Logging

OpenShift Container Platform 4.4

Configuring cluster logging in OpenShift Container Platform

Red Hat OpenShift Documentation Team

Abstract

This document provides instructions for installing, configuring, and using cluster logging, which aggregates logs for a range of OpenShift Container Platform services.

Chapter 1. Understanding cluster logging and OpenShift Container Platform

As a cluster administrator, you can deploy cluster logging to aggregate all the logs from your OpenShift Container Platform cluster, such as node system logs, application container logs, and so forth.

1.1. Cluster logging

OpenShift Container Platform cluster administrators can deploy cluster logging using a few CLI commands and the OpenShift Container Platform web console to install the Elasticsearch Operator and Cluster Logging Operator. When the operators are installed, create a Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR) to schedule cluster logging pods and other resources necessary to support cluster logging. The operators are responsible for deploying, upgrading, and maintaining cluster logging.

You can configure cluster logging by modifying the Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR), named instance. The CR defines a complete cluster logging deployment that includes all the components of the logging stack to collect, store and visualize logs. The Cluster Logging Operator watches the ClusterLogging Custom Resource and adjusts the logging deployment accordingly.

Administrators and application developers can view the logs of the projects for which they have view access.

1.1.1. Cluster logging components

The cluster logging components are based upon Elasticsearch, Fluentd, and Kibana (EFK). The collector, Fluentd, is deployed to each node in the OpenShift Container Platform cluster. It collects all node and container logs and writes them to Elasticsearch (ES). Kibana is the centralized, web UI where users and administrators can create rich visualizations and dashboards with the aggregated data.

There are currently 5 different types of cluster logging components:

  • logStore - This is where the logs will be stored. The current implementation is Elasticsearch.
  • collection - This is the component that collects logs from the node, formats them, and stores them in the logStore. The current implementation is Fluentd.
  • visualization - This is the UI component used to view logs, graphs, charts, and so forth. The current implementation is Kibana.
  • curation - This is the component that trims logs by age. The current implementation is Curator.
  • event routing - This is the component forwards OpenShift Container Platform events to cluster logging. The current implementation is Event Router.

In this document, we may refer to logStore or Elasticsearch, visualization or Kibana, curation or Curator, collection or Fluentd, interchangeably, except where noted.

1.1.2. About the log store

OpenShift Container Platform uses Elasticsearch (ES) to organize the log data from Fluentd into datastores, or indices.

Elasticsearch subdivides each index into multiple pieces called shards, which it spreads across a set of Elasticsearch nodes in an Elasticsearch cluster. You can configure Elasticsearch to make copies of the shards, called replicas. Elasticsearch also spreads these replicas across the Elasticsearch nodes. The ClusterLogging Custom Resource allows you to specify the replication policy in the Custom Resource Definition (CRD) to provide data redundancy and resilience to failure.

The cluster logging Elasticsearch instance is optimized and tested for short term storage of approximately seven days. If you want to retain your logs over a longer term, it is recommended that you move the data to a third-party storage system.

Note

The number of primary shards for the index templates is equal to the number of Elasticsearch data nodes.

The Cluster Logging Operator and companion Elasticsearch Operator ensure that each Elasticsearch node is deployed using a unique Deployment that includes its own storage volume. You can use a Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR) to increase the number of Elasticsearch nodes. Refer to Elastic’s documentation for considerations involved in choosing storage and network location as directed below.

Note

A highly-available Elasticsearch environment requires at least three Elasticsearch nodes, each on a different host.

Role-based access control (RBAC) applied on the Elasticsearch indices enables the controlled access of the logs to the developers. Access to the indexes with the project.{project_name}.{project_uuid}.* format is restricted based on the permissions of the user in the specific project.

For more information, see Elasticsearch (ES).

1.1.3. About the logging collector

OpenShift Container Platform uses Fluentd to collect data about your cluster.

The logging collector is deployed as a DaemonSet in OpenShift Container Platform that deploys pods to each OpenShift Container Platform node. journald is the system log source supplying log messages from the operating system, the container runtime, and OpenShift Container Platform.

The container runtimes provide minimal information to identify the source of log messages: project, pod name, and container id. This is not sufficient to uniquely identify the source of the logs. If a pod with a given name and project is deleted before the log collector begins processing its logs, information from the API server, such as labels and annotations, might not be available. There might not be a way to distinguish the log messages from a similarly named pod and project or trace the logs to their source. This limitation means log collection and normalization is considered best effort.

Important

The available container runtimes provide minimal information to identify the source of log messages and do not guarantee unique individual log messages or that these messages can be traced to their source.

For more information, see Fluentd.

1.1.4. About logging visualization

OpenShift Container Platform uses Kibana to display the log data collected by Fluentd and indexed by Elasticsearch.

Kibana is a browser-based console interface to query, discover, and visualize your Elasticsearch data through histograms, line graphs, pie charts, heat maps, built-in geospatial support, and other visualizations.

For more information, see Kibana.

1.1.5. About logging curation

The Elasticsearch Curator tool performs scheduled maintenance operations on a global and/or on a per-project basis. Curator performs actions based on its configuration. Only one Curator Pod is recommended per Elasticsearch cluster.

spec:
  curation:
  type: "curator"
  resources:
  curator:
    schedule: "30 3 * * *" 1
1
Specify the Curator schedule in the cron format.

For more information, see Curator.

1.1.6. About event routing

The Event Router is a pod that forwards OpenShift Container Platform events to cluster logging. You must manually deploy Event Router.

The Event Router collects events and converts them into JSON format, which takes those events and pushes them to STDOUT. Fluentd indexes the events to the .operations index.

1.1.7. About the Cluster Logging Custom Resource

To make changes to your cluster logging deployment, create and modify the Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR). Instructions for creating or modifying a CR are provided in this documentation as appropriate.

The following is an example of a typical Custom Resource for cluster logging.

Sample Cluster Logging CR

kind: "ClusterLogging"
metadata:
  name: "instance"
  namespace: "openshift-logging"
spec:
  managementState: "Managed"
  logStore:
    type: "elasticsearch"
    elasticsearch:
      nodeCount: 3
      resources:
        limits:
          memory: 16Gi
        requests:
          cpu: "1"
          memory: 16Gi
      storage:
        storageClassName: "gp2"
        size: "200G"
      redundancyPolicy: "SingleRedundancy"
  visualization:
    type: "kibana"
    kibana:
      resources:
        limits:
          memory: 736Mi
        requests:
          cpu: 100m
          memory: 736Mi
      replicas: 1
  curation:
    type: "curator"
    curator:
      resources:
        limits:
          memory: 256Mi
        requests:
          cpu: 100m
          memory: 256Mi
      schedule: "30 3 * * *"
  collection:
    logs:
      type: "fluentd"
      fluentd:
        resources:
          limits:
            memory: 736Mi
          requests:
            cpu: 100m
            memory: 736Mi

Chapter 2. About deploying cluster logging

Before installing cluster logging into your OpenShift Container Platform cluster, review the following sections.

2.1. About deploying and configuring cluster logging

OpenShift Container Platform cluster logging is designed to be used with the default configuration, which is tuned for small to medium sized OpenShift Container Platform clusters.

The installation instructions that follow include a sample Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR), which you can use to create a cluster logging instance and configure your cluster logging deployment.

If you want to use the default cluster logging install, you can use the sample CR directly.

If you want to customize your deployment, make changes to the sample CR as needed. The following describes the configurations you can make when installing your cluster logging instance or modify after installation. See the Configuring sections for more information on working with each component, including modifications you can make outside of the Cluster Logging Custom Resource.

2.1.1. Configuring and Tuning Cluster Logging

You can configure your cluster logging environment by modifying the Cluster Logging Custom Resource deployed in the openshift-logging project.

You can modify any of the following components upon install or after install:

Memory and CPU
You can adjust both the CPU and memory limits for each component by modifying the resources block with valid memory and CPU values:
spec:
  logStore:
    elasticsearch:
      resources:
        limits:
          cpu:
          memory:
        requests:
          cpu: 1
          memory: 16Gi
      type: "elasticsearch"
  collection:
    logs:
      fluentd:
        resources:
          limits:
            cpu:
            memory:
          requests:
            cpu:
            memory:
        type: "fluentd"
  visualization:
    kibana:
      resources:
        limits:
          cpu:
          memory:
        requests:
          cpu:
          memory:
     type: kibana
  curation:
    curator:
      resources:
        limits:
          memory: 200Mi
        requests:
          cpu: 200m
          memory: 200Mi
      type: "curator"
Elasticsearch storage
You can configure a persistent storage class and size for the Elasticsearch cluster using the storageClass name and size parameters. The Cluster Logging Operator creates a PersistentVolumeClaim for each data node in the Elasticsearch cluster based on these parameters.
  spec:
    logStore:
      type: "elasticsearch"
      elasticsearch:
        nodeCount: 3
        storage:
          storageClassName: "gp2"
          size: "200G"

This example specifies each data node in the cluster will be bound to a PersistentVolumeClaim that requests "200G" of "gp2" storage. Each primary shard will be backed by a single replica.

Note

Omitting the storage block results in a deployment that includes ephemeral storage only.

  spec:
    logStore:
      type: "elasticsearch"
      elasticsearch:
        nodeCount: 3
        storage: {}
Elasticsearch replication policy

You can set the policy that defines how Elasticsearch shards are replicated across data nodes in the cluster:

  • FullRedundancy. The shards for each index are fully replicated to every data node.
  • MultipleRedundancy. The shards for each index are spread over half of the data nodes.
  • SingleRedundancy. A single copy of each shard. Logs are always available and recoverable as long as at least two data nodes exist.
  • ZeroRedundancy. No copies of any shards. Logs may be unavailable (or lost) in the event a node is down or fails.
Curator schedule
You specify the schedule for Curator in the cron format.
  spec:
    curation:
    type: "curator"
    resources:
    curator:
      schedule: "30 3 * * *"

2.1.2. Sample modified Cluster Logging Custom Resource

The following is an example of a Cluster Logging Custom Resource modified using the options previously described.

Sample modified Cluster Logging Custom Resource

apiVersion: "logging.openshift.io/v1"
kind: "ClusterLogging"
metadata:
  name: "instance"
  namespace: "openshift-logging"
spec:
  managementState: "Managed"
  logStore:
    type: "elasticsearch"
    elasticsearch:
      nodeCount: 2
      resources:
        limits:
          memory: 2Gi
        requests:
          cpu: 200m
          memory: 2Gi
      storage: {}
      redundancyPolicy: "SingleRedundancy"
  visualization:
    type: "kibana"
    kibana:
      resources:
        limits:
          memory: 1Gi
        requests:
          cpu: 500m
          memory: 1Gi
      replicas: 1
  curation:
    type: "curator"
    curator:
      resources:
        limits:
          memory: 200Mi
        requests:
          cpu: 200m
          memory: 200Mi
      schedule: "*/5 * * * *"
  collection:
    logs:
      type: "fluentd"
      fluentd:
        resources:
          limits:
            memory: 1Gi
          requests:
            cpu: 200m
            memory: 1Gi

2.2. Storage considerations for cluster logging and OpenShift Container Platform

A persistent volume is required for each Elasticsearch deployment to have one data volume per data node. On OpenShift Container Platform this is achieved using Persistent Volume Claims.

The Elasticsearch Operator names the PVCs using the Elasticsearch resource name. Refer to Persistent Elasticsearch Storage for more details.

Fluentd ships any logs from systemd journal and /var/log/containers/ to Elasticsearch.

Therefore, consider how much data you need in advance and that you are aggregating application log data. Some Elasticsearch users have found that it is necessary to keep absolute storage consumption around 50% and below 70% at all times. This helps to avoid Elasticsearch becoming unresponsive during large merge operations.

By default, at 85% Elasticsearch stops allocating new data to the node, at 90% Elasticsearch attempts to relocate existing shards from that node to other nodes if possible. But if no nodes have free capacity below 85%, Elasticsearch effectively rejects creating new indices and becomes RED.

Note

These low and high watermark values are Elasticsearch defaults in the current release. You can modify these values, but you also must apply any modifications to the alerts also. The alerts are based on these defaults.

2.3. Additional resources

For more information on installing operators,see Installing Operators from the OperatorHub.

Chapter 3. Deploying cluster logging

You can install cluster logging by deploying the Elasticsearch and Cluster Logging Operators. The Elasticsearch Operator creates and manages the Elasticsearch cluster used by cluster logging. The Cluster Logging Operator creates and manages the components of the logging stack.

The process for deploying cluster logging to OpenShift Container Platform involves:

3.1. Installing cluster logging using the web console

You can use the OpenShift Container Platform web console to install the Elasticsearch and Cluster Logging operators.

Prerequisites

  • Ensure that you have the necessary persistent storage for Elasticsearch. Note that each Elasticsearch node requires its own storage volume.

    Elasticsearch is a memory-intensive application. Each Elasticsearch node needs 16G of memory for both memory requests and limits. The initial set of OpenShift Container Platform nodes might not be large enough to support the Elasticsearch cluster. You must add additional nodes to the OpenShift Container Platform cluster to run with the recommended or higher memory. Each Elasticsearch node can operate with a lower memory setting though this is not recommended for production deployments.

Procedure

To install the Elasticsearch Operator and Cluster Logging Operator using the OpenShift Container Platform web console:

  1. Install the Elasticsearch Operator:

    1. In the OpenShift Container Platform web console, click OperatorsOperatorHub.
    2. Choose Elasticsearch Operator from the list of available Operators, and click Install.
    3. Ensure that the All namespaces on the cluster is selected under Installation Mode.
    4. Ensure that openshift-operators-redhat is selected under Installed Namespace.

      You must specify the openshift-operators-redhat Namespace. To prevent possible conflicts with metrics, you should configure the Prometheus Cluster Monitoring stack to scrape metrics from the openshift-operators-redhat Namespace and not the openshift-operators Namespace. The openshift-operators Namespace might contain Community Operators, which are untrusted and could publish a metric with the same name as an OpenShift Container Platform metric, which would cause conflicts.

    5. Select Enable operator recommended cluster monitoring on this namespace.

      This option sets the openshift.io/cluster-monitoring: "true" label in the Namespace object. You must select this option to ensure that cluster monitoring scrapes the openshift-operators-redhat Namespace.

    6. Select an Update Channel and Approval Strategy.
    7. Click Subscribe.
    8. Verify that the Elasticsearch Operator installed by switching to the OperatorsInstalled Operators page.
    9. Ensure that Elasticsearch Operator is listed in all projects with a Status of Succeeded.
  2. Install the Cluster Logging Operator:

    1. In the OpenShift Container Platform web console, click OperatorsOperatorHub.
    2. Choose Cluster Logging from the list of available Operators, and click Install.
    3. Ensure that the A specific namespace on the cluster is selected under Installation Mode.
    4. Ensure that Operator recommended namespace is openshift-logging under Installed Namespace.
    5. Select Enable operator recommended cluster monitoring on this namespace.

      This option sets the openshift.io/cluster-monitoring: "true" label in the Namespace object. You must select this option to ensure that cluster monitoring scrapes the openshift-operators-redhat Namespace.

    6. Select an Update Channel and Approval Strategy.
    7. Click Subscribe.
    8. Verify that the Cluster Logging Operator installed by switch to the OperatorsInstalled Operators page.
    9. Ensure that Cluster Logging is listed in the openshift-logging project with a Status of Succeeded.

      If the Operator does not appear as installed, to troubleshoot further:

      • Switch to the OperatorsInstalled Operators page and inspect the Status column for any errors or failures.
      • Switch to the WorkloadsPods page and check the logs in any Pods in the openshift-logging project that are reporting issues.
  3. Create a cluster logging instance:

    1. Switch to the AdministrationCustom Resource Definitions page.
    2. On the Custom Resource Definitions page, click ClusterLogging.
    3. On the Custom Resource Definition Overview page, select View Instances from the Actions menu.
    4. On the ClusterLoggings page, click Create ClusterLogging.

      You might have to refresh the page to load the data.

    5. In the YAML field, replace the code with the following:

      Note

      This default cluster logging configuration should support a wide array of environments. Review the topics on tuning and configuring the cluster logging components for information on modifications you can make to your cluster logging cluster.

      apiVersion: "logging.openshift.io/v1"
      kind: "ClusterLogging"
      metadata:
        name: "instance" 1
        namespace: "openshift-logging"
      spec:
        managementState: "Managed"  2
        logStore:
          type: "elasticsearch"  3
          elasticsearch:
            nodeCount: 3 4
            storage:
              storageClassName: "<storage-class-name>" 5
              size: 200G
            redundancyPolicy: "SingleRedundancy"
        visualization:
          type: "kibana"  6
          kibana:
            replicas: 1
        curation:
          type: "curator"  7
          curator:
            schedule: "30 3 * * *"
        collection:
          logs:
            type: "fluentd"  8
            fluentd: {}
      1
      The name must be instance.
      2
      The cluster logging management state. In some cases, if you change the cluster logging defaults, you must set this to Unmanaged. However, an unmanaged deployment does not receive updates until the cluster logging is placed back into a managed state.
      3
      Settings for configuring Elasticsearch. Using the CR, you can configure shard replication policy and persistent storage.
      4
      Specify the number of Elasticsearch nodes. See the note that follows this list.
      5
      Enter the name of an existing StorageClass for Elasticsearch storage. For best performance, specify a StorageClass that allocates block storage.
      6
      Settings for configuring Kibana. Using the CR, you can scale Kibana for redundancy and configure the CPU and memory for your Kibana nodes. For more information, see Configuring Kibana.
      7
      Settings for configuring Curator. Using the CR, you can set the Curator schedule. For more information, see Configuring Curator.
      8
      Settings for configuring Fluentd. Using the CR, you can configure Fluentd CPU and memory limits. For more information, see Configuring Fluentd.
      Note

      The maximum number of Elasticsearch master nodes is three. If you specify a nodeCount greater than 3, OpenShift Container Platform creates three Elasticsearch nodes that are Master-eligible nodes, with the master, client, and data roles. The additional Elasticsearch nodes are created as Data-only nodes, using client and data roles. Master nodes perform cluster-wide actions such as creating or deleting an index, shard allocation, and tracking nodes. Data nodes hold the shards and perform data-related operations such as CRUD, search, and aggregations. Data-related operations are I/O-, memory-, and CPU-intensive. It is important to monitor these resources and to add more Data nodes if the current nodes are overloaded.

      For example, if nodeCount=4, the following nodes are created:

      $ oc get deployment
      
      cluster-logging-operator       1/1     1            1           18h
      elasticsearch-cd-x6kdekli-1    0/1     1            0           6m54s
      elasticsearch-cdm-x6kdekli-1   1/1     1            1           18h
      elasticsearch-cdm-x6kdekli-2   0/1     1            0           6m49s
      elasticsearch-cdm-x6kdekli-3   0/1     1            0           6m44s

      The number of primary shards for the index templates is equal to the number of Elasticsearch data nodes.

    6. Click Create. This creates the Cluster Logging Custom Resource and Elasticsearch Custom Resource, which you can edit to make changes to your cluster logging cluster.
  4. Verify the install:

    1. Switch to the WorkloadsPods page.
    2. Select the openshift-logging project.

      You should see several Pods for cluster logging, Elasticsearch, Fluentd, and Kibana similar to the following list:

      • cluster-logging-operator-cb795f8dc-xkckc
      • elasticsearch-cdm-b3nqzchd-1-5c6797-67kfz
      • elasticsearch-cdm-b3nqzchd-2-6657f4-wtprv
      • elasticsearch-cdm-b3nqzchd-3-588c65-clg7g
      • fluentd-2c7dg
      • fluentd-9z7kk
      • fluentd-br7r2
      • fluentd-fn2sb
      • fluentd-pb2f8
      • fluentd-zqgqx
      • kibana-7fb4fd4cc9-bvt4p

3.2. Installing cluster logging using the CLI

You can use the OpenShift Container Platform CLI to install the Elasticsearch and Cluster Logging operators.

Prerequisites

  • Ensure that you have the necessary persistent storage for Elasticsearch. Note that each Elasticsearch node requires its own storage volume.

    Elasticsearch is a memory-intensive application. Each Elasticsearch node needs 16G of memory for both memory requests and limits. The initial set of OpenShift Container Platform nodes might not be large enough to support the Elasticsearch cluster. You must add additional nodes to the OpenShift Container Platform cluster to run with the recommended or higher memory. Each Elasticsearch node can operate with a lower memory setting though this is not recommended for production deployments.

Procedure

To install the Elasticsearch Operator and Cluster Logging Operator using the CLI:

  1. Create a Namespace for the Elasticsearch Operator.

    1. Create a Namespace object YAML file (for example, eo-namespace.yaml) for the Elasticsearch Operator:

      apiVersion: v1
      kind: Namespace
      metadata:
        name: openshift-operators-redhat 1
        annotations:
          openshift.io/node-selector: ""
        labels:
          openshift.io/cluster-monitoring: "true" 2
      1
      You must specify the openshift-operators-redhat Namespace. To prevent possible conflicts with metrics, you should configure the Prometheus Cluster Monitoring stack to scrape metrics from the openshift-operators-redhat Namespace and not the openshift-operators Namespace. The openshift-operators Namespace might contain Community Operators, which are untrusted and could publish a metric with the same name as an OpenShift Container Platform metric, which would cause conflicts.
      2
      You must specify this label as shown to ensure that cluster monitoring scrapes the openshift-operators-redhat Namespace.
    2. Create the Namespace:

      $ oc create -f <file-name>.yaml

      For example:

      $ oc create -f eo-namespace.yaml
  2. Create a Namespace for the Cluster Logging Operator:

    1. Create a Namespace object YAML file (for example, clo-namespace.yaml) for the Cluster Logging Operator:

      apiVersion: v1
      kind: Namespace
      metadata:
        name: openshift-logging
        annotations:
          openshift.io/node-selector: ""
        labels:
          openshift.io/cluster-monitoring: "true"
    2. Create the Namespace:

      $ oc create -f <file-name>.yaml

      For example:

      $ oc create -f clo-namespace.yaml
  3. Install the Elasticsearch Operator by creating the following objects:

    1. Create an Operator Group object YAML file (for example, eo-og.yaml) for the Elasticsearch operator:

      apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1
      kind: OperatorGroup
      metadata:
        name: openshift-operators-redhat
        namespace: openshift-operators-redhat 1
      spec: {}
      1
      You must specify the openshift-operators-redhat Namespace.
    2. Create an Operator Group object:

      $ oc create -f <file-name>.yaml

      For example:

      $ oc create -f eo-og.yaml
    3. Create a Subscription object YAML file (for example, eo-sub.yaml) to subscribe a Namespace to the Elasticsearch Operator.

      Example Subscription

      apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1alpha1
      kind: Subscription
      metadata:
        name: "elasticsearch-operator"
        namespace: "openshift-operators-redhat" 1
      spec:
        channel: "4.4" 2
        installPlanApproval: "Automatic"
        source: "redhat-operators" 3
        sourceNamespace: "openshift-marketplace"
        name: "elasticsearch-operator"

      1
      You must specify the openshift-operators-redhat Namespace.
      2
      Specify 4.4 as the channel.
      3
      Specify redhat-operators. If your OpenShift Container Platform cluster is installed on a restricted network, also known as a disconnected cluster, specify the name of the CatalogSource object created when you configured the Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM).
    4. Create the Subscription object:

      $ oc create -f <file-name>.yaml

      For example:

      $ oc create -f eo-sub.yaml

      The Elasticsearch Operator is installed to the openshift-operators-redhat Namespace and copied to each project in the cluster.

    5. Verify the Operator installation:

      oc get csv --all-namespaces
      
      NAMESPACE                                               NAME                                         DISPLAY                  VERSION               REPLACES   PHASE
      default                                                 elasticsearch-operator.4.4.0-202004222248    Elasticsearch Operator   4.4.0-202004222248               Succeeded
      kube-node-lease                                         elasticsearch-operator.4.4.0-202004222248    Elasticsearch Operator   4.4.0-202004222248               Succeeded
      kube-public                                             elasticsearch-operator.4.4.0-202004222248    Elasticsearch Operator   4.4.0-202004222248               Succeeded
      kube-system                                             elasticsearch-operator.4.4.0-202004222248    Elasticsearch Operator   4.4.0-202004222248               Succeeded
      openshift-apiserver-operator                            elasticsearch-operator.4.4.0-202004222248    Elasticsearch Operator   4.4.0-202004222248               Succeeded
      openshift-apiserver                                     elasticsearch-operator.4.4.0-202004222248    Elasticsearch Operator   4.4.0-202004222248               Succeeded
      openshift-authentication-operator                       elasticsearch-operator.4.4.0-202004222248    Elasticsearch Operator   4.4.0-202004222248               Succeeded
      openshift-authentication                                elasticsearch-operator.4.4.0-202004222248    Elasticsearch Operator   4.4.0-202004222248               Succeeded
      ...

      There should be an Elasticsearch Operator in each Namespace. The version number might be different than shown.

  4. Install the Cluster Logging Operator by creating the following objects:

    1. Create an OperatorGroup object YAML file (for example, clo-og.yaml) for the Cluster Logging Operator:

      apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1
      kind: OperatorGroup
      metadata:
        name: cluster-logging
        namespace: openshift-logging 1
      spec:
        targetNamespaces:
        - openshift-logging 2
      1 2
      You must specify the openshift-logging namespace.
    2. Create the OperatorGroup object:

      $ oc create -f <file-name>.yaml

      For example:

      $ oc create -f clo-og.yaml
    3. Create a Subscription object YAML file (for example, clo-sub.yaml) to subscribe a Namespace to the Cluster Logging Operator.

      apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1alpha1
      kind: Subscription
      metadata:
        name: cluster-logging
        namespace: openshift-logging
      spec:
        channel: "4.4"
        name: cluster-logging
        source: redhat-operators
        sourceNamespace: openshift-marketplace
      You must specify the openshift-logging Namespace.
      Specify 4.4 as the channel.
      Specify redhat-operators. If your OpenShift Container Platform cluster is installed on a restricted network, also known as a disconnected cluster, specify the name of the CatalogSource object you created when you configured the Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM).
    4. Create the Subscription object:

      $ oc create -f <file-name>.yaml

      For example:

      $ oc create -f clo-sub.yaml

      The Cluster Logging Operator is installed to the openshift-logging Namespace.

    5. Verify the Operator installation.

      There should be a Cluster Logging Operator in the openshift-logging Namespace. The Version number might be different than shown.

      oc get csv -n openshift-logging
      
      NAMESPACE                                               NAME                                         DISPLAY                  VERSION               REPLACES   PHASE
      ...
      openshift-logging                                       clusterlogging.4.4.0-202004222248            Cluster Logging          4.4.0-202004222248              Succeeded
      ...
  5. Create a Cluster Logging instance:

    1. Create an instance object YAML file (for example, clo-instance.yaml) for the Cluster Logging Operator:

      Note

      This default Cluster Logging configuration should support a wide array of environments. Review the topics on tuning and configuring the Cluster Logging components for information on modifications you can make to your Cluster Logging cluster.

      apiVersion: "logging.openshift.io/v1"
      kind: "ClusterLogging"
      metadata:
        name: "instance" 1
        namespace: "openshift-logging"
      spec:
        managementState: "Managed"  2
        logStore:
          type: "elasticsearch"  3
          elasticsearch:
            nodeCount: 3 4
            storage:
              storageClassName: "<storage-class-name>" 5
              size: 200G
            redundancyPolicy: "SingleRedundancy"
        visualization:
          type: "kibana"  6
          kibana:
            replicas: 1
        curation:
          type: "curator"  7
          curator:
            schedule: "30 3 * * *"
        collection:
          logs:
            type: "fluentd"  8
            fluentd: {}
      1
      The name must be instance.
      2
      The Cluster Logging management state. In most cases, if you change the Cluster Logging defaults, you must set this to Unmanaged. However, an unmanaged deployment does not receive updates until Cluster Logging is placed back into the Managed state.
      3
      Settings for configuring Elasticsearch. Using the Custom Resource (CR), you can configure shard replication policy and persistent storage.
      4
      Specify the number of Elasticsearch nodes. See the note that follows this list.
      5
      Enter the name of an existing StorageClass for Elasticsearch storage. For best performance, specify a StorageClass that allocates block storage.
      6
      Settings for configuring Kibana. Using the CR, you can scale Kibana for redundancy and configure the CPU and memory for your Kibana nodes. For more information, see Configuring Kibana.
      7
      Settings for configuring Curator. Using the CR, you can set the Curator schedule. For more information, see Configuring Curator.
      8
      Settings for configuring Fluentd. Using the CR, you can configure Fluentd CPU and memory limits. For more information, see Configuring Fluentd.
      Note

      The maximum number of Elasticsearch master nodes is three. If you specify a nodeCount greater than 3, OpenShift Container Platform creates three Elasticsearch nodes that are Master-eligible nodes, with the master, client, and data roles. The additional Elasticsearch nodes are created as Data-only nodes, using client and data roles. Master nodes perform cluster-wide actions such as creating or deleting an index, shard allocation, and tracking nodes. Data nodes hold the shards and perform data-related operations such as CRUD, search, and aggregations. Data-related operations are I/O-, memory-, and CPU-intensive. It is important to monitor these resources and to add more Data nodes if the current nodes are overloaded.

      For example, if nodeCount=4, the following nodes are created:

      $ oc get deployment
      
      cluster-logging-operator       1/1     1            1           18h
      elasticsearch-cd-x6kdekli-1    1/1     1            0           6m54s
      elasticsearch-cdm-x6kdekli-1   1/1     1            1           18h
      elasticsearch-cdm-x6kdekli-2   1/1     1            0           6m49s
      elasticsearch-cdm-x6kdekli-3   1/1     1            0           6m44s

      The number of primary shards for the index templates is equal to the number of Elasticsearch data nodes.

    2. Create the instance:

      $ oc create -f <file-name>.yaml

      For example:

      $ oc create -f clo-instance.yaml
  6. Verify the install by listing the Pods in the openshift-logging project.

    You should see several Pods for Cluster Logging, Elasticsearch, Fluentd, and Kibana similar to the following list:

    oc get pods -n openshift-logging
    
    NAME                                            READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    cluster-logging-operator-66f77ffccb-ppzbg       1/1     Running   0          7m
    elasticsearch-cdm-ftuhduuw-1-ffc4b9566-q6bhp    2/2     Running   0          2m40s
    elasticsearch-cdm-ftuhduuw-2-7b4994dbfc-rd2gc   2/2     Running   0          2m36s
    elasticsearch-cdm-ftuhduuw-3-84b5ff7ff8-gqnm2   2/2     Running   0          2m4s
    fluentd-587vb                                   1/1     Running   0          2m26s
    fluentd-7mpb9                                   1/1     Running   0          2m30s
    fluentd-flm6j                                   1/1     Running   0          2m33s
    fluentd-gn4rn                                   1/1     Running   0          2m26s
    fluentd-nlgb6                                   1/1     Running   0          2m30s
    fluentd-snpkt                                   1/1     Running   0          2m28s
    kibana-d6d5668c5-rppqm                          2/2     Running   0          2m39s

3.3. Additional resources

For more information on installing Operators,see Installing Operators from the OperatorHub.

Chapter 4. Updating cluster logging

After updating the OpenShift Container Platform cluster from 4.3 to 4.4, you must then upgrade cluster logging from 4.3 to 4.4.

4.1. Updating cluster logging

After updating the OpenShift Container Platform cluster, you can update cluster logging from 4.3 to 4.4 by updating the subscription for the Elasticsearch Operator and the Cluster Logging Operator.

Important

Changes introduced by the new log forward feature modified the support for out_forward starting with the OpenShift Container Platform 4.3 release. You create a ConfigMap to configure out_forward. Any updates to the secure-forward.conf section of the Fluentd ConfigMap are removed.

If you use the out_forward plug-in, before updating, you can copy your current secure-forward.conf section from the Fluentd ConfigMap and use the copied data when you create the secure-forward ConfigMap.

Prerequisites

  • Update the cluster from 4.3 to 4.4.
  • Make sure the cluster logging status is healthy:

    • All Pods are ready.
    • Elasticsearch cluster is healthy.
  • Optionally, copy your current secure-forward.conf section from the Fluentd ConfigMap for use if you want to create the secure-forward ConfigMap. See the note above.

Procedure

  1. Update the Elasticsearch Operator:

    1. From the web console, click OperatorsInstalled Operators.
    2. Select the openshift-operators-redhat project.
    3. Click the Elasticsearch Operator.
    4. Click SubscriptionChannel.
    5. In the Change Subscription Update Channel window, select 4.4 and click Save.
    6. Wait for a few seconds, then click OperatorsInstalled Operators.

      The Elasticsearch Operator is shown as 4.4. For example:

      Elasticsearch Operator
      4.4.0-201909201915 provided
      by Red Hat, Inc
  2. Update the Cluster Logging Operator:

    1. From the web console, click OperatorsInstalled Operators.
    2. Select the openshift-logging Project.
    3. Click the Cluster Logging Operator.
    4. Click SubscriptionChannel.
    5. In the Change Subscription Update Channel window, select 4.4 and click Save.
    6. Wait for a few seconds, then click OperatorsInstalled Operators.

      The Cluster Logging Operator is shown as 4.4. For example:

      Cluster Logging
      4.4.0-201909201915 provided
      by Red Hat, Inc
  3. Check the logging components:

    1. Ensure that the Elasticsearch Pods are using a 4.4 image:

      $ oc get pod -o yaml -n openshift-logging --selector component=elasticsearch |grep 'image:'
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-elasticsearch5@sha256:4e081ff048c3a56113bc672af5dfb8d29ea2ddca1fd79a3332a4446a461944f5
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-oauth-proxy@sha256:5fe478210770b21c1eb26c1570bcbda40bc5a79011580ff5ebd4c701a5b04eb2
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-elasticsearch5@sha256:4e081ff048c3a56113bc672af5dfb8d29ea2ddca1fd79a3332a4446a461944f5
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-oauth-proxy@sha256:5fe478210770b21c1eb26c1570bcbda40bc5a79011580ff5ebd4c701a5b04eb2
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-elasticsearch5@sha256:4e081ff048c3a56113bc672af5dfb8d29ea2ddca1fd79a3332a4446a461944f5
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-oauth-proxy@sha256:5fe478210770b21c1eb26c1570bcbda40bc5a79011580ff5ebd4c701a5b04eb2
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-elasticsearch5@sha256:4e081ff048c3a56113bc672af5dfb8d29ea2ddca1fd79a3332a4446a461944f5
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-oauth-proxy@sha256:5fe478210770b21c1eb26c1570bcbda40bc5a79011580ff5ebd4c701a5b04eb2
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-elasticsearch5@sha256:4e081ff048c3a56113bc672af5dfb8d29ea2ddca1fd79a3332a4446a461944f5
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-oauth-proxy@sha256:5fe478210770b21c1eb26c1570bcbda40bc5a79011580ff5ebd4c701a5b04eb2
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-elasticsearch5@sha256:4e081ff048c3a56113bc672af5dfb8d29ea2ddca1fd79a3332a4446a461944f5
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-oauth-proxy@sha256:5fe478210770b21c1eb26c1570bcbda40bc5a79011580ff5ebd4c701a5b04eb2
    2. Ensure that all Elasticsearch Pods are in the Ready status:

      $ oc get pod -n openshift-logging --selector component=elasticsearch
      
      NAME                                            READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
      elasticsearch-cdm-1pbrl44l-1-55b7546f4c-mshhk   2/2     Running   0          31m
      elasticsearch-cdm-1pbrl44l-2-5c6d87589f-gx5hk   2/2     Running   0          30m
      elasticsearch-cdm-1pbrl44l-3-88df5d47-m45jc     2/2     Running   0          29m
    3. Ensure that the Elasticsearch cluster is healthy:

      oc exec -n openshift-logging -c elasticsearch elasticsearch-cdm-1pbrl44l-1-55b7546f4c-mshhk -- es_cluster_health
      
      {
        "cluster_name" : "elasticsearch",
        "status" : "green",
      
      ....
    4. Ensure that the logging collector Pods are using a 4.4 image:

      $ oc get pod -n openshift-logging --selector logging-infra=fluentd -o yaml |grep 'image:'
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-fluentd@sha256:20f92b37685bc1003bb490002f7d8a1abee2dd2d157e8532afa3830ce8da3483
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-fluentd@sha256:20f92b37685bc1003bb490002f7d8a1abee2dd2d157e8532afa3830ce8da3483
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-fluentd@sha256:20f92b37685bc1003bb490002f7d8a1abee2dd2d157e8532afa3830ce8da3483
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-fluentd@sha256:20f92b37685bc1003bb490002f7d8a1abee2dd2d157e8532afa3830ce8da3483
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-fluentd@sha256:20f92b37685bc1003bb490002f7d8a1abee2dd2d157e8532afa3830ce8da3483
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-fluentd@sha256:20f92b37685bc1003bb490002f7d8a1abee2dd2d157e8532afa3830ce8da3483
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-fluentd@sha256:20f92b37685bc1003bb490002f7d8a1abee2dd2d157e8532afa3830ce8da3483
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-fluentd@sha256:20f92b37685bc1003bb490002f7d8a1abee2dd2d157e8532afa3830ce8da3483
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-fluentd@sha256:20f92b37685bc1003bb490002f7d8a1abee2dd2d157e8532afa3830ce8da3483
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-fluentd@sha256:20f92b37685bc1003bb490002f7d8a1abee2dd2d157e8532afa3830ce8da3483
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-fluentd@sha256:20f92b37685bc1003bb490002f7d8a1abee2dd2d157e8532afa3830ce8da3483
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-fluentd@sha256:20f92b37685bc1003bb490002f7d8a1abee2dd2d157e8532afa3830ce8da3483
    5. Ensure that the Kibana Pods are using a 4.4 image:

      $ oc get pod -n openshift-logging --selector logging-infra=kibana -o yaml |grep 'image:'
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-kibana5@sha256:3d657e3b90fae604a8351b1923250f93c04529b36e6ada0aba7c0a038ffef56e
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-oauth-proxy@sha256:5fe478210770b21c1eb26c1570bcbda40bc5a79011580ff5ebd4c701a5b04eb2
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-kibana5@sha256:3d657e3b90fae604a8351b1923250f93c04529b36e6ada0aba7c0a038ffef56e
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-oauth-proxy@sha256:5fe478210770b21c1eb26c1570bcbda40bc5a79011580ff5ebd4c701a5b04eb2
    6. Ensure that the Curator CronJob is using a 4.4 image:

      $ oc get CronJob curator -n openshift-logging -o yaml |grep 'image:'
      image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-curator5@sha256:330c3499e790d0e184414125a4843cd48849c601eb9f19ff82f30794c858b0bc

Chapter 5. Working with Event Router

The Event Router communicates with the OpenShift Container Platform and prints OpenShift Container Platform events to log of the pod where the event occurs.

If Cluster Logging is deployed, you can view the OpenShift Container Platform events in Kibana.

5.1. Deploying and Configuring the Event Router

Use the following steps to deploy Event Router into your cluster.

The following Template object creates the Service Account, ClusterRole, and ClusterRoleBinding required for the Event Router.

Prerequisites

  • You need proper permissions to create service accounts and update cluster role bindings. For example, you can run the following template with a user that has the cluster-admin role.

Procedure

  1. Create a template for the Event Router:

    kind: Template
    apiVersion: v1
    metadata:
      name: eventrouter-template
      annotations:
        description: "A pod forwarding kubernetes events to cluster logging stack."
        tags: "events,EFK,logging,cluster-logging"
    objects:
      - kind: ServiceAccount 1
        apiVersion: v1
        metadata:
          name: eventrouter
          namespace: ${NAMESPACE}
      - kind: ClusterRole 2
        apiVersion: v1
        metadata:
          name: event-reader
        rules:   3
        - apiGroups: [""]
          resources: ["events"]
          verbs: ["get", "watch", "list"]
      - kind: ClusterRoleBinding  4
        apiVersion: v1
        metadata:
          name: event-reader-binding
        subjects:
        - kind: ServiceAccount
          name: eventrouter
          namespace: ${NAMESPACE}
        roleRef:
          kind: ClusterRole
          name: event-reader
      - kind: ConfigMap
        apiVersion: v1
        metadata:
          name: eventrouter
          namespace: ${NAMESPACE}
        data:
          config.json: |-
            {
              "sink": "stdout"
            }
      - kind: Deployment
        apiVersion: apps/v1
        metadata:
          name: eventrouter
          namespace: ${NAMESPACE}
          labels:
            component: eventrouter
            logging-infra: eventrouter
            provider: openshift
        spec:
          selector:
            matchLabels:
              component: eventrouter
              logging-infra: eventrouter
              provider: openshift
          replicas: 1
          template:
            metadata:
              labels:
                component: eventrouter
                logging-infra: eventrouter
                provider: openshift
              name: eventrouter
            spec:
              serviceAccount: eventrouter
              containers:
                - name: kube-eventrouter
                  image: ${IMAGE}
                  imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
                  resources:
                    limits:
                      memory: ${MEMORY}
                    requests:
                      cpu: ${CPU}
                      memory: ${MEMORY}
                  volumeMounts:
                  - name: config-volume
                    mountPath: /etc/eventrouter
              volumes:
                - name: config-volume
                  configMap:
                    name: eventrouter
    parameters:
      - name: IMAGE 5
        displayName: Image
        value: "registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-eventrouter:latest"
      - name: MEMORY 6
        displayName: Memory
        value: "128Mi"
      - name: CPU  7
        displayName: CPU
        value: "100m"
      - name: NAMESPACE  8
        displayName: Namespace
        value: "openshift-logging"
    1
    Creates a Service Account for the Event Router.
    2
    Creates a cluster role to monitor for events in the cluster.
    3
    Allows the get, watch, and list permissions for the events resource.
    4
    Creates a ClusterRoleBinding to bind the ClusterRole to the ServiceAccount.
    5
    Specify the image version for the Event Router.
    6
    Specify the memory limit for the Event Router pods. Defaults to '128Mi'.
    7
    Specify the minimum amount of CPU to allocate to the Event Router. Defaults to '100m'.
    8
    Specify the namespace where eventrouter is deployed. Defaults to openshift-logging. The value must be the same as specified for the ServiceAccount and ClusterRoleBinding. The project indicates where in Kibana you can locate events:
    • If the event router pod is deployed in a default project, such as kube-* and openshift-*, you can find the events under the .operation index.
    • If the event router pod is deployed in other projects, you can find the event under the index using the project namespace.
  2. Use the following command to process and apply the template:

    $ oc process -f <templatefile> | oc apply -f -

    For example:

    $ oc process -f eventrouter.yaml | oc apply -f -
    
    serviceaccount/logging-eventrouter created
    clusterrole.authorization.openshift.io/event-reader created
    clusterrolebinding.authorization.openshift.io/event-reader-binding created
    configmap/logging-eventrouter created
    deployment.apps/logging-eventrouter created
  3. Validate that the Event Router installed:

    $ oc get pods --selector  component=eventrouter -o name
    
    pod/logging-eventrouter-d649f97c8-qvv8r
    $ oc logs logging-eventrouter-d649f97c8-qvv8r
    
    {"verb":"ADDED","event":{"metadata":{"name":"elasticsearch-operator.v0.0.1.158f402e25397146","namespace":"openshift-operators","selfLink":"/api/v1/namespaces/openshift-operators/events/elasticsearch-operator.v0.0.1.158f402e25397146","uid":"37b7ff11-4f1a-11e9-a7ad-0271b2ca69f0","resourceVersion":"523264","creationTimestamp":"2019-03-25T16:22:43Z"},"involvedObject":{"kind":"ClusterServiceVersion","namespace":"openshift-operators","name":"elasticsearch-operator.v0.0.1","uid":"27b2ca6d-4f1a-11e9-8fba-0ea949ad61f6","apiVersion":"operators.coreos.com/v1alpha1","resourceVersion":"523096"},"reason":"InstallSucceeded","message":"waiting for install components to report healthy","source":{"component":"operator-lifecycle-manager"},"firstTimestamp":"2019-03-25T16:22:43Z","lastTimestamp":"2019-03-25T16:22:43Z","count":1,"type":"Normal"}}

Chapter 6. Viewing cluster logs

You can view OpenShift Container Platform cluster logs in the CLI or OpenShift Container Platform web console.

6.1. Viewing cluster logs

You can view cluster logs in the CLI.

Prerequisites

  • Cluster logging and Elasticsearch must be installed.

Procedure

To view cluster logs:

Use the oc logs [-f] <pod_name> command, where the -f is optional.

$ oc logs -f <any-fluentd-pod> -n openshift-logging 1
1
Specify the name of a log collector pod. Use the -f option to follow what is being written into the logs.

For example

$ oc logs -f fluentd-ht42r -n openshift-logging

The contents of log files are printed out.

By default, Fluentd reads logs from the tail, or end, of the log.

6.2. Viewing cluster logs in the OpenShift Container Platform web console

You can view cluster logs in the OpenShift Container Platform web console .

Prerequisites

  • Cluster logging and Elasticsearch must be installed.

Procedure

To view cluster logs:

  1. In the OpenShift Container Platform console, navigate to WorkloadsPods.
  2. Select the openshift-logging project from the drop-down menu.
  3. Click one of the logging collector pods with the fluentd prefix.
  4. Click Logs.

By default, Fluentd reads logs from the tail, or end, of the log.

Chapter 7. Viewing cluster logs using Kibana

The cluster logging installation deploys the Kibana web console.

7.1. Launching Kibana

Kibana is a browser-based console to query, discover, and visualize your logs through histograms, line graphs, pie charts, heat maps, built-in geospatial support, and other visualizations.

Prerequisites

If you installed OpenShift Container Platform with a proxy, you need to add .apps.<cluster_name>.<base_domain> to the noProxy list in your cluster-wide Proxy object.

For example:

$ oc edit proxy/cluster

apiVersion: config.openshift.io/v1
kind: Proxy
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: "2020-03-30T00:45:44Z"
  generation: 3
  name: cluster
  resourceVersion: "26654"
  selfLink: /apis/config.openshift.io/v1/proxies/cluster
  uid: 2213b41b-0721-4c9f-9586-0678c0058f85
spec:
  httpProxy: http://proxy.com
  httpsProxy: https://proxy.com
  noProxy: .apps.mycluster.example.com 1
  trustedCA:
    name: user-ca-bundle
1
Add .apps.<cluster_name>.<base_domain> to the noProxy list. This is a comma-separated list of destination domain names, domains, IP addresses, or other network CIDRs to exclude proxying.

Procedure

To launch Kibana:

  1. In the OpenShift Container Platform console, click MonitoringLogging.
  2. Log in using the same credentials you use to log in to the OpenShift Container Platform console.

    The Kibana interface launches. You can now:

    • Search and browse your data using the Discover page.
    • Chart and map your data using the Visualize page.
    • Create and view custom dashboards using the Dashboard page.

      Use and configuration of the Kibana interface is beyond the scope of this documentation. For more information, on using the interface, see the Kibana documentation.

Note

If you get a security_exception error in the Kibana console and cannot access your Kibana indices, you might have an expired OAuth token. If you see this error, log out of the Kibana console, and then log back in. This refreshes your OAuth tokens and you should be able to access your indices.

Chapter 8. Configuring your cluster logging deployment

8.1. About configuring cluster logging

After installing cluster logging into your OpenShift Container Platform cluster, you can make the following configurations.

Note

You must set cluster logging to Unmanaged state before performing these configurations, unless otherwise noted. For more information, see Changing the cluster logging management state.

Operators in an unmanaged state are unsupported and the cluster administrator assumes full control of the individual component configurations and upgrades. For more information, see Support policy for unmanaged Operators.

8.1.1. About deploying and configuring cluster logging

OpenShift Container Platform cluster logging is designed to be used with the default configuration, which is tuned for small to medium sized OpenShift Container Platform clusters.

The installation instructions that follow include a sample Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR), which you can use to create a cluster logging instance and configure your cluster logging deployment.

If you want to use the default cluster logging install, you can use the sample CR directly.

If you want to customize your deployment, make changes to the sample CR as needed. The following describes the configurations you can make when installing your cluster logging instance or modify after installation. See the Configuring sections for more information on working with each component, including modifications you can make outside of the Cluster Logging Custom Resource.

8.1.1.1. Configuring and Tuning Cluster Logging

You can configure your cluster logging environment by modifying the Cluster Logging Custom Resource deployed in the openshift-logging project.

You can modify any of the following components upon install or after install:

Memory and CPU
You can adjust both the CPU and memory limits for each component by modifying the resources block with valid memory and CPU values:
spec:
  logStore:
    elasticsearch:
      resources:
        limits:
          cpu:
          memory:
        requests:
          cpu: 1
          memory: 16Gi
      type: "elasticsearch"
  collection:
    logs:
      fluentd:
        resources:
          limits:
            cpu:
            memory:
          requests:
            cpu:
            memory:
        type: "fluentd"
  visualization:
    kibana:
      resources:
        limits:
          cpu:
          memory:
        requests:
          cpu:
          memory:
     type: kibana
  curation:
    curator:
      resources:
        limits:
          memory: 200Mi
        requests:
          cpu: 200m
          memory: 200Mi
      type: "curator"
Elasticsearch storage
You can configure a persistent storage class and size for the Elasticsearch cluster using the storageClass name and size parameters. The Cluster Logging Operator creates a PersistentVolumeClaim for each data node in the Elasticsearch cluster based on these parameters.
  spec:
    logStore:
      type: "elasticsearch"
      elasticsearch:
        nodeCount: 3
        storage:
          storageClassName: "gp2"
          size: "200G"

This example specifies each data node in the cluster will be bound to a PersistentVolumeClaim that requests "200G" of "gp2" storage. Each primary shard will be backed by a single replica.

Note

Omitting the storage block results in a deployment that includes ephemeral storage only.

  spec:
    logStore:
      type: "elasticsearch"
      elasticsearch:
        nodeCount: 3
        storage: {}
Elasticsearch replication policy

You can set the policy that defines how Elasticsearch shards are replicated across data nodes in the cluster:

  • FullRedundancy. The shards for each index are fully replicated to every data node.
  • MultipleRedundancy. The shards for each index are spread over half of the data nodes.
  • SingleRedundancy. A single copy of each shard. Logs are always available and recoverable as long as at least two data nodes exist.
  • ZeroRedundancy. No copies of any shards. Logs may be unavailable (or lost) in the event a node is down or fails.
Curator schedule
You specify the schedule for Curator in the cron format.
  spec:
    curation:
    type: "curator"
    resources:
    curator:
      schedule: "30 3 * * *"

8.1.1.2. Sample modified Cluster Logging Custom Resource

The following is an example of a Cluster Logging Custom Resource modified using the options previously described.

Sample modified Cluster Logging Custom Resource

apiVersion: "logging.openshift.io/v1"
kind: "ClusterLogging"
metadata:
  name: "instance"
  namespace: "openshift-logging"
spec:
  managementState: "Managed"
  logStore:
    type: "elasticsearch"
    elasticsearch:
      nodeCount: 2
      resources:
        limits:
          memory: 2Gi
        requests:
          cpu: 200m
          memory: 2Gi
      storage: {}
      redundancyPolicy: "SingleRedundancy"
  visualization:
    type: "kibana"
    kibana:
      resources:
        limits:
          memory: 1Gi
        requests:
          cpu: 500m
          memory: 1Gi
      replicas: 1
  curation:
    type: "curator"
    curator:
      resources:
        limits:
          memory: 200Mi
        requests:
          cpu: 200m
          memory: 200Mi
      schedule: "*/5 * * * *"
  collection:
    logs:
      type: "fluentd"
      fluentd:
        resources:
          limits:
            memory: 1Gi
          requests:
            cpu: 200m
            memory: 1Gi

8.2. Changing cluster logging management state

In order to modify certain components managed by the Cluster Logging Operator or the Elasticsearch Operator, you must set the operator to the unmanaged state.

In unmanaged state, the operators do not respond to changes in the CRs. The administrator assumes full control of individual component configurations and upgrades when in unmanaged state.

Important

Operators in an unmanaged state are unsupported and the cluster administrator assumes full control of the individual component configurations and upgrades. For more information, see Support policy for unmanaged Operators.

In managed state, the Cluster Logging Operator (CLO) responds to changes in the Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR) and adjusts the logging deployment accordingly.

The OpenShift Container Platform documentation indicates in a prerequisite step when you must set the OpenShift Container Platform cluster to Unmanaged.

Note

If you set the Elasticsearch Operator (EO) to unmanaged and leave the Cluster Logging Operator (CLO) as managed, the CLO will revert changes you make to the EO, as the EO is managed by the CLO.

8.2.1. Changing the cluster logging management state

You must set the operator to the unmanaged state in order to modify the components managed by the Cluster Logging Operator:

  • the Curator CronJob,
  • the Elasticsearch CR,
  • the Kibana Deployment,
  • the log collector DaemonSet.

If you make changes to these components in managed state, the Cluster Logging Operator reverts those changes.

Note

An unmanaged cluster logging environment does not receive updates until you return the Cluster Logging Operator to Managed state.

Prerequisites

  • The Cluster Logging Operator must be installed.

Procedure

  1. Edit the Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR) in the openshift-logging project:

    $ oc edit ClusterLogging instance
    $ oc edit ClusterLogging instance
    
    apiVersion: "logging.openshift.io/v1"
    kind: "ClusterLogging"
    metadata:
      name: "instance"
    
    ....
    
    spec:
      managementState: "Managed" 1
    1
    Specify the management state as Managed or Unmanaged.

8.2.2. Changing the Elasticsearch management state

You must set the operator to the unmanaged state in order to modify the Elasticsearch deployment files, which are managed by the Elasticsearch Operator.

If you make changes to these components in managed state, the Elasticsearch Operator reverts those changes.

Note

An unmanaged Elasticsearch cluster does not receive updates until you return the Elasticsearch Operator to Managed state.

Prerequisite

  • The Elasticsearch Operator must be installed.
  • Have the name of the Elasticsearch CR, in the openshift-logging project:

    $ oc get -n openshift-logging Elasticsearch
    NAME            AGE
    elasticsearch   28h

Procedure

Edit the Elasticsearch Custom Resource (CR) in the openshift-logging project:

$ oc edit Elasticsearch elasticsearch

apiVersion: logging.openshift.io/v1
kind: Elasticsearch
metadata:
  name: elasticsearch


....

spec:
  managementState: "Managed" 1
1
Specify the management state as Managed or Unmanaged.
Note

If you set the Elasticsearch Operator (EO) to unmanaged and leave the Cluster Logging Operator (CLO) as managed, the CLO will revert changes you make to the EO, as the EO is managed by the CLO.

8.3. Configuring cluster logging

Cluster logging is configurable using a Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR) deployed in the openshift-logging project.

The Cluster Logging Operator watches for changes to Cluster Logging CRs, creates any missing logging components, and adjusts the logging deployment accordingly.

The Cluster Logging CR is based on the Cluster Logging Custom Resource Definition (CRD), which defines a complete cluster logging deployment and includes all the components of the logging stack to collect, store and visualize logs.

Sample Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR)

apiVersion: logging.openshift.io/v1
kind: ClusterLogging
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: '2019-03-20T18:07:02Z'
  generation: 1
  name: instance
  namespace: openshift-logging
spec:
  collection:
    logs:
      fluentd:
        resources: null
      type: fluentd
  curation:
    curator:
      resources: null
      schedule: 30 3 * * *
    type: curator
  logStore:
    elasticsearch:
      nodeCount: 3
      redundancyPolicy: SingleRedundancy
      resources:
        limits:
          cpu:
          memory:
        requests:
          cpu:
          memory:
      storage: {}
    type: elasticsearch
  managementState: Managed
  visualization:
    kibana:
      proxy:
        resources: null
      replicas: 1
      resources: null
    type: kibana

You can configure the following for cluster logging:

  • You can place cluster logging into an unmanaged state that allows an administrator to assume full control of individual component configurations and upgrades.
  • You can overwrite the image for each cluster logging component by modifying the appropriate environment variable in the cluster-logging-operator Deployment.
  • You can specify specific nodes for the logging components using node selectors.

8.3.1. Understanding the cluster logging component images

There are several components in cluster logging, each one implemented with one or more images. Each image is specified by an environment variable defined in the cluster-logging-operator deployment in the openshift-logging project and should not be changed.

You can view the images by running the following command:

$ oc -n openshift-logging set env deployment/cluster-logging-operator --list | grep _IMAGE
ELASTICSEARCH_IMAGE=registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-elasticsearch5:v4.3 1
FLUENTD_IMAGE=registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-fluentd:v4.3 2
KIBANA_IMAGE=registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-kibana5:v4.3 3
CURATOR_IMAGE=registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-curator5:v4.3 4
OAUTH_PROXY_IMAGE=registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-oauth-proxy:v4.3 5
1
ELASTICSEARCH_IMAGE deploys Elasticsearch.
2
FLUENTD_IMAGE deploys Fluentd.
3
KIBANA_IMAGE deploys Kibana.
4
CURATOR_IMAGE deploys Curator.
5
OAUTH_PROXY_IMAGE defines OAUTH for OpenShift Container Platform.

The values might be different depending on your environment.

8.4. Configuring Elasticsearch to store and organize log data

OpenShift Container Platform uses Elasticsearch (ES) to store and organize the log data.

Some of the modifications you can make to your log store include:

  • storage for your Elasticsearch cluster;
  • how shards are replicated across data nodes in the cluster, from full replication to no replication;
  • allowing external access to Elasticsearch data.
Note

Scaling down Elasticsearch nodes is not supported. When scaling down, Elasticsearch pods can be accidentally deleted, possibly resulting in shards not being allocated and replica shards being lost.

Elasticsearch is a memory-intensive application. Each Elasticsearch node needs 16G of memory for both memory requests and limits, unless you specify otherwise in the Cluster Logging Custom Resource. The initial set of OpenShift Container Platform nodes might not be large enough to support the Elasticsearch cluster. You must add additional nodes to the OpenShift Container Platform cluster to run with the recommended or higher memory.

Each Elasticsearch node can operate with a lower memory setting though this is not recommended for production deployments.

Note

If you set the Elasticsearch Operator (EO) to unmanaged and leave the Cluster Logging Operator (CLO) as managed, the CLO will revert changes you make to the EO, as the EO is managed by the CLO.

8.4.1. Configuring Elasticsearch CPU and memory limits

Each component specification allows for adjustments to both the CPU and memory limits. You should not have to manually adjust these values as the Elasticsearch Operator sets values sufficient for your environment.

Each Elasticsearch node can operate with a lower memory setting though this is not recommended for production deployments. For production use, you should have no less than the default 16Gi allocated to each Pod. Preferably you should allocate as much as possible, up to 64Gi per Pod.

Prerequisites

  • Cluster logging and Elasticsearch must be installed.

Procedure

  1. Edit the Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR) in the openshift-logging project:

    $ oc edit ClusterLogging instance
    apiVersion: "logging.openshift.io/v1"
    kind: "ClusterLogging"
    metadata:
      name: "instance"
    ....
    spec:
        logStore:
          type: "elasticsearch"
          elasticsearch:
            resources: 1
              limits:
                memory: "16Gi"
              requests:
                cpu: "1"
                memory: "16Gi"
    1
    Specify the CPU and memory limits as needed. If you leave these values blank, the Elasticsearch Operator sets default values that should be sufficient for most deployments.

    If you adjust the amount of Elasticsearch CPU and memory, you must change both the request value and the limit value.

    For example:

          resources:
            limits:
              cpu: "8"
              memory: "32Gi"
            requests:
              cpu: "8"
              memory: "32Gi"

    Kubernetes generally adheres the node CPU configuration and DOES not allow Elasticsearch to use the specified limits. Setting the same value for the requests and limits ensures that Elasticseach can use the CPU and memory you want, assuming the node has the CPU and memory available.

8.4.2. Configuring Elasticsearch replication policy

You can define how Elasticsearch shards are replicated across data nodes in the cluster.

Prerequisites

  • Cluster logging and Elasticsearch must be installed.

Procedure

  1. Edit the Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR) in the openshift-logging project:

    oc edit clusterlogging instance
    apiVersion: "logging.openshift.io/v1"
    kind: "ClusterLogging"
    metadata:
      name: "instance"
    
    ....
    
    spec:
      logStore:
        type: "elasticsearch"
        elasticsearch:
          redundancyPolicy: "SingleRedundancy" 1
    1
    Specify a redundancy policy for the shards. The change is applied upon saving the changes.
    • FullRedundancy. Elasticsearch fully replicates the primary shards for each index to every data node. This provides the highest safety, but at the cost of the highest amount of disk required and the poorest performance.
    • MultipleRedundancy. Elasticsearch fully replicates the primary shards for each index to half of the data nodes. This provides a good tradeoff between safety and performance.
    • SingleRedundancy. Elasticsearch makes one copy of the primary shards for each index. Logs are always available and recoverable as long as at least two data nodes exist. Better performance than MultipleRedundancy, when using 5 or more nodes. You cannot apply this policy on deployments of single Elasticsearch node.
    • ZeroRedundancy. Elasticsearch does not make copies of the primary shards. Logs might be unavailable or lost in the event a node is down or fails. Use this mode when you are more concerned with performance than safety, or have implemented your own disk/PVC backup/restore strategy.
Note

The number of primary shards for the index templates is equal to the number of Elasticsearch data nodes.

8.4.3. Configuring Elasticsearch storage

Elasticsearch requires persistent storage. The faster the storage, the faster the Elasticsearch performance.

Warning

Using NFS storage as a volume or a persistent volume (or via NAS such as Gluster) is not supported for Elasticsearch storage, as Lucene relies on file system behavior that NFS does not supply. Data corruption and other problems can occur.

Prerequisites

  • Cluster logging and Elasticsearch must be installed.

Procedure

  1. Edit the Cluster Logging CR to specify that each data node in the cluster is bound to a Persistent Volume Claim.

    apiVersion: "logging.openshift.io/v1"
    kind: "ClusterLogging"
    metadata:
      name: "instance"
    
    ....
    
     spec:
        logStore:
          type: "elasticsearch"
          elasticsearch:
            nodeCount: 3
            storage:
              storageClassName: "gp2"
              size: "200G"

This example specifies each data node in the cluster is bound to a Persistent Volume Claim that requests "200G" of AWS General Purpose SSD (gp2) storage.

8.4.4. Configuring Elasticsearch for emptyDir storage

You can use emptyDir with Elasticsearch, which creates an ephemeral deployment in which all of a pod’s data is lost upon restart.

Note

When using emptyDir, if Elasticsearch is restarted or redeployed, you will lose data.

Prerequisites

  • Cluster logging and Elasticsearch must be installed.

Procedure

  1. Edit the Cluster Logging CR to specify emptyDir:

     spec:
        logStore:
          type: "elasticsearch"
          elasticsearch:
            nodeCount: 3
            storage: {}

8.4.5. Exposing Elasticsearch as a route

By default, Elasticsearch deployed with cluster logging is not accessible from outside the logging cluster. You can enable a route with re-encryption termination for external access to Elasticsearch for those tools that access its data.

Externally, you can access Elasticsearch by creating a reencrypt route, your OpenShift Container Platform token and the installed Elasticsearch CA certificate. Then, access an Elasticsearch node with a cURL request that contains:

Internally, you can access Elastiscearch using the Elasticsearch cluster IP:

You can get the Elasticsearch cluster IP using either of the following commands:

$ oc get service elasticsearch -o jsonpath={.spec.clusterIP} -n openshift-logging

172.30.183.229
oc get service elasticsearch

NAME            TYPE        CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)    AGE
elasticsearch   ClusterIP   172.30.183.229   <none>        9200/TCP   22h

$ oc exec elasticsearch-cdm-oplnhinv-1-5746475887-fj2f8 -- curl -tlsv1.2 --insecure -H "Authorization: Bearer ${token}" "https://172.30.183.229:9200/_cat/health"

  % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current
                                 Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed
100    29  100    29    0     0    108      0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:--   108

Prerequisites

  • Cluster logging and Elasticsearch must be installed.
  • You must have access to the project in order to be able to access to the logs.

Procedure

To expose Elasticsearch externally:

  1. Change to the openshift-logging project:

    $ oc project openshift-logging
  2. Extract the CA certificate from Elasticsearch and write to the admin-ca file:

    $ oc extract secret/elasticsearch --to=. --keys=admin-ca
    
    admin-ca
  3. Create the route for the Elasticsearch service as a YAML file:

    1. Create a YAML file with the following:

      apiVersion: route.openshift.io/v1
      kind: Route
      metadata:
        name: elasticsearch
        namespace: openshift-logging
      spec:
        host:
        to:
          kind: Service
          name: elasticsearch
        tls:
          termination: reencrypt
          destinationCACertificate: | 1
      1
      Add the Elasticsearch CA certifcate or use the command in the next step. You do not have to set the spec.tls.key, spec.tls.certificate, and spec.tls.caCertificate parameters required by some reencrypt routes.
    2. Run the following command to add the Elasticsearch CA certificate to the route YAML you created:

      cat ./admin-ca | sed -e "s/^/      /" >> <file-name>.yaml
    3. Create the route:

      $ oc create -f <file-name>.yaml
      
      route.route.openshift.io/elasticsearch created
  4. Check that the Elasticsearch service is exposed:

    1. Get the token of this ServiceAccount to be used in the request:

      $ token=$(oc whoami -t)
    2. Set the elasticsearch route you created as an environment variable.

      $ routeES=`oc get route elasticsearch -o jsonpath={.spec.host}`
    3. To verify the route was successfully created, run the following command that accesses Elasticsearch through the exposed route:

      curl -tlsv1.2 --insecure -H "Authorization: Bearer ${token}" "https://${routeES}/.operations.*/_search?size=1" | jq

      The response appears similar to the following:

        % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current
                                       Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed
      100   944  100   944    0     0     62      0  0:00:15  0:00:15 --:--:--   204
      {
        "took": 441,
        "timed_out": false,
        "_shards": {
          "total": 3,
          "successful": 3,
          "skipped": 0,
          "failed": 0
        },
        "hits": {
          "total": 89157,
          "max_score": 1,
          "hits": [
            {
              "_index": ".operations.2019.03.15",
              "_type": "com.example.viaq.common",
              "_id": "ODdiNWIyYzAtMjg5Ni0TAtNWE3MDY1MjMzNTc3",
              "_score": 1,
              "_source": {
                "_SOURCE_MONOTONIC_TIMESTAMP": "673396",
                "systemd": {
                  "t": {
                    "BOOT_ID": "246c34ee9cdeecb41a608e94",
                    "MACHINE_ID": "e904a0bb5efd3e36badee0c",
                    "TRANSPORT": "kernel"
                  },
                  "u": {
                    "SYSLOG_FACILITY": "0",
                    "SYSLOG_IDENTIFIER": "kernel"
                  }
                },
                "level": "info",
                "message": "acpiphp: Slot [30] registered",
                "hostname": "localhost.localdomain",
                "pipeline_metadata": {
                  "collector": {
                    "ipaddr4": "10.128.2.12",
                    "ipaddr6": "fe80::xx:xxxx:fe4c:5b09",
                    "inputname": "fluent-plugin-systemd",
                    "name": "fluentd",
                    "received_at": "2019-03-15T20:25:06.273017+00:00",
                    "version": "1.3.2 1.6.0"
                  }
                },
                "@timestamp": "2019-03-15T20:00:13.808226+00:00",
                "viaq_msg_id": "ODdiNWIyYzAtMYTAtNWE3MDY1MjMzNTc3"
              }
            }
          ]
        }
      }

8.4.6. About Elasticsearch alerting rules

You can view these alerting rules in Prometheus.

AlertDescriptionSeverity

ElasticsearchClusterNotHealthy

Cluster health status has been RED for at least 2m. Cluster does not accept writes, shards may be missing or master node hasn’t been elected yet.

critical

ElasticsearchClusterNotHealthy

Cluster health status has been YELLOW for at least 20m. Some shard replicas are not allocated.

warning

ElasticsearchBulkRequestsRejectionJumps

High Bulk Rejection Ratio at node in cluster. This node may not be keeping up with the indexing speed.

warning

ElasticsearchNodeDiskWatermarkReached

Disk Low Watermark Reached at node in cluster. Shards can not be allocated to this node anymore. You should consider adding more disk space to the node.

alert

ElasticsearchNodeDiskWatermarkReached

Disk High Watermark Reached at node in cluster. Some shards will be re-allocated to different nodes if possible. Make sure more disk space is added to the node or drop old indices allocated to this node.

high

ElasticsearchJVMHeapUseHigh

JVM Heap usage on the node in cluster is <value>

alert

AggregatedLoggingSystemCPUHigh

System CPU usage on the node in cluster is <value>

alert

ElasticsearchProcessCPUHigh

ES process CPU usage on the node in cluster is <value>

alert

8.5. Configuring Kibana

OpenShift Container Platform uses Kibana to display the log data collected by Fluentd and indexed by Elasticsearch.

You can scale Kibana for redundancy and configure the CPU and memory for your Kibana nodes.

Note

You must set cluster logging to Unmanaged state before performing these configurations, unless otherwise noted. For more information, see Changing the cluster logging management state.

Operators in an unmanaged state are unsupported and the cluster administrator assumes full control of the individual component configurations and upgrades. For more information, see Support policy for unmanaged Operators.

8.5.1. Configure Kibana CPU and memory limits

Each component specification allows for adjustments to both the CPU and memory limits.

Procedure

  1. Edit the Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR) in the openshift-logging project:

    $ oc edit ClusterLogging instance
    apiVersion: "logging.openshift.io/v1"
    kind: "ClusterLogging"
    metadata:
      name: "instance"
    
    ....
    
    spec:
        visualization:
          type: "kibana"
          kibana:
            replicas:
          resources:  1
            limits:
              memory: 1Gi
            requests:
              cpu: 500m
              memory: 1Gi
          proxy:  2
            resources:
              limits:
                memory: 100Mi
              requests:
                cpu: 100m
                memory: 100Mi
    1
    Specify the CPU and memory limits to allocate for each node.
    2
    Specify the CPU and memory limits to allocate to the Kibana proxy.

8.5.2. Scaling Kibana for redundancy

You can scale the Kibana deployment for redundancy.

..Procedure

  1. Edit the Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR) in the openshift-logging project:

    $ oc edit ClusterLogging instance
    $ oc edit ClusterLogging instance
    
    apiVersion: "logging.openshift.io/v1"
    kind: "ClusterLogging"
    metadata:
      name: "instance"
    
    ....
    
    spec:
        visualization:
          type: "kibana"
          kibana:
            replicas: 1 1
    1
    Specify the number of Kibana nodes.

8.5.3. Using tolerations to control the Kibana Pod placement

You can control which nodes the Kibana Pods run on and prevent other workloads from using those nodes by using tolerations on the Pods.

You apply tolerations to the Kibana Pods through the Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR) and apply taints to a node through the node specification. A taint on a node is a key:value pair that instructs the node to repel all Pods that do not tolerate the taint. Using a specific key:value pair that is not on other Pods ensures only the Kibana Pod can run on that node.

Prerequisites

  • Cluster logging and Elasticsearch must be installed.

Procedure

  1. Use the following command to add a taint to a node where you want to schedule the Kibana Pod:

    $ oc adm taint nodes <node-name> <key>=<value>:<effect>

    For example:

    $ oc adm taint nodes node1 kibana=node:NoExecute

    This example places a taint on node1 that has key kibana, value node, and taint effect NoExecute. You must use the NoExecute taint effect. NoExecute schedules only Pods that match the taint and remove existing Pods that do not match.

  2. Edit the visualization section of the Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR) to configure a toleration for the Kibana Pod:

      visualization:
        type: "kibana"
        kibana:
          tolerations:
          - key: "kibana"  1
            operator: "Exists"  2
            effect: "NoExecute"  3
            tolerationSeconds: 6000 4
    1
    Specify the key that you added to the node.
    2
    Specify the Exists operator to require the key/value/effect parameters to match.
    3
    Specify the NoExecute effect.
    4
    Optionally, specify the tolerationSeconds parameter to set how long a Pod can remain bound to a node before being evicted.

This toleration matches the taint created by the oc adm taint command. A Pod with this toleration would be able to schedule onto node1.

8.5.4. Installing the Kibana Visualize tool

Kibana’s Visualize tab enables you to create visualizations and dashboards for monitoring container logs, allowing administrator users (cluster-admin or cluster-reader) to view logs by deployment, namespace, pod, and container.

Procedure

To load dashboards and other Kibana UI objects:

  1. If necessary, get the Kibana route, which is created by default upon installation of the Cluster Logging Operator:

    $ oc get routes -n openshift-logging
    
    NAMESPACE                  NAME                       HOST/PORT                                                            PATH     SERVICES                   PORT    TERMINATION          WILDCARD
    openshift-logging          kibana                     kibana-openshift-logging.apps.openshift.com                                   kibana                     <all>   reencrypt/Redirect   None
  2. Get the name of your Elasticsearch pods.

    $ oc get pods -l component=elasticsearch
    
    NAME                                            READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    elasticsearch-cdm-5ceex6ts-1-dcd6c4c7c-jpw6k    2/2     Running   0          22h
    elasticsearch-cdm-5ceex6ts-2-f799564cb-l9mj7    2/2     Running   0          22h
    elasticsearch-cdm-5ceex6ts-3-585968dc68-k7kjr   2/2     Running   0          22h
  3. Create the necessary per-user configuration that this procedure requires:

    1. Log in to the Kibana dashboard as the user you want to add the dashboards to.

      https://kibana-openshift-logging.apps.openshift.com 1
      1
      Where the URL is Kibana route.
    2. If the Authorize Access page appears, select all permissions and click Allow selected permissions.
    3. Log out of the Kibana dashboard.
  4. Run the following command from the project where the pod is located using the name of any of your Elastiscearch pods:

    $ oc exec <es-pod> -- es_load_kibana_ui_objects <user-name>

    For example:

    $ oc exec elasticsearch-cdm-5ceex6ts-1-dcd6c4c7c-jpw6k -- es_load_kibana_ui_objects <user-name>
Note

The metadata of the Kibana objects such as visualizations, dashboards, and so forth are stored in Elasticsearch with the .kibana.{user_hash} index format. You can obtain the user_hash using the userhash=$(echo -n $username | sha1sum | awk '{print $1}') command. By default, the Kibana shared_ops index mode enables all users with cluster admin roles to share the index, and this Kibana object metadata is saved to the .kibana index.

Any custom dashboard can be imported for a particular user either by using the import/export feature or by inserting the metadata onto the Elasticsearch index using the curl command.

8.6. Curation of Elasticsearch Data

The Elasticsearch Curator tool performs scheduled maintenance operations on a global and/or on a per-project basis. Curator performs actions based on its configuration.

The Cluster Logging Operator installs Curator and its configuration. You can configure the Curator cron schedule using the Cluster Logging Custom Resource and further configuration options can be found in the Curator ConfigMap, curator in the openshift-logging project, which incorporates the Curator configuration file, curator5.yaml and an OpenShift Container Platform custom configuration file, config.yaml.

OpenShift Container Platform uses the config.yaml internally to generate the Curator action file.

Optionally, you can use the action file, directly. Editing this file allows you to use any action that Curator has available to it to be run periodically. However, this is only recommended for advanced users as modifying the file can be destructive to the cluster and can cause removal of required indices/settings from Elasticsearch. Most users only must modify the Curator configuration map and never edit the action file.

8.6.1. Configuring the Curator schedule

You can specify the schedule for Curator using the cluster logging Custom Resource created by the cluster logging installation.

Prerequisites

  • Cluster logging and Elasticsearch must be installed.

Procedure

To configure the Curator schedule:

  1. Edit the Cluster Logging Custom Resource in the openshift-logging project:

    $ oc edit clusterlogging instance
    apiVersion: "logging.openshift.io/v1"
    kind: "ClusterLogging"
    metadata:
      name: "instance"
    
    ...
    
      curation:
        curator:
          schedule: 30 3 * * * 1
        type: curator
    1
    Specify the schedule for Curator in cron format.
    Note

    The time zone is set based on the host node where the Curator pod runs.

8.6.2. Configuring Curator index deletion

You can configure Curator to delete Elasticsearch data based on retention settings. You can configure per-project and global settings. Global settings apply to any project not specified. Per-project settings override global settings.

Prerequisite

  • Cluster logging must be installed.

Procedure

To delete indices:

  1. Edit the OpenShift Container Platform custom Curator configuration file:

    $ oc edit configmap/curator
  2. Set the following parameters as needed:

    config.yaml: |
      project_name:
        action
          unit:value

    The available parameters are:

    Table 8.1. Project options

    Variable NameDescription

    project_name

    The actual name of a project, such as myapp-devel. For OpenShift Container Platform operations logs, use the name .operations as the project name.

    action

    The action to take, currently only delete is allowed.

    unit

    The period to use for deletion, days, weeks, or months.

    value

    The number of units.

    Table 8.2. Filter options

    Variable NameDescription

    .defaults

    Use .defaults as the project_name to set the defaults for projects that are not specified.

    .regex

    The list of regular expressions that match project names.

    pattern

    The valid and properly escaped regular expression pattern enclosed by single quotation marks.

For example, to configure Curator to:

  • Delete indices in the myapp-dev project older than 1 day
  • Delete indices in the myapp-qe project older than 1 week
  • Delete operations logs older than 8 weeks
  • Delete all other projects indices after they are 31 days old
  • Delete indices older than 1 day that are matched by the ^project\..+\-dev.*$ regex
  • Delete indices older than 2 days that are matched by the ^project\..+\-test.*$ regex

Use:

  config.yaml: |
    .defaults:
      delete:
        days: 31

    .operations:
      delete:
        weeks: 8

    myapp-dev:
      delete:
        days: 1

    myapp-qe:
      delete:
        weeks: 1

    .regex:
      - pattern: '^project\..+\-dev\..*$'
        delete:
          days: 1
      - pattern: '^project\..+\-test\..*$'
        delete:
          days: 2
Important

When you use months as the $UNIT for an operation, Curator starts counting at the first day of the current month, not the current day of the current month. For example, if today is April 15, and you want to delete indices that are 2 months older than today (delete: months: 2), Curator does not delete indices that are dated older than February 15; it deletes indices older than February 1. That is, it goes back to the first day of the current month, then goes back two whole months from that date. If you want to be exact with Curator, it is best to use days (for example, delete: days: 30).

8.6.3. Troubleshooting Curator

You can use information in this section for debugging Curator. For example, if curator is in failed state, but the log messages do not provide a reason, you could increase the log level and trigger a new job, instead of waiting for another scheduled run of the cron job.

Prerequisites

Cluster logging and Elasticsearch must be installed.

Procedure

Enable the Curator debug log and trigger next Curator iteration manually

  1. Enable debug log of Curator:

    $ oc set env cronjob/curator CURATOR_LOG_LEVEL=DEBUG CURATOR_SCRIPT_LOG_LEVEL=DEBUG

    Specify the log level:

    • CRITICAL. Curator displays only critical messages.
    • ERROR. Curator displays only error and critical messages.
    • WARNING. Curator displays only error, warning, and critical messages.
    • INFO. Curator displays only informational, error, warning, and critical messages.
    • DEBUG. Curator displays only debug messages, in addition to all of the above.

      The default value is INFO.

      Note

      Cluster logging uses the OpenShift Container Platform custom environment variable CURATOR_SCRIPT_LOG_LEVEL in OpenShift Container Platform wrapper scripts (run.sh and convert.py). The environment variable takes the same values as CURATOR_LOG_LEVEL for script debugging, as needed.

  2. Trigger next curator iteration:

    $ oc create job --from=cronjob/curator <job_name>
  3. Use the following commands to control the CronJob:

    • Suspend a CronJob:

      $ oc patch cronjob curator -p '{"spec":{"suspend":true}}'
    • Resume a CronJob:

      $ oc patch cronjob curator -p '{"spec":{"suspend":false}}'
    • Change a CronJob schedule:

      $ oc patch cronjob curator -p '{"spec":{"schedule":"0 0 * * *"}}' 1
      1
      The schedule option accepts schedules in cron format.

8.6.4. Configuring Curator in scripted deployments

Use the information in this section if you must configure Curator in scripted deployments.

Prerequisites

  • Cluster logging and Elasticsearch must be installed.
  • Set cluster logging to the unmanaged state.

Procedure

Use the following snippets to configure Curator in your scripts:

  • For scripted deployments

    1. Create and modify the configuration:

      1. Copy the Curator configuration file and the OpenShift Container Platform custom configuration file from the Curator configuration map and create separate files for each:

        $ oc extract configmap/curator --keys=curator5.yaml,config.yaml --to=/my/config
      2. Edit the /my/config/curator5.yaml and /my/config/config.yaml files.
    2. Delete the existing Curator config map and add the edited YAML files to a new Curator config map.

      $ oc delete configmap curator ; sleep 1
      $ oc create configmap curator \
          --from-file=curator5.yaml=/my/config/curator5.yaml \
          --from-file=config.yaml=/my/config/config.yaml \
          ; sleep 1

      The next iteration will use this configuration.

  • If you are using the action file:

    1. Create and modify the configuration:

      1. Copy the Curator configuration file and the action file from the Curator configuration map and create separate files for each:

        $ oc extract configmap/curator --keys=curator5.yaml,actions.yaml --to=/my/config
      2. Edit the /my/config/curator5.yaml and /my/config/actions.yaml files.
    2. Delete the existing Curator config map and add the edited YAML files to a new Curator config map.

      $ oc delete configmap curator ; sleep 1
      $ oc create configmap curator \
          --from-file=curator5.yaml=/my/config/curator5.yaml \
          --from-file=actions.yaml=/my/config/actions.yaml \
          ; sleep 1

      The next iteration will use this configuration.

8.6.5. Using the Curator Action file

The Curator ConfigMap in the openshift-logging project includes a Curator action file where you configure any Curator action to be run periodically.

However, when you use the action file, OpenShift Container Platform ignores the config.yaml section of the curator ConfigMap, which is configured to ensure important internal indices do not get deleted by mistake. In order to use the action file, you should add an exclude rule to your configuration to retain these indices. You also must manually add all the other patterns following the steps in this topic.

Important

The actions and config.yaml are mutually-exclusive configuration files. Once the actions file exist, OpenShift Container Platform ignores the config.yaml file. Using the action file is recommended only for advanced users as using this file can be destructive to the cluster and can cause removal of required indices/settings from Elasticsearch.

Prerequisite

  • Cluster logging and Elasticsearch must be installed.
  • Set cluster logging to the unmanaged state. Operators in an unmanaged state are unsupported and the cluster administrator assumes full control of the individual component configurations and upgrades.

Procedure

To configure Curator to delete indices:

  1. Edit the Curator ConfigMap:

    oc edit cm/curator -n openshift-logging
  2. Make the following changes to the action file:

    actions:
    1:
          action: delete_indices 1
          description: >-
            Delete .operations indices older than 30 days.
            Ignore the error if the filter does not
            result in an actionable list of indices (ignore_empty_list).
            See https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/elasticsearch/client/curator/5.2/ex_delete_indices.html
          options:
            # Swallow curator.exception.NoIndices exception
            ignore_empty_list: True
            # In seconds, default is 300
            timeout_override: ${CURATOR_TIMEOUT}
            # Don't swallow any other exceptions
            continue_if_exception: False
            # Optionally disable action, useful for debugging
            disable_action: False
          # All filters are bound by logical AND
          filters:            2
          - filtertype: pattern
            kind: regex
            value: '^\.operations\..*$'
            exclude: False    3
          - filtertype: age
            # Parse timestamp from index name
            source: name
            direction: older
            timestring: '%Y.%m.%d'
            unit: days
            unit_count: 30
            exclude: False
    1
    Specify delete_indices to delete the specified index.
    2
    Use the filers parameters to specify the index to be deleted. See the Elastic Search curator documentation for information on these parameters.
    3
    Specify false to allow the index to be deleted.

8.7. Configuring the logging collector

OpenShift Container Platform uses Fluentd to collect operations and application logs from your cluster and enriches the data with Kubernetes Pod and Namespace metadata.

You can configure log location, use an external log aggregator, and make other configurations for the log collector.

Note

You must set cluster logging to Unmanaged state before performing these configurations, unless otherwise noted. For more information, see Changing the cluster logging management state. Operators in an unmanaged state are unsupported and the cluster administrator assumes full control of the individual component configurations and upgrades. For more information, see Support policy for unmanaged Operators.

8.7.1. Viewing logging collector pods

You can use the oc get pods --all-namespaces -o wide command to see the nodes where the Fluentd are deployed.

Procedure

Run the following command in the openshift-logging project:

$ oc get pods --all-namespaces -o wide | grep fluentd

NAME                         READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE     IP            NODE                           NOMINATED NODE   READINESS GATES
fluentd-5mr28                1/1       Running   0          4m56s   10.129.2.12   ip-10-0-164-233.ec2.internal   <none>           <none>
fluentd-cnc4c                1/1       Running   0          4m56s   10.128.2.13   ip-10-0-155-142.ec2.internal   <none>           <none>
fluentd-nlp8z                1/1       Running   0          4m56s   10.131.0.13   ip-10-0-138-77.ec2.internal    <none>           <none>
fluentd-rknlk                1/1       Running   0          4m56s   10.128.0.33   ip-10-0-128-130.ec2.internal   <none>           <none>
fluentd-rsm49                1/1       Running   0          4m56s   10.129.0.37   ip-10-0-163-191.ec2.internal   <none>           <none>
fluentd-wjt8s                1/1       Running   0          4m56s   10.130.0.42   ip-10-0-156-251.ec2.internal   <none>           <none>

8.7.2. Configure log collector CPU and memory limits

The log collector allows for adjustments to both the CPU and memory limits.

Procedure

  1. Edit the Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR) in the openshift-logging project:

    $ oc edit ClusterLogging instance
    $ oc edit ClusterLogging instance
    
    apiVersion: "logging.openshift.io/v1"
    kind: "ClusterLogging"
    metadata:
      name: "instance"
    
    ....
    
    spec:
      collection:
        logs:
          fluentd:
            resources:
              limits: 1
                cpu: 250m
                memory: 1Gi
              requests:
                cpu: 250m
                memory: 1Gi
    1
    Specify the CPU and memory limits and requests as needed. The values shown are the default values.

8.7.3. Configuring Buffer Chunk Limiting for Fluentd

If the Fluentd log collector is unable to keep up with a high number of logs, Fluentd performs file buffering to reduce memory usage and prevent data loss.

Fluentd file buffering stores records in chunks. Chunks are stored in buffers.

You can tune file buffering in your cluster by editing environment variables in the Fluentd Daemonset:

Note

To modify the FILE_BUFFER_LIMIT or BUFFER_SIZE_LIMIT parameters in the Fluentd Daemonset, you must set cluster logging to the unmanaged state. Operators in an unmanaged state are unsupported and the cluster administrator assumes full control of the individual component configurations and upgrades.

  • BUFFER_SIZE_LIMIT. This parameter determines the maximum size of each chunk file before Fluentd creates a new chunk. The default is 8M. This parameter sets the Fluentd chunk_limit_size variable.

    A high BUFFER_SIZE_LIMIT can collect more records per chunk file. However, bigger records take longer to be sent to the logstore.

  • FILE_BUFFER_LIMIT. This parameter determines the file buffer size per logging output. This value is only a request based on the available space on the node where a Fluentd pod is scheduled. OpenShift Container Platform does not allow Fluentd to exceed the node capacity. The default is 256Mi.

    A high FILE_BUFFER_LIMIT could translate to a higher BUFFER_QUEUE_LIMIT based the number of outputs. However, if the node’s space is under pressure, Fluentd can fail.

    By default, the number_of_outputs is 1 if all the logs are sent to a single resource, and is incremented by 1 for each additional resource. You might have multiple outputs if you use the Log Forwarding API, the Fluentd Forward protocol, or syslog protocol to forward logs to external locations.

    The permanent volume size must be larger than FILE_BUFFER_LIMIT multiplied by the number of outputs.

  • BUFFER_QUEUE_LIMIT. This parameter is the maximum number of buffer chunks allowed. The BUFFER_QUEUE_LIMIT parameter is not directly tunable. OpenShift Container Platform calculates this value based on the number of logging outputs, the chunk size, and the filesystem space available. The default is 32 chunks. To change the BUFFER_QUEUE_LIMIT, you must change the value of FILE_BUFFER_LIMIT. The BUFFER_QUEUE_LIMIT parameter sets the Fluentd queue_limit_length parameter.

    OpenShift Container Platform calculates the BUFFER_QUEUE_LIMIT as (FILE_BUFFER_LIMIT / (number_of_outputs * BUFFER_SIZE_LIMIT)).

    Using the default set of values, the value of BUFFER_QUEUE_LIMIT is 32:

    • FILE_BUFFER_LIMIT = 256Mi
    • number_of_outputs = 1
    • BUFFER_SIZE_LIMIT = 8Mi

OpenShift Container Platform uses the Fluentd file buffer plug-in to configure how the chunks are stored. You can see the location of the buffer file using the following command:

$ oc get cm fluentd -o json | jq -r '.data."fluent.conf"'
<buffer>
   @type file 1
   path '/var/lib/flunetd/retry-elasticseach' 2
1
The Fluentd file buffer plugin. Do not change this value.
2
The path where buffer chunks are stored.

Prerequisite

  • Set cluster logging to the unmanaged state. Operators in an unmanaged state are unsupported and the cluster administrator assumes full control of the individual component configurations and upgrades.

Procedure

To configure Buffer Chunk Limiting:

  1. Edit either of the following parameters in the fluentd Daemonset.

    spec:
      template:
        spec:
          containers:
              env:
              - name: FILE_BUFFER_LIMIT 1
                value: "256"
              - name: BUFFER_SIZE_LIMIT 2
                value: 8Mi
    1
    Specify the Fluentd file buffer size per output.
    2
    Specify the maximum size of each Fluentd buffer chunk.

8.7.4. Configuring the logging collector using environment variables

You can use environment variables to modify the configuration of the Fluentd log collector.

See the Fluentd README in Github for lists of the available environment variables.

Prerequisite

  • Set cluster logging to the unmanaged state. Operators in an unmanaged state are unsupported and the cluster administrator assumes full control of the individual component configurations and upgrades.

Procedure

Set any of the Fluentd environment variables as needed:

oc set env ds/fluentd <env-var>=<value>

For example:

oc set env ds/fluentd LOGGING_FILE_AGE=30

8.7.5. About logging collector alerts

The following alerts are generated by the logging collector and can be viewed on the Alerts tab of the Prometheus UI.

All the logging collector alerts are listed on the MonitoringAlerts page of the OpenShift Container Platform web console. Alerts are in one of the following states:

  • Firing. The alert condition is true for the duration of the timeout. Click the Options menu at the end of the firing alert to view more information or silence the alert.
  • Pending The alert condition is currently true, but the timeout has not been reached.
  • Not Firing. The alert is not currently triggered.

Table 8.3. Fluentd Prometheus alerts

AlertMessageDescriptionSeverity

FluentdErrorsHigh

In the last minute, <value> errors reported by fluentd <instance>.

Fluentd is reporting a higher number of issues than the specified number, default 10.

Critical

FluentdNodeDown

Prometheus could not scrape fluentd <instance> for more than 10m.

Fluentd is reporting that Prometheus could not scrape a specific Fluentd instance.

Critical

FluentdQueueLengthBurst

In the last minute, fluentd <instance> buffer queue length increased more than 32. Current value is <value>.

Fluentd is reporting that it is overwhelmed.

Warning

FluentdQueueLengthIncreasing

In the last 12h, fluentd <instance> buffer queue length constantly increased more than 1. Current value is <value>.

Fluentd is reporting queue usage issues.

Critical

8.8. Using tolerations to control cluster logging pod placement

You can use taints and tolerations to ensure that cluster logging pods run on specific nodes and that no other workload can run on those nodes.

Taints and tolerations are simple key:value pair. A taint on a node instructs the node to repel all Pods that do not tolerate the taint.

The key is any string, up to 253 characters and the value is any string up to 63 characters. The string must begin with a letter or number, and may contain letters, numbers, hyphens, dots, and underscores.

Sample cluster logging CR with tolerations

apiVersion: "logging.openshift.io/v1"
kind: "ClusterLogging"
metadata:
  name: "instance"
  namespace: openshift-logging
spec:
  managementState: "Managed"
  logStore:
    type: "elasticsearch"
    elasticsearch:
      nodeCount: 1
      tolerations: 1
      - key: "logging"
        operator: "Exists"
        effect: "NoExecute"
        tolerationSeconds: 6000
      resources:
        limits:
          memory: 8Gi
        requests:
          cpu: 100m
          memory: 1Gi
      storage: {}
      redundancyPolicy: "ZeroRedundancy"
  visualization:
    type: "kibana"
    kibana:
      tolerations: 2
      - key: "logging"
        operator: "Exists"
        effect: "NoExecute"
        tolerationSeconds: 6000
      resources:
        limits:
          memory: 2Gi
        requests:
          cpu: 100m
          memory: 1Gi
      replicas: 1
  curation:
    type: "curator"
    curator:
      tolerations: 3
      - key: "logging"
        operator: "Exists"
        effect: "NoExecute"
        tolerationSeconds: 6000
      resources:
        limits:
          memory: 200Mi
        requests:
          cpu: 100m
          memory: 100Mi
      schedule: "*/5 * * * *"
  collection:
    logs:
      type: "fluentd"
      fluentd:
        tolerations: 4
        - key: "logging"
          operator: "Exists"
          effect: "NoExecute"
          tolerationSeconds: 6000
        resources:
          limits:
            memory: 2Gi
          requests:
            cpu: 100m
            memory: 1Gi

1
This toleration is added to the Elasticsearch pods.
2
This toleration is added to the Kibana pod.
3
This toleration is added to the Curator pod.
4
This toleration is added to the logging collector pods.

8.8.1. Using tolerations to control the Elasticsearch Pod placement

You can control which nodes the Elasticsearch Pods runs on and prevent other workloads from using those nodes by using tolerations on the Pods.

You apply tolerations to Elasticsearch Pods through the Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR) and apply taints to a node through the node specification. A taint on a node is a key:value pair that instructs the node to repel all Pods that do not tolerate the taint. Using a specific key:value pair that is not on other Pods ensures only Elasticseach Pods can run on that node.

By default, the Elasticsearch Pods have the following toleration:

tolerations:
- effect: "NoExecute"
  key: "node.kubernetes.io/disk-pressure"
  operator: "Exists"

Prerequisites

  • Cluster logging and Elasticsearch must be installed.

Procedure

  1. Use the following command to add a taint to a node where you want to schedule the cluster logging Pods:

    $ oc adm taint nodes <node-name> <key>=<value>:<effect>

    For example:

    $ oc adm taint nodes node1 elasticsearch=node:NoExecute

    This example places a taint on node1 that has key elasticsearch, value node, and taint effect NoExecute. Nodes with the NoExecute effect schedule only Pods that match the taint and remove existing Pods that do not match.

  2. Edit the logstore section of the Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR) to configure a toleration for the Elasticsearch Pods:

      logStore:
        type: "elasticsearch"
        elasticsearch:
          nodeCount: 1
          tolerations:
          - key: "elasticsearch"  1
            operator: "Exists"  2
            effect: "NoExecute"  3
            tolerationSeconds: 6000  4
    1
    Specify the key that you added to the node.
    2
    Specify the Exists operator to require a taint with the key elasticsearch to be present on the Node.
    3
    Specify the NoExecute effect.
    4
    Optionally, specify the tolerationSeconds parameter to set how long a Pod can remain bound to a node before being evicted.

This toleration matches the taint created by the oc adm taint command. A Pod with this toleration could be scheduled onto node1.

8.8.2. Using tolerations to control the Kibana Pod placement

You can control which nodes the Kibana Pods run on and prevent other workloads from using those nodes by using tolerations on the Pods.

You apply tolerations to the Kibana Pods through the Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR) and apply taints to a node through the node specification. A taint on a node is a key:value pair that instructs the node to repel all Pods that do not tolerate the taint. Using a specific key:value pair that is not on other Pods ensures only the Kibana Pod can run on that node.

Prerequisites

  • Cluster logging and Elasticsearch must be installed.

Procedure

  1. Use the following command to add a taint to a node where you want to schedule the Kibana Pod:

    $ oc adm taint nodes <node-name> <key>=<value>:<effect>

    For example:

    $ oc adm taint nodes node1 kibana=node:NoExecute

    This example places a taint on node1 that has key kibana, value node, and taint effect NoExecute. You must use the NoExecute taint effect. NoExecute schedules only Pods that match the taint and remove existing Pods that do not match.

  2. Edit the visualization section of the Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR) to configure a toleration for the Kibana Pod:

      visualization:
        type: "kibana"
        kibana:
          tolerations:
          - key: "kibana"  1
            operator: "Exists"  2
            effect: "NoExecute"  3
            tolerationSeconds: 6000 4
    1
    Specify the key that you added to the node.
    2
    Specify the Exists operator to require the key/value/effect parameters to match.
    3
    Specify the NoExecute effect.
    4
    Optionally, specify the tolerationSeconds parameter to set how long a Pod can remain bound to a node before being evicted.

This toleration matches the taint created by the oc adm taint command. A Pod with this toleration would be able to schedule onto node1.

8.8.3. Using tolerations to control the Curator Pod placement

You can control which node the Curator Pod runs on and prevent other workloads from using those nodes by using tolerations on the Pod.

You apply tolerations to the Curator Pod through the Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR) and apply taints to a node through the node specification. A taint on a node is a key:value pair that instructs the node to repel all Pods that do not tolerate the taint. Using a specific key:value pair that is not on other Pods ensures only the Curator Pod can run on that node.

Prerequisites

  • Cluster logging and Elasticsearch must be installed.

Procedure

  1. Use the following command to add a taint to a node where you want to schedule the Curator Pod:

    $ oc adm taint nodes <node-name> <key>=<value>:<effect>

    For example:

    $ oc adm taint nodes node1 curator=node:NoExecute

    This example places a taint on node1 that has key curator, value node, and taint effect NoExecute. You must use the NoExecute taint effect. NoExecute schedules only Pods that match the taint and remove existing Pods that do not match.

  2. Edit the curation section of the Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR) to configure a toleration for the Curator Pod:

      curation:
        type: "curator"
        curator:
          tolerations:
          - key: "curator"  1
            operator: "Exists"  2
            effect: "NoExecute"  3
            tolerationSeconds: 6000  4
    1
    Specify the key that you added to the node.
    2
    Specify the Exists operator to require the key/value/effect parameters to match.
    3
    Specify the NoExecute effect.
    4
    Optionally, specify the tolerationSeconds parameter to set how long a Pod can remain bound to a node before being evicted.

This toleration matches the taint that is created by the oc adm taint command. A Pod with this toleration would be able to schedule onto node1.

8.8.4. Using tolerations to control the log collector Pod placement

You can ensure which nodes the logging collector Pods run on and prevent other workloads from using those nodes by using tolerations on the Pods.

You apply tolerations to logging collector Pods through the Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR) and apply taints to a node through the node specification. You can use taints and tolerations to ensure the Pod does not get evicted for things like memory and CPU issues.

By default, the logging collector Pods have the following toleration:

tolerations:
- key: "node-role.kubernetes.io/master"
  operator: "Exists"
  effect: "NoExecute"

Prerequisites

  • Cluster logging and Elasticsearch must be installed.

Procedure

  1. Use the following command to add a taint to a node where you want logging collector Pods to schedule logging collector Pods:

    $ oc adm taint nodes <node-name> <key>=<value>:<effect>

    For example:

    $ oc adm taint nodes node1 collector=node:NoExecute

    This example places a taint on node1 that has key collector, value node, and taint effect NoExecute. You must use the NoExecute taint effect. NoExecute schedules only Pods that match the taint and removes existing Pods that do not match.

  2. Edit the collection section of the Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR) to configure a toleration for the logging collector Pods:

      collection:
        logs:
          type: "fluentd"
          rsyslog:
            tolerations:
            - key: "collector"  1
              operator: "Exists"  2
              effect: "NoExecute"  3
              tolerationSeconds: 6000  4
    1
    Specify the key that you added to the node.
    2
    Specify the Exists operator to require the key/value/effect parameters to match.
    3
    Specify the NoExecute effect.
    4
    Optionally, specify the tolerationSeconds parameter to set how long a Pod can remain bound to a node before being evicted.

This toleration matches the taint created by the oc adm taint command. A Pod with this toleration would be able to schedule onto node1.

8.8.5. Additional resources

For more information about taints and tolerations, see Controlling pod placement using node taints.

8.9. Forward logs to third party systems

By default, OpenShift Container Platform cluster logging sends logs to the default internal Elasticsearch logstore, defined in the Cluster Logging Custom Resource.

You can configure cluster logging to send logs to destinations outside of your OpenShift Container Platform cluster instead of the default Elasticsearch logstore using the following methods:

  • Sending logs using the Fluentd forward protocol. You can create a Configmap to use the Fluentd forward protocol to securely send logs to an external logging aggregator that accepts the Fluent forward protocol.
  • Sending logs using syslog. You can create a Configmap to use the syslog protocol to send logs to an external syslog (RFC 3164) server.

Alternatively, you can use the Log Forwarding API, currently in Technology Preview. The Log Forwarding API, which is easier to configure than the Fluentd protocol and syslog, exposes configuration for sending logs to the internal Elasticsearch logstore and to external Fluentd log aggregation solutions.

Important

The Log Forwarding API is a Technology Preview feature only. Technology Preview features are not supported with Red Hat production service level agreements (SLAs) and might not be functionally complete. Red Hat does not recommend using them in production. These features provide early access to upcoming product features, enabling customers to test functionality and provide feedback during the development process.

For more information about the support scope of Red Hat Technology Preview features, see https://access.redhat.com/support/offerings/techpreview/.

The methods for forwarding logs using a ConfigMap are deprecated and will be replaced by the Log Forwarding API in a future release.

8.9.1. Forwarding logs using the Fluentd forward protocol

You can use the Fluentd forward protocol to send a copy of your logs to an external log aggregator, instead of the default Elasticsearch logstore. On the OpenShift Container Platform cluster, you use the Fluentd forward protocol to send logs to a server configured to accept the protocol. You are responsible to configure the external log aggregator to receive the logs from OpenShift Container Platform.

Note

This method for forwarding logs is deprecated in OpenShift Container Platform and will be replaced by the Log Forwarding API in a future release.

To configure OpenShift Container Platform to send logs using the Fluentd forward protocol, create a ConfigMap called secure-forward in the openshift-logging namespace that points to an external log aggregator.

Important

Starting with the OpenShift Container Platform 4.3, the process for using the Fluentd forward protocol has changed. You now need to create a ConfigMap, as described below.

Additionally, you can add any certificates required by your configuration to a secret named secure-forward that will be mounted to the Fluentd Pods.

Sample secure-forward.conf

<store>
  @type forward
  <security>
    self_hostname ${hostname} # ${hostname} is a placeholder.
    shared_key "fluent-receiver"
  </security>
  transport tls
  tls_verify_hostname false           # Set false to ignore server cert hostname.

  tls_cert_path '/etc/ocp-forward/ca-bundle.crt'
  <buffer>
    @type file
    path '/var/lib/fluentd/secureforwardlegacy'
    queued_chunks_limit_size "#{ENV['BUFFER_QUEUE_LIMIT'] || '1024' }"
    chunk_limit_size "#{ENV['BUFFER_SIZE_LIMIT'] || '1m' }"
    flush_interval "#{ENV['FORWARD_FLUSH_INTERVAL'] || '5s'}"
    flush_at_shutdown "#{ENV['FLUSH_AT_SHUTDOWN'] || 'false'}"
    flush_thread_count "#{ENV['FLUSH_THREAD_COUNT'] || 2}"
    retry_max_interval "#{ENV['FORWARD_RETRY_WAIT'] || '300'}"
    retry_forever true
    # the systemd journald 0.0.8 input plugin will just throw away records if the buffer
    # queue limit is hit - 'block' will halt further reads and keep retrying to flush the
    # buffer to the remote - default is 'exception' because in_tail handles that case
    overflow_action "#{ENV['BUFFER_QUEUE_FULL_ACTION'] || 'exception'}"
  </buffer>
  <server>
    host fluent-receiver.openshift-logging.svc  # or IP
    port 24224
  </server>
</store>

Sample secure-forward ConfigMap based on the configuration

apiVersion: v1
data:
 secure-forward.conf: "<store>
     \ @type forward
     \ <security>
     \   self_hostname ${hostname} # ${hostname} is a placeholder.
     \   shared_key \"fluent-receiver\"
     \ </security>
     \ transport tls
     \ tls_verify_hostname false           # Set false to ignore server cert hostname.
     \ tls_cert_path '/etc/ocp-forward/ca-bundle.crt'
     \ <buffer>
     \   @type file
     \   path '/var/lib/fluentd/secureforwardlegacy'
     \   queued_chunks_limit_size \"#{ENV['BUFFER_QUEUE_LIMIT'] || '1024' }\"
     \   chunk_limit_size \"#{ENV['BUFFER_SIZE_LIMIT'] || '1m' }\"
     \   flush_interval \"#{ENV['FORWARD_FLUSH_INTERVAL'] || '5s'}\"
     \   flush_at_shutdown \"#{ENV['FLUSH_AT_SHUTDOWN'] || 'false'}\"
     \   flush_thread_count \"#{ENV['FLUSH_THREAD_COUNT'] || 2}\"
     \   retry_max_interval \"#{ENV['FORWARD_RETRY_WAIT'] || '300'}\"
     \   retry_forever true
     \   # the systemd journald 0.0.8 input plugin will just throw away records if the buffer
     \   # queue limit is hit - 'block' will halt further reads and keep retrying to flush the
     \   # buffer to the remote - default is 'exception' because in_tail handles that case
     \   overflow_action \"#{ENV['BUFFER_QUEUE_FULL_ACTION'] || 'exception'}\"
     \ </buffer>
     \ <server>
     \   host fluent-receiver.openshift-logging.svc  # or IP
     \   port 24224
     \ </server>
     </store>"
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: "2020-01-15T18:56:04Z"
  name: secure-forward
  namespace: openshift-logging
  resourceVersion: "19148"
  selfLink: /api/v1/namespaces/openshift-logging/configmaps/secure-forward
  uid: 6fd83202-93ab-d851b1d0f3e8

Procedure

To configure OpenShift Container Platform to forward logs using the Fluentd forward protocol:

  1. Create a configuration file named secure-forward.conf for the forward parameters:

    1. Configure the secrets and TLS information:

       <store>
        @type forward
      
        self_hostname ${hostname} 1
        shared_key <SECRET_STRING> 2
      
        transport tls 3
      
        tls_verify_hostname true 4
        tls_cert_path <path_to_file> 5
      1
      Specify the default value of the auto-generated certificate common name (CN).
      2
      Enter the Shared key between nodes
      3
      Specify tls to enable TLS validation.
      4
      Set to true to verify the server cert hostname. Set to false to ignore server cert hostname.
      5
      Specify the path to private CA certificate file as /etc/ocp-forward/ca_cert.pem.

      To use mTLS, see the Fluentd documentation for information about client certificate, key parameters, and other settings.

    2. Configure the name, host, and port for your external Fluentd server:

        <server>
          name 1
          host 2
          hostlabel 3
          port 4
        </server>
        <server> 5
          name
          host
        </server>
      1
      Optionally, enter a name for this server.
      2
      Specify the host name or IP of the server.
      3
      Specify the host label of the server.
      4
      Specify the port of the server.
      5
      Optionally, add additional servers. If you specify two or more servers, forward uses these server nodes in a round-robin order.

      For example:

        <server>
          name externalserver1
          host 192.168.1.1
          hostlabel externalserver1.example.com
          port 24224
        </server>
        <server>
          name externalserver2
          host externalserver2.example.com
          port 24224
        </server>
        </store>
  2. Create a ConfigMap named secure-forward in the openshift-logging namespace from the configuration file:

    $ oc create configmap secure-forward --from-file=secure-forward.conf -n openshift-logging
  3. Optional: Import any secrets required for the receiver:

    $ oc create secret generic secure-forward --from-file=<arbitrary-name-of-key1>=cert_file_from_fluentd_receiver --from-literal=shared_key=value_from_fluentd_receiver

    For example:

    $ oc create secret generic secure-forward --from-file=ca-bundle.crt=ca-for-fluentd-receiver/ca.crt --from-literal=shared_key=fluentd-receiver
  4. Refresh the fluentd Pods to apply the secure-forward secret and secure-forward ConfigMap:

    $ oc delete pod --selector logging-infra=fluentd
  5. Configure the external log aggregator to accept messages securely from OpenShift Container Platform.

8.9.2. Forwarding logs using the syslog protocol

You can use the syslog protocol to send a copy of your logs to an external syslog server, instead of the default Elasticsearch logstore. Note the following about this syslog protocol:

  • uses syslog protocol (RFC 3164), not RFC 5424;
  • does not support TLS and thus, is not secure;
  • does not provide Kubernetes metadata, systemd data, or other metadata.
Note

This method for forwarding logs is deprecated in OpenShift Container Platform and will be replaced by the Log Forwarding API in a future release.

There are two versions of the syslog protocol:

  • out_syslog: The non-buffered implementation, which communicates through UDP, does not buffer data and writes out results immediately.
  • out_syslog_buffered: The buffered implementation, which communicates through TCP, buffers data into chunks.

To configure log forwarding using the syslog protocol, create a configuration file, called syslog.conf, with the information needed to forward the logs. Then use that file to create a ConfigMap called syslog in the openshift-logging namespace, which OpenShift Container Platform uses when forwarding the logs. You are responsible to configure your syslog server to receive the logs from OpenShift Container Platform.

Important

Starting with the OpenShift Container Platform 4.3, the process for using the syslog protocol has changed. You now need to create a ConfigMap, as described below.

You can forward logs to multiple syslog servers by specifying separate <store> stanzas in the configuration file.

Sample syslog.conf

<store>
@type syslog_buffered 1
remote_syslog rsyslogserver.openshift-logging.svc.cluster.local 2
port 514 3
hostname fluentd-4nzfz 4
remove_tag_prefix tag 5
tag_key ident,systemd.u.SYSLOG_IDENTIFIER 6
facility local0 7
severity info 8
use_record true 9
payload_key message 10
</store>

1
The syslog protocol, either: syslog or syslog_buffered.
2
The fully qualified domain name (FQDN) or IP address of the syslog server.
3
The port number to connect on. Defaults to 514.
4
The name of the syslog server.
5
Removes the prefix from the tag. Defaults to '' (empty).
6
The field to set the syslog key.
7
The syslog log facility or source.
8
The syslog log severity.
9
Determines whether to use the severity and facility from the record if available.
10
The key to set the payload of the syslog message. Defaults to message.

Sample syslog ConfigMap based on the sample syslog.conf

kind: ConfigMap
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: syslog
  namespace: openshift-logging
data:
  syslog.conf: |
    <store>
     @type syslog_buffered
     remote_syslog syslogserver.openshift-logging.svc.cluster.local
     port 514
     hostname fluentd-4nzfz
     remove_tag_prefix tag
     tag_key ident,systemd.u.SYSLOG_IDENTIFIER
     facility local0
     severity info
     use_record true
     payload_key message
    </store>

Procedure

To configure OpenShift Container Platform to forward logs using the syslog protocol:

  1. Create a configuration file named syslog.conf that contains the following parameters within the <store> stanza:

    1. Specify the syslog protocol type:

      @type syslog_buffered 1
      1
      Specify the protocol to use, either: syslog or syslog_buffered.
    2. Configure the name, host, and port for your external syslog server:

      remote_syslog <remote> 1
      port <number> 2
      hostname <name> 3
      1
      Specify the FQDN or IP address of the syslog server.
      2
      Specify the port of the syslog server.
      3
      Specify a name for this syslog server.

      For example:

      remote_syslog syslogserver.openshift-logging.svc.cluster.local
      port 514
      hostname fluentd-server
    3. Configure the other syslog variables as needed:

      remove_tag_prefix 1
      tag_key <key> 2
      facility <value>  3
      severity <value>  4
      use_record <value> 5
      payload_key message 6
      1
      Add this parameter to remove the tag field from the syslog prefix.
      2
      Specify the field to set the syslog key.
      3
      Specify the syslog log facility or source. For values, see RTF 3164.
      4
      Specify the syslog log severity. For values, see link:RTF 3164.
      5
      Specify true to use the severity and facility from the record if available. If true, the container_name, namespace_name, and pod_name are included in the output content.
      6
      Specify the key to set the payload of the syslog message. Defaults to message.

      For example:

      facility local0
      severity info

      The configuration file appears similar to the following:

      <store>
      @type syslog_buffered
      remote_syslog syslogserver.openshift-logging.svc.cluster.local
      port 514
      hostname fluentd-4nzfz
      tag_key ident,systemd.u.SYSLOG_IDENTIFIER
      facility local0
      severity info
      use_record false
      </store>
  2. Create a ConfigMap named syslog in the openshift-logging namespace from the configuration file:

    $ oc create configmap syslog --from-file=syslog.conf -n openshift-logging

    The Cluster Logging Operator redeploys the Fluentd Pods. If the Pods do not redeploy, you can delete the Fluentd Pods to force them to redeploy.

    $ oc delete pod --selector logging-infra=fluentd

8.9.3. Forwarding logs using the Log Forwarding API

The Log Forwarding API enables you to configure custom pipelines to send container and node logs to specific endpoints within or outside of your cluster. You can send logs by type to the internal OpenShift Container Platform Elasticsearch instance and to remote destinations not managed by OpenShift Container Platform cluster logging, such as an existing logging service, an external Elasticsearch cluster, external log aggregation solutions, or a Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) system.

Important

The Log Fowarding API is currently a Technology Preview feature. Technology Preview features are not supported with Red Hat production service level agreements (SLAs), might not be functionally complete, and Red Hat does not recommend to use them for production. These features provide early access to upcoming product features, enabling customers to test functionality and provide feedback during the development process.

See the Red Hat Technology Preview features support scope for more information.

You can send different types of logs to different systems allowing you to control who in your organization can access each type. Optional TLS support ensures that you can send logs using secure communication as required by your organization.

Note

Using the Log Forwarding API is optional. If you want to forward logs to only the internal OpenShift Container Platform Elasticsearch instance, do not configure the Log Forwarding API.

8.9.3.1. Understanding the Log Forwarding API

Forwarding cluster logs using the Log Forwarding API requires a combination of outputs and pipelines to send logs to specific endpoints inside and outside of your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

Note

If you want to use only the default internal OpenShift Container Platform Elasticsearch logstore, do not configure the Log Forwarding feature.

By default, the Cluster Logging Operator sends logs to the default internal Elasticsearch logstore, as defined in the Cluster Logging Custom Resource. To use the Log Forwarding feature, you create a custom logforwarding configuration file to send logs to endpoints you specify.

An output is the destination for log data and a pipeline defines simple routing for one source to one or more outputs.

An output can be either:

  • elasticsearch to forward logs to an external Elasticsearch v5.x cluster and/or the internal OpenShift Container Platform Elasticsearch instance.
  • forward to forward logs to an external log aggregation solution. This option uses the Fluentd forward protocols.
Note

The endpoint must be a server name or FQDN, not an IP Address, if the cluster-wide proxy using the CIDR annotation is enabled.

A pipeline associates the source of the data to an output. The source of the data is one of the following:

  • logs.app - Container logs generated by user applications running in the cluster, except infrastructure container applications.
  • logs.infra - Logs generated by infrastructure components running in the cluster and OpenShift Container Platform nodes, such as journal logs. Infrastructure components are pods that run in the openshift*, kube*, or default projects.
  • logs.audit - Logs generated by the node audit system (auditd), which are stored in the /var/log/audit/audit.log file, and the audit logs from the Kubernetes apiserver and the OpenShift apiserver.

Note the following:

  • The internal OpenShift Container Platform Elasticsearch instance does not provide secure storage for audit logs. We recommend you ensure that the system to which you forward audit logs is compliant with your organizational and governmental regulations and is properly secured. OpenShift Container Platform cluster logging does not comply with those regulations.
  • An output supports TLS communication using a secret. Secrets must have keys of: tls.crt, tls.key, and ca-bundler.crt which point to the respective certificates for which they represent. Secrets must have the key shared_key for use when using forward in a secure manner.
  • You are responsible to create and maintain any additional configurations that external destinations might require, such as keys and secrets, service accounts, port opening, or global proxy configuration.

The following example creates three outputs:

  • the internal OpenShift Container Platform Elasticsearch instance,
  • an unsecured externally-managed Elasticsearch instance,
  • a secured external log aggregator using the forward protocols.

Three pipelines send:

  • the application logs to the internal OpenShift Container Platform Elasticsearch,
  • the infrastructure logs to an external Elasticsearch instance,
  • the audit logs to the secured device over the forward protocols.

Sample log forwarding outputs and pipelines

apiVersion: "logging.openshift.io/v1alpha1"
kind: "LogForwarding"
metadata:
  name: instance 1
  namespace: openshift-logging
spec:
  disableDefaultForwarding: true 2
  outputs: 3
   - name: elasticsearch 4
     type: "elasticsearch"  5
     endpoint: elasticsearch.openshift-logging.svc:9200 6
     secret: 7
        name: fluentd
   - name: elasticsearch-insecure
     type: "elasticsearch"
     endpoint: elasticsearch-insecure.svc.messaging.cluster.local
     insecure: true 8
   - name: secureforward-offcluster
     type: "forward"
     endpoint: https://secureforward.offcluster.com:24224
     secret:
        name: secureforward
  pipelines: 9
   - name: container-logs 10
     inputSource: logs.app 11
     outputRefs: 12
     - elasticsearch
     - secureforward-offcluster
   - name: infra-logs
     inputSource: logs.infra
     outputRefs:
     - elasticsearch-insecure
   - name: audit-logs
     inputSource: logs.audit
     outputRefs:
     - secureforward-offcluster

1
The name of the log forwarding CR must be instance.
2
Parameter to disable the default log forwarding behavior.
3
Configuration for the outputs.
4
A name to describe the output.
5
The type of output, either elasticsearch or forward.
6
Enter the endpoint, either the server name, FQDN, or IP address. If the cluster-wide proxy using the CIDR annotation is enabled, the endpoint must be a server name or FQDN, not an IP Address. For the internal OpenShift Container Platform Elasticsearch instance, specify elasticsearch.openshift-logging.svc:9200.
7
Optional name of the secret required by the endpoint for TLS communication. The secret must exist in the openshift-logging project.
8
Optional setting if the endpoint does not use a secret, resulting in insecure communication.
9
Configuration for the pipelines.
10
A name to describe the pipeline.
11
The data source: logs.app, logs.infra, or logs.audit.
12
The name of one or more outputs configured in the CR.

8.9.3.2. Enabling the Log Forwarding API

You must enable the Log Forwarding API before you can forward logs using the API.

Procedure

To enable the Log Forwarding API:

  1. Edit the Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR) in the openshift-logging project:

    $ oc edit ClusterLogging instance
  2. Add the clusterlogging.openshift.io/logforwardingtechpreview annotation and set to enabled:

    apiVersion: "logging.openshift.io/v1"
    kind: "ClusterLogging"
    metadata:
      annotations:
        clusterlogging.openshift.io/logforwardingtechpreview: enabled 1
      name: "instance"
      namespace: "openshift-logging"
    spec:
    
    ...
    
      collection: 2
        logs:
          type: "fluentd"
          fluentd: {}
    1
    Enables and disables the Log Forwarding API. Set to enabled to use log forwarding. To use the only the OpenShift Container Platform Elasticsearch instance, set to disabled or do not add the annotation.
    2
    The spec.collection block must be defined to use Fluentd in the Cluster Logging CR.

8.9.3.3. Configuring log forwarding using the Log Forwarding API

To configure the Log Forwarding, edit the Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR) to add the clusterlogging.openshift.io/logforwardingtechpreview: enabled annotation and create a Log Forwarding Custom Resource to specify the outputs, pipelines, and enable log forwarding.

If you enable Log Forwarding, you should define a pipeline all for three source types: logs.app, logs.infra, and logs.audit. The logs from any undefined source type are dropped. For example, if you specify a pipeline for the logs.app and log-audit types, but do not specify a pipeline for the logs.infra type, logs.infra logs are dropped.

Procedure

To configure log forwarding using the API:

  1. Create a Log Forwarding CR YAML file similar to the following:

    apiVersion: "logging.openshift.io/v1alpha1"
    kind: "LogForwarding"
    metadata:
      name: instance 1
      namespace: openshift-logging 2
    spec:
      disableDefaultForwarding: true 3
      outputs: 4
       - name: elasticsearch
         type: "elasticsearch"
         endpoint: elasticsearch.openshift-logging.svc:9200
         secret:
            name: fluentd
       - name: elasticsearch-insecure
         type: "elasticsearch"
         endpoint: elasticsearch-insecure.svc.messaging.cluster.local
         insecure: true
       - name: secureforward-offcluster
         type: "forward"
         endpoint: https://secureforward.offcluster.com:24224
         secret:
            name: secureforward
      pipelines: 5
       - name: container-logs
         inputSource: logs.app
         outputRefs:
         - elasticsearch
         - secureforward-offcluster
       - name: infra-logs
         inputSource: logs.infra
         outputRefs:
         - elasticsearch-insecure
       - name: audit-logs
         inputSource: logs.audit
         outputRefs:
         - secureforward-offcluster
    1
    The name of the log forwarding CR must be instance.
    2
    The namespace for the log forwarding CR must be openshift-logging.
    3
    Set to true disable the default log forwarding behavior.
    4
    Add one or more endpoints:
    • Specify the type of output, either elasticseach or forward.
    • Enter a name for the output.
    • Enter the endpoint, either the server name, FQDN, or IP address. If the cluster-wide proxy using the CIDR annotation is enabled, the endpoint must be a server name or FQDN, not an IP Address. For the internal OpenShift Container Platform Elasticsearch instance, specify elasticsearch.openshift-logging.svc:9200.
    • Optional: Enter the name of the secret required by the endpoint for TLS communication. The secret must exist in the openshift-logging project.
    • Specify insecure: true if the endpoint does not use a secret, resulting in insecure communication.
    5
    Add one or more pipelines:
    • Enter a name for the pipeline
    • Specify the source type: logs.app, logs.infra, or logs.audit.
    • Specify the name of one or more outputs configured in the CR.

      Note

      If you set disableDefaultForwarding: true you must configure a pipeline and output for all three types of logs, application, infrastructure, and audit. If you do not specify a pipeline and output for a log type, those logs are not stored and will be lost.

  2. Create the CR object:

    $ oc create -f <file-name>.yaml
8.9.3.3.1. Example log forwarding custom resources

A typical Log Forwarding configuration would be similar to the following examples.

The following Log Forwarding custom resource sends all logs to a secured external Elasticsearch logstore:

Sample custom resource to forward to an Elasticsearch logstore

apiVersion: logging.openshift.io/v1alpha1
kind: LogForwarding
metadata:
  name: instance
  namespace: openshift-logging
spec:
  disableDefaultForwarding: true
  outputs:
    - name: user-created-es
      type: elasticsearch
      endpoint: 'elasticsearch-server.openshift-logging.svc:9200'
      secret:
        name: piplinesecret
  pipelines:
    - name: app-pipeline
      inputSource: logs.app
      outputRefs:
        - user-created-es
    - name: infra-pipeline
      inputSource: logs.infra
      outputRefs:
        - user-created-es
    - name: audit-pipeline
      inputSource: logs.audit
      outputRefs:
        - user-created-es

The following Log Forwarding custom resource sends all logs to a secured Fluentd instance using the Fluentd forward protocol.

Sample custom resource to use the forward protocol

apiVersion: logging.openshift.io/v1alpha1
kind: LogForwarding
metadata:
  name: instance
  namespace: openshift-logging
spec:
  disableDefaultForwarding: true
  outputs:
    - name: fluentd-created-by-user
      type: forward
      endpoint: 'fluentdserver.openshift-logging.svc:24224'
      secret:
        name: fluentdserver
  pipelines:
    - name: app-pipeline
      inputType: logs.app
      outputRefs:
        - fluentd-created-by-user
    - name: infra-pipeline
      inputType: logs.infra
      outputRefs:
        - fluentd-created-by-user
    - name: clo-default-audit-pipeline
      inputType: logs.audit
      outputRefs:
        - fluentd-created-by-user

8.9.3.4. Disabling the Log Forwarding API

To disable the Log Forwarding API and to stop forwarding logs to the speified endpoints, remove the metadata.annotations.clusterlogging.openshift.io/logforwardingtechpreview:enabled parameter from the Cluster Logging CR and delete the Log Forwarding CR. The container and node logs will be forwarded to the internal OpenShift Container Platform Elasticsearch instance.

Note

Setting disableDefaultForwarding=false prevents cluster logging from sending logs to the specified endpoints and to default internal OpenShift Container Platform Elasticsearch instance.

Procedure

To disable the Log Forwarding API:

  1. Edit the Cluster Logging Custom Resource (CR) in the openshift-logging project:

    $ oc edit ClusterLogging instance
  2. Remove the clusterlogging.openshift.io/logforwardingtechpreview annotation:

    apiVersion: "logging.openshift.io/v1"
    kind: "ClusterLogging"
    metadata:
      annotations:
        clusterlogging.openshift.io/logforwardingtechpreview: enabled 1
      name: "instance"
      namespace: "openshift-logging"
    ....
    1
    Remove this annotation.
  3. Delete the Log Forwarding Custom Resource:

    $ oc delete LogForwarding instance -n openshift-logging

8.10. Configuring systemd-journald and Fluentd

Because Fluentd reads from the journal, and the journal default settings are very low, journal entries can be lost because the journal cannot keep up with the logging rate from system services.

We recommend setting RateLimitInterval=1s and RateLimitBurst=10000 (or even higher if necessary) to prevent the journal from losing entries.

8.10.1. Configuring systemd-journald for cluster logging

As you scale up your project, the default logging environment might need some adjustments.

For example, if you are missing logs, you might have to increase the rate limits for journald. You can adjust the number of messages to retain for a specified period of time to ensure that cluster logging does not use excessive resources without dropping logs.

You can also determine if you want the logs compressed, how long to retain logs, how or if the logs are stored, and other settings.

Procedure

  1. Create a journald.conf file with the required settings:

    Compress=no 1
    ForwardToConsole=yes 2
    ForwardToSyslog=no 3
    MaxRetentionSec=30 4
    RateLimitBurst=10000 5
    RateLimitInterval=1s 6
    Storage=volatile 7
    SyncIntervalSec=1s 8
    SystemMaxUse=8g 9
    SystemKeepFree=20% 10
    SystemMaxFileSize10M 11
    1
    Specify whether you want logs compressed before they are written to the file system. Specify yes to compress the message or no to not compress. The default is yes.
    2 3
    Configure whether to forward log messages. Defaults to no for each. Specify:
    • ForwardToConsole to forward logs to the system console.
    • ForwardToKsmg to forward logs to the kernel log buffer.
    • ForwardToSyslog to forward to a syslog daemon.
    • ForwardToWall to forward messages as wall messages to all logged-in users.
    4
    Specify the maximum time to store journal entries. Enter a number to specify seconds. Or include a unit: "year", "month", "week", "day", "h" or "m". Enter 0 to disable. The default is 1month.
    5 6
    Configure rate limiting. If, during the time interval defined by RateLimitIntervalSec, more logs than specified in RateLimitBurst are received, all further messages within the interval are dropped until the interval is over. It is recommended to set RateLimitInterval=1s and RateLimitBurst=10000, which are the defaults.
    7
    Specify how logs are stored. The default is persistent:
    • volatile to store logs in memory in /var/log/journal/.
    • persistent to store logs to disk in /var/log/journal/. systemd creates the directory if it does not exist.
    • auto to store logs in in /var/log/journal/ if the directory exists. If it does not exist, systemd temporarily stores logs in /run/systemd/journal.
    • none to not store logs. systemd drops all logs.
    8
    Specify the timeout before synchronizing journal files to disk for ERR, WARNING, NOTICE, INFO, and DEBUG logs. systemd immediately syncs after receiving a CRIT, ALERT, or EMERG log. The default is 1s.
    9
    Specify the maximum size the journal can use. The default is 8g.
    10
    Specify how much disk space systemd must leave free. The default is 20%.
    11
    Specify the maximum size for individual journal files stored persistently in /var/log/journal. The default is 10M.
    Note

    If you are removing the rate limit, you might see increased CPU utilization on the system logging daemons as it processes any messages that would have previously been throttled.

    For more information on systemd settings, see https://www.freedesktop.org/software/systemd/man/journald.conf.html. The default settings listed on that page might not apply to OpenShift Container Platform.

  2. Convert the journal.conf file to base64:

    $ export jrnl_cnf=$( cat /journald.conf | base64 -w0 )
  3. Create a new MachineConfig for master or worker and add the journal.conf parameters:

    For example:

    ...
    
    config:
      storage:
        files:
        - contents:
            source: data:text/plain;charset=utf-8;base64,${jrnl_cnf}
            verification: {}
          filesystem: root
          mode: 0644 1
          path: /etc/systemd/journald.conf 2
      systemd: {}
    1
    Set the permissions for the journal.conf file. It is recommended to set 0644 permissions.
    2
    Specify the path to the base64-encoded journal.conf file.
  4. Create the MachineConfig:

    $ oc apply -f <filename>.yaml

    The controller detects the new MachineConfig and generates a new rendered-worker-<hash> version.

  5. Monitor the status of the rollout of the new rendered configuration to each node:

    $ oc describe machineconfigpool/worker
    
    
    Name:         worker
    Namespace:
    Labels:       machineconfiguration.openshift.io/mco-built-in=
    Annotations:  <none>
    API Version:  machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
    Kind:         MachineConfigPool
    
    ...
    
    Conditions:
      Message:
      Reason:                All nodes are updating to rendered-worker-913514517bcea7c93bd446f4830bc64e

Chapter 9. Viewing Elasticsearch status

You can view the status of the Elasticsearch Operator and for a number of Elasticsearch components.

9.1. Viewing Elasticsearch status

You can view the status of your Elasticsearch cluster.

Prerequisites

  • Cluster logging and Elasticsearch must be installed.

Procedure

  1. Change to the openshift-logging project.

    $ oc project openshift-logging
  2. To view the Elasticsearch cluster status:

    1. Get the name of the Elasticsearch instance:

      $ oc get Elasticsearch
      
      NAME            AGE
      elasticsearch   5h9m
    2. Get the Elasticsearch status:

      $ oc get Elasticsearch <Elasticsearch-instance> -o yaml

      For example:

      $ oc get Elasticsearch elasticsearch -n openshift-logging -o yaml

      The output includes information similar to the following:

      status: 1
        cluster: 2
          activePrimaryShards: 30
          activeShards: 60
          initializingShards: 0
          numDataNodes: 3
          numNodes: 3
          pendingTasks: 0
          relocatingShards: 0
          status: green
          unassignedShards: 0
        clusterHealth: ""
        conditions: [] 3
        nodes: 4
        - deploymentName: elasticsearch-cdm-zjf34ved-1
          upgradeStatus: {}
        - deploymentName: elasticsearch-cdm-zjf34ved-2
          upgradeStatus: {}
        - deploymentName: elasticsearch-cdm-zjf34ved-3
          upgradeStatus: {}
        pods: 5
          client:
            failed: []
            notReady: []
            ready:
            - elasticsearch-cdm-zjf34ved-1-6d7fbf844f-sn422
            - elasticsearch-cdm-zjf34ved-2-dfbd988bc-qkzjz
            - elasticsearch-cdm-zjf34ved-3-c8f566f7c-t7zkt
          data:
            failed: []
            notReady: []
            ready:
            - elasticsearch-cdm-zjf34ved-1-6d7fbf844f-sn422
            - elasticsearch-cdm-zjf34ved-2-dfbd988bc-qkzjz
            - elasticsearch-cdm-zjf34ved-3-c8f566f7c-t7zkt
          master:
            failed: []
            notReady: []
            ready:
            - elasticsearch-cdm-zjf34ved-1-6d7fbf844f-sn422
            - elasticsearch-cdm-zjf34ved-2-dfbd988bc-qkzjz
            - elasticsearch-cdm-zjf34ved-3-c8f566f7c-t7zkt
        shardAllocationEnabled: all
      1
      In the output, the cluster status fields appear in the status stanza.
      2
      The status of the Elasticsearch cluster:
      • The number of active primary shards.
      • The number of active shards.
      • The number of shards that are initializing.
      • The number of Elasticsearch data nodes.
      • The total number of Elasticsearch nodes.
      • The number of pending tasks.
      • The Elasticsearch status: green, red, yellow.
      • The number of unassigned shards.
      3
      Any status conditions, if present. The Elasticsearch cluster status indicates the reasons from the scheduler if a pod could not be placed. Any events related to the following conditions are shown:
      • Container Waiting for both the Elasticsearch and proxy containers.
      • Container Terminated for both the Elasticsearch and proxy containers.
      • Pod unschedulable. Also, a condition is shown for a number of issues, see Example condition messages.
      4
      The Elasticsearch nodes in the cluster, with upgradeStatus.
      5
      The Elasticsearch client, data, and master pods in the cluster, listed under 'failed`, notReady or ready state.

9.1.1. Example condition messages

The following are examples of some condition messages from the Status section of the Elasticsearch instance.

This status message indicates a node has exceeded the configured low watermark and no shard will be allocated to this node.

status:
  nodes:
  - conditions:
    - lastTransitionTime: 2019-03-15T15:57:22Z
      message: Disk storage usage for node is 27.5gb (36.74%). Shards will be not
        be allocated on this node.
      reason: Disk Watermark Low
      status: "True"
      type: NodeStorage
    deploymentName: example-elasticsearch-cdm-0-1
    upgradeStatus: {}

This status message indicates a node has exceeded the configured high watermark and shards will be relocated to other nodes.

status:
  nodes:
  - conditions:
    - lastTransitionTime: 2019-03-15T16:04:45Z
      message: Disk storage usage for node is 27.5gb (36.74%). Shards will be relocated
        from this node.
      reason: Disk Watermark High
      status: "True"
      type: NodeStorage
    deploymentName: example-elasticsearch-cdm-0-1
    upgradeStatus: {}

This status message indicates the Elasticsearch node selector in the CR does not match any nodes in the cluster:

status:
    nodes:
    - conditions:
      - lastTransitionTime: 2019-04-10T02:26:24Z
        message: '0/8 nodes are available: 8 node(s) didn''t match node selector.'
        reason: Unschedulable
        status: "True"
        type: Unschedulable

This status message indicates that the Elasticsearch CR uses a non-existent PVC.

status:
   nodes:
   - conditions:
     - last Transition Time:  2019-04-10T05:55:51Z
       message:               pod has unbound immediate PersistentVolumeClaims (repeated 5 times)
       reason:                Unschedulable
       status:                True
       type:                  Unschedulable

This status message indicates that your Elasticsearch cluster does not have enough nodes to support your Elasticsearch redundancy policy.

status:
  clusterHealth: ""
  conditions:
  - lastTransitionTime: 2019-04-17T20:01:31Z
    message: Wrong RedundancyPolicy selected. Choose different RedundancyPolicy or
      add more nodes with data roles
    reason: Invalid Settings
    status: "True"
    type: InvalidRedundancy

This status message indicates your cluster has too many master nodes:

status:
  clusterHealth: green
  conditions:
    - lastTransitionTime: '2019-04-17T20:12:34Z'
      message: >-
        Invalid master nodes count. Please ensure there are no more than 3 total
        nodes with master roles
      reason: Invalid Settings
      status: 'True'
      type: InvalidMasters

9.2. Viewing Elasticsearch component status

You can view the status for a number of Elasticsearch components.

Elasticsearch indices

You can view the status of the Elasticsearch indices.

  1. Get the name of an Elasticsearch pod:

    $ oc get pods --selector component=elasticsearch -o name
    
    pod/elasticsearch-cdm-1godmszn-1-6f8495-vp4lw
    pod/elasticsearch-cdm-1godmszn-2-5769cf-9ms2n
    pod/elasticsearch-cdm-1godmszn-3-f66f7d-zqkz7
  2. Get the status of the indices:

    $ oc exec elasticsearch-cdm-1godmszn-1-6f8495-vp4lw -- indices
    
    Defaulting container name to elasticsearch.
    Use 'oc describe pod/elasticsearch-cdm-1godmszn-1-6f8495-vp4lw -n openshift-logging' to see all of the containers in this pod.
    Wed Apr 10 05:42:12 UTC 2019
    health status index                                            uuid                   pri rep docs.count docs.deleted store.size pri.store.size
    red    open   .kibana.647a750f1787408bf50088234ec0edd5a6a9b2ac N7iCbRjSSc2bGhn8Cpc7Jg   2   1
    green  open   .operations.2019.04.10                           GTewEJEzQjaus9QjvBBnGg   3   1    2176114            0       3929           1956
    green  open   .operations.2019.04.11                           ausZHoKxTNOoBvv9RlXfrw   3   1    1494624            0       2947           1475
    green  open   .kibana                                          9Fltn1D0QHSnFMXpphZ--Q   1   1          1            0          0              0
    green  open   .searchguard                                     chOwDnQlSsqhfSPcot1Yiw   1   1          5            1          0              0
Elasticsearch pods

You can view the status of the Elasticsearch pods.

  1. Get the name of a pod:

    $ oc get pods --selector component=elasticsearch -o name
    
    pod/elasticsearch-cdm-1godmszn-1-6f8495-vp4lw
    pod/elasticsearch-cdm-1godmszn-2-5769cf-9ms2n
    pod/elasticsearch-cdm-1godmszn-3-f66f7d-zqkz7
  2. Get the status of a pod:

    oc describe pod elasticsearch-cdm-1godmszn-1-6f8495-vp4lw

    The output includes the following status information:

    ....
    Status:             Running
    
    ....
    
    Containers:
      elasticsearch:
        Container ID:   cri-o://b7d44e0a9ea486e27f47763f5bb4c39dfd2
        State:          Running
          Started:      Mon, 08 Apr 2019 10:17:56 -0400
        Ready:          True
        Restart Count:  0
        Readiness:  exec [/usr/share/elasticsearch/probe/readiness.sh] delay=10s timeout=30s period=5s #success=1 #failure=3
    
    ....
    
      proxy:
        Container ID:  cri-o://3f77032abaddbb1652c116278652908dc01860320b8a4e741d06894b2f8f9aa1
        State:          Running
          Started:      Mon, 08 Apr 2019 10:18:38 -0400
        Ready:          True
        Restart Count:  0
    
    ....
    
    Conditions:
      Type              Status
      Initialized       True
      Ready             True
      ContainersReady   True
      PodScheduled      True
    
    ....
    
    Events:          <none>
Elasticsearch deployment configuration

You can view the status of the Elasticsearch deployment configuration.

  1. Get the name of a deployment configuration:

    $ oc get deployment --selector component=elasticsearch -o name
    
    deployment.extensions/elasticsearch-cdm-1gon-1
    deployment.extensions/elasticsearch-cdm-1gon-2
    deployment.extensions/elasticsearch-cdm-1gon-3
  2. Get the deployment configuration status:

    $ oc describe deployment elasticsearch-cdm-1gon-1

    The output includes the following status information:

    ....
      Containers:
       elasticsearch:
        Image:      registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-elasticsearch5:v4.3
        Readiness:  exec [/usr/share/elasticsearch/probe/readiness.sh] delay=10s timeout=30s period=5s #success=1 #failure=3
    
    ....
    
    Conditions:
      Type           Status   Reason
      ----           ------   ------
      Progressing    Unknown  DeploymentPaused
      Available      True     MinimumReplicasAvailable
    
    ....
    
    Events:          <none>
Elasticsearch ReplicaSet

You can view the status of the Elasticsearch ReplicaSet.

  1. Get the name of a replica set:

    $ oc get replicaSet --selector component=elasticsearch -o name
    
    replicaset.extensions/elasticsearch-cdm-1gon-1-6f8495
    replicaset.extensions/elasticsearch-cdm-1gon-2-5769cf
    replicaset.extensions/elasticsearch-cdm-1gon-3-f66f7d
  2. Get the status of the replica set:

    $ oc describe replicaSet elasticsearch-cdm-1gon-1-6f8495

    The output includes the following status information:

    ....
      Containers:
       elasticsearch:
        Image:      registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-logging-elasticsearch5:v4.3
        Readiness:  exec [/usr/share/elasticsearch/probe/readiness.sh] delay=10s timeout=30s period=5s #success=1 #failure=3
    
    ....
    
    Events:          <none>

Chapter 10. Viewing cluster logging status

You can view the status of the Cluster Logging Operator and for a number of cluster logging components.

10.1. Viewing the status of the Cluster Logging Operator

You can view the status of your Cluster Logging Operator.

Prerequisites

  • Cluster logging and Elasticsearch must be installed.

Procedure

  1. Change to the openshift-logging project.

    $ oc project openshift-logging
  2. To view the cluster logging status:

    1. Get the cluster logging status:

      $ oc get clusterlogging instance -o yaml

      The output includes information similar to the following:

      apiVersion: logging.openshift.io/v1
      kind: ClusterLogging
      
      ....
      
      status:  1
        collection:
          logs:
            fluentdStatus:
              daemonSet: fluentd  2
              nodes:
                fluentd-2rhqp: ip-10-0-169-13.ec2.internal
                fluentd-6fgjh: ip-10-0-165-244.ec2.internal
                fluentd-6l2ff: ip-10-0-128-218.ec2.internal
                fluentd-54nx5: ip-10-0-139-30.ec2.internal
                fluentd-flpnn: ip-10-0-147-228.ec2.internal
                fluentd-n2frh: ip-10-0-157-45.ec2.internal
              pods:
                failed: []
                notReady: []
                ready:
                - fluentd-2rhqp
                - fluentd-54nx5
                - fluentd-6fgjh
                - fluentd-6l2ff
                - fluentd-flpnn
                - fluentd-n2frh
        curation:  3
          curatorStatus:
          - cronJobs: curator
            schedules: 30 3 * * *
            suspended: false
        logstore: 4
          elasticsearchStatus:
          - ShardAllocationEnabled:  all
            cluster:
              activePrimaryShards:    5
              activeShards:           5
              initializingShards:     0
              numDataNodes:           1
              numNodes:               1
              pendingTasks:           0
              relocatingShards:       0
              status:                 green
              unassignedShards:       0
            clusterName:             elasticsearch
            nodeConditions:
              elasticsearch-cdm-mkkdys93-1:
            nodeCount:  1
            pods:
              client:
                failed:
                notReady:
                ready:
                - elasticsearch-cdm-mkkdys93-1-7f7c6-mjm7c
              data:
                failed:
                notReady:
                ready:
                - elasticsearch-cdm-mkkdys93-1-7f7c6-mjm7c
              master:
                failed:
                notReady:
                ready:
                - elasticsearch-cdm-mkkdys93-1-7f7c6-mjm7c
      visualization:  5
          kibanaStatus:
          - deployment: kibana
            pods:
              failed: []
              notReady: []
              ready:
              - kibana-7fb4fd4cc9-f2nls
            replicaSets:
            - kibana-7fb4fd4cc9
            replicas: 1
      1
      In the output, the cluster status fields appear in the status stanza.
      2
      Information on the Fluentd pods.
      3
      Information on the Curator pods.
      4
      Information on the Elasticsearch pods, including Elasticsearch cluster health, green, yellow, or red.
      5
      Information on the Kibana pods.

10.1.1. Example condition messages

The following are examples of some condition messages from the Status.Nodes section of the cluster logging instance.

A status message similar to the following indicates a node has exceeded the configured low watermark and no shard will be allocated to this node:

  nodes:
  - conditions:
    - lastTransitionTime: 2019-03-15T15:57:22Z
      message: Disk storage usage for node is 27.5gb (36.74%). Shards will be not
        be allocated on this node.
      reason: Disk Watermark Low
      status: "True"
      type: NodeStorage
    deploymentName: example-elasticsearch-clientdatamaster-0-1
    upgradeStatus: {}

A status message similar to the following indicates a node has exceeded the configured high watermark and shards will be relocated to other nodes:

  nodes:
  - conditions:
    - lastTransitionTime: 2019-03-15T16:04:45Z
      message: Disk storage usage for node is 27.5gb (36.74%). Shards will be relocated
        from this node.
      reason: Disk Watermark High
      status: "True"
      type: NodeStorage
    deploymentName: cluster-logging-operator
    upgradeStatus: {}

A status message similar to the following indicates the Elasticsearch node selector in the CR does not match any nodes in the cluster:

    Elasticsearch Status:
      Shard Allocation Enabled:  shard allocation unknown
      Cluster:
        Active Primary Shards:  0
        Active Shards:          0
        Initializing Shards:    0
        Num Data Nodes:         0
        Num Nodes:              0
        Pending Tasks:          0
        Relocating Shards:      0
        Status:                 cluster health unknown
        Unassigned Shards:      0
      Cluster Name:             elasticsearch
      Node Conditions:
        elasticsearch-cdm-mkkdys93-1:
          Last Transition Time:  2019-06-26T03:37:32Z
          Message:               0/5 nodes are available: 5 node(s) didn't match node selector.
          Reason:                Unschedulable
          Status:                True
          Type:                  Unschedulable
        elasticsearch-cdm-mkkdys93-2:
      Node Count:  2
      Pods:
        Client:
          Failed:
          Not Ready:
            elasticsearch-cdm-mkkdys93-1-75dd69dccd-f7f49
            elasticsearch-cdm-mkkdys93-2-67c64f5f4c-n58vl
          Ready:
        Data:
          Failed:
          Not Ready:
            elasticsearch-cdm-mkkdys93-1-75dd69dccd-f7f49
            elasticsearch-cdm-mkkdys93-2-67c64f5f4c-n58vl
          Ready:
        Master:
          Failed:
          Not Ready:
            elasticsearch-cdm-mkkdys93-1-75dd69dccd-f7f49
            elasticsearch-cdm-mkkdys93-2-67c64f5f4c-n58vl
          Ready:

A status message similar to the following indicates that the requested PVC could not bind to PV:

      Node Conditions:
        elasticsearch-cdm-mkkdys93-1:
          Last Transition Time:  2019-06-26T03:37:32Z
          Message:               pod has unbound immediate PersistentVolumeClaims (repeated 5 times)
          Reason:                Unschedulable
          Status:                True
          Type:                  Unschedulable

A status message similar to the following indicates that the Curator pod cannot be scheduled because the node selector did not match any nodes:

Curation:
    Curator Status:
      Cluster Condition:
        curator-1561518900-cjx8d:
          Last Transition Time:  2019-06-26T03:20:08Z
          Reason:                Completed
          Status:                True
          Type:                  ContainerTerminated
        curator-1561519200-zqxxj:
          Last Transition Time:  2019-06-26T03:20:01Z
          Message:               0/5 nodes are available: 1 Insufficient cpu, 5 node(s) didn't match node selector.
          Reason:                Unschedulable
          Status:                True
          Type:                  Unschedulable
      Cron Jobs:                 curator
      Schedules:                 */5 * * * *
      Suspended:                 false

A status message similar to the following indicates that the Fluentd pods cannot be scheduled because the node selector did not match any nodes:

Status:
  Collection:
    Logs:
      Fluentd Status:
        Daemon Set:  fluentd
        Nodes:
        Pods:
          Failed:
          Not Ready:
          Ready:

10.2. Viewing the status of cluster logging components

You can view the status for a number of cluster logging components.

Prerequisites

  • Cluster logging and Elasticsearch must be installed.

Procedure

  1. Change to the openshift-logging project.

    $ oc project openshift-logging
  2. View the status of the cluster logging deployment:

    $ oc describe deployment cluster-logging-operator

    The output includes the following status information:

    Name:                   cluster-logging-operator
    
    ....
    
    Conditions:
      Type           Status  Reason
      ----           ------  ------
      Available      True    MinimumReplicasAvailable
      Progressing    True    NewReplicaSetAvailable
    
    ....
    
    Events:
      Type    Reason             Age   From                   Message
      ----    ------             ----  ----                   -------
      Normal  ScalingReplicaSet  62m   deployment-controller  Scaled up replica set cluster-logging-operator-574b8987df to 1----
  3. View the status of the cluster logging ReplicaSet:

    1. Get the name of a ReplicaSet:

      $ oc get replicaset
      NAME                                      DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AGE
      cluster-logging-operator-574b8987df       1         1         1       159m
      elasticsearch-cdm-uhr537yu-1-6869694fb    1         1         1       157m
      elasticsearch-cdm-uhr537yu-2-857b6d676f   1         1         1       156m
      elasticsearch-cdm-uhr537yu-3-5b6fdd8cfd   1         1         1       155m
      kibana-5bd5544f87                         1         1         1       157m
    2. Get the status of the ReplicaSet:

      $ oc describe replicaset cluster-logging-operator-574b8987df

      The output includes the following status information:

      Name:           cluster-logging-operator-574b8987df
      
      ....
      
      Replicas:       1 current / 1 desired
      Pods Status:    1 Running / 0 Waiting / 0 Succeeded / 0 Failed
      
      ....
      
      Events:
        Type    Reason            Age   From                   Message
        ----    ------            ----  ----                   -------
        Normal  SuccessfulCreate  66m   replicaset-controller  Created pod: cluster-logging-operator-574b8987df-qjhqv----

Chapter 11. Moving the cluster logging resources with node selectors

You use node selectors to deploy the Elasticsearch, Kibana, and Curator pods to different nodes.

11.1. Moving the cluster logging resources

You can configure the Cluster Logging Operator to deploy the pods for any or all of the Cluster Logging components, Elasticsearch, Kibana, and Curator to different nodes. You cannot move the Cluster Logging Operator pod from its installed location.

For example, you can move the Elasticsearch pods to a separate node because of high CPU, memory, and disk requirements.

Note

You should set your MachineSet to use at least 6 replicas.

Prerequisites

  • Cluster logging and Elasticsearch must be installed. These features are not installed by default.

Procedure

  1. Edit the Cluster Logging Custom Resource in the openshift-logging project:

    $ oc edit ClusterLogging instance
    apiVersion: logging.openshift.io/v1
    kind: ClusterLogging
    
    ....
    
    spec:
      collection:
        logs:
          fluentd:
            resources: null
          type: fluentd
      curation:
        curator:
          nodeSelector: 1
              node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ''
          resources: null
          schedule: 30 3 * * *
        type: curator
      logStore:
        elasticsearch:
          nodeCount: 3
          nodeSelector: 2
              node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ''
          redundancyPolicy: SingleRedundancy
          resources:
            limits:
              cpu: 500m
              memory: 16Gi
            requests:
              cpu: 500m
              memory: 16Gi
          storage: {}
        type: elasticsearch
      managementState: Managed
      visualization:
        kibana:
          nodeSelector: 3
              node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: '' 4
          proxy:
            resources: null
          replicas: 1
          resources: null
        type: kibana
    
    ....
1 2 3 4
Add a nodeSelector parameter with the appropriate value to the component you want to move. You can use a nodeSelector in the format shown or use <key>: <value> pairs, based on the value specified for the node.

Verification steps

To verify that a component has moved, you can use the oc get pod -o wide command.

For example:

  • You want to move the Kibana pod from the ip-10-0-147-79.us-east-2.compute.internal node:

    $ oc get pod kibana-5b8bdf44f9-ccpq9 -o wide
    NAME                      READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE   IP            NODE                                        NOMINATED NODE   READINESS GATES
    kibana-5b8bdf44f9-ccpq9   2/2     Running   0          27s   10.129.2.18   ip-10-0-147-79.us-east-2.compute.internal   <none>           <none>
  • You want to move the Kibana Pod to the ip-10-0-139-48.us-east-2.compute.internal node, a dedicated infrastructure node:

    $ oc get nodes
    NAME                                         STATUS   ROLES          AGE   VERSION
    ip-10-0-133-216.us-east-2.compute.internal   Ready    master         60m   v1.17.1
    ip-10-0-139-146.us-east-2.compute.internal   Ready    master         60m   v1.17.1
    ip-10-0-139-192.us-east-2.compute.internal   Ready    worker         51m   v1.17.1
    ip-10-0-139-241.us-east-2.compute.internal   Ready    worker         51m   v1.17.1
    ip-10-0-147-79.us-east-2.compute.internal    Ready    worker         51m   v1.17.1
    ip-10-0-152-241.us-east-2.compute.internal   Ready    master         60m   v1.17.1
    ip-10-0-139-48.us-east-2.compute.internal    Ready    infra          51m   v1.17.1

    Note that the node has a node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: '' label:

    $ oc get node ip-10-0-139-48.us-east-2.compute.internal -o yaml
    
    kind: Node
    apiVersion: v1
    metadata:
      name: ip-10-0-139-48.us-east-2.compute.internal
      selfLink: /api/v1/nodes/ip-10-0-139-48.us-east-2.compute.internal
      uid: 62038aa9-661f-41d7-ba93-b5f1b6ef8751
      resourceVersion: '39083'
      creationTimestamp: '2020-04-13T19:07:55Z'
      labels:
        node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ''
    ....
  • To move the Kibana Pod, edit the Cluster Logging CR to add a node selector:

    apiVersion: logging.openshift.io/v1
    kind: ClusterLogging
    
    ....
    
    spec:
    
    ....
    
      visualization:
        kibana:
          nodeSelector: 1
            node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: '' 2
          proxy:
            resources: null
          replicas: 1
          resources: null
        type: kibana
    1 2
    Add a node selector to match the label in the node specification.
  • After you save the CR, the current Kibana pod is terminated and new pod is deployed:

    $ oc get pods
    NAME                                            READY   STATUS        RESTARTS   AGE
    cluster-logging-operator-84d98649c4-zb9g7       1/1     Running       0          29m
    elasticsearch-cdm-hwv01pf7-1-56588f554f-kpmlg   2/2     Running       0          28m
    elasticsearch-cdm-hwv01pf7-2-84c877d75d-75wqj   2/2     Running       0          28m
    elasticsearch-cdm-hwv01pf7-3-f5d95b87b-4nx78    2/2     Running       0          28m
    fluentd-42dzz                                   1/1     Running       0          28m
    fluentd-d74rq                                   1/1     Running       0          28m
    fluentd-m5vr9                                   1/1     Running       0          28m
    fluentd-nkxl7                                   1/1     Running       0          28m
    fluentd-pdvqb                                   1/1     Running       0          28m
    fluentd-tflh6                                   1/1     Running       0          28m
    kibana-5b8bdf44f9-ccpq9                         2/2     Terminating   0          4m11s
    kibana-7d85dcffc8-bfpfp                         2/2     Running       0          33s
  • The new pod is on the ip-10-0-139-48.us-east-2.compute.internal node:

    $ oc get pod kibana-7d85dcffc8-bfpfp -o wide
    NAME                      READY   STATUS        RESTARTS   AGE   IP            NODE                                        NOMINATED NODE   READINESS GATES
    kibana-7d85dcffc8-bfpfp   2/2     Running       0          43s   10.131.0.22   ip-10-0-139-48.us-east-2.compute.internal   <none>           <none>
  • After a few moments, the original Kibana pod is removed.

    $ oc get pods
    NAME                                            READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    cluster-logging-operator-84d98649c4-zb9g7       1/1     Running   0          30m
    elasticsearch-cdm-hwv01pf7-1-56588f554f-kpmlg   2/2     Running   0          29m
    elasticsearch-cdm-hwv01pf7-2-84c877d75d-75wqj   2/2     Running   0          29m
    elasticsearch-cdm-hwv01pf7-3-f5d95b87b-4nx78    2/2     Running   0          29m
    fluentd-42dzz                                   1/1     Running   0          29m
    fluentd-d74rq                                   1/1     Running   0          29m
    fluentd-m5vr9                                   1/1     Running   0          29m
    fluentd-nkxl7                                   1/1     Running   0          29m
    fluentd-pdvqb                                   1/1     Running   0          29m
    fluentd-tflh6                                   1/1     Running   0          29m
    kibana-7d85dcffc8-bfpfp                         2/2     Running   0          62s

Chapter 12. Manually rolling out Elasticsearch

OpenShift Container Platform supports the Elasticsearch rolling cluster restart. A rolling restart applies appropriate changes to the Elasticsearch cluster without down time (if three masters are configured). The Elasticsearch cluster remains online and operational, with nodes taken offline one at a time.

12.1. Performing an Elasticsearch rolling cluster restart

Perform a rolling restart when you change the elasticsearch configmap or any of the elasticsearch-* deployment configurations.

Also, a rolling restart is recommended if the nodes on which an Elasticsearch pod runs requires a reboot.

Prerequisite

  • Cluster logging and Elasticsearch must be installed.

Procedure

To perform a rolling cluster restart:

  1. Change to the openshift-logging project:

    $ oc project openshift-logging
  2. Use the following command to extract the CA certificate from Elasticsearch and write to the admin-ca file:

    $ oc extract secret/elasticsearch --to=. --keys=admin-ca
    
    admin-ca
  3. Perform a shard synced flush to ensure there are no pending operations waiting to be written to disk prior to shutting down:

    $ oc exec <any_es_pod_in_the_cluster> -c elasticsearch -- curl -s --cacert /etc/elasticsearch/secret/admin-ca --cert /etc/elasticsearch/secret/admin-cert --key /etc/elasticsearch/secret/admin-key -XPOST 'https://localhost:9200/_flush/synced'

    For example:

    oc exec -c elasticsearch-cdm-5ceex6ts-1-dcd6c4c7c-jpw6 -- curl -s --cacert /etc/elasticsearch/secret/admin-ca --cert /etc/elasticsearch/secret/admin-cert --key /etc/elasticsearch/secret/admin-key -XPOST 'https://localhost:9200/_flush/synced'
  4. Prevent shard balancing when purposely bringing down nodes using the OpenShift Container Platform es_util tool:

    $ oc exec <any_es_pod_in_the_cluster> -c elasticsearch -- es_util --query=_cluster/settings -XPUT 'https://localhost:9200/_cluster/settings' -d '{ "transient": { "cluster.routing.allocation.enable" : "none" } }'

    For example:

    $ oc exec elasticsearch-cdm-5ceex6ts-1-dcd6c4c7c-jpw6 -c elasticsearch -- es_util --query=_cluster/settings?pretty=true -XPUT 'https://localhost:9200/_cluster/settings' -d '{ "transient": { "cluster.routing.allocation.enable" : "none" } }'
    
    {
      "acknowledged" : true,
      "persistent" : { },
      "transient" : {
        "cluster" : {
          "routing" : {
            "allocation" : {
              "enable" : "none"
            }
          }
        }
      }
  5. Once complete, for each deployment you have for an ES cluster:

    1. By default, the OpenShift Container Platform Elasticsearch cluster blocks rollouts to their nodes. Use the following command to allow rollouts and allow the pod to pick up the changes:

      $ oc rollout resume deployment/<deployment-name>

      For example:

      $ oc rollout resume deployment/elasticsearch-cdm-0-1
      deployment.extensions/elasticsearch-cdm-0-1 resumed

      A new pod is deployed. Once the pod has a ready container, you can move on to the next deployment.

      $ oc get pods | grep elasticsearch-*
      
      NAME                                            READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
      elasticsearch-cdm-5ceex6ts-1-dcd6c4c7c-jpw6k    2/2     Running   0          22h
      elasticsearch-cdm-5ceex6ts-2-f799564cb-l9mj7    2/2     Running   0          22h
      elasticsearch-cdm-5ceex6ts-3-585968dc68-k7kjr   2/2     Running   0          22h
    2. Once complete, reset the pod to disallow rollouts:

      $ oc rollout pause deployment/<deployment-name>

      For example:

      $ oc rollout pause deployment/elasticsearch-cdm-0-1
      
      deployment.extensions/elasticsearch-cdm-0-1 paused
    3. Check that the Elasticsearch cluster is in green state:

      $ oc exec <any_es_pod_in_the_cluster> -c elasticsearch -- es_util --query=_cluster/health?pretty=true
      Note

      If you performed a rollout on the Elasticsearch pod you used in the previous commands, the pod no longer exists and you need a new pod name here.

      For example:

      $ oc exec elasticsearch-cdm-5ceex6ts-1-dcd6c4c7c-jpw6 -c elasticsearch -- es_util --query=_cluster/health?pretty=true
      
      {
        "cluster_name" : "elasticsearch",
        "status" : "green", 1
        "timed_out" : false,
        "number_of_nodes" : 3,
        "number_of_data_nodes" : 3,
        "active_primary_shards" : 8,
        "active_shards" : 16,
        "relocating_shards" : 0,
        "initializing_shards" : 0,
        "unassigned_shards" : 1,
        "delayed_unassigned_shards" : 0,
        "number_of_pending_tasks" : 0,
        "number_of_in_flight_fetch" : 0,
        "task_max_waiting_in_queue_millis" : 0,
        "active_shards_percent_as_number" : 100.0
      }
      1
      Make sure this parameter is green before proceeding.
  6. If you changed the Elasticsearch configuration map, repeat these steps for each Elasticsearch pod.
  7. Once all the deployments for the cluster have been rolled out, re-enable shard balancing:

    $ oc exec <any_es_pod_in_the_cluster> -c elasticsearch -- es_util --query=_cluster/settings -XPUT 'https://localhost:9200/_cluster/settings' -d '{ "transient": { "cluster.routing.allocation.enable" : "none" } }'

    For example:

    $ oc exec elasticsearch-cdm-5ceex6ts-1-dcd6c4c7c-jpw6 -c elasticsearch -- es_util --query=_cluster/settings?pretty=true -XPUT 'https://localhost:9200/_cluster/settings' -d '{ "transient": { "cluster.routing.allocation.enable" : "all" } }'
    
    {
      "acknowledged" : true,
      "persistent" : { },
      "transient" : {
        "cluster" : {
          "routing" : {
            "allocation" : {
              "enable" : "all"
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }

Chapter 13. Troubleshooting Kibana

Using the Kibana console with OpenShift Container Platform can cause problems that are easily solved, but are not accompanied with useful error messages. Check the following troubleshooting sections if you are experiencing any problems when deploying Kibana on OpenShift Container Platform.

13.1. Troubleshooting a Kubernetes login loop

The OAuth2 proxy on the Kibana console must share a secret with the master host’s OAuth2 server. If the secret is not identical on both servers, it can cause a login loop where you are continuously redirected back to the Kibana login page.

Procedure

To fix this issue:

  1. Run the following command to delete the current OAuthClient:

    $ oc delete oauthclient/kibana-proxy

13.2. Troubleshooting a Kubernetes cryptic error when viewing the Kibana console

When attempting to visit the Kibana console, you may receive a browser error instead:

{"error":"invalid_request","error_description":"The request is missing a required parameter,
 includes an invalid parameter value, includes a parameter more than once, or is otherwise malformed."}

This can be caused by a mismatch between the OAuth2 client and server. The return address for the client must be in a whitelist so the server can securely redirect back after logging in.

Fix this issue by replacing the OAuthClient entry.

Procedure

To replace the OAuthClient entry:

  1. Run the following command to delete the current OAuthClient:

    $ oc delete oauthclient/kibana-proxy

If the problem persists, check that you are accessing Kibana at a URL listed in the OAuth client. This issue can be caused by accessing the URL at a forwarded port, such as 1443 instead of the standard 443 HTTPS port. You can adjust the server whitelist by editing the OAuth client:

$ oc edit oauthclient/kibana-proxy

13.3. Troubleshooting a Kubernetes 503 error when viewing the Kibana console

If you receive a proxy error when viewing the Kibana console, it could be caused by one of two issues:

  • Kibana might not be recognizing pods. If Elasticsearch is slow in starting up, Kibana may timeout trying to reach it. Check whether the relevant service has any endpoints:

    $ oc describe service kibana
    Name:                   kibana
    [...]
    Endpoints:              <none>

    If any Kibana pods are live, endpoints are listed. If they are not, check the state of the Kibana pods and deployment. You might have to scale the deployment down and back up again.

  • The route for accessing the Kibana service is masked. This can happen if you perform a test deployment in one project, then deploy in a different project without completely removing the first deployment. When multiple routes are sent to the same destination, the default router will only route to the first created. Check the problematic route to see if it is defined in multiple places:

    $ oc get route  --all-namespaces --selector logging-infra=support

Chapter 14. Exported fields

These are the fields exported by the logging system and available for searching from Elasticsearch and Kibana. Use the full, dotted field name when searching. For example, for an Elasticsearch /_search URL, to look for a Kubernetes Pod name, use /_search/q=kubernetes.pod_name:name-of-my-pod.

The following sections describe fields that may not be present in your logging store. Not all of these fields are present in every record. The fields are grouped in the following categories:

  • exported-fields-Default
  • exported-fields-systemd
  • exported-fields-kubernetes
  • exported-fields-pipeline_metadata
  • exported-fields-ovirt
  • exported-fields-aushape
  • exported-fields-tlog

14.1. Default exported fields

These are the default fields exported by the logging system and available for searching from Elasticsearch and Kibana. The default fields are Top Level and collectd*

Top Level Fields

The top level fields are common to every application, and may be present in every record. For the Elasticsearch template, top level fields populate the actual mappings of default in the template’s mapping section.

ParameterDescription

@timestamp

The UTC value marking when the log payload was created, or when the log payload was first collected if the creation time is not known. This is the log processing pipeline’s best effort determination of when the log payload was generated. Add the @ prefix convention to note a field as being reserved for a particular use. With Elasticsearch, most tools look for @timestamp by default. For example, the format would be 2015-01-24 14:06:05.071000.

geoip

This is geo-ip of the machine.

hostname

The hostname is the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the entity generating the original payload. This field is an attempt to derive this context. Sometimes the entity generating it knows the context. While other times that entity has a restricted namespace itself, which is known by the collector or normalizer.

ipaddr4

The IP address V4 of the source server, which can be an array.

ipaddr6

The IP address V6 of the source server, if available.

level

The logging level as provided by rsyslog (severitytext property), python’s logging module. Possible values are as listed at misc/sys/syslog.h plus trace and unknown. For example, "alert crit debug emerg err info notice trace unknown warning". Note that trace is not in the syslog.h list but many applications use it.

. You should only use unknown when the logging system gets a value it does not understand, and note that it is the highest level. . Consider trace as higher or more verbose, than debug. . error is deprecated, use err. . Convert panic to emerg. . Convert warn to warning.

Numeric values from syslog/journal PRIORITY can usually be mapped using the priority values as listed at misc/sys/syslog.h.

Log levels and priorities from other logging systems should be mapped to the nearest match. See python logging for an example.

message

A typical log entry message, or payload. It can be stripped of metadata pulled out of it by the collector or normalizer, that is UTF-8 encoded.

pid

This is the process ID of the logging entity, if available.

service

The name of the service associated with the logging entity, if available. For example, the syslog APP-NAME property is mapped to the service field.

tags

Optionally provided operator defined list of tags placed on each log by the collector or normalizer. The payload can be a string with whitespace-delimited string tokens, or a JSON list of string tokens.

file

Optional path to the file containing the log entry local to the collector TODO analyzer for file paths.

offset

The offset value can represent bytes to the start of the log line in the file (zero or one based), or log line numbers (zero or one based), as long as the values are strictly monotonically increasing in the context of a single log file. The values are allowed to wrap, representing a new version of the log file (rotation).

namespace_name

Associate this record with the namespace that shares it’s name. This value will not be stored, but it is used to associate the record with the appropriate namespace for access control and visualization. Normally this value will be given in the tag, but if the protocol does not support sending a tag, this field can be used. If this field is present, it will override the namespace given in the tag or in kubernetes.namespace_name.

namespace_uuid

This is the uuid associated with the namespace_name. This value will not be stored, but is used to associate the record with the appropriate namespace for access control and visualization. If this field is present, it will override the uuid given in kubernetes.namespace_uuid. This will also cause the Kubernetes metadata lookup to be skipped for this log record.

collectd Fields

The following fields represent namespace metrics metadata.

ParameterDescription

collectd.interval

type: float

The collectd interval.

collectd.plugin

type: string

The collectd plug-in.

collectd.plugin_instance

type: string

The collectd plugin_instance.

collectd.type_instance

type: string

The collectd type_instance.

collectd.type

type: string

The collectd type.

collectd.dstypes

type: string

The collectd dstypes.

collectd.processes Fields

The following field corresponds to the collectd processes plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.processes.ps_state

type: integer The collectd ps_state type of processes plug-in.

collectd.processes.ps_disk_ops Fields

The collectd ps_disk_ops type of processes plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.processes.ps_disk_ops.read

type: float

TODO

collectd.processes.ps_disk_ops.write

type: float

TODO

collectd.processes.ps_vm

type: integer

The collectd ps_vm type of processes plug-in.

collectd.processes.ps_rss

type: integer

The collectd ps_rss type of processes plug-in.

collectd.processes.ps_data

type: integer

The collectd ps_data type of processes plug-in.

collectd.processes.ps_code

type: integer

The collectd ps_code type of processes plug-in.

collectd.processes.ps_stacksize

type: integer

The collectd ps_stacksize type of processes plug-in.

collectd.processes.ps_cputime Fields

The collectd ps_cputime type of processes plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.processes.ps_cputime.user

type: float

TODO

collectd.processes.ps_cputime.syst

type: float

TODO

collectd.processes.ps_count Fields

The collectd ps_count type of processes plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.processes.ps_count.processes

type: integer

TODO

collectd.processes.ps_count.threads

type: integer

TODO

collectd.processes.ps_pagefaults Fields

The collectd ps_pagefaults type of processes plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.processes.ps_pagefaults.majflt

type: float

TODO

collectd.processes.ps_pagefaults.minflt

type: float

TODO

collectd.processes.ps_disk_octets Fields

The collectd ps_disk_octets type of processes plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.processes.ps_disk_octets.read

type: float

TODO

collectd.processes.ps_disk_octets.write

type: float

TODO

collectd.processes.fork_rate

type: float

The collectd fork_rate type of processes plug-in.

collectd.disk Fields

Corresponds to collectd disk plug-in.

collectd.disk.disk_merged Fields

The collectd disk_merged type of disk plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.disk.disk_merged.read

type: float

TODO

collectd.disk.disk_merged.write

type: float

TODO

collectd.disk.disk_octets Fields

The collectd disk_octets type of disk plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.disk.disk_octets.read

type: float

TODO

collectd.disk.disk_octets.write

type: float

TODO

collectd.disk.disk_time Fields

The collectd disk_time type of disk plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.disk.disk_time.read

type: float

TODO

collectd.disk.disk_time.write

type: float

TODO

collectd.disk.disk_ops Fields

The collectd disk_ops type of disk plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.disk.disk_ops.read

type: float

TODO

collectd.disk.disk_ops.write

type: float

TODO

collectd.disk.pending_operations

type: integer

The collectd pending_operations type of disk plug-in.

collectd.disk.disk_io_time Fields

The collectd disk_io_time type of disk plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.disk.disk_io_time.io_time

type: float

TODO

collectd.disk.disk_io_time.weighted_io_time

type: float

TODO

collectd.interface Fields

Corresponds to the collectd interface plug-in.

collectd.interface.if_octets Fields

The collectd if_octets type of interface plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.interface.if_octets.rx

type: float

TODO

collectd.interface.if_octets.tx

type: float

TODO

collectd.interface.if_packets Fields

The collectd if_packets type of interface plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.interface.if_packets.rx

type: float

TODO

collectd.interface.if_packets.tx

type: float

TODO

collectd.interface.if_errors Fields

The collectd if_errors type of interface plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.interface.if_errors.rx

type: float

TODO

collectd.interface.if_errors.tx

type: float

TODO

collectd.interface.if_dropped Fields

The collectd if_dropped type of interface plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.interface.if_dropped.rx

type: float

TODO

collectd.interface.if_dropped.tx

type: float

TODO

collectd.virt Fields

Corresponds to collectd virt plug-in.

collectd.virt.if_octets Fields

The collectd if_octets type of virt plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.virt.if_octets.rx

type: float

TODO

collectd.virt.if_octets.tx

type: float

TODO

collectd.virt.if_packets Fields

The collectd if_packets type of virt plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.virt.if_packets.rx

type: float

TODO

collectd.virt.if_packets.tx

type: float

TODO

collectd.virt.if_errors Fields

The collectd if_errors type of virt plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.virt.if_errors.rx

type: float

TODO

collectd.virt.if_errors.tx

type: float

TODO

collectd.virt.if_dropped Fields

The collectd if_dropped type of virt plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.virt.if_dropped.rx

type: float

TODO

collectd.virt.if_dropped.tx

type: float

TODO

collectd.virt.disk_ops Fields

The collectd disk_ops type of virt plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.virt.disk_ops.read

type: float

TODO

collectd.virt.disk_ops.write

type: float

TODO

collectd.virt.disk_octets Fields

The collectd disk_octets type of virt plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.virt.disk_octets.read

type: float

TODO

collectd.virt.disk_octets.write

type: float

TODO

collectd.virt.memory

type: float

The collectd memory type of virt plug-in.

collectd.virt.virt_vcpu

type: float

The collectd virt_vcpu type of virt plug-in.

collectd.virt.virt_cpu_total

type: float

The collectd virt_cpu_total type of virt plug-in.

collectd.CPU Fields

Corresponds to the collectd CPU plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.CPU.percent

type: float

The collectd type percent of plug-in CPU.

collectd.df Fields

Corresponds to the collectd df plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.df.df_complex

type: float

The collectd type df_complex of plug-in df.

collectd.df.percent_bytes

type: float

The collectd type percent_bytes of plug-in df.

collectd.entropy Fields

Corresponds to the collectd entropy plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.entropy.entropy

type: integer

The collectd entropy type of entropy plug-in.

collectd.memory Fields

Corresponds to the collectd memory plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.memory.memory

type: float

The collectd memory type of memory plug-in.

collectd.memory.percent

type: float

The collectd percent type of memory plug-in.

collectd.swap Fields

Corresponds to the collectd swap plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.swap.swap

type: integer

The collectd swap type of swap plug-in.

collectd.swap.swap_io

type: integer

The collectd swap_io type of swap plug-in.

collectd.load Fields

Corresponds to the collectd load plug-in.

collectd.load.load Fields

The collectd load type of load plug-in

ParameterDescription

collectd.load.load.shortterm

type: float

TODO

collectd.load.load.midterm

type: float

TODO

collectd.load.load.longterm

type: float

TODO

collectd.aggregation Fields

Corresponds to collectd aggregation plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.aggregation.percent

type: float

TODO

collectd.statsd Fields

Corresponds to collectd statsd plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.statsd.host_cpu

type: integer

The collectd CPU type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.host_elapsed_time

type: integer

The collectd elapsed_time type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.host_memory

type: integer

The collectd memory type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.host_nic_speed

type: integer

The collectd nic_speed type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.host_nic_rx

type: integer

The collectd nic_rx type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.host_nic_tx

type: integer

The collectd nic_tx type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.host_nic_rx_dropped

type: integer

The collectd nic_rx_dropped type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.host_nic_tx_dropped

type: integer

The collectd nic_tx_dropped type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.host_nic_rx_errors

type: integer

The collectd nic_rx_errors type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.host_nic_tx_errors

type: integer

The collectd nic_tx_errors type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.host_storage

type: integer

The collectd storage type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.host_swap

type: integer

The collectd swap type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.host_vdsm

type: integer

The collectd VDSM type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.host_vms

type: integer

The collectd VMS type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.vm_nic_tx_dropped

type: integer

The collectd nic_tx_dropped type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.vm_nic_rx_bytes

type: integer

The collectd nic_rx_bytes type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.vm_nic_tx_bytes

type: integer

The collectd nic_tx_bytes type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.vm_balloon_min

type: integer

The collectd balloon_min type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.vm_balloon_max

type: integer

The collectd balloon_max type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.vm_balloon_target

type: integer

The collectd balloon_target type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.vm_balloon_cur

type: integer

The collectd balloon_cur type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.vm_cpu_sys

type: integer

The collectd cpu_sys type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.vm_cpu_usage

type: integer

The collectd cpu_usage type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.vm_disk_read_ops

type: integer

The collectd disk_read_ops type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.vm_disk_write_ops

type: integer

The collectd disk_write_ops type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.vm_disk_flush_latency

type: integer

The collectd disk_flush_latency type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.vm_disk_apparent_size

type: integer

The collectd disk_apparent_size type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.vm_disk_write_bytes

type: integer

The collectd disk_write_bytes type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.vm_disk_write_rate

type: integer

The collectd disk_write_rate type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.vm_disk_true_size

type: integer

The collectd disk_true_size type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.vm_disk_read_rate

type: integer

The collectd disk_read_rate type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.vm_disk_write_latency

type: integer

The collectd disk_write_latency type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.vm_disk_read_latency

type: integer

The collectd disk_read_latency type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.vm_disk_read_bytes

type: integer

The collectd disk_read_bytes type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.vm_nic_rx_dropped

type: integer

The collectd nic_rx_dropped type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.vm_cpu_user

type: integer

The collectd cpu_user type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.vm_nic_rx_errors

type: integer

The collectd nic_rx_errors type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.vm_nic_tx_errors

type: integer

The collectd nic_tx_errors type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.statsd.vm_nic_speed

type: integer

The collectd nic_speed type of statsd plug-in.

collectd.postgresql Fields

Corresponds to collectd postgresql plug-in.

ParameterDescription

collectd.postgresql.pg_n_tup_g

type: integer

The collectd type pg_n_tup_g of plug-in postgresql.

collectd.postgresql.pg_n_tup_c

type: integer

The collectd type pg_n_tup_c of plug-in postgresql.

collectd.postgresql.pg_numbackends

type: integer

The collectd type pg_numbackends of plug-in postgresql.

collectd.postgresql.pg_xact

type: integer

The collectd type pg_xact of plug-in postgresql.

collectd.postgresql.pg_db_size

type: integer

The collectd type pg_db_size of plug-in postgresql.

collectd.postgresql.pg_blks

type: integer

The collectd type pg_blks of plug-in postgresql.

14.2. systemd exported fields

These are the systemd fields exported by the OpenShift Container Platform cluster logging available for searching from Elasticsearch and Kibana.

Contains common fields specific to systemd journal. Applications may write their own fields to the journal. These will be available under the systemd.u namespace. RESULT and UNIT are two such fields.

systemd.k Fields

The following table contains systemd kernel-specific metadata.

ParameterDescription

systemd.k.KERNEL_DEVICE

systemd.k.KERNEL_DEVICE is the kernel device name.

systemd.k.KERNEL_SUBSYSTEM

systemd.k.KERNEL_SUBSYSTEM is the kernel subsystem name.

systemd.k.UDEV_DEVLINK

systemd.k.UDEV_DEVLINK includes additional symlink names that point to the node.

systemd.k.UDEV_DEVNODE

systemd.k.UDEV_DEVNODE is the node path of the device.

systemd.k.UDEV_SYSNAME

systemd.k.UDEV_SYSNAME is the kernel device name.

systemd.t Fields

systemd.t Fields are trusted journal fields, fields that are implicitly added by the journal, and cannot be altered by client code.

ParameterDescription

systemd.t.AUDIT_LOGINUID

systemd.t.AUDIT_LOGINUID is the user ID for the journal entry process.

systemd.t.BOOT_ID

systemd.t.BOOT_ID is the kernel boot ID.

systemd.t.AUDIT_SESSION

systemd.t.AUDIT_SESSION is the session for the journal entry process.

systemd.t.CAP_EFFECTIVE

systemd.t.CAP_EFFECTIVE represents the capabilities of the journal entry process.

systemd.t.CMDLINE

systemd.t.CMDLINE is the command line of the journal entry process.

systemd.t.COMM

systemd.t.COMM is the name of the journal entry process.

systemd.t.EXE

systemd.t.EXE is the executable path of the journal entry process.

systemd.t.GID

systemd.t.GID is the group ID for the journal entry process.

systemd.t.HOSTNAME

systemd.t.HOSTNAME is the name of the host.

systemd.t.MACHINE_ID

systemd.t.MACHINE_ID is the machine ID of the host.

systemd.t.PID

systemd.t.PID is the process ID for the journal entry process.

systemd.t.SELINUX_CONTEXT

systemd.t.SELINUX_CONTEXT is the security context, or label, for the journal entry process.

systemd.t.SOURCE_REALTIME_TIMESTAMP

systemd.t.SOURCE_REALTIME_TIMESTAMP is the earliest and most reliable timestamp of the message. This is converted to RFC 3339 NS format.

systemd.t.SYSTEMD_CGROUP

systemd.t.SYSTEMD_CGROUP is the systemd control group path.

systemd.t.SYSTEMD_OWNER_UID

systemd.t.SYSTEMD_OWNER_UID is the owner ID of the session.

systemd.t.SYSTEMD_SESSION

systemd.t.SYSTEMD_SESSION, if applicable, is the systemd session ID.

systemd.t.SYSTEMD_SLICE

systemd.t.SYSTEMD_SLICE is the slice unit of the journal entry process.

systemd.t.SYSTEMD_UNIT

systemd.t.SYSTEMD_UNIT is the unit name for a session.

systemd.t.SYSTEMD_USER_UNIT

systemd.t.SYSTEMD_USER_UNIT, if applicable, is the user unit name for a session.

systemd.t.TRANSPORT

systemd.t.TRANSPORT is the method of entry by the journal service. This includes, audit, driver, syslog, journal, stdout, and kernel.

systemd.t.UID

systemd.t.UID is the user ID for the journal entry process.

systemd.t.SYSLOG_FACILITY

systemd.t.SYSLOG_FACILITY is the field containing the facility, formatted as a decimal string, for syslog.

systemd.t.SYSLOG_IDENTIFIER

systemd.t.systemd.t.SYSLOG_IDENTIFIER is the identifier for syslog.

systemd.t.SYSLOG_PID

SYSLOG_PID is the client process ID for syslog.

systemd.u Fields

systemd.u Fields are directly passed from clients and stored in the journal.

ParameterDescription

systemd.u.CODE_FILE

systemd.u.CODE_FILE is the code location containing the filename of the source.

systemd.u.CODE_FUNCTION

systemd.u.CODE_FUNCTION is the code location containing the function of the source.

systemd.u.CODE_LINE

systemd.u.CODE_LINE is the code location containing the line number of the source.

systemd.u.ERRNO

systemd.u.ERRNO, if present, is the low-level error number formatted in numeric value, as a decimal string.

systemd.u.MESSAGE_ID

systemd.u.MESSAGE_ID is the message identifier ID for recognizing message types.

systemd.u.RESULT

For private use only.

systemd.u.UNIT

For private use only.

14.3. Kubernetes exported fields

These are the Kubernetes fields exported by the OpenShift Container Platform cluster logging available for searching from Elasticsearch and Kibana.

The namespace for Kubernetes-specific metadata. The kubernetes.pod_name is the name of the pod.

kubernetes.labels Fields

Labels attached to the OpenShift object are kubernetes.labels. Each label name is a subfield of labels field. Each label name is de-dotted, meaning dots in the name are replaced with underscores.

ParameterDescription

kubernetes.pod_id

Kubernetes ID of the pod.

kubernetes.namespace_name

The name of the namespace in Kubernetes.

kubernetes.namespace_id

ID of the namespace in Kubernetes.

kubernetes.host

Kubernetes node name.

kubernetes.container_name

The name of the container in Kubernetes.

kubernetes.labels.deployment

The deployment associated with the Kubernetes object.

kubernetes.labels.deploymentconfig

The deploymentconfig associated with the Kubernetes object.

kubernetes.labels.component

The component associated with the Kubernetes object.

kubernetes.labels.provider

The provider associated with the Kubernetes object.

kubernetes.annotations Fields

Annotations associated with the OpenShift object are kubernetes.annotations fields.

14.4. Container exported fields

These are the Docker fields exported by the OpenShift Container Platform cluster logging available for searching from Elasticsearch and Kibana. Namespace for docker container-specific metadata. The docker.container_id is the Docker container ID.

pipeline_metadata.collector Fields

This section contains metadata specific to the collector.

ParameterDescription

pipeline_metadata.collector.hostname

FQDN of the collector. It might be different from the FQDN of the actual emitter of the logs.

pipeline_metadata.collector.name

Name of the collector.

pipeline_metadata.collector.version

Version of the collector.

pipeline_metadata.collector.ipaddr4

IP address v4 of the collector server, can be an array.

pipeline_metadata.collector.ipaddr6

IP address v6 of the collector server, can be an array.

pipeline_metadata.collector.inputname

How the log message was received by the collector whether it was TCP/UDP, or imjournal/imfile.

pipeline_metadata.collector.received_at

Time when the message was received by the collector.

pipeline_metadata.collector.original_raw_message

The original non-parsed log message, collected by the collector or as close to the source as possible.

pipeline_metadata.normalizer Fields

This section contains metadata specific to the normalizer.

ParameterDescription

pipeline_metadata.normalizer.hostname

FQDN of the normalizer.

pipeline_metadata.normalizer.name

Name of the normalizer.

pipeline_metadata.normalizer.version

Version of the normalizer.

pipeline_metadata.normalizer.ipaddr4

IP address v4 of the normalizer server, can be an array.

pipeline_metadata.normalizer.ipaddr6

IP address v6 of the normalizer server, can be an array.

pipeline_metadata.normalizer.inputname

how the log message was received by the normalizer whether it was TCP/UDP.

pipeline_metadata.normalizer.received_at

Time when the message was received by the normalizer.

pipeline_metadata.normalizer.original_raw_message

The original non-parsed log message as it is received by the normalizer.

pipeline_metadata.trace

The field records the trace of the message. Each collector and normalizer appends information about itself and the date and time when the message was processed.

14.5. oVirt exported fields

These are the oVirt fields exported by the OpenShift Container Platform cluster logging available for searching from Elasticsearch and Kibana.

Namespace for oVirt metadata.

ParameterDescription

ovirt.entity

The type of the data source, hosts, VMS, and engine.

ovirt.host_id

The oVirt host UUID.

ovirt.engine Fields

Namespace for oVirt engine related metadata. The FQDN of the oVirt engine is ovirt.engine.fqdn

14.6. Aushape exported fields

These are the Aushape fields exported by the OpenShift Container Platform cluster logging available for searching from Elasticsearch and Kibana.

Audit events converted with Aushape. For more information, see Aushape.

ParameterDescription

aushape.serial

Audit event serial number.

aushape.node

Name of the host where the audit event occurred.

aushape.error

The error aushape encountered while converting the event.

aushape.trimmed

An array of JSONPath expressions relative to the event object, specifying objects or arrays with the content removed as the result of event size limiting. An empty string means the event removed the content, and an empty array means the trimming occurred by unspecified objects and arrays.

aushape.text

An array log record strings representing the original audit event.

aushape.data Fields

Parsed audit event data related to Aushape.

ParameterDescription

aushape.data.avc

type: nested

aushape.data.execve

type: string

aushape.data.netfilter_cfg

type: nested

aushape.data.obj_pid

type: nested

aushape.data.path

type: nested

14.7. Tlog exported fields

These are the Tlog fields exported by the OpenShift Container Platform cluster logging system and available for searching from Elasticsearch and Kibana.

Tlog terminal I/O recording messages. For more information see Tlog.

ParameterDescription

tlog.ver

Message format version number.

tlog.user

Recorded user name.

tlog.term

Terminal type name.

tlog.session

Audit session ID of the recorded session.

tlog.id

ID of the message within the session.

tlog.pos

Message position in the session, milliseconds.

tlog.timing

Distribution of this message’s events in time.

tlog.in_txt

Input text with invalid characters scrubbed.

tlog.in_bin

Scrubbed invalid input characters as bytes.

tlog.out_txt

Output text with invalid characters scrubbed.

tlog.out_bin

Scrubbed invalid output characters as bytes.

Chapter 15. Uninstalling Cluster Logging

You can remove cluster logging from your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

15.1. Uninstalling cluster logging from OpenShift Container Platform

You can remove cluster logging from your cluster.

Prerequisites

  • Cluster logging and Elasticsearch must be installed.

Procedure

To remove cluster logging:

  1. Use the following command to remove everything generated during the deployment.

    $ oc delete clusterlogging instance -n openshift-logging
  2. Use the following command to remove the Persistent Volume Claims that remain after the Operator instances are deleted:

    $ oc delete pvc --all -n openshift-logging

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