesWithLoadBalancer
  • elasticloadbalancing:RegisterTargets
  • elasticloadbalancing:SetLoadBalancerPoliciesOfListener

Example 1.14. Required IAM permissions for installation

  • iam:AddRoleToInstanceProfile
  • iam:CreateInstanceProfile
  • iam:CreateRole
  • iam:DeleteInstanceProfile
  • iam:DeleteRole
  • iam:DeleteRolePolicy
  • iam:GetInstanceProfile
  • iam:GetRole
  • iam:GetRolePolicy
  • iam:GetUser
  • iam:ListInstanceProfilesForRole
  • iam:ListRoles
  • iam:ListUsers
  • iam:PassRole
  • iam:PutRolePolicy
  • iam:RemoveRoleFromInstanceProfile
  • iam:SimulatePrincipalPolicy
  • iam:TagRole

Example 1.15. Required Route53 permissions for installation

  • route53:ChangeResourceRecordSets
  • route53:ChangeTagsForResource
  • route53:CreateHostedZone
  • route53:DeleteHostedZone
  • route53:GetChange
  • route53:GetHostedZone
  • route53:ListHostedZones
  • route53:ListHostedZonesByName
  • route53:ListResourceRecordSets
  • route53:ListTagsForResource
  • route53:UpdateHostedZoneComment

Example 1.16. Required S3 permissions for installation

  • s3:CreateBucket
  • s3:DeleteBucket
  • s3:GetAccelerateConfiguration
  • s3:GetBucketAcl
  • s3:GetBucketCors
  • s3:GetBucketLocation
  • s3:GetBucketLogging
  • s3:GetBucketObjectLockConfiguration
  • s3:GetBucketReplication
  • s3:GetBucketRequestPayment
  • s3:GetBucketTagging
  • s3:GetBucketVersioning
  • s3:GetBucketWebsite
  • s3:GetEncryptionConfiguration
  • s3:GetLifecycleConfiguration
  • s3:GetReplicationConfiguration
  • s3:ListBucket
  • s3:PutBucketAcl
  • s3:PutBucketTagging
  • s3:PutEncryptionConfiguration

Example 1.17. S3 permissions that cluster Operators require

  • s3:DeleteObject
  • s3:GetObject
  • s3:GetObjectAcl
  • s3:GetObjectTagging
  • s3:GetObjectVersion
  • s3:PutObject
  • s3:PutObjectAcl
  • s3:PutObjectTagging

Example 1.18. Required permissions to delete base cluster resources

  • autoscaling:DescribeAutoScalingGroups
  • ec2:DeleteNetworkInterface
  • ec2:DeleteVolume
  • elasticloadbalancing:DeleteTargetGroup
  • elasticloadbalancing:DescribeTargetGroups
  • iam:DeleteAccessKey
  • iam:DeleteUser
  • iam:ListInstanceProfiles
  • iam:ListRolePolicies
  • iam:ListUserPolicies
  • s3:DeleteObject
  • s3:ListBucketVersions
  • tag:GetResources

Example 1.19. Required permissions to delete network resources

  • ec2:DeleteDhcpOptions
  • ec2:DeleteInternetGateway
  • ec2:DeleteNatGateway
  • ec2:DeleteRoute
  • ec2:DeleteRouteTable
  • ec2:DeleteSubnet
  • ec2:DeleteVpc
  • ec2:DeleteVpcEndpoints
  • ec2:DetachInternetGateway
  • ec2:DisassociateRouteTable
  • ec2:ReplaceRouteTableAssociation
Note

If you use an existing VPC, your account does not require these permissions to delete network resources.

Example 1.20. Additional IAM and S3 permissions that are required to create manifests

  • iam:CreateAccessKey
  • iam:CreateUser
  • iam:DeleteAccessKey
  • iam:DeleteUser
  • iam:DeleteUserPolicy
  • iam:GetUserPolicy
  • iam:ListAccessKeys
  • iam:PutUserPolicy
  • iam:TagUser
  • iam:GetUserPolicy
  • iam:ListAccessKeys
  • s3:PutBucketPublicAccessBlock
  • s3:GetBucketPublicAccessBlock
  • s3:PutLifecycleConfiguration
  • s3:HeadBucket
  • s3:ListBucketMultipartUploads
  • s3:AbortMultipartUpload

1.9.4. Obtaining the installation program

Before you install OpenShift Container Platform, download the installation file on a local computer.

Prerequisites

  • A computer that runs Linux or macOS, with 500 MB of local disk space

Procedure

  1. Access the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site. If you have a Red Hat account, log in with your credentials. If you do not, create an account.
  2. Navigate to the page for your installation type, download the installation program for your operating system, and place the file in the directory where you will store the installation configuration files.

    Important

    The installation program creates several files on the computer that you use to install your cluster. You must keep both the installation program and the files that the installation program creates after you finish installing the cluster.

    Important

    Deleting the files created by the installation program does not remove your cluster, even if the cluster failed during installation. To remove your cluster, complete the OpenShift Container Platform uninstallation procedures for your specific cloud provider.

  3. Extract the installation program. For example, on a computer that uses a Linux operating system, run the following command:

    $ tar xvf openshift-install-linux.tar.gz
  4. From the Pull Secret page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site, download your installation pull secret as a .txt file. This pull secret allows you to authenticate with the services that are provided by the included authorities, including Quay.io, which serves the container images for OpenShift Container Platform components.

1.9.5. Generating an SSH private key and adding it to the agent

If you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery on your cluster, you must provide an SSH key to both your ssh-agent and the installation program. You can use this key to access the bootstrap machine in a public cluster to troubleshoot installation issues.

Note

In a production environment, you require disaster recovery and debugging.

You can use this key to SSH into the master nodes as the user core. When you deploy the cluster, the key is added to the core user’s ~/.ssh/authorized_keys list.

Note

You must use a local key, not one that you configured with platform-specific approaches such as AWS key pairs.

Procedure

  1. If you do not have an SSH key that is configured for password-less authentication on your computer, create one. For example, on a computer that uses a Linux operating system, run the following command:

    $ ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -N '' \
        -f <path>/<file_name> 1
    1
    Specify the path and file name, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa, of the new SSH key.

    Running this command generates an SSH key that does not require a password in the location that you specified.

  2. Start the ssh-agent process as a background task:

    $ eval "$(ssh-agent -s)"

    Example output

    Agent pid 31874

  3. Add your SSH private key to the ssh-agent:

    $ ssh-add <path>/<file_name> 1

    Example output

    Identity added: /home/<you>/<path>/<file_name> (<computer_name>)

    1
    Specify the path and file name for your SSH private key, such as ~/.ssh/id_rsa

Next steps

  • When you install OpenShift Container Platform, provide the SSH public key to the installation program. If you install a cluster on infrastructure that you provision, you must provide this key to your cluster’s machines.

1.9.6. Creating the installation files for AWS

To install OpenShift Container Platform on Amazon Web Services (AWS) using user-provisioned infrastructure, you must generate the files that the installation program needs to deploy your cluster and modify them so that the cluster creates only the machines that it will use. You generate and customize the install-config.yaml file, Kubernetes manifests, and Ignition config files.

1.9.6.1. Creating the installation configuration file

Generate and customize the installation configuration file that the installation program needs to deploy your cluster.

Prerequisites

  • Obtain the OpenShift Container Platform installation program and the pull secret for your cluster.
  • Check that you are deploying your cluster to a region with an accompanying Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) AMI published by Red Hat. If you are deploying to a region that requires a custom AMI, such as an AWS GovCloud region, you must create the install-config.yaml file manually.

Procedure

  1. Obtain the install-config.yaml file.

    1. Run the following command:

      $ ./openshift-install create install-config --dir=<installation_directory> 1
      1
      For <installation_directory>, specify the directory name to store the files that the installation program creates.
      Important

      Specify an empty directory. Some installation assets, like bootstrap X.509 certificates have short expiration intervals, so you must not reuse an installation directory. If you want to reuse individual files from another cluster installation, you can copy them into your directory. However, the file names for the installation assets might change between releases. Use caution when copying installation files from an earlier OpenShift Container Platform version.

    2. At the prompts, provide the configuration details for your cloud:

      1. Optional: Select an SSH key to use to access your cluster machines.

        Note

        For production OpenShift Container Platform clusters on which you want to perform installation debugging or disaster recovery, specify an SSH key that your ssh-agent process uses.

      2. Select aws as the platform to target.
      3. If you do not have an AWS profile stored on your computer, enter the AWS access key ID and secret access key for the user that you configured to run the installation program.
      4. Select the AWS region to deploy the cluster to.
      5. Select the base domain for the Route53 service that you configured for your cluster.
      6. Enter a descriptive name for your cluster.
      7. Paste the pull secret that you obtained from the Pull Secret page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.
  2. Edit the install-config.yaml file to set the number of compute replicas, which are also known as worker replicas, to 0, as shown in the following compute stanza:

    compute:
    - hyperthreading: Enabled
      name: worker
      platform: {}
      replicas: 0
  3. Optional: Back up the install-config.yaml file.

    Important

    The install-config.yaml file is consumed during the installation process. If you want to reuse the file, you must back it up now.

1.9.6.2. Configuring the cluster-wide proxy during installation

Production environments can deny direct access to the Internet and instead have an HTTP or HTTPS proxy available. You can configure a new OpenShift Container Platform cluster to use a proxy by configuring the proxy settings in the install-config.yaml file.

Prerequisites

  • An existing install-config.yaml file.
  • Review the sites that your cluster requires access to and determine whether any need to bypass the proxy. By default, all cluster egress traffic is proxied, including calls to hosting cloud provider APIs. Add sites to the Proxy object’s spec.noProxy field to bypass the proxy if necessary.

    Note

    The Proxy object status.noProxy field is populated with the values of the networking.machineNetwork[].cidr, networking.clusterNetwork[].cidr, and networking.serviceNetwork[] fields from your installation configuration.

    For installations on Amazon Web Services (AWS), Google Cloud Platform (GCP), Microsoft Azure, and Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP), the Proxy object status.noProxy field is also populated with the instance metadata endpoint (169.254.169.254).

Procedure

  1. Edit your install-config.yaml file and add the proxy settings. For example:

    apiVersion: v1
    baseDomain: my.domain.com
    proxy:
      httpProxy: http://<username>:<pswd>@<ip>:<port> 1
      httpsProxy: http://<username>:<pswd>@<ip>:<port> 2
      noProxy: example.com 3
    additionalTrustBundle: | 4
        -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
        <MY_TRUSTED_CA_CERT>
        -----END CERTIFICATE-----
    ...
    1
    A proxy URL to use for creating HTTP connections outside the cluster. The URL scheme must be http. If you use an MITM transparent proxy network that does not require additional proxy configuration but requires additional CAs, you must not specify an httpProxy value.
    2
    A proxy URL to use for creating HTTPS connections outside the cluster. If this field is not specified, then httpProxy is used for both HTTP and HTTPS connections. If you use an MITM transparent proxy network that does not require additional proxy configuration but requires additional CAs, you must not specify an httpsProxy value.
    3
    A comma-separated list of destination domain names, domains, IP addresses, or other network CIDRs to exclude proxying. Preface a domain with . to include all subdomains of that domain. Use * to bypass proxy for all destinations.
    4
    If provided, the installation program generates a ConfigMap that is named user-ca-bundle in the openshift-config namespace that contains one or more additional CA certificates that are required for proxying HTTPS connections. The Cluster Network Operator then creates a trusted-ca-bundle ConfigMap that merges these contents with the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) trust bundle, and this ConfigMap is referenced in the Proxy object’s trustedCA field. The additionalTrustBundle field is required unless the proxy’s identity certificate is signed by an authority from the RHCOS trust bundle. If you use an MITM transparent proxy network that does not require additional proxy configuration but requires additional CAs, you must provide the MITM CA certificate.
    Note

    The installation program does not support the proxy readinessEndpoints field.

  2. Save the file and reference it when installing OpenShift Container Platform.

The installation program creates a cluster-wide proxy that is named cluster that uses the proxy settings in the provided install-config.yaml file. If no proxy settings are provided, a cluster Proxy object is still created, but it will have a nil spec.

Note

Only the Proxy object named cluster is supported, and no additional proxies can be created.

1.9.6.3. Creating the Kubernetes manifest and Ignition config files

Because you must modify some cluster definition files and manually start the cluster machines, you must generate the Kubernetes manifest and Ignition config files that the cluster needs to make its machines.

Important

The Ignition config files that the installation program generates contain certificates that expire after 24 hours. You must complete your cluster installation and keep the cluster running for 24 hours in a non-degraded state to ensure that the first certificate rotation has finished.

Prerequisites

  • Obtain the OpenShift Container Platform installation program.
  • Create the install-config.yaml installation configuration file.

Procedure

  1. Generate the Kubernetes manifests for the cluster:

    $ ./openshift-install create manifests --dir=<installation_directory> 1

    Example output

    INFO Consuming Install Config from target directory
    WARNING Making control-plane schedulable by setting MastersSchedulable to true for Scheduler cluster settings

    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the installation directory that contains the install-config.yaml file you created.

    Because you create your own compute machines later in the installation process, you can safely ignore this warning.

  2. Remove the Kubernetes manifest files that define the control plane machines:

    $ rm -f <installation_directory>/openshift/99_openshift-cluster-api_master-machines-*.yaml

    By removing these files, you prevent the cluster from automatically generating control plane machines.

  3. Remove the Kubernetes manifest files that define the worker machines:

    $ rm -f <installation_directory>/openshift/99_openshift-cluster-api_worker-machineset-*.yaml

    Because you create and manage the worker machines yourself, you do not need to initialize these machines.

  4. Modify the <installation_directory>/manifests/cluster-scheduler-02-config.yml Kubernetes manifest file to prevent pods from being scheduled on the control plane machines:

    1. Open the <installation_directory>/manifests/cluster-scheduler-02-config.yml file.
    2. Locate the mastersSchedulable parameter and set its value to False.
    3. Save and exit the file.
  5. Optional: If you do not want the Ingress Operator to create DNS records on your behalf, remove the privateZone and publicZone sections from the <installation_directory>/manifests/cluster-dns-02-config.yml DNS configuration file:

    apiVersion: config.openshift.io/v1
    kind: DNS
    metadata:
      creationTimestamp: null
      name: cluster
    spec:
      baseDomain: example.openshift.com
      privateZone: 1
        id: mycluster-100419-private-zone
      publicZone: 2
        id: example.openshift.com
    status: {}
    1 2
    Remove this section completely.

    If you do so, you must add ingress DNS records manually in a later step.

  6. Obtain the Ignition config files:

    $ ./openshift-install create ignition-configs --dir=<installation_directory> 1
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the same installation directory.

    The following files are generated in the directory:

    .
    ├── auth
    │   ├── kubeadmin-password
    │   └── kubeconfig
    ├── bootstrap.ign
    ├── master.ign
    ├── metadata.json
    └── worker.ign

1.9.7. Extracting the infrastructure name

The Ignition config files contain a unique cluster identifier that you can use to uniquely identify your cluster in Amazon Web Services (AWS). The provided CloudFormation templates contain references to this infrastructure name, so you must extract it.

Prerequisites

  • Obtain the OpenShift Container Platform installation program and the pull secret for your cluster.
  • Generate the Ignition config files for your cluster.
  • Install the jq package.

Procedure

  • To extract and view the infrastructure name from the Ignition config file metadata, run the following command:

    $ jq -r .infraID <installation_directory>/metadata.json 1
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the path to the directory that you stored the installation files in.

    Example output

    openshift-vw9j6 1

    1
    The output of this command is your cluster name and a random string.

1.9.8. Creating a VPC in AWS

You must create a VPC in Amazon Web Services (AWS) for your OpenShift Container Platform cluster to use. You can customize the VPC to meet your requirements, including VPN and route tables. The easiest way to create the VPC is to modify the provided CloudFormation template.

Note

If you do not use the provided CloudFormation template to create your AWS infrastructure, you must review the provided information and manually create the infrastructure. If your cluster does not initialize correctly, you might have to contact Red Hat support with your installation logs.

Prerequisites

  • Configure an AWS account.
  • Generate the Ignition config files for your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Create a JSON file that contains the parameter values that the template requires:

    [
      {
        "ParameterKey": "VpcCidr", 1
        "ParameterValue": "10.0.0.0/16" 2
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "AvailabilityZoneCount", 3
        "ParameterValue": "1" 4
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "SubnetBits", 5
        "ParameterValue": "12" 6
      }
    ]
    1
    The CIDR block for the VPC.
    2
    Specify a CIDR block in the format x.x.x.x/16-24.
    3
    The number of availability zones to deploy the VPC in.
    4
    Specify an integer between 1 and 3.
    5
    The size of each subnet in each availability zone.
    6
    Specify an integer between 5 and 13, where 5 is /27 and 13 is /19.
  2. Copy the template from the CloudFormation template for the VPC section of this topic and save it as a YAML file on your computer. This template describes the VPC that your cluster requires.
  3. Launch the template:

    Important

    You must enter the command on a single line.

    $ aws cloudformation create-stack --stack-name <name> 1
         --template-body file://<template>.yaml 2
         --parameters file://<parameters>.json 3
    1
    <name> is the name for the CloudFormation stack, such as cluster-vpc. You need the name of this stack if you remove the cluster.
    2
    <template> is the relative path to and name of the CloudFormation template YAML file that you saved.
    3
    <parameters> is the relative path to and name of the CloudFormation parameters JSON file.
  4. Confirm that the template components exist:

    $ aws cloudformation describe-stacks --stack-name <name>

    After the StackStatus displays CREATE_COMPLETE, the output displays values for the following parameters. You must provide these parameter values to the other CloudFormation templates that you run to create your cluster:

    VpcId

    The ID of your VPC.

    PublicSubnetIds

    The IDs of the new public subnets.

    PrivateSubnetIds

    The IDs of the new private subnets.

1.9.8.1. CloudFormation template for the VPC

You can use the following CloudFormation template to deploy the VPC that you need for your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

Example 1.21. CloudFormation template for the VPC

AWSTemplateFormatVersion: 2010-09-09
Description: Template for Best Practice VPC with 1-3 AZs

Parameters:
  VpcCidr:
    AllowedPattern: ^(([0-9]|[1-9][0-9]|1[0-9]{2}|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])\.){3}([0-9]|[1-9][0-9]|1[0-9]{2}|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])(\/(1[6-9]|2[0-4]))$
    ConstraintDescription: CIDR block parameter must be in the form x.x.x.x/16-24.
    Default: 10.0.0.0/16
    Description: CIDR block for VPC.
    Type: String
  AvailabilityZoneCount:
    ConstraintDescription: "The number of availability zones. (Min: 1, Max: 3)"
    MinValue: 1
    MaxValue: 3
    Default: 1
    Description: "How many AZs to create VPC subnets for. (Min: 1, Max: 3)"
    Type: Number
  SubnetBits:
    ConstraintDescription: CIDR block parameter must be in the form x.x.x.x/19-27.
    MinValue: 5
    MaxValue: 13
    Default: 12
    Description: "Size of each subnet to create within the availability zones. (Min: 5 = /27, Max: 13 = /19)"
    Type: Number

Metadata:
  AWS::CloudFormation::Interface:
    ParameterGroups:
    - Label:
        default: "Network Configuration"
      Parameters:
      - VpcCidr
      - SubnetBits
    - Label:
        default: "Availability Zones"
      Parameters:
      - AvailabilityZoneCount
    ParameterLabels:
      AvailabilityZoneCount:
        default: "Availability Zone Count"
      VpcCidr:
        default: "VPC CIDR"
      SubnetBits:
        default: "Bits Per Subnet"

Conditions:
  DoAz3: !Equals [3, !Ref AvailabilityZoneCount]
  DoAz2: !Or [!Equals [2, !Ref AvailabilityZoneCount], Condition: DoAz3]

Resources:
  VPC:
    Type: "AWS::EC2::VPC"
    Properties:
      EnableDnsSupport: "true"
      EnableDnsHostnames: "true"
      CidrBlock: !Ref VpcCidr
  PublicSubnet:
    Type: "AWS::EC2::Subnet"
    Properties:
      VpcId: !Ref VPC
      CidrBlock: !Select [0, !Cidr [!Ref VpcCidr, 6, !Ref SubnetBits]]
      AvailabilityZone: !Select
      - 0
      - Fn::GetAZs: !Ref "AWS::Region"
  PublicSubnet2:
    Type: "AWS::EC2::Subnet"
    Condition: DoAz2
    Properties:
      VpcId: !Ref VPC
      CidrBlock: !Select [1, !Cidr [!Ref VpcCidr, 6, !Ref SubnetBits]]
      AvailabilityZone: !Select
      - 1
      - Fn::GetAZs: !Ref "AWS::Region"
  PublicSubnet3:
    Type: "AWS::EC2::Subnet"
    Condition: DoAz3
    Properties:
      VpcId: !Ref VPC
      CidrBlock: !Select [2, !Cidr [!Ref VpcCidr, 6, !Ref SubnetBits]]
      AvailabilityZone: !Select
      - 2
      - Fn::GetAZs: !Ref "AWS::Region"
  InternetGateway:
    Type: "AWS::EC2::InternetGateway"
  GatewayToInternet:
    Type: "AWS::EC2::VPCGatewayAttachment"
    Properties:
      VpcId: !Ref VPC
      InternetGatewayId: !Ref InternetGateway
  PublicRouteTable:
    Type: "AWS::EC2::RouteTable"
    Properties:
      VpcId: !Ref VPC
  PublicRoute:
    Type: "AWS::EC2::Route"
    DependsOn: GatewayToInternet
    Properties:
      RouteTableId: !Ref PublicRouteTable
      DestinationCidrBlock: 0.0.0.0/0
      GatewayId: !Ref InternetGateway
  PublicSubnetRouteTableAssociation:
    Type: "AWS::EC2::SubnetRouteTableAssociation"
    Properties:
      SubnetId: !Ref PublicSubnet
      RouteTableId: !Ref PublicRouteTable
  PublicSubnetRouteTableAssociation2:
    Type: "AWS::EC2::SubnetRouteTableAssociation"
    Condition: DoAz2
    Properties:
      SubnetId: !Ref PublicSubnet2
      RouteTableId: !Ref PublicRouteTable
  PublicSubnetRouteTableAssociation3:
    Condition: DoAz3
    Type: "AWS::EC2::SubnetRouteTableAssociation"
    Properties:
      SubnetId: !Ref PublicSubnet3
      RouteTableId: !Ref PublicRouteTable
  PrivateSubnet:
    Type: "AWS::EC2::Subnet"
    Properties:
      VpcId: !Ref VPC
      CidrBlock: !Select [3, !Cidr [!Ref VpcCidr, 6, !Ref SubnetBits]]
      AvailabilityZone: !Select
      - 0
      - Fn::GetAZs: !Ref "AWS::Region"
  PrivateRouteTable:
    Type: "AWS::EC2::RouteTable"
    Properties:
      VpcId: !Ref VPC
  PrivateSubnetRouteTableAssociation:
    Type: "AWS::EC2::SubnetRouteTableAssociation"
    Properties:
      SubnetId: !Ref PrivateSubnet
      RouteTableId: !Ref PrivateRouteTable
  NAT:
    DependsOn:
    - GatewayToInternet
    Type: "AWS::EC2::NatGateway"
    Properties:
      AllocationId:
        "Fn::GetAtt":
        - EIP
        - AllocationId
      SubnetId: !Ref PublicSubnet
  EIP:
    Type: "AWS::EC2::EIP"
    Properties:
      Domain: vpc
  Route:
    Type: "AWS::EC2::Route"
    Properties:
      RouteTableId:
        Ref: PrivateRouteTable
      DestinationCidrBlock: 0.0.0.0/0
      NatGatewayId:
        Ref: NAT
  PrivateSubnet2:
    Type: "AWS::EC2::Subnet"
    Condition: DoAz2
    Properties:
      VpcId: !Ref VPC
      CidrBlock: !Select [4, !Cidr [!Ref VpcCidr, 6, !Ref SubnetBits]]
      AvailabilityZone: !Select
      - 1
      - Fn::GetAZs: !Ref "AWS::Region"
  PrivateRouteTable2:
    Type: "AWS::EC2::RouteTable"
    Condition: DoAz2
    Properties:
      VpcId: !Ref VPC
  PrivateSubnetRouteTableAssociation2:
    Type: "AWS::EC2::SubnetRouteTableAssociation"
    Condition: DoAz2
    Properties:
      SubnetId: !Ref PrivateSubnet2
      RouteTableId: !Ref PrivateRouteTable2
  NAT2:
    DependsOn:
    - GatewayToInternet
    Type: "AWS::EC2::NatGateway"
    Condition: DoAz2
    Properties:
      AllocationId:
        "Fn::GetAtt":
        - EIP2
        - AllocationId
      SubnetId: !Ref PublicSubnet2
  EIP2:
    Type: "AWS::EC2::EIP"
    Condition: DoAz2
    Properties:
      Domain: vpc
  Route2:
    Type: "AWS::EC2::Route"
    Condition: DoAz2
    Properties:
      RouteTableId:
        Ref: PrivateRouteTable2
      DestinationCidrBlock: 0.0.0.0/0
      NatGatewayId:
        Ref: NAT2
  PrivateSubnet3:
    Type: "AWS::EC2::Subnet"
    Condition: DoAz3
    Properties:
      VpcId: !Ref VPC
      CidrBlock: !Select [5, !Cidr [!Ref VpcCidr, 6, !Ref SubnetBits]]
      AvailabilityZone: !Select
      - 2
      - Fn::GetAZs: !Ref "AWS::Region"
  PrivateRouteTable3:
    Type: "AWS::EC2::RouteTable"
    Condition: DoAz3
    Properties:
      VpcId: !Ref VPC
  PrivateSubnetRouteTableAssociation3:
    Type: "AWS::EC2::SubnetRouteTableAssociation"
    Condition: DoAz3
    Properties:
      SubnetId: !Ref PrivateSubnet3
      RouteTableId: !Ref PrivateRouteTable3
  NAT3:
    DependsOn:
    - GatewayToInternet
    Type: "AWS::EC2::NatGateway"
    Condition: DoAz3
    Properties:
      AllocationId:
        "Fn::GetAtt":
        - EIP3
        - AllocationId
      SubnetId: !Ref PublicSubnet3
  EIP3:
    Type: "AWS::EC2::EIP"
    Condition: DoAz3
    Properties:
      Domain: vpc
  Route3:
    Type: "AWS::EC2::Route"
    Condition: DoAz3
    Properties:
      RouteTableId:
        Ref: PrivateRouteTable3
      DestinationCidrBlock: 0.0.0.0/0
      NatGatewayId:
        Ref: NAT3
  S3Endpoint:
    Type: AWS::EC2::VPCEndpoint
    Properties:
      PolicyDocument:
        Version: 2012-10-17
        Statement:
        - Effect: Allow
          Principal: '*'
          Action:
          - '*'
          Resource:
          - '*'
      RouteTableIds:
      - !Ref PublicRouteTable
      - !Ref PrivateRouteTable
      - !If [DoAz2, !Ref PrivateRouteTable2, !Ref "AWS::NoValue"]
      - !If [DoAz3, !Ref PrivateRouteTable3, !Ref "AWS::NoValue"]
      ServiceName: !Join
      - ''
      - - com.amazonaws.
        - !Ref 'AWS::Region'
        - .s3
      VpcId: !Ref VPC

Outputs:
  VpcId:
    Description: ID of the new VPC.
    Value: !Ref VPC
  PublicSubnetIds:
    Description: Subnet IDs of the public subnets.
    Value:
      !Join [
        ",",
        [!Ref PublicSubnet, !If [DoAz2, !Ref PublicSubnet2, !Ref "AWS::NoValue"], !If [DoAz3, !Ref PublicSubnet3, !Ref "AWS::NoValue"]]
      ]
  PrivateSubnetIds:
    Description: Subnet IDs of the private subnets.
    Value:
      !Join [
        ",",
        [!Ref PrivateSubnet, !If [DoAz2, !Ref PrivateSubnet2, !Ref "AWS::NoValue"], !If [DoAz3, !Ref PrivateSubnet3, !Ref "AWS::NoValue"]]
      ]

1.9.9. Creating networking and load balancing components in AWS

You must configure networking and load balancing (classic or network) in Amazon Web Services (AWS) for your OpenShift Container Platform cluster to use. The easiest way to create these components is to modify the provided CloudFormation template, which also creates a hosted zone and subnet tags.

You can run the template multiple times within a single VPC.

Note

If you do not use the provided CloudFormation template to create your AWS infrastructure, you must review the provided information and manually create the infrastructure. If your cluster does not initialize correctly, you might have to contact Red Hat support with your installation logs.

Prerequisites

  • Configure an AWS account.
  • Generate the Ignition config files for your cluster.
  • Create and configure a VPC and associated subnets in AWS.

Procedure

  1. Obtain the Hosted Zone ID for the Route53 zone that you specified in the install-config.yaml file for your cluster. You can obtain this ID from the AWS console or by running the following command:

    Important

    You must enter the command on a single line.

    $ aws route53 list-hosted-zones-by-name |
         jq --arg name "<route53_domain>." \ 1
         -r '.HostedZones | .[] | select(.Name=="\($name)") | .Id'
    1
    For the <route53_domain>, specify the Route53 base domain that you used when you generated the install-config.yaml file for the cluster.
  2. Create a JSON file that contains the parameter values that the template requires:

    [
      {
        "ParameterKey": "ClusterName", 1
        "ParameterValue": "mycluster" 2
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "InfrastructureName", 3
        "ParameterValue": "mycluster-<random_string>" 4
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "HostedZoneId", 5
        "ParameterValue": "<random_string>" 6
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "HostedZoneName", 7
        "ParameterValue": "example.com" 8
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "PublicSubnets", 9
        "ParameterValue": "subnet-<random_string>" 10
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "PrivateSubnets", 11
        "ParameterValue": "subnet-<random_string>" 12
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "VpcId", 13
        "ParameterValue": "vpc-<random_string>" 14
      }
    ]
    1
    A short, representative cluster name to use for host names, etc.
    2
    Specify the cluster name that you used when you generated the install-config.yaml file for the cluster.
    3
    The name for your cluster infrastructure that is encoded in your Ignition config files for the cluster.
    4
    Specify the infrastructure name that you extracted from the Ignition config file metadata, which has the format <cluster-name>-<random-string>.
    5
    The Route53 public zone ID to register the targets with.
    6
    Specify the Route53 public zone ID, which as a format similar to Z21IXYZABCZ2A4. You can obtain this value from the AWS console.
    7
    The Route53 zone to register the targets with.
    8
    Specify the Route53 base domain that you used when you generated the install-config.yaml file for the cluster. Do not include the trailing period (.) that is displayed in the AWS console.
    9
    The public subnets that you created for your VPC.
    10
    Specify the PublicSubnetIds value from the output of the CloudFormation template for the VPC.
    11
    The private subnets that you created for your VPC.
    12
    Specify the PrivateSubnetIds value from the output of the CloudFormation template for the VPC.
    13
    The VPC that you created for the cluster.
    14
    Specify the VpcId value from the output of the CloudFormation template for the VPC.
  3. Copy the template from the CloudFormation template for the network and load balancers section of this topic and save it as a YAML file on your computer. This template describes the networking and load balancing objects that your cluster requires.

    Important

    If you are deploying your cluster to an AWS government region, you must update the InternalApiServerRecord in the CloudFormation template to use CNAME records. Records of type ALIAS are not supported for AWS government regions.

  4. Launch the template:

    Important

    You must enter the command on a single line.

    $ aws cloudformation create-stack --stack-name <name> 1
         --template-body file://<template>.yaml 2
         --parameters file://<parameters>.json 3
         --capabilities CAPABILITY_NAMED_IAM
    1
    <name> is the name for the CloudFormation stack, such as cluster-dns. You need the name of this stack if you remove the cluster.
    2
    <template> is the relative path to and name of the CloudFormation template YAML file that you saved.
    3
    <parameters> is the relative path to and name of the CloudFormation parameters JSON file.
  5. Confirm that the template components exist:

    $ aws cloudformation describe-stacks --stack-name <name>

    After the StackStatus displays CREATE_COMPLETE, the output displays values for the following parameters. You must provide these parameter values to the other CloudFormation templates that you run to create your cluster:

    PrivateHostedZoneId

    Hosted zone ID for the private DNS.

    ExternalApiLoadBalancerName

    Full name of the external API load balancer.

    InternalApiLoadBalancerName

    Full name of the internal API load balancer.

    ApiServerDnsName

    Full host name of the API server.

    RegisterNlbIpTargetsLambda

    Lambda ARN useful to help register/deregister IP targets for these load balancers.

    ExternalApiTargetGroupArn

    ARN of external API target group.

    InternalApiTargetGroupArn

    ARN of internal API target group.

    InternalServiceTargetGroupArn

    ARN of internal service target group.

1.9.9.1. CloudFormation template for the network and load balancers

You can use the following CloudFormation template to deploy the networking objects and load balancers that you need for your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

Example 1.22. CloudFormation template for the network and load balancers

AWSTemplateFormatVersion: 2010-09-09
Description: Template for OpenShift Cluster Network Elements (Route53 & LBs)

Parameters:
  ClusterName:
    AllowedPattern: ^([a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9\-]{0,26})$
    MaxLength: 27
    MinLength: 1
    ConstraintDescription: Cluster name must be alphanumeric, start with a letter, and have a maximum of 27 characters.
    Description: A short, representative cluster name to use for host names and other identifying names.
    Type: String
  InfrastructureName:
    AllowedPattern: ^([a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9\-]{0,26})$
    MaxLength: 27
    MinLength: 1
    ConstraintDescription: Infrastructure name must be alphanumeric, start with a letter, and have a maximum of 27 characters.
    Description: A short, unique cluster ID used to tag cloud resources and identify items owned or used by the cluster.
    Type: String
  HostedZoneId:
    Description: The Route53 public zone ID to register the targets with, such as Z21IXYZABCZ2A4.
    Type: String
  HostedZoneName:
    Description: The Route53 zone to register the targets with, such as example.com. Omit the trailing period.
    Type: String
    Default: "example.com"
  PublicSubnets:
    Description: The internet-facing subnets.
    Type: List<AWS::EC2::Subnet::Id>
  PrivateSubnets:
    Description: The internal subnets.
    Type: List<AWS::EC2::Subnet::Id>
  VpcId:
    Description: The VPC-scoped resources will belong to this VPC.
    Type: AWS::EC2::VPC::Id

Metadata:
  AWS::CloudFormation::Interface:
    ParameterGroups:
    - Label:
        default: "Cluster Information"
      Parameters:
      - ClusterName
      - InfrastructureName
    - Label:
        default: "Network Configuration"
      Parameters:
      - VpcId
      - PublicSubnets
      - PrivateSubnets
    - Label:
        default: "DNS"
      Parameters:
      - HostedZoneName
      - HostedZoneId
    ParameterLabels:
      ClusterName:
        default: "Cluster Name"
      InfrastructureName:
        default: "Infrastructure Name"
      VpcId:
        default: "VPC ID"
      PublicSubnets:
        default: "Public Subnets"
      PrivateSubnets:
        default: "Private Subnets"
      HostedZoneName:
        default: "Public Hosted Zone Name"
      HostedZoneId:
        default: "Public Hosted Zone ID"

Resources:
  ExtApiElb:
    Type: AWS::ElasticLoadBalancingV2::LoadBalancer
    Properties:
      Name: !Join ["-", [!Ref InfrastructureName, "ext"]]
      IpAddressType: ipv4
      Subnets: !Ref PublicSubnets
      Type: network

  IntApiElb:
    Type: AWS::ElasticLoadBalancingV2::LoadBalancer
    Properties:
      Name: !Join ["-", [!Ref InfrastructureName, "int"]]
      Scheme: internal
      IpAddressType: ipv4
      Subnets: !Ref PrivateSubnets
      Type: network

  IntDns:
    Type: "AWS::Route53::HostedZone"
    Properties:
      HostedZoneConfig:
        Comment: "Managed by CloudFormation"
      Name: !Join [".", [!Ref ClusterName, !Ref HostedZoneName]]
      HostedZoneTags:
      - Key: Name
        Value: !Join ["-", [!Ref InfrastructureName, "int"]]
      - Key: !Join ["", ["kubernetes.io/cluster/", !Ref InfrastructureName]]
        Value: "owned"
      VPCs:
      - VPCId: !Ref VpcId
        VPCRegion: !Ref "AWS::Region"

  ExternalApiServerRecord:
    Type: AWS::Route53::RecordSetGroup
    Properties:
      Comment: Alias record for the API server
      HostedZoneId: !Ref HostedZoneId
      RecordSets:
      - Name:
          !Join [
            ".",
            ["api", !Ref ClusterName, !Join ["", [!Ref HostedZoneName, "."]]],
          ]
        Type: A
        AliasTarget:
          HostedZoneId: !GetAtt ExtApiElb.CanonicalHostedZoneID
          DNSName: !GetAtt ExtApiElb.DNSName

  InternalApiServerRecord:
    Type: AWS::Route53::RecordSetGroup
    Properties:
      Comment: Alias record for the API server
      HostedZoneId: !Ref IntDns
      RecordSets:
      - Name:
          !Join [
            ".",
            ["api", !Ref ClusterName, !Join ["", [!Ref HostedZoneName, "."]]],
          ]
        Type: A
        AliasTarget:
          HostedZoneId: !GetAtt IntApiElb.CanonicalHostedZoneID
          DNSName: !GetAtt IntApiElb.DNSName
      - Name:
          !Join [
            ".",
            ["api-int", !Ref ClusterName, !Join ["", [!Ref HostedZoneName, "."]]],
          ]
        Type: A
        AliasTarget:
          HostedZoneId: !GetAtt IntApiElb.CanonicalHostedZoneID
          DNSName: !GetAtt IntApiElb.DNSName

  ExternalApiListener:
    Type: AWS::ElasticLoadBalancingV2::Listener
    Properties:
      DefaultActions:
      - Type: forward
        TargetGroupArn:
          Ref: ExternalApiTargetGroup
      LoadBalancerArn:
        Ref: ExtApiElb
      Port: 6443
      Protocol: TCP

  ExternalApiTargetGroup:
    Type: AWS::ElasticLoadBalancingV2::TargetGroup
    Properties:
      HealthCheckIntervalSeconds: 10
      HealthCheckPath: "/readyz"
      HealthCheckPort: 6443
      HealthCheckProtocol: HTTPS
      HealthyThresholdCount: 2
      UnhealthyThresholdCount: 2
      Port: 6443
      Protocol: TCP
      TargetType: ip
      VpcId:
        Ref: VpcId
      TargetGroupAttributes:
      - Key: deregistration_delay.timeout_seconds
        Value: 60

  InternalApiListener:
    Type: AWS::ElasticLoadBalancingV2::Listener
    Properties:
      DefaultActions:
      - Type: forward
        TargetGroupArn:
          Ref: InternalApiTargetGroup
      LoadBalancerArn:
        Ref: IntApiElb
      Port: 6443
      Protocol: TCP

  InternalApiTargetGroup:
    Type: AWS::ElasticLoadBalancingV2::TargetGroup
    Properties:
      HealthCheckIntervalSeconds: 10
      HealthCheckPath: "/readyz"
      HealthCheckPort: 6443
      HealthCheckProtocol: HTTPS
      HealthyThresholdCount: 2
      UnhealthyThresholdCount: 2
      Port: 6443
      Protocol: TCP
      TargetType: ip
      VpcId:
        Ref: VpcId
      TargetGroupAttributes:
      - Key: deregistration_delay.timeout_seconds
        Value: 60

  InternalServiceInternalListener:
    Type: AWS::ElasticLoadBalancingV2::Listener
    Properties:
      DefaultActions:
      - Type: forward
        TargetGroupArn:
          Ref: InternalServiceTargetGroup
      LoadBalancerArn:
        Ref: IntApiElb
      Port: 22623
      Protocol: TCP

  InternalServiceTargetGroup:
    Type: AWS::ElasticLoadBalancingV2::TargetGroup
    Properties:
      HealthCheckIntervalSeconds: 10
      HealthCheckPath: "/healthz"
      HealthCheckPort: 22623
      HealthCheckProtocol: HTTPS
      HealthyThresholdCount: 2
      UnhealthyThresholdCount: 2
      Port: 22623
      Protocol: TCP
      TargetType: ip
      VpcId:
        Ref: VpcId
      TargetGroupAttributes:
      - Key: deregistration_delay.timeout_seconds
        Value: 60

  RegisterTargetLambdaIamRole:
    Type: AWS::IAM::Role
    Properties:
      RoleName: !Join ["-", [!Ref InfrastructureName, "nlb", "lambda", "role"]]
      AssumeRolePolicyDocument:
        Version: "2012-10-17"
        Statement:
        - Effect: "Allow"
          Principal:
            Service:
            - "lambda.amazonaws.com"
          Action:
          - "sts:AssumeRole"
      Path: "/"
      Policies:
      - PolicyName: !Join ["-", [!Ref InfrastructureName, "master", "policy"]]
        PolicyDocument:
          Version: "2012-10-17"
          Statement:
          - Effect: "Allow"
            Action:
              [
                "elasticloadbalancing:RegisterTargets",
                "elasticloadbalancing:DeregisterTargets",
              ]
            Resource: !Ref InternalApiTargetGroup
          - Effect: "Allow"
            Action:
              [
                "elasticloadbalancing:RegisterTargets",
                "elasticloadbalancing:DeregisterTargets",
              ]
            Resource: !Ref InternalServiceTargetGroup
          - Effect: "Allow"
            Action:
              [
                "elasticloadbalancing:RegisterTargets",
                "elasticloadbalancing:DeregisterTargets",
              ]
            Resource: !Ref ExternalApiTargetGroup

  RegisterNlbIpTargets:
    Type: "AWS::Lambda::Function"
    Properties:
      Handler: "index.handler"
      Role:
        Fn::GetAtt:
        - "RegisterTargetLambdaIamRole"
        - "Arn"
      Code:
        ZipFile: |
          import json
          import boto3
          import cfnresponse
          def handler(event, context):
            elb = boto3.client('elbv2')
            if event['RequestType'] == 'Delete':
              elb.deregister_targets(TargetGroupArn=event['ResourceProperties']['TargetArn'],Targets=[{'Id': event['ResourceProperties']['TargetIp']}])
            elif event['RequestType'] == 'Create':
              elb.register_targets(TargetGroupArn=event['ResourceProperties']['TargetArn'],Targets=[{'Id': event['ResourceProperties']['TargetIp']}])
            responseData = {}
            cfnresponse.send(event, context, cfnresponse.SUCCESS, responseData, event['ResourceProperties']['TargetArn']+event['ResourceProperties']['TargetIp'])
      Runtime: "python3.7"
      Timeout: 120

  RegisterSubnetTagsLambdaIamRole:
    Type: AWS::IAM::Role
    Properties:
      RoleName: !Join ["-", [!Ref InfrastructureName, "subnet-tags-lambda-role"]]
      AssumeRolePolicyDocument:
        Version: "2012-10-17"
        Statement:
        - Effect: "Allow"
          Principal:
            Service:
            - "lambda.amazonaws.com"
          Action:
          - "sts:AssumeRole"
      Path: "/"
      Policies:
      - PolicyName: !Join ["-", [!Ref InfrastructureName, "subnet-tagging-policy"]]
        PolicyDocument:
          Version: "2012-10-17"
          Statement:
          - Effect: "Allow"
            Action:
              [
                "ec2:DeleteTags",
                "ec2:CreateTags"
              ]
            Resource: "arn:aws:ec2:*:*:subnet/*"
          - Effect: "Allow"
            Action:
              [
                "ec2:DescribeSubnets",
                "ec2:DescribeTags"
              ]
            Resource: "*"

  RegisterSubnetTags:
    Type: "AWS::Lambda::Function"
    Properties:
      Handler: "index.handler"
      Role:
        Fn::GetAtt:
        - "RegisterSubnetTagsLambdaIamRole"
        - "Arn"
      Code:
        ZipFile: |
          import json
          import boto3
          import cfnresponse
          def handler(event, context):
            ec2_client = boto3.client('ec2')
            if event['RequestType'] == 'Delete':
              for subnet_id in event['ResourceProperties']['Subnets']:
                ec2_client.delete_tags(Resources=[subnet_id], Tags=[{'Key': 'kubernetes.io/cluster/' + event['ResourceProperties']['InfrastructureName']}]);
            elif event['RequestType'] == 'Create':
              for subnet_id in event['ResourceProperties']['Subnets']:
                ec2_client.create_tags(Resources=[subnet_id], Tags=[{'Key': 'kubernetes.io/cluster/' + event['ResourceProperties']['InfrastructureName'], 'Value': 'shared'}]);
            responseData = {}
            cfnresponse.send(event, context, cfnresponse.SUCCESS, responseData, event['ResourceProperties']['InfrastructureName']+event['ResourceProperties']['Subnets'][0])
      Runtime: "python3.7"
      Timeout: 120

  RegisterPublicSubnetTags:
    Type: Custom::SubnetRegister
    Properties:
      ServiceToken: !GetAtt RegisterSubnetTags.Arn
      InfrastructureName: !Ref InfrastructureName
      Subnets: !Ref PublicSubnets

  RegisterPrivateSubnetTags:
    Type: Custom::SubnetRegister
    Properties:
      ServiceToken: !GetAtt RegisterSubnetTags.Arn
      InfrastructureName: !Ref InfrastructureName
      Subnets: !Ref PrivateSubnets

Outputs:
  PrivateHostedZoneId:
    Description: Hosted zone ID for the private DNS, which is required for private records.
    Value: !Ref IntDns
  ExternalApiLoadBalancerName:
    Description: Full name of the external API load balancer.
    Value: !GetAtt ExtApiElb.LoadBalancerFullName
  InternalApiLoadBalancerName:
    Description: Full name of the internal API load balancer.
    Value: !GetAtt IntApiElb.LoadBalancerFullName
  ApiServerDnsName:
    Description: Full hostname of the API server, which is required for the Ignition config files.
    Value: !Join [".", ["api-int", !Ref ClusterName, !Ref HostedZoneName]]
  RegisterNlbIpTargetsLambda:
    Description: Lambda ARN useful to help register or deregister IP targets for these load balancers.
    Value: !GetAtt RegisterNlbIpTargets.Arn
  ExternalApiTargetGroupArn:
    Description: ARN of the external API target group.
    Value: !Ref ExternalApiTargetGroup
  InternalApiTargetGroupArn:
    Description: ARN of the internal API target group.
    Value: !Ref InternalApiTargetGroup
  InternalServiceTargetGroupArn:
    Description: ARN of the internal service target group.
    Value: !Ref InternalServiceTargetGroup
Important

If you are deploying your cluster to an AWS government region, you must update the InternalApiServerRecord to use CNAME records. Records of type ALIAS are not supported for AWS government regions. For example:

Type: CNAME
TTL: 10
ResourceRecords:
- !GetAtt IntApiElb.DNSName

1.9.10. Creating security group and roles in AWS

You must create security groups and roles in Amazon Web Services (AWS) for your OpenShift Container Platform cluster to use. The easiest way to create these components is to modify the provided CloudFormation template.

Note

If you do not use the provided CloudFormation template to create your AWS infrastructure, you must review the provided information and manually create the infrastructure. If your cluster does not initialize correctly, you might have to contact Red Hat support with your installation logs.

Prerequisites

  • Configure an AWS account.
  • Generate the Ignition config files for your cluster.
  • Create and configure a VPC and associated subnets in AWS.

Procedure

  1. Create a JSON file that contains the parameter values that the template requires:

    [
      {
        "ParameterKey": "InfrastructureName", 1
        "ParameterValue": "mycluster-<random_string>" 2
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "VpcCidr", 3
        "ParameterValue": "10.0.0.0/16" 4
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "PrivateSubnets", 5
        "ParameterValue": "subnet-<random_string>" 6
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "VpcId", 7
        "ParameterValue": "vpc-<random_string>" 8
      }
    ]
    1
    The name for your cluster infrastructure that is encoded in your Ignition config files for the cluster.
    2
    Specify the infrastructure name that you extracted from the Ignition config file metadata, which has the format <cluster-name>-<random-string>.
    3
    The CIDR block for the VPC.
    4
    Specify the CIDR block parameter that you used for the VPC that you defined in the form x.x.x.x/16-24.
    5
    The private subnets that you created for your VPC.
    6
    Specify the PrivateSubnetIds value from the output of the CloudFormation template for the VPC.
    7
    The VPC that you created for the cluster.
    8
    Specify the VpcId value from the output of the CloudFormation template for the VPC.
  2. Copy the template from the CloudFormation template for security objects section of this topic and save it as a YAML file on your computer. This template describes the security groups and roles that your cluster requires.
  3. Launch the template:

    Important

    You must enter the command on a single line.

    $ aws cloudformation create-stack --stack-name <name> 1
         --template-body file://<template>.yaml 2
         --parameters file://<parameters>.json 3
         --capabilities CAPABILITY_NAMED_IAM
    1
    <name> is the name for the CloudFormation stack, such as cluster-sec. You need the name of this stack if you remove the cluster.
    2
    <template> is the relative path to and name of the CloudFormation template YAML file that you saved.
    3
    <parameters> is the relative path to and name of the CloudFormation parameters JSON file.
  4. Confirm that the template components exist:

    $ aws cloudformation describe-stacks --stack-name <name>

    After the StackStatus displays CREATE_COMPLETE, the output displays values for the following parameters. You must provide these parameter values to the other CloudFormation templates that you run to create your cluster:

    MasterSecurityGroupId

    Master Security Group ID

    WorkerSecurityGroupId

    Worker Security Group ID

    MasterInstanceProfile

    Master IAM Instance Profile

    WorkerInstanceProfile

    Worker IAM Instance Profile

1.9.10.1. CloudFormation template for security objects

You can use the following CloudFormation template to deploy the security objects that you need for your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

Example 1.23. CloudFormation template for security objects

AWSTemplateFormatVersion: 2010-09-09
Description: Template for OpenShift Cluster Security Elements (Security Groups & IAM)

Parameters:
  InfrastructureName:
    AllowedPattern: ^([a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9\-]{0,26})$
    MaxLength: 27
    MinLength: 1
    ConstraintDescription: Infrastructure name must be alphanumeric, start with a letter, and have a maximum of 27 characters.
    Description: A short, unique cluster ID used to tag cloud resources and identify items owned or used by the cluster.
    Type: String
  VpcCidr:
    AllowedPattern: ^(([0-9]|[1-9][0-9]|1[0-9]{2}|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])\.){3}([0-9]|[1-9][0-9]|1[0-9]{2}|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])(\/(1[6-9]|2[0-4]))$
    ConstraintDescription: CIDR block parameter must be in the form x.x.x.x/16-24.
    Default: 10.0.0.0/16
    Description: CIDR block for VPC.
    Type: String
  VpcId:
    Description: The VPC-scoped resources will belong to this VPC.
    Type: AWS::EC2::VPC::Id
  PrivateSubnets:
    Description: The internal subnets.
    Type: List<AWS::EC2::Subnet::Id>

Metadata:
  AWS::CloudFormation::Interface:
    ParameterGroups:
    - Label:
        default: "Cluster Information"
      Parameters:
      - InfrastructureName
    - Label:
        default: "Network Configuration"
      Parameters:
      - VpcId
      - VpcCidr
      - PrivateSubnets
    ParameterLabels:
      InfrastructureName:
        default: "Infrastructure Name"
      VpcId:
        default: "VPC ID"
      VpcCidr:
        default: "VPC CIDR"
      PrivateSubnets:
        default: "Private Subnets"

Resources:
  MasterSecurityGroup:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroup
    Properties:
      GroupDescription: Cluster Master Security Group
      SecurityGroupIngress:
      - IpProtocol: icmp
        FromPort: 0
        ToPort: 0
        CidrIp: !Ref VpcCidr
      - IpProtocol: tcp
        FromPort: 22
        ToPort: 22
        CidrIp: !Ref VpcCidr
      - IpProtocol: tcp
        ToPort: 6443
        FromPort: 6443
        CidrIp: !Ref VpcCidr
      - IpProtocol: tcp
        FromPort: 22623
        ToPort: 22623
        CidrIp: !Ref VpcCidr
      VpcId: !Ref VpcId

  WorkerSecurityGroup:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroup
    Properties:
      GroupDescription: Cluster Worker Security Group
      SecurityGroupIngress:
      - IpProtocol: icmp
        FromPort: 0
        ToPort: 0
        CidrIp: !Ref VpcCidr
      - IpProtocol: tcp
        FromPort: 22
        ToPort: 22
        CidrIp: !Ref VpcCidr
      VpcId: !Ref VpcId

  MasterIngressEtcd:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: etcd
      FromPort: 2379
      ToPort: 2380
      IpProtocol: tcp

  MasterIngressVxlan:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Vxlan packets
      FromPort: 4789
      ToPort: 4789
      IpProtocol: udp

  MasterIngressWorkerVxlan:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Vxlan packets
      FromPort: 4789
      ToPort: 4789
      IpProtocol: udp

  MasterIngressGeneve:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Geneve packets
      FromPort: 6081
      ToPort: 6081
      IpProtocol: udp

  MasterIngressWorkerGeneve:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Geneve packets
      FromPort: 6081
      ToPort: 6081
      IpProtocol: udp

  MasterIngressInternal:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Internal cluster communication
      FromPort: 9000
      ToPort: 9999
      IpProtocol: tcp

  MasterIngressWorkerInternal:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Internal cluster communication
      FromPort: 9000
      ToPort: 9999
      IpProtocol: tcp

  MasterIngressInternalUDP:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Internal cluster communication
      FromPort: 9000
      ToPort: 9999
      IpProtocol: udp

  MasterIngressWorkerInternalUDP:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Internal cluster communication
      FromPort: 9000
      ToPort: 9999
      IpProtocol: udp

  MasterIngressKube:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Kubernetes kubelet, scheduler and controller manager
      FromPort: 10250
      ToPort: 10259
      IpProtocol: tcp

  MasterIngressWorkerKube:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Kubernetes kubelet, scheduler and controller manager
      FromPort: 10250
      ToPort: 10259
      IpProtocol: tcp

  MasterIngressIngressServices:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Kubernetes ingress services
      FromPort: 30000
      ToPort: 32767
      IpProtocol: tcp

  MasterIngressWorkerIngressServices:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Kubernetes ingress services
      FromPort: 30000
      ToPort: 32767
      IpProtocol: tcp

  MasterIngressIngressServicesUDP:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Kubernetes ingress services
      FromPort: 30000
      ToPort: 32767
      IpProtocol: udp

  MasterIngressWorkerIngressServicesUDP:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Kubernetes ingress services
      FromPort: 30000
      ToPort: 32767
      IpProtocol: udp

  WorkerIngressVxlan:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Vxlan packets
      FromPort: 4789
      ToPort: 4789
      IpProtocol: udp

  WorkerIngressMasterVxlan:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Vxlan packets
      FromPort: 4789
      ToPort: 4789
      IpProtocol: udp

  WorkerIngressGeneve:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Geneve packets
      FromPort: 6081
      ToPort: 6081
      IpProtocol: udp

  WorkerIngressMasterGeneve:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Geneve packets
      FromPort: 6081
      ToPort: 6081
      IpProtocol: udp

  WorkerIngressInternal:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Internal cluster communication
      FromPort: 9000
      ToPort: 9999
      IpProtocol: tcp

  WorkerIngressMasterInternal:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Internal cluster communication
      FromPort: 9000
      ToPort: 9999
      IpProtocol: tcp

  WorkerIngressInternalUDP:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Internal cluster communication
      FromPort: 9000
      ToPort: 9999
      IpProtocol: udp

  WorkerIngressMasterInternalUDP:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Internal cluster communication
      FromPort: 9000
      ToPort: 9999
      IpProtocol: udp

  WorkerIngressKube:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Kubernetes secure kubelet port
      FromPort: 10250
      ToPort: 10250
      IpProtocol: tcp

  WorkerIngressWorkerKube:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Internal Kubernetes communication
      FromPort: 10250
      ToPort: 10250
      IpProtocol: tcp

  WorkerIngressIngressServices:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Kubernetes ingress services
      FromPort: 30000
      ToPort: 32767
      IpProtocol: tcp

  WorkerIngressMasterIngressServices:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Kubernetes ingress services
      FromPort: 30000
      ToPort: 32767
      IpProtocol: tcp

  WorkerIngressIngressServicesUDP:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Kubernetes ingress services
      FromPort: 30000
      ToPort: 32767
      IpProtocol: udp

  WorkerIngressMasterIngressServicesUDP:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId
      SourceSecurityGroupId: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId
      Description: Kubernetes ingress services
      FromPort: 30000
      ToPort: 32767
      IpProtocol: udp

  MasterIamRole:
    Type: AWS::IAM::Role
    Properties:
      AssumeRolePolicyDocument:
        Version: "2012-10-17"
        Statement:
        - Effect: "Allow"
          Principal:
            Service:
            - "ec2.amazonaws.com"
          Action:
          - "sts:AssumeRole"
      Policies:
      - PolicyName: !Join ["-", [!Ref InfrastructureName, "master", "policy"]]
        PolicyDocument:
          Version: "2012-10-17"
          Statement:
          - Effect: "Allow"
            Action:
            - "ec2:AttachVolume"
            - "ec2:AuthorizeSecurityGroupIngress"
            - "ec2:CreateSecurityGroup"
            - "ec2:CreateTags"
            - "ec2:CreateVolume"
            - "ec2:DeleteSecurityGroup"
            - "ec2:DeleteVolume"
            - "ec2:Describe*"
            - "ec2:DetachVolume"
            - "ec2:ModifyInstanceAttribute"
            - "ec2:ModifyVolume"
            - "ec2:RevokeSecurityGroupIngress"
            - "elasticloadbalancing:AddTags"
            - "elasticloadbalancing:AttachLoadBalancerToSubnets"
            - "elasticloadbalancing:ApplySecurityGroupsToLoadBalancer"
            - "elasticloadbalancing:CreateListener"
            - "elasticloadbalancing:CreateLoadBalancer"
            - "elasticloadbalancing:CreateLoadBalancerPolicy"
            - "elasticloadbalancing:CreateLoadBalancerListeners"
            - "elasticloadbalancing:CreateTargetGroup"
            - "elasticloadbalancing:ConfigureHealthCheck"
            - "elasticloadbalancing:DeleteListener"
            - "elasticloadbalancing:DeleteLoadBalancer"
            - "elasticloadbalancing:DeleteLoadBalancerListeners"
            - "elasticloadbalancing:DeleteTargetGroup"
            - "elasticloadbalancing:DeregisterInstancesFromLoadBalancer"
            - "elasticloadbalancing:DeregisterTargets"
            - "elasticloadbalancing:Describe*"
            - "elasticloadbalancing:DetachLoadBalancerFromSubnets"
            - "elasticloadbalancing:ModifyListener"
            - "elasticloadbalancing:ModifyLoadBalancerAttributes"
            - "elasticloadbalancing:ModifyTargetGroup"
            - "elasticloadbalancing:ModifyTargetGroupAttributes"
            - "elasticloadbalancing:RegisterInstancesWithLoadBalancer"
            - "elasticloadbalancing:RegisterTargets"
            - "elasticloadbalancing:SetLoadBalancerPoliciesForBackendServer"
            - "elasticloadbalancing:SetLoadBalancerPoliciesOfListener"
            - "kms:DescribeKey"
            Resource: "*"

  MasterInstanceProfile:
    Type: "AWS::IAM::InstanceProfile"
    Properties:
      Roles:
      - Ref: "MasterIamRole"

  WorkerIamRole:
    Type: AWS::IAM::Role
    Properties:
      AssumeRolePolicyDocument:
        Version: "2012-10-17"
        Statement:
        - Effect: "Allow"
          Principal:
            Service:
            - "ec2.amazonaws.com"
          Action:
          - "sts:AssumeRole"
      Policies:
      - PolicyName: !Join ["-", [!Ref InfrastructureName, "worker", "policy"]]
        PolicyDocument:
          Version: "2012-10-17"
          Statement:
          - Effect: "Allow"
            Action:
            - "ec2:DescribeInstances"
            - "ec2:DescribeRegions"
            Resource: "*"

  WorkerInstanceProfile:
    Type: "AWS::IAM::InstanceProfile"
    Properties:
      Roles:
      - Ref: "WorkerIamRole"

Outputs:
  MasterSecurityGroupId:
    Description: Master Security Group ID
    Value: !GetAtt MasterSecurityGroup.GroupId

  WorkerSecurityGroupId:
    Description: Worker Security Group ID
    Value: !GetAtt WorkerSecurityGroup.GroupId

  MasterInstanceProfile:
    Description: Master IAM Instance Profile
    Value: !Ref MasterInstanceProfile

  WorkerInstanceProfile:
    Description: Worker IAM Instance Profile
    Value: !Ref WorkerInstanceProfile

1.9.11. RHCOS AMIs for the AWS infrastructure

Red Hat provides Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) AMIs valid for the various Amazon Web Services (AWS) zones you can specify for your OpenShift Container Platform nodes.

Note

You can also install to regions that do not have a RHCOS AMI published by importing your own AMI.

Table 1.18. RHCOS AMIs

AWS zoneAWS AMI

ap-northeast-1

ami-0cb46ba6945dbfebe

ap-northeast-2

ami-01e554d608de6087a

ap-south-1

ami-09253ba33f828d47f

ap-southeast-1

ami-0a6a0f1f6106708c4

ap-southeast-2

ami-0e3e2b2ea00c35823

ca-central-1

ami-0f5825ef10c76de32

eu-central-1

ami-0a51f61236e6fc6f2

eu-north-1

ami-06d01bfaf14ad66a3

eu-west-1

ami-0e514a30ad261c978

eu-west-2

ami-0291fd4543d6940f4

eu-west-3

ami-083f281d2864a71de

me-south-1

ami-05a6ae5eadb5b244d

sa-east-1

ami-081f13881a31af160

us-east-1

ami-009cbe327d180d666

us-east-2

ami-0346f64579665ce3c

us-west-1

ami-07c185c787029b522

us-west-2

ami-01105d480bb47353f

1.9.11.1. AWS regions without a published RHCOS AMI

You can deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster to Amazon Web Services (AWS) regions without native support for a Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) Amazon Machine Image (AMI) or the AWS software development kit (SDK). If a published AMI is not available for an AWS region, you can upload a custom AMI prior to installing the cluster. This is required if you are deploying your cluster to an AWS government region.

If you are deploying to a non-government region that does not have a published RHCOS AMI, and you do not specify a custom AMI, the installation program copies the us-east-1 AMI to the user account automatically. Then the installation program creates the control plane machines with encrypted EBS volumes using the default or user-specified Key Management Service (KMS) key. This allows the AMI to follow the same process workflow as published RHCOS AMIs.

A region without native support for an RHCOS AMI is not available to select from the terminal during cluster creation because it is not published. However, you can install to this region by configuring the custom AMI in the install-config.yaml file.

1.9.11.2. Uploading a custom RHCOS AMI in AWS

If you are deploying to a custom Amazon Web Services (AWS) region, you must upload a custom Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) Amazon Machine Image (AMI) that belongs to that region.

Prerequisites

  • Configure an AWS account.
  • Create an Amazon S3 bucket with the required IAM service role.
  • Upload your RHCOS VMDK file to Amazon S3. The RHCOS VMDK file must be the highest version that is less than or equal to the OpenShift Container Platform version you are installing.
  • Download the AWS CLI and install it on your computer. See Install the AWS CLI Using the Bundled Installer.

Procedure

  1. Export your AWS profile as an environment variable:

    $ export AWS_PROFILE=<aws_profile> 1
    1
    The AWS profile name that holds your AWS credentials, like govcloud.
  2. Export the region to associate with your custom AMI as an environment variable:

    $ export AWS_DEFAULT_REGION=<aws_region> 1
    1
    The AWS region, like us-gov-east-1.
  3. Export the version of RHCOS you uploaded to Amazon S3 as an environment variable:

    $ export RHCOS_VERSION=<version> 1
    1
    The RHCOS VMDK version, like 4.6.0.
  4. Export the Amazon S3 bucket name as an environment variable:

    $ export VMIMPORT_BUCKET_NAME=<s3_bucket_name>
  5. Create the containers.json file and define your RHCOS VMDK file:

    $ cat <<EOF > containers.json
    {
       "Description": "rhcos-${RHCOS_VERSION}-x86_64-aws.x86_64",
       "Format": "vmdk",
       "UserBucket": {
          "S3Bucket": "${VMIMPORT_BUCKET_NAME}",
          "S3Key": "rhcos-${RHCOS_VERSION}-x86_64-aws.x86_64.vmdk"
       }
    }
    EOF
  6. Import the RHCOS disk as an Amazon EBS snapshot:

    $ aws ec2 import-snapshot --region ${AWS_DEFAULT_REGION} \
         --description "<description>" \ 1
         --disk-container <file_path>/containers.json 2
    1
    The description of your RHCOS disk being imported, like rhcos-${RHCOS_VERSION}-x86_64-aws.x86_64.
    2
    The file path to the JSON file describing your RHCOS disk. The JSON file should contain your Amazon S3 bucket name and key.
  7. Check the status of the image import:

    $ watch -n 5 aws ec2 describe-import-snapshot-tasks --region ${AWS_DEFAULT_REGION}

    Example output

    {
        "ImportSnapshotTasks": [
            {
                "Description": "rhcos-4.6.0-x86_64-aws.x86_64",
                "ImportTaskId": "import-snap-fh6i8uil",
                "SnapshotTaskDetail": {
                    "Description": "rhcos-4.6.0-x86_64-aws.x86_64",
                    "DiskImageSize": 819056640.0,
                    "Format": "VMDK",
                    "SnapshotId": "snap-06331325870076318",
                    "Status": "completed",
                    "UserBucket": {
                        "S3Bucket": "external-images",
                        "S3Key": "rhcos-4.6.0-x86_64-aws.x86_64.vmdk"
                    }
                }
            }
        ]
    }

    Copy the SnapshotId to register the image.

  8. Create a custom RHCOS AMI from the RHCOS snapshot:

    $ aws ec2 register-image \
       --region ${AWS_DEFAULT_REGION} \
       --architecture x86_64 \ 1
       --description "rhcos-${RHCOS_VERSION}-x86_64-aws.x86_64" \ 2
       --ena-support \
       --name "rhcos-${RHCOS_VERSION}-x86_64-aws.x86_64" \ 3
       --virtualization-type hvm \
       --root-device-name '/dev/xvda' \
       --block-device-mappings 'DeviceName=/dev/xvda,Ebs={DeleteOnTermination=true,SnapshotId=<snapshot_ID>}' 4
    1
    The RHCOS VMDK architecture type, like x86_64, s390x, or ppc64le.
    2
    The Description from the imported snapshot.
    3
    The name of the RHCOS AMI.
    4
    The SnapshotID from the imported snapshot.

To learn more about these APIs, see the AWS documentation for importing snapshots and creating EBS-backed AMIs.

1.9.12. Creating the bootstrap node in AWS

You must create the bootstrap node in Amazon Web Services (AWS) to use during OpenShift Container Platform cluster initialization. The easiest way to create this node is to modify the provided CloudFormation template.

Note

If you do not use the provided CloudFormation template to create your bootstrap node, you must review the provided information and manually create the infrastructure. If your cluster does not initialize correctly, you might have to contact Red Hat support with your installation logs.

Prerequisites

  • Configure an AWS account.
  • Generate the Ignition config files for your cluster.
  • Create and configure a VPC and associated subnets in AWS.
  • Create and configure DNS, load balancers, and listeners in AWS.
  • Create control plane and compute roles.

Procedure

  1. Provide a location to serve the bootstrap.ign Ignition config file to your cluster. This file is located in your installation directory. One way to do this is to create an S3 bucket in your cluster’s region and upload the Ignition config file to it.

    Important

    The provided CloudFormation Template assumes that the Ignition config files for your cluster are served from an S3 bucket. If you choose to serve the files from another location, you must modify the templates.

    Important

    If you are deploying to a region that has endpoints that differ from the AWS SDK, or you are providing your own custom endpoints, you must use a presigned URL for your S3 bucket instead of the s3:// schema.

    Note

    The bootstrap Ignition config file does contain secrets, like X.509 keys. The following steps provide basic security for the S3 bucket. To provide additional security, you can enable an S3 bucket policy to allow only certain users, such as the OpenShift IAM user, to access objects that the bucket contains. You can avoid S3 entirely and serve your bootstrap Ignition config file from any address that the bootstrap machine can reach.

    1. Create the bucket:

      $ aws s3 mb s3://<cluster-name>-infra 1
      1
      <cluster-name>-infra is the bucket name.
    2. Upload the bootstrap.ign Ignition config file to the bucket:

      $ aws s3 cp bootstrap.ign s3://<cluster-name>-infra/bootstrap.ign
    3. Verify that the file uploaded:

      $ aws s3 ls s3://<cluster-name>-infra/

      Example output

      2019-04-03 16:15:16     314878 bootstrap.ign

  2. Create a JSON file that contains the parameter values that the template requires:

    [
      {
        "ParameterKey": "InfrastructureName", 1
        "ParameterValue": "mycluster-<random_string>" 2
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "RhcosAmi", 3
        "ParameterValue": "ami-<random_string>" 4
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "AllowedBootstrapSshCidr", 5
        "ParameterValue": "0.0.0.0/0" 6
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "PublicSubnet", 7
        "ParameterValue": "subnet-<random_string>" 8
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "MasterSecurityGroupId", 9
        "ParameterValue": "sg-<random_string>" 10
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "VpcId", 11
        "ParameterValue": "vpc-<random_string>" 12
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "BootstrapIgnitionLocation", 13
        "ParameterValue": "s3://<bucket_name>/bootstrap.ign" 14
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "AutoRegisterELB", 15
        "ParameterValue": "yes" 16
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "RegisterNlbIpTargetsLambdaArn", 17
        "ParameterValue": "arn:aws:lambda:<region>:<account_number>:function:<dns_stack_name>-RegisterNlbIpTargets-<random_string>" 18
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "ExternalApiTargetGroupArn", 19
        "ParameterValue": "arn:aws:elasticloadbalancing:<region>:<account_number>:targetgroup/<dns_stack_name>-Exter-<random_string>" 20
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "InternalApiTargetGroupArn", 21
        "ParameterValue": "arn:aws:elasticloadbalancing:<region>:<account_number>:targetgroup/<dns_stack_name>-Inter-<random_string>" 22
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "InternalServiceTargetGroupArn", 23
        "ParameterValue": "arn:aws:elasticloadbalancing:<region>:<account_number>:targetgroup/<dns_stack_name>-Inter-<random_string>" 24
      }
    ]
    1
    The name for your cluster infrastructure that is encoded in your Ignition config files for the cluster.
    2
    Specify the infrastructure name that you extracted from the Ignition config file metadata, which has the format <cluster-name>-<random-string>.
    3
    Current Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) AMI to use for the bootstrap node.
    4
    Specify a valid AWS::EC2::Image::Id value.
    5
    CIDR block to allow SSH access to the bootstrap node.
    6
    Specify a CIDR block in the format x.x.x.x/16-24.
    7
    The public subnet that is associated with your VPC to launch the bootstrap node into.
    8
    Specify the PublicSubnetIds value from the output of the CloudFormation template for the VPC.
    9
    The master security group ID (for registering temporary rules)
    10
    Specify the MasterSecurityGroupId value from the output of the CloudFormation template for the security group and roles.
    11
    The VPC created resources will belong to.
    12
    Specify the VpcId value from the output of the CloudFormation template for the VPC.
    13
    Location to fetch bootstrap Ignition config file from.
    14
    Specify the S3 bucket and file name in the form s3://<bucket_name>/bootstrap.ign.
    15
    Whether or not to register a network load balancer (NLB).
    16
    Specify yes or no. If you specify yes, you must provide a Lambda Amazon Resource Name (ARN) value.
    17
    The ARN for NLB IP target registration lambda group.
    18
    Specify the RegisterNlbIpTargetsLambda value from the output of the CloudFormation template for DNS and load balancing. Use arn:aws-us-gov if deploying the cluster to an AWS GovCloud region.
    19
    The ARN for external API load balancer target group.
    20
    Specify the ExternalApiTargetGroupArn value from the output of the CloudFormation template for DNS and load balancing. Use arn:aws-us-gov if deploying the cluster to an AWS GovCloud region.
    21
    The ARN for internal API load balancer target group.
    22
    Specify the InternalApiTargetGroupArn value from the output of the CloudFormation template for DNS and load balancing. Use arn:aws-us-gov if deploying the cluster to an AWS GovCloud region.
    23
    The ARN for internal service load balancer target group.
    24
    Specify the InternalServiceTargetGroupArn value from the output of the CloudFormation template for DNS and load balancing. Use arn:aws-us-gov if deploying the cluster to an AWS GovCloud region.
  3. Copy the template from the CloudFormation template for the bootstrap machine section of this topic and save it as a YAML file on your computer. This template describes the bootstrap machine that your cluster requires.
  4. Launch the template:

    Important

    You must enter the command on a single line.

    $ aws cloudformation create-stack --stack-name <name> 1
         --template-body file://<template>.yaml 2
         --parameters file://<parameters>.json 3
         --capabilities CAPABILITY_NAMED_IAM
    1
    <name> is the name for the CloudFormation stack, such as cluster-bootstrap. You need the name of this stack if you remove the cluster.
    2
    <template> is the relative path to and name of the CloudFormation template YAML file that you saved.
    3
    <parameters> is the relative path to and name of the CloudFormation parameters JSON file.
  5. Confirm that the template components exist:

    $ aws cloudformation describe-stacks --stack-name <name>

    After the StackStatus displays CREATE_COMPLETE, the output displays values for the following parameters. You must provide these parameter values to the other CloudFormation templates that you run to create your cluster:

    BootstrapInstanceId

    The bootstrap Instance ID.

    BootstrapPublicIp

    The bootstrap node public IP address.

    BootstrapPrivateIp

    The bootstrap node private IP address.

1.9.12.1. CloudFormation template for the bootstrap machine

You can use the following CloudFormation template to deploy the bootstrap machine that you need for your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

Example 1.24. CloudFormation template for the bootstrap machine

AWSTemplateFormatVersion: 2010-09-09
Description: Template for OpenShift Cluster Bootstrap (EC2 Instance, Security Groups and IAM)

Parameters:
  InfrastructureName:
    AllowedPattern: ^([a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9\-]{0,26})$
    MaxLength: 27
    MinLength: 1
    ConstraintDescription: Infrastructure name must be alphanumeric, start with a letter, and have a maximum of 27 characters.
    Description: A short, unique cluster ID used to tag cloud resources and identify items owned or used by the cluster.
    Type: String
  RhcosAmi:
    Description: Current Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS AMI to use for bootstrap.
    Type: AWS::EC2::Image::Id
  AllowedBootstrapSshCidr:
    AllowedPattern: ^(([0-9]|[1-9][0-9]|1[0-9]{2}|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])\.){3}([0-9]|[1-9][0-9]|1[0-9]{2}|2[0-4][0-9]|25[0-5])(\/([0-9]|1[0-9]|2[0-9]|3[0-2]))$
    ConstraintDescription: CIDR block parameter must be in the form x.x.x.x/0-32.
    Default: 0.0.0.0/0
    Description: CIDR block to allow SSH access to the bootstrap node.
    Type: String
  PublicSubnet:
    Description: The public subnet to launch the bootstrap node into.
    Type: AWS::EC2::Subnet::Id
  MasterSecurityGroupId:
    Description: The master security group ID for registering temporary rules.
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroup::Id
  VpcId:
    Description: The VPC-scoped resources will belong to this VPC.
    Type: AWS::EC2::VPC::Id
  BootstrapIgnitionLocation:
    Default: s3://my-s3-bucket/bootstrap.ign
    Description: Ignition config file location.
    Type: String
  AutoRegisterELB:
    Default: "yes"
    AllowedValues:
    - "yes"
    - "no"
    Description: Do you want to invoke NLB registration, which requires a Lambda ARN parameter?
    Type: String
  RegisterNlbIpTargetsLambdaArn:
    Description: ARN for NLB IP target registration lambda.
    Type: String
  ExternalApiTargetGroupArn:
    Description: ARN for external API load balancer target group.
    Type: String
  InternalApiTargetGroupArn:
    Description: ARN for internal API load balancer target group.
    Type: String
  InternalServiceTargetGroupArn:
    Description: ARN for internal service load balancer target group.
    Type: String

Metadata:
  AWS::CloudFormation::Interface:
    ParameterGroups:
    - Label:
        default: "Cluster Information"
      Parameters:
      - InfrastructureName
    - Label:
        default: "Host Information"
      Parameters:
      - RhcosAmi
      - BootstrapIgnitionLocation
      - MasterSecurityGroupId
    - Label:
        default: "Network Configuration"
      Parameters:
      - VpcId
      - AllowedBootstrapSshCidr
      - PublicSubnet
    - Label:
        default: "Load Balancer Automation"
      Parameters:
      - AutoRegisterELB
      - RegisterNlbIpTargetsLambdaArn
      - ExternalApiTargetGroupArn
      - InternalApiTargetGroupArn
      - InternalServiceTargetGroupArn
    ParameterLabels:
      InfrastructureName:
        default: "Infrastructure Name"
      VpcId:
        default: "VPC ID"
      AllowedBootstrapSshCidr:
        default: "Allowed SSH Source"
      PublicSubnet:
        default: "Public Subnet"
      RhcosAmi:
        default: "Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS AMI ID"
      BootstrapIgnitionLocation:
        default: "Bootstrap Ignition Source"
      MasterSecurityGroupId:
        default: "Master Security Group ID"
      AutoRegisterELB:
        default: "Use Provided ELB Automation"

Conditions:
  DoRegistration: !Equals ["yes", !Ref AutoRegisterELB]

Resources:
  BootstrapIamRole:
    Type: AWS::IAM::Role
    Properties:
      AssumeRolePolicyDocument:
        Version: "2012-10-17"
        Statement:
        - Effect: "Allow"
          Principal:
            Service:
            - "ec2.amazonaws.com"
          Action:
          - "sts:AssumeRole"
      Path: "/"
      Policies:
      - PolicyName: !Join ["-", [!Ref InfrastructureName, "bootstrap", "policy"]]
        PolicyDocument:
          Version: "2012-10-17"
          Statement:
          - Effect: "Allow"
            Action: "ec2:Describe*"
            Resource: "*"
          - Effect: "Allow"
            Action: "ec2:AttachVolume"
            Resource: "*"
          - Effect: "Allow"
            Action: "ec2:DetachVolume"
            Resource: "*"
          - Effect: "Allow"
            Action: "s3:GetObject"
            Resource: "*"

  BootstrapInstanceProfile:
    Type: "AWS::IAM::InstanceProfile"
    Properties:
      Path: "/"
      Roles:
      - Ref: "BootstrapIamRole"

  BootstrapSecurityGroup:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroup
    Properties:
      GroupDescription: Cluster Bootstrap Security Group
      SecurityGroupIngress:
      - IpProtocol: tcp
        FromPort: 22
        ToPort: 22
        CidrIp: !Ref AllowedBootstrapSshCidr
      - IpProtocol: tcp
        ToPort: 19531
        FromPort: 19531
        CidrIp: 0.0.0.0/0
      VpcId: !Ref VpcId

  BootstrapInstance:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Instance
    Properties:
      ImageId: !Ref RhcosAmi
      IamInstanceProfile: !Ref BootstrapInstanceProfile
      InstanceType: "i3.large"
      NetworkInterfaces:
      - AssociatePublicIpAddress: "true"
        DeviceIndex: "0"
        GroupSet:
        - !Ref "BootstrapSecurityGroup"
        - !Ref "MasterSecurityGroupId"
        SubnetId: !Ref "PublicSubnet"
      UserData:
        Fn::Base64: !Sub
        - '{"ignition":{"config":{"replace":{"source":"${S3Loc}"}},"version":"3.1.0"}}'
        - {
          S3Loc: !Ref BootstrapIgnitionLocation
        }

  RegisterBootstrapApiTarget:
    Condition: DoRegistration
    Type: Custom::NLBRegister
    Properties:
      ServiceToken: !Ref RegisterNlbIpTargetsLambdaArn
      TargetArn: !Ref ExternalApiTargetGroupArn
      TargetIp: !GetAtt BootstrapInstance.PrivateIp

  RegisterBootstrapInternalApiTarget:
    Condition: DoRegistration
    Type: Custom::NLBRegister
    Properties:
      ServiceToken: !Ref RegisterNlbIpTargetsLambdaArn
      TargetArn: !Ref InternalApiTargetGroupArn
      TargetIp: !GetAtt BootstrapInstance.PrivateIp

  RegisterBootstrapInternalServiceTarget:
    Condition: DoRegistration
    Type: Custom::NLBRegister
    Properties:
      ServiceToken: !Ref RegisterNlbIpTargetsLambdaArn
      TargetArn: !Ref InternalServiceTargetGroupArn
      TargetIp: !GetAtt BootstrapInstance.PrivateIp

Outputs:
  BootstrapInstanceId:
    Description: Bootstrap Instance ID.
    Value: !Ref BootstrapInstance

  BootstrapPublicIp:
    Description: The bootstrap node public IP address.
    Value: !GetAtt BootstrapInstance.PublicIp

  BootstrapPrivateIp:
    Description: The bootstrap node private IP address.
    Value: !GetAtt BootstrapInstance.PrivateIp

1.9.13. Creating the control plane machines in AWS

You must create the control plane machines in Amazon Web Services (AWS) for your cluster to use. The easiest way to create these nodes is to modify the provided CloudFormation template.

Note

If you do not use the provided CloudFormation template to create your control plane nodes, you must review the provided information and manually create the infrastructure. If your cluster does not initialize correctly, you might have to contact Red Hat support with your installation logs.

Prerequisites

  • Configure an AWS account.
  • Generate the Ignition config files for your cluster.
  • Create and configure a VPC and associated subnets in AWS.
  • Create and configure DNS, load balancers, and listeners in AWS.
  • Create control plane and compute roles.
  • Create the bootstrap machine.

Procedure

  1. Create a JSON file that contains the parameter values that the template requires:

    [
      {
        "ParameterKey": "InfrastructureName", 1
        "ParameterValue": "mycluster-<random_string>" 2
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "RhcosAmi", 3
        "ParameterValue": "ami-<random_string>" 4
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "AutoRegisterDNS", 5
        "ParameterValue": "yes" 6
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "PrivateHostedZoneId", 7
        "ParameterValue": "<random_string>" 8
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "PrivateHostedZoneName", 9
        "ParameterValue": "mycluster.example.com" 10
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "Master0Subnet", 11
        "ParameterValue": "subnet-<random_string>" 12
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "Master1Subnet", 13
        "ParameterValue": "subnet-<random_string>" 14
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "Master2Subnet", 15
        "ParameterValue": "subnet-<random_string>" 16
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "MasterSecurityGroupId", 17
        "ParameterValue": "sg-<random_string>" 18
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "IgnitionLocation", 19
        "ParameterValue": "https://api-int.<cluster_name>.<domain_name>:22623/config/master" 20
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "CertificateAuthorities", 21
        "ParameterValue": "data:text/plain;charset=utf-8;base64,ABC...xYz==" 22
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "MasterInstanceProfileName", 23
        "ParameterValue": "<roles_stack>-MasterInstanceProfile-<random_string>" 24
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "MasterInstanceType", 25
        "ParameterValue": "m4.xlarge" 26
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "AutoRegisterELB", 27
        "ParameterValue": "yes" 28
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "RegisterNlbIpTargetsLambdaArn", 29
        "ParameterValue": "arn:aws:lambda:<region>:<account_number>:function:<dns_stack_name>-RegisterNlbIpTargets-<random_string>" 30
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "ExternalApiTargetGroupArn", 31
        "ParameterValue": "arn:aws:elasticloadbalancing:<region>:<account_number>:targetgroup/<dns_stack_name>-Exter-<random_string>" 32
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "InternalApiTargetGroupArn", 33
        "ParameterValue": "arn:aws:elasticloadbalancing:<region>:<account_number>:targetgroup/<dns_stack_name>-Inter-<random_string>" 34
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "InternalServiceTargetGroupArn", 35
        "ParameterValue": "arn:aws:elasticloadbalancing:<region>:<account_number>:targetgroup/<dns_stack_name>-Inter-<random_string>" 36
      }
    ]
    1
    The name for your cluster infrastructure that is encoded in your Ignition config files for the cluster.
    2
    Specify the infrastructure name that you extracted from the Ignition config file metadata, which has the format <cluster-name>-<random-string>.
    3
    CurrentRed Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) AMI to use for the control plane machines.
    4
    Specify an AWS::EC2::Image::Id value.
    5
    Whether or not to perform DNS etcd registration.
    6
    Specify yes or no. If you specify yes, you must provide Hosted Zone information.
    7
    The Route53 private zone ID to register the etcd targets with.
    8
    Specify the PrivateHostedZoneId value from the output of the CloudFormation template for DNS and load balancing.
    9
    The Route53 zone to register the targets with.
    10
    Specify <cluster_name>.<domain_name> where <domain_name> is the Route53 base domain that you used when you generated install-config.yaml file for the cluster. Do not include the trailing period (.) that is displayed in the AWS console.
    11 13 15
    A subnet, preferably private, to launch the control plane machines on.
    12 14 16
    Specify a subnet from the PrivateSubnets value from the output of the CloudFormation template for DNS and load balancing.
    17
    The master security group ID to associate with master nodes.
    18
    Specify the MasterSecurityGroupId value from the output of the CloudFormation template for the security group and roles.
    19
    The location to fetch control plane Ignition config file from.
    20
    Specify the generated Ignition config file location, https://api-int.<cluster_name>.<domain_name>:22623/config/master.
    21
    The base64 encoded certificate authority string to use.
    22
    Specify the value from the master.ign file that is in the installation directory. This value is the long string with the format data:text/plain;charset=utf-8;base64,ABC…​xYz==.
    23
    The IAM profile to associate with master nodes.
    24
    Specify the MasterInstanceProfile parameter value from the output of the CloudFormation template for the security group and roles.
    25
    The type of AWS instance to use for the control plane machines.
    26
    Allowed values:
    • m4.xlarge
    • m4.2xlarge
    • m4.4xlarge
    • m4.8xlarge
    • m4.10xlarge
    • m4.16xlarge
    • m5.xlarge
    • m5.2xlarge
    • m5.4xlarge
    • m5.8xlarge
    • m5.10xlarge
    • m5.16xlarge
    • c4.2xlarge
    • c4.4xlarge
    • c4.8xlarge
    • r4.xlarge
    • r4.2xlarge
    • r4.4xlarge
    • r4.8xlarge
    • r4.16xlarge

      Important

      If m4 instance types are not available in your region, such as with eu-west-3, specify an m5 type, such as m5.xlarge, instead.

    27
    Whether or not to register a network load balancer (NLB).
    28
    Specify yes or no. If you specify yes, you must provide a Lambda Amazon Resource Name (ARN) value.
    29
    The ARN for NLB IP target registration lambda group.
    30
    Specify the RegisterNlbIpTargetsLambda value from the output of the CloudFormation template for DNS and load balancing. Use arn:aws-us-gov if deploying the cluster to an AWS GovCloud region.
    31
    The ARN for external API load balancer target group.
    32
    Specify the ExternalApiTargetGroupArn value from the output of the CloudFormation template for DNS and load balancing. Use arn:aws-us-gov if deploying the cluster to an AWS GovCloud region.
    33
    The ARN for internal API load balancer target group.
    34
    Specify the InternalApiTargetGroupArn value from the output of the CloudFormation template for DNS and load balancing. Use arn:aws-us-gov if deploying the cluster to an AWS GovCloud region.
    35
    The ARN for internal service load balancer target group.
    36
    Specify the InternalServiceTargetGroupArn value from the output of the CloudFormation template for DNS and load balancing. Use arn:aws-us-gov if deploying the cluster to an AWS GovCloud region.
  2. Copy the template from the CloudFormation template for control plane machines section of this topic and save it as a YAML file on your computer. This template describes the control plane machines that your cluster requires.
  3. If you specified an m5 instance type as the value for MasterInstanceType, add that instance type to the MasterInstanceType.AllowedValues parameter in the CloudFormation template.
  4. Launch the template:

    Important

    You must enter the command on a single line.

    $ aws cloudformation create-stack --stack-name <name> 1
         --template-body file://<template>.yaml 2
         --parameters file://<parameters>.json 3
    1
    <name> is the name for the CloudFormation stack, such as cluster-control-plane. You need the name of this stack if you remove the cluster.
    2
    <template> is the relative path to and name of the CloudFormation template YAML file that you saved.
    3
    <parameters> is the relative path to and name of the CloudFormation parameters JSON file.
  5. Confirm that the template components exist:

    $ aws cloudformation describe-stacks --stack-name <name>

1.9.13.1. CloudFormation template for control plane machines

You can use the following CloudFormation template to deploy the control plane machines that you need for your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

Example 1.25. CloudFormation template for control plane machines

AWSTemplateFormatVersion: 2010-09-09
Description: Template for OpenShift Cluster Node Launch (EC2 master instances)

Parameters:
  InfrastructureName:
    AllowedPattern: ^([a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9\-]{0,26})$
    MaxLength: 27
    MinLength: 1
    ConstraintDescription: Infrastructure name must be alphanumeric, start with a letter, and have a maximum of 27 characters.
    Description: A short, unique cluster ID used to tag nodes for the kubelet cloud provider.
    Type: String
  RhcosAmi:
    Description: Current Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS AMI to use for bootstrap.
    Type: AWS::EC2::Image::Id
  AutoRegisterDNS:
    Default: "yes"
    AllowedValues:
    - "yes"
    - "no"
    Description: Do you want to invoke DNS etcd registration, which requires Hosted Zone information?
    Type: String
  PrivateHostedZoneId:
    Description: The Route53 private zone ID to register the etcd targets with, such as Z21IXYZABCZ2A4.
    Type: String
  PrivateHostedZoneName:
    Description: The Route53 zone to register the targets with, such as cluster.example.com. Omit the trailing period.
    Type: String
  Master0Subnet:
    Description: The subnets, recommend private, to launch the master nodes into.
    Type: AWS::EC2::Subnet::Id
  Master1Subnet:
    Description: The subnets, recommend private, to launch the master nodes into.
    Type: AWS::EC2::Subnet::Id
  Master2Subnet:
    Description: The subnets, recommend private, to launch the master nodes into.
    Type: AWS::EC2::Subnet::Id
  MasterSecurityGroupId:
    Description: The master security group ID to associate with master nodes.
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroup::Id
  IgnitionLocation:
    Default: https://api-int.$CLUSTER_NAME.$DOMAIN:22623/config/master
    Description: Ignition config file location.
    Type: String
  CertificateAuthorities:
    Default: data:text/plain;charset=utf-8;base64,ABC...xYz==
    Description: Base64 encoded certificate authority string to use.
    Type: String
  MasterInstanceProfileName:
    Description: IAM profile to associate with master nodes.
    Type: String
  MasterInstanceType:
    Default: m5.xlarge
    Type: String
    AllowedValues:
    - "m4.xlarge"
    - "m4.2xlarge"
    - "m4.4xlarge"
    - "m4.8xlarge"
    - "m4.10xlarge"
    - "m4.16xlarge"
    - "m5.xlarge"
    - "m5.2xlarge"
    - "m5.4xlarge"
    - "m5.8xlarge"
    - "m5.10xlarge"
    - "m5.16xlarge"
    - "c4.2xlarge"
    - "c4.4xlarge"
    - "c4.8xlarge"
    - "r4.xlarge"
    - "r4.2xlarge"
    - "r4.4xlarge"
    - "r4.8xlarge"
    - "r4.16xlarge"
  AutoRegisterELB:
    Default: "yes"
    AllowedValues:
    - "yes"
    - "no"
    Description: Do you want to invoke NLB registration, which requires a Lambda ARN parameter?
    Type: String
  RegisterNlbIpTargetsLambdaArn:
    Description: ARN for NLB IP target registration lambda. Supply the value from the cluster infrastructure or select "no" for AutoRegisterELB.
    Type: String
  ExternalApiTargetGroupArn:
    Description: ARN for external API load balancer target group. Supply the value from the cluster infrastructure or select "no" for AutoRegisterELB.
    Type: String
  InternalApiTargetGroupArn:
    Description: ARN for internal API load balancer target group. Supply the value from the cluster infrastructure or select "no" for AutoRegisterELB.
    Type: String
  InternalServiceTargetGroupArn:
    Description: ARN for internal service load balancer target group. Supply the value from the cluster infrastructure or select "no" for AutoRegisterELB.
    Type: String

Metadata:
  AWS::CloudFormation::Interface:
    ParameterGroups:
    - Label:
        default: "Cluster Information"
      Parameters:
      - InfrastructureName
    - Label:
        default: "Host Information"
      Parameters:
      - MasterInstanceType
      - RhcosAmi
      - IgnitionLocation
      - CertificateAuthorities
      - MasterSecurityGroupId
      - MasterInstanceProfileName
    - Label:
        default: "Network Configuration"
      Parameters:
      - VpcId
      - AllowedBootstrapSshCidr
      - Master0Subnet
      - Master1Subnet
      - Master2Subnet
    - Label:
        default: "DNS"
      Parameters:
      - AutoRegisterDNS
      - PrivateHostedZoneName
      - PrivateHostedZoneId
    - Label:
        default: "Load Balancer Automation"
      Parameters:
      - AutoRegisterELB
      - RegisterNlbIpTargetsLambdaArn
      - ExternalApiTargetGroupArn
      - InternalApiTargetGroupArn
      - InternalServiceTargetGroupArn
    ParameterLabels:
      InfrastructureName:
        default: "Infrastructure Name"
      VpcId:
        default: "VPC ID"
      Master0Subnet:
        default: "Master-0 Subnet"
      Master1Subnet:
        default: "Master-1 Subnet"
      Master2Subnet:
        default: "Master-2 Subnet"
      MasterInstanceType:
        default: "Master Instance Type"
      MasterInstanceProfileName:
        default: "Master Instance Profile Name"
      RhcosAmi:
        default: "Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS AMI ID"
      BootstrapIgnitionLocation:
        default: "Master Ignition Source"
      CertificateAuthorities:
        default: "Ignition CA String"
      MasterSecurityGroupId:
        default: "Master Security Group ID"
      AutoRegisterDNS:
        default: "Use Provided DNS Automation"
      AutoRegisterELB:
        default: "Use Provided ELB Automation"
      PrivateHostedZoneName:
        default: "Private Hosted Zone Name"
      PrivateHostedZoneId:
        default: "Private Hosted Zone ID"

Conditions:
  DoRegistration: !Equals ["yes", !Ref AutoRegisterELB]
  DoDns: !Equals ["yes", !Ref AutoRegisterDNS]

Resources:
  Master0:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Instance
    Properties:
      ImageId: !Ref RhcosAmi
      BlockDeviceMappings:
      - DeviceName: /dev/xvda
        Ebs:
          VolumeSize: "120"
          VolumeType: "gp2"
      IamInstanceProfile: !Ref MasterInstanceProfileName
      InstanceType: !Ref MasterInstanceType
      NetworkInterfaces:
      - AssociatePublicIpAddress: "false"
        DeviceIndex: "0"
        GroupSet:
        - !Ref "MasterSecurityGroupId"
        SubnetId: !Ref "Master0Subnet"
      UserData:
        Fn::Base64: !Sub
        - '{"ignition":{"config":{"merge":[{"source":"${SOURCE}"}]},"security":{"tls":{"certificateAuthorities":[{"source":"${CA_BUNDLE}"}]}},"version":"3.1.0"}}'
        - {
          SOURCE: !Ref IgnitionLocation,
          CA_BUNDLE: !Ref CertificateAuthorities,
        }
      Tags:
      - Key: !Join ["", ["kubernetes.io/cluster/", !Ref InfrastructureName]]
        Value: "shared"

  RegisterMaster0:
    Condition: DoRegistration
    Type: Custom::NLBRegister
    Properties:
      ServiceToken: !Ref RegisterNlbIpTargetsLambdaArn
      TargetArn: !Ref ExternalApiTargetGroupArn
      TargetIp: !GetAtt Master0.PrivateIp

  RegisterMaster0InternalApiTarget:
    Condition: DoRegistration
    Type: Custom::NLBRegister
    Properties:
      ServiceToken: !Ref RegisterNlbIpTargetsLambdaArn
      TargetArn: !Ref InternalApiTargetGroupArn
      TargetIp: !GetAtt Master0.PrivateIp

  RegisterMaster0InternalServiceTarget:
    Condition: DoRegistration
    Type: Custom::NLBRegister
    Properties:
      ServiceToken: !Ref RegisterNlbIpTargetsLambdaArn
      TargetArn: !Ref InternalServiceTargetGroupArn
      TargetIp: !GetAtt Master0.PrivateIp

  Master1:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Instance
    Properties:
      ImageId: !Ref RhcosAmi
      BlockDeviceMappings:
      - DeviceName: /dev/xvda
        Ebs:
          VolumeSize: "120"
          VolumeType: "gp2"
      IamInstanceProfile: !Ref MasterInstanceProfileName
      InstanceType: !Ref MasterInstanceType
      NetworkInterfaces:
      - AssociatePublicIpAddress: "false"
        DeviceIndex: "0"
        GroupSet:
        - !Ref "MasterSecurityGroupId"
        SubnetId: !Ref "Master1Subnet"
      UserData:
        Fn::Base64: !Sub
        - '{"ignition":{"config":{"merge":[{"source":"${SOURCE}"}]},"security":{"tls":{"certificateAuthorities":[{"source":"${CA_BUNDLE}"}]}},"version":"3.1.0"}}'
        - {
          SOURCE: !Ref IgnitionLocation,
          CA_BUNDLE: !Ref CertificateAuthorities,
        }
      Tags:
      - Key: !Join ["", ["kubernetes.io/cluster/", !Ref InfrastructureName]]
        Value: "shared"

  RegisterMaster1:
    Condition: DoRegistration
    Type: Custom::NLBRegister
    Properties:
      ServiceToken: !Ref RegisterNlbIpTargetsLambdaArn
      TargetArn: !Ref ExternalApiTargetGroupArn
      TargetIp: !GetAtt Master1.PrivateIp

  RegisterMaster1InternalApiTarget:
    Condition: DoRegistration
    Type: Custom::NLBRegister
    Properties:
      ServiceToken: !Ref RegisterNlbIpTargetsLambdaArn
      TargetArn: !Ref InternalApiTargetGroupArn
      TargetIp: !GetAtt Master1.PrivateIp

  RegisterMaster1InternalServiceTarget:
    Condition: DoRegistration
    Type: Custom::NLBRegister
    Properties:
      ServiceToken: !Ref RegisterNlbIpTargetsLambdaArn
      TargetArn: !Ref InternalServiceTargetGroupArn
      TargetIp: !GetAtt Master1.PrivateIp

  Master2:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Instance
    Properties:
      ImageId: !Ref RhcosAmi
      BlockDeviceMappings:
      - DeviceName: /dev/xvda
        Ebs:
          VolumeSize: "120"
          VolumeType: "gp2"
      IamInstanceProfile: !Ref MasterInstanceProfileName
      InstanceType: !Ref MasterInstanceType
      NetworkInterfaces:
      - AssociatePublicIpAddress: "false"
        DeviceIndex: "0"
        GroupSet:
        - !Ref "MasterSecurityGroupId"
        SubnetId: !Ref "Master2Subnet"
      UserData:
        Fn::Base64: !Sub
        - '{"ignition":{"config":{"merge":[{"source":"${SOURCE}"}]},"security":{"tls":{"certificateAuthorities":[{"source":"${CA_BUNDLE}"}]}},"version":"3.1.0"}}'
        - {
          SOURCE: !Ref IgnitionLocation,
          CA_BUNDLE: !Ref CertificateAuthorities,
        }
      Tags:
      - Key: !Join ["", ["kubernetes.io/cluster/", !Ref InfrastructureName]]
        Value: "shared"

  RegisterMaster2:
    Condition: DoRegistration
    Type: Custom::NLBRegister
    Properties:
      ServiceToken: !Ref RegisterNlbIpTargetsLambdaArn
      TargetArn: !Ref ExternalApiTargetGroupArn
      TargetIp: !GetAtt Master2.PrivateIp

  RegisterMaster2InternalApiTarget:
    Condition: DoRegistration
    Type: Custom::NLBRegister
    Properties:
      ServiceToken: !Ref RegisterNlbIpTargetsLambdaArn
      TargetArn: !Ref InternalApiTargetGroupArn
      TargetIp: !GetAtt Master2.PrivateIp

  RegisterMaster2InternalServiceTarget:
    Condition: DoRegistration
    Type: Custom::NLBRegister
    Properties:
      ServiceToken: !Ref RegisterNlbIpTargetsLambdaArn
      TargetArn: !Ref InternalServiceTargetGroupArn
      TargetIp: !GetAtt Master2.PrivateIp

  EtcdSrvRecords:
    Condition: DoDns
    Type: AWS::Route53::RecordSet
    Properties:
      HostedZoneId: !Ref PrivateHostedZoneId
      Name: !Join [".", ["_etcd-server-ssl._tcp", !Ref PrivateHostedZoneName]]
      ResourceRecords:
      - !Join [
        " ",
        ["0 10 2380", !Join [".", ["etcd-0", !Ref PrivateHostedZoneName]]],
      ]
      - !Join [
        " ",
        ["0 10 2380", !Join [".", ["etcd-1", !Ref PrivateHostedZoneName]]],
      ]
      - !Join [
        " ",
        ["0 10 2380", !Join [".", ["etcd-2", !Ref PrivateHostedZoneName]]],
      ]
      TTL: 60
      Type: SRV

  Etcd0Record:
    Condition: DoDns
    Type: AWS::Route53::RecordSet
    Properties:
      HostedZoneId: !Ref PrivateHostedZoneId
      Name: !Join [".", ["etcd-0", !Ref PrivateHostedZoneName]]
      ResourceRecords:
      - !GetAtt Master0.PrivateIp
      TTL: 60
      Type: A

  Etcd1Record:
    Condition: DoDns
    Type: AWS::Route53::RecordSet
    Properties:
      HostedZoneId: !Ref PrivateHostedZoneId
      Name: !Join [".", ["etcd-1", !Ref PrivateHostedZoneName]]
      ResourceRecords:
      - !GetAtt Master1.PrivateIp
      TTL: 60
      Type: A

  Etcd2Record:
    Condition: DoDns
    Type: AWS::Route53::RecordSet
    Properties:
      HostedZoneId: !Ref PrivateHostedZoneId
      Name: !Join [".", ["etcd-2", !Ref PrivateHostedZoneName]]
      ResourceRecords:
      - !GetAtt Master2.PrivateIp
      TTL: 60
      Type: A

Outputs:
  PrivateIPs:
    Description: The control-plane node private IP addresses.
    Value:
      !Join [
        ",",
        [!GetAtt Master0.PrivateIp, !GetAtt Master1.PrivateIp, !GetAtt Master2.PrivateIp]
      ]

1.9.14. Initializing the bootstrap node on AWS with user-provisioned infrastructure

After you create all of the required infrastructure in Amazon Web Services (AWS), you can install the cluster.

Prerequisites

  • Configure an AWS account.
  • Generate the Ignition config files for your cluster.
  • Create and configure a VPC and associated subnets in AWS.
  • Create and configure DNS, load balancers, and listeners in AWS.
  • Create control plane and compute roles.
  • Create the bootstrap machine.
  • Create the control plane machines.
  • If you plan to manually manage the worker machines, create the worker machines.

Procedure

  1. Change to the directory that contains the installation program and run the following command:

    $ ./openshift-install wait-for bootstrap-complete --dir=<installation_directory> \ 1
        --log-level=info 2
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the path to the directory that you stored the installation files in.
    2
    To view different installation details, specify warn, debug, or error instead of info.

    If the command exits without a FATAL warning, your production control plane has initialized.

1.9.14.1. Creating the worker nodes in AWS

You can create worker nodes in Amazon Web Services (AWS) for your cluster to use. The easiest way to manually create these nodes is to modify the provided CloudFormation template.

Important

The CloudFormation template creates a stack that represents one worker machine. You must create a stack for each worker machine.

Note

If you do not use the provided CloudFormation template to create your worker nodes, you must review the provided information and manually create the infrastructure. If your cluster does not initialize correctly, you might have to contact Red Hat support with your installation logs.

Prerequisites

  • Configure an AWS account.
  • Generate the Ignition config files for your cluster.
  • Create and configure a VPC and associated subnets in AWS.
  • Create and configure DNS, load balancers, and listeners in AWS.
  • Create control plane and compute roles.
  • Create the bootstrap machine.
  • Create the control plane machines.

Procedure

  1. Create a JSON file that contains the parameter values that the CloudFormation template requires:

    [
      {
        "ParameterKey": "InfrastructureName", 1
        "ParameterValue": "mycluster-<random_string>" 2
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "RhcosAmi", 3
        "ParameterValue": "ami-<random_string>" 4
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "Subnet", 5
        "ParameterValue": "subnet-<random_string>" 6
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "WorkerSecurityGroupId", 7
        "ParameterValue": "sg-<random_string>" 8
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "IgnitionLocation", 9
        "ParameterValue": "https://api-int.<cluster_name>.<domain_name>:22623/config/worker" 10
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "CertificateAuthorities", 11
        "ParameterValue": "" 12
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "WorkerInstanceProfileName", 13
        "ParameterValue": "" 14
      },
      {
        "ParameterKey": "WorkerInstanceType", 15
        "ParameterValue": "m4.large" 16
      }
    ]
    1
    The name for your cluster infrastructure that is encoded in your Ignition config files for the cluster.
    2
    Specify the infrastructure name that you extracted from the Ignition config file metadata, which has the format <cluster-name>-<random-string>.
    3
    Current Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) AMI to use for the worker nodes.
    4
    Specify an AWS::EC2::Image::Id value.
    5
    A subnet, preferably private, to launch the worker nodes on.
    6
    Specify a subnet from the PrivateSubnets value from the output of the CloudFormation template for DNS and load balancing.
    7
    The worker security group ID to associate with worker nodes.
    8
    Specify the WorkerSecurityGroupId value from the output of the CloudFormation template for the security group and roles.
    9
    The location to fetch bootstrap Ignition config file from.
    10
    Specify the generated Ignition config location, https://api-int.<cluster_name>.<domain_name>:22623/config/worker.
    11
    Base64 encoded certificate authority string to use.
    12
    Specify the value from the worker.ign file that is in the installation directory. This value is the long string with the format data:text/plain;charset=utf-8;base64,ABC…​xYz==.
    13
    The IAM profile to associate with worker nodes.
    14
    Specify the WorkerInstanceProfile parameter value from the output of the CloudFormation template for the security group and roles.
    15
    The type of AWS instance to use for the control plane machines.
    16
    Allowed values:
    • m4.large
    • m4.xlarge
    • m4.2xlarge
    • m4.4xlarge
    • m4.8xlarge
    • m4.10xlarge
    • m4.16xlarge
    • m5.large
    • m5.xlarge
    • m5.2xlarge
    • m5.4xlarge
    • m5.8xlarge
    • m5.10xlarge
    • m5.16xlarge
    • c4.large
    • c4.xlarge
    • c4.2xlarge
    • c4.4xlarge
    • c4.8xlarge
    • r4.large
    • r4.xlarge
    • r4.2xlarge
    • r4.4xlarge
    • r4.8xlarge
    • r4.16xlarge

      Important

      If m4 instance types are not available in your region, such as with eu-west-3, use m5 types instead.

  2. Copy the template from the CloudFormation template for worker machines section of this topic and save it as a YAML file on your computer. This template describes the networking objects and load balancers that your cluster requires.
  3. If you specified an m5 instance type as the value for WorkerInstanceType, add that instance type to the WorkerInstanceType.AllowedValues parameter in the CloudFormation template.
  4. Create a worker stack.

    1. Launch the template:

      Important

      You must enter the command on a single line.

      $ aws cloudformation create-stack --stack-name <name> 1
           --template-body file://<template>.yaml \ 2
           --parameters file://<parameters>.json 3
      1
      <name> is the name for the CloudFormation stack, such as cluster-workers. You need the name of this stack if you remove the cluster.
      2
      <template> is the relative path to and name of the CloudFormation template YAML file that you saved.
      3
      <parameters> is the relative path to and name of the CloudFormation parameters JSON file.
    2. Confirm that the template components exist:

      $ aws cloudformation describe-stacks --stack-name <name>
  5. Continue to create worker stacks until you have created enough worker Machines for your cluster.

    Important

    You must create at least two worker machines, so you must create at least two stacks that use this CloudFormation template.

1.9.14.1.1. CloudFormation template for worker machines

You can use the following CloudFormation template to deploy the worker machines that you need for your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

Example 1.26. CloudFormation template for worker machines

AWSTemplateFormatVersion: 2010-09-09
Description: Template for OpenShift Cluster Node Launch (EC2 worker instance)

Parameters:
  InfrastructureName:
    AllowedPattern: ^([a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9\-]{0,26})$
    MaxLength: 27
    MinLength: 1
    ConstraintDescription: Infrastructure name must be alphanumeric, start with a letter, and have a maximum of 27 characters.
    Description: A short, unique cluster ID used to tag nodes for the kubelet cloud provider.
    Type: String
  RhcosAmi:
    Description: Current Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS AMI to use for bootstrap.
    Type: AWS::EC2::Image::Id
  Subnet:
    Description: The subnets, recommend private, to launch the master nodes into.
    Type: AWS::EC2::Subnet::Id
  WorkerSecurityGroupId:
    Description: The master security group ID to associate with master nodes.
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroup::Id
  IgnitionLocation:
    Default: https://api-int.$CLUSTER_NAME.$DOMAIN:22623/config/worker
    Description: Ignition config file location.
    Type: String
  CertificateAuthorities:
    Default: data:text/plain;charset=utf-8;base64,ABC...xYz==
    Description: Base64 encoded certificate authority string to use.
    Type: String
  WorkerInstanceProfileName:
    Description: IAM profile to associate with master nodes.
    Type: String
  WorkerInstanceType:
    Default: m5.large
    Type: String
    AllowedValues:
    - "m4.large"
    - "m4.xlarge"
    - "m4.2xlarge"
    - "m4.4xlarge"
    - "m4.8xlarge"
    - "m4.10xlarge"
    - "m4.16xlarge"
    - "m5.large"
    - "m5.xlarge"
    - "m5.2xlarge"
    - "m5.4xlarge"
    - "m5.8xlarge"
    - "m5.10xlarge"
    - "m5.16xlarge"
    - "c4.large"
    - "c4.xlarge"
    - "c4.2xlarge"
    - "c4.4xlarge"
    - "c4.8xlarge"
    - "r4.large"
    - "r4.xlarge"
    - "r4.2xlarge"
    - "r4.4xlarge"
    - "r4.8xlarge"
    - "r4.16xlarge"

Metadata:
  AWS::CloudFormation::Interface:
    ParameterGroups:
    - Label:
        default: "Cluster Information"
      Parameters:
      - InfrastructureName
    - Label:
        default: "Host Information"
      Parameters:
      - WorkerInstanceType
      - RhcosAmi
      - IgnitionLocation
      - CertificateAuthorities
      - WorkerSecurityGroupId
      - WorkerInstanceProfileName
    - Label:
        default: "Network Configuration"
      Parameters:
      - Subnet
    ParameterLabels:
      Subnet:
        default: "Subnet"
      InfrastructureName:
        default: "Infrastructure Name"
      WorkerInstanceType:
        default: "Worker Instance Type"
      WorkerInstanceProfileName:
        default: "Worker Instance Profile Name"
      RhcosAmi:
        default: "Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS AMI ID"
      IgnitionLocation:
        default: "Worker Ignition Source"
      CertificateAuthorities:
        default: "Ignition CA String"
      WorkerSecurityGroupId:
        default: "Worker Security Group ID"

Resources:
  Worker0:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Instance
    Properties:
      ImageId: !Ref RhcosAmi
      BlockDeviceMappings:
      - DeviceName: /dev/xvda
        Ebs:
          VolumeSize: "120"
          VolumeType: "gp2"
      IamInstanceProfile: !Ref WorkerInstanceProfileName
      InstanceType: !Ref WorkerInstanceType
      NetworkInterfaces:
      - AssociatePublicIpAddress: "false"
        DeviceIndex: "0"
        GroupSet:
        - !Ref "WorkerSecurityGroupId"
        SubnetId: !Ref "Subnet"
      UserData:
        Fn::Base64: !Sub
        - '{"ignition":{"config":{"merge":[{"source":"${SOURCE}"}]},"security":{"tls":{"certificateAuthorities":[{"source":"${CA_BUNDLE}"}]}},"version":"3.1.0"}}'
        - {
          SOURCE: !Ref IgnitionLocation,
          CA_BUNDLE: !Ref CertificateAuthorities,
        }
      Tags:
      - Key: !Join ["", ["kubernetes.io/cluster/", !Ref InfrastructureName]]
        Value: "shared"

Outputs:
  PrivateIP:
    Description: The compute node private IP address.
    Value: !GetAtt Worker0.PrivateIp

1.9.15. Installing the CLI by downloading the binary

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) in order to interact with OpenShift Container Platform from a command-line interface. You can install oc on Linux, Windows, or macOS.

Important

If you installed an earlier version of oc, you cannot use it to complete all of the commands in OpenShift Container Platform 4.5. Download and install the new version of oc.

1.9.15.1. Installing the CLI on Linux

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on Linux by using the following procedure.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.
  2. Select your infrastructure provider, and, if applicable, your installation type.
  3. In the Command-line interface section, select Linux from the drop-down menu and click Download command-line tools.
  4. Unpack the archive:

    $ tar xvzf <file>
  5. Place the oc binary in a directory that is on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, execute the following command:

    $ echo $PATH

After you install the CLI, it is available using the oc command:

$ oc <command>

1.9.15.2. Installing the CLI on Windows

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on Windows by using the following procedure.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.
  2. Select your infrastructure provider, and, if applicable, your installation type.
  3. In the Command-line interface section, select Windows from the drop-down menu and click Download command-line tools.
  4. Unzip the archive with a ZIP program.
  5. Move the oc binary to a directory that is on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, open the command prompt and execute the following command:

    C:\> path

After you install the CLI, it is available using the oc command:

C:\> oc <command>

1.9.15.3. Installing the CLI on macOS

You can install the OpenShift CLI (oc) binary on macOS by using the following procedure.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the Infrastructure Provider page on the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager site.
  2. Select your infrastructure provider, and, if applicable, your installation type.
  3. In the Command-line interface section, select MacOS from the drop-down menu and click Download command-line tools.
  4. Unpack and unzip the archive.
  5. Move the oc binary to a directory on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, open a terminal and execute the following command:

    $ echo $PATH

After you install the CLI, it is available using the oc command:

$ oc <command>

1.9.16. Logging in to the cluster

You can log in to your cluster as a default system user by exporting the cluster kubeconfig file. The kubeconfig file contains information about the cluster that is used by the CLI to connect a client to the correct cluster and API server. The file is specific to a cluster and is created during OpenShift Container Platform installation.

Prerequisites

  • Deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • Install the oc CLI.

Procedure

  1. Export the kubeadmin credentials:

    $ export KUBECONFIG=<installation_directory>/auth/kubeconfig 1
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the path to the directory that you stored the installation files in.
  2. Verify you can run oc commands successfully using the exported configuration:

    $ oc whoami

    Example output

    system:admin

1.9.17. Approving the CSRs for your machines

When you add machines to a cluster, two pending certificate signing requests (CSRs) are generated for each machine that you added. You must confirm that these CSRs are approved or, if necessary, approve them yourself.

Prerequisites

  • You added machines to your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Confirm that the cluster recognizes the machines:

    $ oc get nodes

    Example output

    NAME      STATUS    ROLES   AGE  VERSION
    master-0  Ready     master  63m  v1.19.0
    master-1  Ready     master  63m  v1.19.0
    master-2  Ready     master  64m  v1.19.0
    worker-0  NotReady  worker  76s  v1.19.0
    worker-1  NotReady  worker  70s  v1.19.0

    The output lists all of the machines that you created.

  2. Review the pending CSRs and ensure that you see a client and server request with the Pending or Approved status for each machine that you added to the cluster:

    $ oc get csr

    Example output

    NAME        AGE     REQUESTOR                                                                   CONDITION
    csr-8b2br   15m     system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending 1
    csr-8vnps   15m     system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending
    csr-bfd72   5m26s   system:node:ip-10-0-50-126.us-east-2.compute.internal                       Pending 2
    csr-c57lv   5m26s   system:node:ip-10-0-95-157.us-east-2.compute.internal                       Pending
    ...

    1
    A client request CSR.
    2
    A server request CSR.

    In this example, two machines are joining the cluster. You might see more approved CSRs in the list.

  3. If the CSRs were not approved, after all of the pending CSRs for the machines you added are in Pending status, approve the CSRs for your cluster machines:

    Note

    Because the CSRs rotate automatically, approve your CSRs within an hour of adding the machines to the cluster. If you do not approve them within an hour, the certificates will rotate, and more than two certificates will be present for each node. You must approve all of these certificates. After you approve the initial CSRs, the subsequent node client CSRs are automatically approved by the cluster kube-controller-manager. You must implement a method of automatically approving the kubelet serving certificate requests.

    • To approve them individually, run the following command for each valid CSR:

      $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name> 1
      1
      <csr_name> is the name of a CSR from the list of current CSRs.
    • To approve all pending CSRs, run the following command:

      $ oc get csr -o go-template='{{range .items}}{{if not .status}}{{.metadata.name}}{{"\n"}}{{end}}{{end}}' | xargs oc adm certificate approve

Additional information

1.9.18. Initial Operator configuration

After the control plane initializes, you must immediately configure some Operators so that they all become available.

Prerequisites

  • Your control plane has initialized.

Procedure

  1. Watch the cluster components come online:

    $ watch -n5 oc get clusteroperators

    Example output

    NAME                                       VERSION AVAILABLE   PROGRESSING   DEGRADED   SINCE
    authentication                             4.6.0   True        False         False      3h56m
    cloud-credential                           4.6.0   True        False         False      29h
    cluster-autoscaler                         4.6.0   True        False         False      29h
    config-operator                            4.6.0   True        False         False      6h39m
    console                                    4.6.0   True        False         False      3h59m
    csi-snapshot-controller                    4.6.0   True        False         False      4h12m
    dns                                        4.6.0   True        False         False      4h15m
    etcd                                       4.6.0   True        False         False      29h
    image-registry                             4.6.0   True        False         False      3h59m
    ingress                                    4.6.0   True        False         False      4h30m
    insights                                   4.6.0   True        False         False      29h
    kube-apiserver                             4.6.0   True        False         False      29h
    kube-controller-manager                    4.6.0   True        False         False      29h
    kube-scheduler                             4.6.0   True        False         False      29h
    kube-storage-version-migrator              4.6.0   True        False         False      4h2m
    machine-api                                4.6.0   True        False         False      29h
    machine-approver                           4.6.0   True        False         False      6h34m
    machine-config                             4.6.0   True        False         False      3h56m
    marketplace                                4.6.0   True        False         False      4h2m
    monitoring                                 4.6.0   True        False         False      6h31m
    network                                    4.6.0   True        False         False      29h
    node-tuning                                4.6.0   True        False         False      4h30m
    openshift-apiserver                        4.6.0   True        False         False      3h56m
    openshift-controller-manager               4.6.0   True        False         False      4h36m
    openshift-samples                          4.6.0   True        False         False      4h30m
    operator-lifecycle-manager                 4.6.0   True        False         False      29h
    operator-lifecycle-manager-catalog         4.6.0   True        False         False      29h
    operator-lifecycle-manager-packageserver   4.6.0   True        False         False      3h59m
    service-ca                                 4.6.0   True        False         False      29h
    storage                                    4.6.0   True        False         False      4h30m

  2. Configure the Operators that are not available.

1.9.18.1. Image registry storage configuration

Amazon Web Services provides default storage, which means the image-registry Operator is available after installation. However, if the Registry Operator cannot create an S3 bucket and automatically configure storage, you must manually configure registry storage.

Instructions are shown for configuring a PersistentVolume, which is required for production clusters. Where applicable, instructions are shown for configuring an empty directory as the storage location, which is available for only non-production clusters.

Additional instructions are provided for allowing the image registry to use block storage types by using the Recreate rollout strategy during upgrades.

You can configure registry storage for user-provisioned infrastructure in AWS to deploy OpenShift Container Platform to hidden regions. See Configuring the registry for AWS user-provisioned infrastructure for more information.

1.9.18.1.1. Configuring registry storage for AWS with user-provisioned infrastructure

During installation, your cloud credentials are sufficient to create an Amazon S3 bucket and the Registry Operator will automatically configure storage.

If the Registry Operator cannot create an S3 bucket, and automatically configure storage, you can create an S3 bucket and configure storage with the following procedure.

Prerequisites

  • A cluster on AWS with user-provisioned infrastructure.
  • For Amazon S3 storage, the secret is expected to contain two keys:

    • REGISTRY_STORAGE_S3_ACCESSKEY
    • REGISTRY_STORAGE_S3_SECRETKEY

Procedure

Use the following procedure if the Registry Operator cannot create an S3 bucket and automatically configure storage.

  1. Set up a Bucket Lifecycle Policy to abort incomplete multipart uploads that are one day old.
  2. Fill in the storage configuration in configs.imageregistry.operator.openshift.io/cluster:

    $ oc edit configs.imageregistry.operator.openshift.io/cluster

    Example configuration

    storage:
      s3:
        bucket: <bucket-name>
        region: <region-name>

Warning

To secure your registry images in AWS, block public access to the S3 bucket.

1.9.18.1.2. Configuring storage for the image registry in non-production clusters

You must configure storage for the image registry Operator. For non-production clusters, you can set the image registry to an empty directory. If you do so, all images are lost if you restart the registry.

Procedure

  • To set the image registry storage to an empty directory:

    $ oc patch configs.imageregistry.operator.openshift.io cluster --type merge --patch '{"spec":{"storage":{"emptyDir":{}}}}'
    Warning

    Configure this option for only non-production clusters.

    If you run this command before the Image Registry Operator initializes its components, the oc patch command fails with the following error:

    Error from server (NotFound): configs.imageregistry.operator.openshift.io "cluster" not found

    Wait a few minutes and run the command again.

1.9.19. Deleting the bootstrap resources

After you complete the initial Operator configuration for the cluster, remove the bootstrap resources from Amazon Web Services (AWS).

Prerequisites

  • You completed the initial Operator configuration for your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Delete the bootstrap resources. If you used the CloudFormation template, delete its stack:

    $ aws cloudformation delete-stack --stack-name <name> 1
    1
    <name> is the name of your bootstrap stack.

1.9.20. Creating the Ingress DNS Records

If you removed the DNS Zone configuration, manually create DNS records that point to the Ingress load balancer. You can create either a wildcard record or specific records. While the following procedure uses A records, you can use other record types that you require, such as CNAME or alias.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Determine the routes to create.

    • To create a wildcard record, use *.apps.<cluster_name>.<domain_name>, where <cluster_name> is your cluster name, and <domain_name> is the Route53 base domain for your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
    • To create specific records, you must create a record for each route that your cluster uses, as shown in the output of the following command:

      $ oc get --all-namespaces -o jsonpath='{range .items[*]}{range .status.ingress[*]}{.host}{"\n"}{end}{end}' routes

      Example output

      oauth-openshift.apps.<cluster_name>.<domain_name>
      console-openshift-console.apps.<cluster_name>.<domain_name>
      downloads-openshift-console.apps.<cluster_name>.<domain_name>
      alertmanager-main-openshift-monitoring.apps.<cluster_name>.<domain_name>
      grafana-openshift-monitoring.apps.<cluster_name>.<domain_name>
      prometheus-k8s-openshift-monitoring.apps.<cluster_name>.<domain_name>

  2. Retrieve the Ingress Operator load balancer status and note the value of the external IP address that it uses, which is shown in the EXTERNAL-IP column:

    $ oc -n openshift-ingress get service router-default

    Example output

    NAME             TYPE           CLUSTER-IP      EXTERNAL-IP                            PORT(S)                      AGE
    router-default   LoadBalancer   172.30.62.215   ab3...28.us-east-2.elb.amazonaws.com   80:31499/TCP,443:30693/TCP   5m

  3. Locate the hosted zone ID for the load balancer:

    $ aws elb describe-load-balancers | jq -r '.LoadBalancerDescriptions[] | select(.DNSName == "<external_ip>").CanonicalHostedZoneNameID' 1
    1
    For <external_ip>, specify the value of the external IP address of the Ingress Operator load balancer that you obtained.

    Example output

    Z3AADJGX6KTTL2

    The output of this command is the load balancer hosted zone ID.

  4. Obtain the public hosted zone ID for your cluster’s domain:

    $ aws route53 list-hosted-zones-by-name \
                --dns-name "<domain_name>" \ 1
                --query 'HostedZones[? Config.PrivateZone != `true` && Name == `<domain_name>.`].Id' 2
                --output text
    1 2
    For <domain_name>, specify the Route53 base domain for your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

    Example output

    /hostedzone/Z3URY6TWQ91KVV

    The public hosted zone ID for your domain is shown in the command output. In this example, it is Z3URY6TWQ91KVV.

  5. Add the alias records to your private zone:

    $ aws route53 change-resource-record-sets --hosted-zone-id "<private_hosted_zone_id>" --change-batch '{ 1
    >   "Changes": [
    >     {
    >       "Action": "CREATE",
    >       "ResourceRecordSet": {
    >         "Name": "\\052.apps.<cluster_domain>", 2
    >         "Type": "A",
    >         "AliasTarget":{
    >           "HostedZoneId": "<hosted_zone_id>", 3
    >           "DNSName": "<external_ip>.", 4
    >           "EvaluateTargetHealth": false
    >         }
    >       }
    >     }
    >   ]
    > }'
    1
    For <private_hosted_zone_id>, specify the value from the output of the CloudFormation template for DNS and load balancing.
    2
    For <cluster_domain>, specify the domain or subdomain that you use with your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
    3
    For <hosted_zone_id>, specify the public hosted zone ID for the load balancer that you obtained.
    4
    For <external_ip>, specify the value of the external IP address of the Ingress Operator load balancer. Ensure that you include the trailing period (.) in this parameter value.
  6. Add the records to your public zone:

    $ aws route53 change-resource-record-sets --hosted-zone-id "<public_hosted_zone_id>"" --change-batch '{ 1
    >   "Changes": [
    >     {
    >       "Action": "CREATE",
    >       "ResourceRecordSet": {
    >         "Name": "\\052.apps.<cluster_domain>", 2
    >         "Type": "A",
    >         "AliasTarget":{
    >           "HostedZoneId": "<hosted_zone_id>", 3
    >           "DNSName": "<external_ip>.", 4
    >           "EvaluateTargetHealth": false
    >         }
    >       }
    >     }
    >   ]
    > }'
    1
    For <public_hosted_zone_id>, specify the public hosted zone for your domain.
    2
    For <cluster_domain>, specify the domain or subdomain that you use with your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
    3
    For <hosted_zone_id>, specify the public hosted zone ID for the load balancer that you obtained.
    4
    For <external_ip>, specify the value of the external IP address of the Ingress Operator load balancer. Ensure that you include the trailing period (.) in this parameter value.

1.9.21. Completing an AWS installation on user-provisioned infrastructure

After you start the OpenShift Container Platform installation on Amazon Web Service (AWS) user-provisioned infrastructure, monitor the deployment to completion.

Prerequisites

  • Removed the bootstrap node for an OpenShift Container Platform cluster on user-provisioned AWS infrastructure.
  • Install the oc CLI and log in.

Procedure

  • Complete the cluster installation:

    $ ./openshift-install --dir=<installation_directory> wait-for install-complete 1
    1
    For <installation_directory>, specify the path to the directory that you stored the installation files in.

    Example output

    INFO Waiting up to 30m0s for the cluster to initialize...

    Important

    The Ignition config files that the installation program generates contain certificates that expire after 24 hours. You must keep the cluster running for 24 hours in a non-degraded state to ensure that the first certificate rotation has finished.

1.9.22. Next steps

1.10. Installing a cluster on AWS that uses mirrored installation content

In OpenShift Container Platform version 4.5, you can install a cluster on Amazon Web Services (AWS) using infrastructure that you provide and an internal mirror of the installation release content.

Important

While you can install an OpenShift Container Platform cluster by using mirrored installation release content, your cluster still requires internet access to use the AWS APIs.

One way to create this infrastructure is to use the provided CloudFormation templates. You can modify the templates to customize your infrastructure or use the information that they contain to create AWS objects according to your company’s policies.

1.10.1. Prerequisites

1.10.2. About installations in restricted networks

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.5, you can perform an installation that does not require an active connection to the internet to obtain software components. You complete an installation in a restricted network on only infrastructure that you provision, not infrastructure that the installation program provisions, so your platform selection is limited.

If you choose to perform a restricted network installation on a cloud platform, you still require access to its cloud APIs. Some cloud functions, like Amazon Web Service’s IAM service, require internet access, so you might still require internet access. Depending on your network, you might require less internet access for an installation on bare metal hardware or on VMware vSphere.

To complete a restricted network installation, you must create a registry that mirrors the contents of the OpenShift Container Platform registry and contains the installation media. You can create this registry on a mirror host, which can access both the internet and your closed network, or by using other methods that meet your restrictions.

Important

Restricted network installations always use user-provisioned infrastructure. Because of the complexity of the configuration for user-provisioned installations, consider completing a standard user-provisioned infrastructure installation before you attempt a restricted network installation. Completing this test installation might make it easier to isolate and troubleshoot any issues that might arise during your installation in a restricted network.

1.10.2.1. Additional limits

Clusters in restricted networks have the following additional limitations and restrictions:

  • The ClusterVersion status includes an Unable to retrieve available updates error.
  • By default, you cannot use the contents of the Developer Catalog because you cannot access the required ImageStreamTags.

1.10.3. Internet and Telemetry access for OpenShift Container Platform

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.5, you require access to the internet to install your cluster. The Telemetry service, which runs by default to provide metrics about cluster health and the success of updates, also requires internet access. If your cluster is connected to the internet, Telemetry runs automatically, and your cluster is registered to the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager (OCM).

Once you confirm that your Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager inventory is correct, either maintained automatically by Telemetry or manually using OCM, use subscription watch to track your OpenShift Container Platform subscriptions at the account or multi-cluster level.

You must have internet access to:

  • Access the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager page to download the installation program and perform subscription management. If the cluster has internet access and you do not disable Telemetry, that service automatically entitles your cluster.
  • Access Quay.io to obtain the packages that are required to install your cluster.
  • Obtain the packages that are required to perform cluster updates.
Important

If your cluster cannot have direct internet access, you can perform a restricted network installation on some types of infrastructure that you provision. During that process, you download the content that is required and use it to populate a mirror registry with the packages that you need to install a cluster and generate the installation program. With some installation types, the environment that you install your cluster in will not require internet access. Before you update the cluster, you update the content of the mirror registry.

1.10.4. Required AWS infrastructure components

To install OpenShift Container Platform on user-provisioned infrastructure in Amazon Web Services (AWS), you must manually create both the machines and their supporting infrastructure.

For more information about the integration testing for different platforms, see the OpenShift Container Platform 4.x Tested Integrations page.

You can use the provided CloudFormation templates to create this infrastructure, you can manually create the components, or you can reuse existing infrastructure that meets the cluster requirements. Review the CloudFormation templates for more details about how the components interrelate.

1.10.4.1. Cluster machines

You need AWS::EC2::Instance objects for the following machines:

  • A bootstrap machine. This machine is required during installation, but you can remove it after your cluster deploys.
  • At least three control plane machines. The control plane machines are not governed by a MachineSet.
  • Compute machines. You must create at least two compute machines, which are also known as worker machines, during installation. These machines are not governed by a MachineSet.

You can use the following instance types for the cluster machines with the provided CloudFormation templates.

Important

If m4 instance types are not available in your region, such as with eu-west-3, use m5 types instead.

Table 1.19. Instance types for machines

Instance typeBootstrapControl planeCompute

i3.large

x

  

m4.large

  

x

m4.xlarge

 

x

x

m4.2xlarge

 

x

x

m4.4xlarge

 

x

x

m4.8xlarge

 

x

x

m4.10xlarge

 

x

x

m4.16xlarge

 

x

x

m5.large

  

x

m5.xlarge

 

x

x

m5.2xlarge

 

x

x

m5.4xlarge

 

x

x

m5.8xlarge

 

x

x

m5.10xlarge

 

x

x

m5.16xlarge

 

x

x

c4.large

  

x

c4.xlarge

  

x

c4.2xlarge

 

x

x

c4.4xlarge

 

x

x

c4.8xlarge

 

x

x

r4.large

  

x

r4.xlarge

 

x

x

r4.2xlarge

 

x

x

r4.4xlarge

 

x

x

r4.8xlarge

 

x

x

r4.16xlarge

 

x

x

You might be able to use other instance types that meet the specifications of these instance types.

1.10.4.2. Certificate signing requests management

Because your cluster has limited access to automatic machine management when you use infrastructure that you provision, you must provide a mechanism for approving cluster certificate signing requests (CSRs) after installation. The kube-controller-manager only approves the kubelet client CSRs. The machine-approver cannot guarantee the validity of a serving certificate that is requested by using kubelet credentials because it cannot confirm that the correct machine issued the request. You must determine and implement a method of verifying the validity of the kubelet serving certificate requests and approving them.

1.10.4.3. Other infrastructure components

  • A VPC
  • DNS entries
  • Load balancers (classic or network) and listeners
  • A public and a private Route53 zone
  • Security groups
  • IAM roles
  • S3 buckets

If you are working in a disconnected environment, you are unable to reach the public IP addresses for EC2 and ELB endpoints. To resolve this, you must create a VPC endpoint and attach it to the subnet that the clusters are using. The endpoints should be named as follows:

  • ec2.<region>.amazonaws.com
  • elasticloadbalancing.<region>.amazonaws.com
  • s3.<region>.amazonaws.com

Required VPC components

You must provide a suitable VPC and subnets that allow communication to your machines.

ComponentAWS typeDescription

VPC

  • AWS::EC2::VPC
  • AWS::EC2::VPCEndpoint

You must provide a public VPC for the cluster to use. The VPC uses an endpoint that references the route tables for each subnet to improve communication with the registry that is hosted in S3.

Public subnets

  • AWS::EC2::Subnet
  • AWS::EC2::SubnetNetworkAclAssociation

Your VPC must have public subnets for between 1 and 3 availability zones and associate them with appropriate Ingress rules.

Internet gateway

  • AWS::EC2::InternetGateway
  • AWS::EC2::VPCGatewayAttachment
  • AWS::EC2::RouteTable
  • AWS::EC2::Route
  • AWS::EC2::SubnetRouteTableAssociation
  • AWS::EC2::NatGateway
  • AWS::EC2::EIP

You must have a public internet gateway, with public routes, attached to the VPC. In the provided templates, each public subnet has a NAT gateway with an EIP address. These NAT gateways allow cluster resources, like private subnet instances, to reach the internet and are not required for some restricted network or proxy scenarios.

Network access control

  • AWS::EC2::NetworkAcl
  • AWS::EC2::NetworkAclEntry

You must allow the VPC to access the following ports:

Port

Reason

80

Inbound HTTP traffic

443

Inbound HTTPS traffic

22

Inbound SSH traffic

1024 - 65535

Inbound ephemeral traffic

0 - 65535

Outbound ephemeral traffic

Private subnets

  • AWS::EC2::Subnet
  • AWS::EC2::RouteTable
  • AWS::EC2::SubnetRouteTableAssociation

Your VPC can have private subnets. The provided CloudFormation templates can create private subnets for between 1 and 3 availability zones. If you use private subnets, you must provide appropriate routes and tables for them.

Required DNS and load balancing components

Your DNS and load balancer configuration needs to use a public hosted zone and can use a private hosted zone similar to the one that the installation program uses if it provisions the cluster’s infrastructure. You must create a DNS entry that resolves to your load balancer. An entry for api.<cluster_name>.<domain> must point to the external load balancer, and an entry for api-int.<cluster_name>.<domain> must point to the internal load balancer.

The cluster also requires load balancers and listeners for port 6443, which are required for the Kubernetes API and its extensions, and port 22623, which are required for the Ignition config files for new machines. The targets will be the master nodes. Port 6443 must be accessible to both clients external to the cluster and nodes within the cluster. Port 22623 must be accessible to nodes within the cluster.

ComponentAWS typeDescription

DNS

AWS::Route53::HostedZone

The hosted zone for your internal DNS.

etcd record sets

AWS::Route53::RecordSet

The registration records for etcd for your control plane machines.

Public load balancer

AWS::ElasticLoadBalancingV2::LoadBalancer

The load balancer for your public subnets.

External API server record

AWS::Route53::RecordSetGroup

Alias records for the external API server.

External listener

AWS::ElasticLoadBalancingV2::Listener

A listener on port 6443 for the external load balancer.

External target group

AWS::ElasticLoadBalancingV2::TargetGroup

The target group for the external load balancer.

Private load balancer

AWS::ElasticLoadBalancingV2::LoadBalancer

The load balancer for your private subnets.

Internal API server record

AWS::Route53::RecordSetGroup

Alias records for the internal API server.

Internal listener

AWS::ElasticLoadBalancingV2::Listener

A listener on port 22623 for the internal load balancer.

Internal target group

AWS::ElasticLoadBalancingV2::TargetGroup

The target group for the Internal load balancer.

Internal listener

AWS::ElasticLoadBalancingV2::Listener

A listener on port 6443 for the internal load balancer.

Internal target group

AWS::ElasticLoadBalancingV2::TargetGroup

The target group for the internal load balancer.

Security groups

The control plane and worker machines require access to the following ports:

GroupTypeIP ProtocolPort range

MasterSecurityGroup

AWS::EC2::SecurityGroup

icmp

0

tcp

22

tcp

6443

tcp

22623

WorkerSecurityGroup

AWS::EC2::SecurityGroup

icmp

0

tcp

22

BootstrapSecurityGroup

AWS::EC2::SecurityGroup

tcp

22

tcp

19531

Control plane Ingress

The control plane machines require the following Ingress groups. Each Ingress group is a AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress resource.

Ingress groupDescriptionIP protocolPort range

MasterIngressEtcd

etcd

tcp

2379- 2380

MasterIngressVxlan

Vxlan packets

udp

4789

MasterIngressWorkerVxlan

Vxlan packets

udp

4789

MasterIngressInternal

Internal cluster communication and Kubernetes proxy metrics

tcp

9000 - 9999

MasterIngressWorkerInternal

Internal cluster communication

tcp

9000 - 9999

MasterIngressKube

Kubernetes kubelet, scheduler and controller manager

tcp

10250 - 10259

MasterIngressWorkerKube

Kubernetes kubelet, scheduler and controller manager

tcp

10250 - 10259

MasterIngressIngressServices

Kubernetes Ingress services

tcp

30000 - 32767

MasterIngressWorkerIngressServices

Kubernetes Ingress services

tcp

30000 - 32767

Worker Ingress

The worker machines require the following Ingress groups. Each Ingress group is a AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupIngress resource.

Ingress groupDescriptionIP protocolPort range

WorkerIngressVxlan

Vxlan packets

udp

4789

WorkerIngressWorkerVxlan

Vxlan packets

udp

4789

WorkerIngressInternal

Internal cluster communication

tcp

9000 - 9999

WorkerIngressWorkerInternal

Internal cluster communication

tcp

9000 - 9999

WorkerIngressKube

Kubernetes kubelet, scheduler and controller manager

tcp

10250

WorkerIngressWorkerKube

Kubernetes kubelet, scheduler and controller manager

tcp

10250

WorkerIngressIngressServices

Kubernetes Ingress services

tcp

30000 - 32767

WorkerIngressWorkerIngressServices

Kubernetes Ingress services

tcp

30000 - 32767

Roles and instance profiles

You must grant the machines permissions in AWS. The provided CloudFormation templates grant the machines permission the following AWS::IAM::Role objects and provide a AWS::IAM::InstanceProfile for each set of roles. If you do not use the templates, you can grant the machines the following broad permissions or the following individual permissions.

RoleEffectActionResource

Master

Allow

ec2:*

*

Allow

elasticloadbalancing:*

*

Allow

iam:PassRole

*

Allow

s3:GetObject

*

Worker

Allow

ec2:Describe*

*

Bootstrap

Allow

ec2:Describe*

*

Allow

ec2:AttachVolume

*

Allow

ec2:DetachVolume

*

1.10.4.4. Required AWS permissions

When you attach the AdministratorAccess policy to the IAM user that you create in Amazon Web Services (AWS), you grant that user all of the required permissions. To deploy all components of an OpenShift Container Platform cluster, the IAM user requires the following permissions:

Example 1.27. Required EC2 permissions for installation

  • tag:TagResources
  • tag:UntagResources
  • ec2:AllocateAddress
  • ec2:AssociateAddress
  • ec2:AuthorizeSecurityGroupEgress
  • ec2:AuthorizeSecurityGroupIngress
  • ec2:CopyImage
  • ec2:CreateNetworkInterface
  • ec2:AttachNetworkInterface
  • ec2:CreateSecurityGroup
  • ec2:CreateTags
  • ec2:CreateVolume
  • ec2:DeleteSecurityGroup
  • ec2:DeleteSnapshot
  • ec2:DeregisterImage
  • ec2:DescribeAccountAttributes
  • ec2:DescribeAddresses
  • ec2:DescribeAvailabilityZones
  • ec2:DescribeDhcpOptions
  • ec2:DescribeImages
  • ec2:DescribeInstanceAttribute
  • ec2:DescribeInstanceCreditSpecifications
  • ec2:DescribeInstances
  • ec2:DescribeInternetGateways
  • ec2:DescribeKeyPairs
  • ec2:DescribeNatGateways
  • ec2:DescribeNetworkAcls
  • ec2:DescribeNetworkInterfaces
  • ec2:DescribePrefixLists
  • ec2:DescribeRegions
  • ec2:DescribeRouteTables
  • ec2:DescribeSecurityGroups