Backup and restore

OpenShift Container Platform 4.4

Backing up and restoring your OpenShift Container Platform cluster

Red Hat OpenShift Documentation Team

Abstract

This document provides instructions for backing up your cluster's data and for recovering from various disaster scenarios.

Chapter 1. Backing up etcd

etcd is the key-value store for OpenShift Container Platform, which persists the state of all resource objects.

Back up your cluster’s etcd data regularly and store in a secure location ideally outside the OpenShift Container Platform environment. Do not take an etcd backup before the first certificate rotation completes, which occurs 24 hours after installation, otherwise the backup will contain expired certificates. It is also recommended to take etcd backups during non-peak usage hours, as it is a blocking action.

Important

You back up your cluster’s etcd data by performing a single invocation of the backup script on a master host. Do not take a backup for each master host.

After you have an etcd backup, you can restore to a previous cluster state.

You can perform the etcd data backup process on any master host that has a running etcd instance.

1.1. Backing up etcd data

Follow these steps to back up etcd data by creating an etcd snapshot and backing up the resources for the static Pods. This backup can be saved and used at a later time if you need to restore etcd.

Important

Only save a backup from a single master host. Do not take a backup from each master host in the cluster.

Prerequisites

  • You have access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.
  • You have checked whether the cluster-wide proxy is enabled.

    Tip

    You can check whether the proxy is enabled by reviewing the output of oc get proxy cluster -o yaml. The proxy is enabled if the httpProxy, httpsProxy, and noProxy fields have values set.

Procedure

  1. Start a debug session for a master node:

    $ oc debug node/<node_name>
  2. Change your root directory to the host:

    sh-4.2# chroot /host
  3. If the cluster-wide proxy is enabled, be sure that you have exported the NO_PROXY, HTTP_PROXY, and HTTPS_PROXY environment variables.
  4. Run the cluster-backup.sh script and pass in the location to save the backup to.

    sh-4.4# /usr/local/bin/cluster-backup.sh /home/core/assets/backup
    1bf371f1b5a483927cd01bb593b0e12cff406eb8d7d0acf4ab079c36a0abd3f7
    etcdctl version: 3.3.18
    API version: 3.3
    found latest kube-apiserver-pod: /etc/kubernetes/static-pod-resources/kube-apiserver-pod-7
    found latest kube-controller-manager-pod: /etc/kubernetes/static-pod-resources/kube-controller-manager-pod-8
    found latest kube-scheduler-pod: /etc/kubernetes/static-pod-resources/kube-scheduler-pod-6
    found latest etcd-pod: /etc/kubernetes/static-pod-resources/etcd-pod-2
    Snapshot saved at /home/core/assets/backup/snapshot_2020-03-18_220218.db
    snapshot db and kube resources are successfully saved to /home/core/assets/backup

    In this example, two files are created in the /home/core/assets/backup/ directory on the master host:

    • snapshot_<datetimestamp>.db: This file is the etcd snapshot.
    • static_kuberesources_<datetimestamp>.tar.gz: This file contains the resources for the static Pods. If etcd encryption is enabled, it also contains the encryption keys for the etcd snapshot.

      Note

      If etcd encryption is enabled, it is recommended to store this second file separately from the etcd snapshot for security reasons. However, this file is required in order to restore from the etcd snapshot.

      Keep in mind that etcd encryption only encrypts values, not keys. This means that resource types, namespaces, and object names are unencrypted.

Chapter 2. Replacing an unhealthy etcd member

This document describes the process to replace a single unhealthy etcd member.

This process depends on whether the etcd member is unhealthy because the machine is not running or the node is not ready, or whether it is unhealthy because the etcd Pod is crashlooping.

Note

If you have lost the majority of your master hosts, leading to etcd quorum loss, then you must follow the disaster recovery procedure to restore to a previous cluster state instead of this procedure.

If the control plane certificates are not valid on the member being replaced, then you must follow the procedure to recover from expired control plane certificates instead of this procedure.

If a master node is lost and a new one is created, the etcd cluster Operator handles generating the new TLS certificates and adding the node as an etcd member.

2.1. Prerequisites

  • Take an etcd backup prior to replacing an unhealthy etcd member.

2.2. Identifying an unhealthy etcd member

You can identify if your cluster has an unhealthy etcd member.

Prerequisites

  • Access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.

Procedure

  1. Check the status of the EtcdMembersAvailable status condition using the following command:

    $ oc get etcd -o=jsonpath='{range .items[0].status.conditions[?(@.type=="EtcdMembersAvailable")]}{.message}{"\n"}'
  2. Review the output:

    2 of 3 members are available, ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal is unhealthy

    This example output shows that the ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal etcd member is unhealthy.

2.3. Determining the state of the unhealthy etcd member

The steps to replace an unhealthy etcd member depend on which of the following states your etcd member is in:

  • The machine is not running or the node is not ready
  • The etcd Pod is crashlooping

This procedure determines which state your etcd member is in. This enables you to know which procedure to follow to replace the unhealthy etcd member.

Note

If you are aware that the machine is not running or the node is not ready, but you expect it to return to a healthy state soon, then you do not need to perform a procedure to replace the etcd member. The etcd cluster Operator will automatically sync when the machine or node returns to a healthy state.

Prerequisites

  • You have access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.
  • You have identified an unhealthy etcd member.

Procedure

  1. Determine if the machine is not running:

    $ oc get machines -A -ojsonpath='{range .items[*]}{@.status.nodeRef.name}{"\t"}{@.status.providerStatus.instanceState}{"\n"}' | grep -v running
    ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal  stopped 1
    1
    This output lists the node and the status of the node’s machine. If the status is anything other than running, then the machine is not running.

    If the machine is not running, then follow the Replacing an unhealthy etcd member whose machine is not running or whose node is not ready procedure.

  2. Determine if the node is not ready.

    If either of the following scenarios are true, then the node is not ready.

    • If the machine is running, then check whether the node is unreachable:

      $ oc get nodes -o jsonpath='{range .items[*]}{"\n"}{.metadata.name}{"\t"}{range .spec.taints[*]}{.key}{" "}' | grep unreachable
      ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal	node-role.kubernetes.io/master node.kubernetes.io/unreachable node.kubernetes.io/unreachable 1
      1
      If the node is listed with an unreachable taint, then the node is not ready.
    • If the node is still reachable, then check whether the node is listed as NotReady:

      $ oc get nodes -l node-role.kubernetes.io/master | grep "NotReady"
      ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal   NotReady   master   122m   v1.17.1 1
      1
      If the node is listed as NotReady, then the node is not ready.

    If the node is not ready, then follow the Replacing an unhealthy etcd member whose machine is not running or whose node is not ready procedure.

  3. Determine if the etcd Pod is crashlooping.

    If the machine is running and the node is ready, then check whether the etcd Pod is crashlooping.

    1. Verify that all master nodes are listed as Ready:

      $ oc get nodes -l node-role.kubernetes.io/master
      NAME                           STATUS   ROLES    AGE     VERSION
      ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal   Ready    master   6h13m   v1.17.1
      ip-10-0-164-97.ec2.internal    Ready    master   6h13m   v1.17.1
      ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal   Ready    master   6h13m   v1.17.1
    2. Check whether the status of an etcd Pod is either Error or CrashloopBackoff:

      $ oc get pods -n openshift-etcd | grep etcd
      etcd-ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal                2/3     Error       7          6h9m 1
      etcd-ip-10-0-164-97.ec2.internal                 3/3     Running     0          6h6m
      etcd-ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal                3/3     Running     0          6h6m
      1
      Since this status of this Pod is Error, then the etcd Pod is crashlooping.

    If the etcd Pod is crashlooping, then follow the Replacing an unhealthy etcd member whose etcd Pod is crashlooping procedure.

2.4. Replacing the unhealthy etcd member

Depending on the state of your unhealthy etcd member, use one of the following procedures:

2.4.1. Replacing an unhealthy etcd member whose machine is not running or whose node is not ready

This procedure details the steps to replace an etcd member that is unhealthy either because the machine is not running or because the node is not ready.

Prerequisites

  • You have identified the unhealthy etcd member.
  • You have verified that either the machine is not running or the node is not ready.
  • You have access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.
  • You have taken an etcd backup.

    Important

    It is important to take an etcd backup before performing this procedure so that your cluster can be restored if you encounter any issues.

Procedure

  1. Remove the unhealthy member.

    1. Choose a Pod that is not on the affected node:

      In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

      $ oc get pods -n openshift-etcd | grep etcd
      etcd-ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal                3/3     Running     0          123m
      etcd-ip-10-0-164-97.ec2.internal                 3/3     Running     0          123m
      etcd-ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal                3/3     Running     0          124m
    2. Connect to the running etcd container, passing in the name of a Pod that is not on the affected node:

      In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

      $ oc rsh -n openshift-etcd etcd-ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal
    3. View the member list:

      sh-4.2# etcdctl member list -w table
      
      +------------------+---------+------------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
      |        ID        | STATUS  |             NAME             |        PEER ADDRS         |       CLIENT ADDRS        |
      +------------------+---------+------------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
      | 6fc1e7c9db35841d | started | ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal | https://10.0.131.183:2380 | https://10.0.131.183:2379 |
      | 757b6793e2408b6c | started |  ip-10-0-164-97.ec2.internal |  https://10.0.164.97:2380 |  https://10.0.164.97:2379 |
      | ca8c2990a0aa29d1 | started | ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal | https://10.0.154.204:2380 | https://10.0.154.204:2379 |
      +------------------+---------+------------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
    4. Remove the unhealthy etcd member by providing the ID to the etcdctl member remove command:

      sh-4.2# etcdctl member remove 6fc1e7c9db35841d
      Member 6fc1e7c9db35841d removed from cluster baa565c8919b060e
    5. View the member list again and verify that the member was removed:

      sh-4.2# etcdctl member list -w table
      
      +------------------+---------+------------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
      |        ID        | STATUS  |             NAME             |        PEER ADDRS         |       CLIENT ADDRS        |
      +------------------+---------+------------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
      | 757b6793e2408b6c | started |  ip-10-0-164-97.ec2.internal |  https://10.0.164.97:2380 |  https://10.0.164.97:2379 |
      | ca8c2990a0aa29d1 | started | ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal | https://10.0.154.204:2380 | https://10.0.154.204:2379 |
      +------------------+---------+------------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+

      You can now exit the node shell.

  2. Delete and recreate the master machine. After this machine is recreated, a new revision is forced and etcd scales up automatically.

    If you are running installer-provisioned infrastructure, or you used the Machine API to create your machines, follow these steps. Otherwise, you must create the new master using the same method that was used to originally create it.

    1. Obtain the machine for the unhealthy member.

      In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

      $ oc get machines -n openshift-machine-api -o wide
      
      NAME                                        PHASE     TYPE        REGION      ZONE         AGE     NODE                           PROVIDERID                              STATE
      clustername-8qw5l-master-0                  Running   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1a   3h37m   ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1a/i-0ec2782f8287dfb7e   stopped 1
      clustername-8qw5l-master-1                  Running   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1b   3h37m   ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1b/i-096c349b700a19631   running
      clustername-8qw5l-master-2                  Running   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1c   3h37m   ip-10-0-164-97.ec2.internal    aws:///us-east-1c/i-02626f1dba9ed5bba   running
      clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1a-wbtgd   Running   m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1a   3h28m   ip-10-0-129-226.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1a/i-010ef6279b4662ced   running
      clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1b-lrdxb   Running   m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1b   3h28m   ip-10-0-144-248.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1b/i-0cb45ac45a166173b   running
      clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1c-pkg26   Running   m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1c   3h28m   ip-10-0-170-181.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1c/i-06861c00007751b0a   running
      1
      This is the master machine for the unhealthy node, ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal.
    2. Save the machine configuration to a file on your file system:

      $ oc get machine clustername-8qw5l-master-0 \ 1
          -n openshift-machine-api \
          -o yaml \
          > new-master-machine.yaml
      1
      Specify the name of the master machine for the unhealthy node.
    3. Edit the new-master-machine.yaml file that was created in the previous step.

      1. Remove the entire status section:

        status:
          addresses:
          - address: 10.0.131.183
            type: InternalIP
          - address: ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal
            type: InternalDNS
          - address: ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal
            type: Hostname
          lastUpdated: "2020-04-20T17:44:29Z"
          nodeRef:
            kind: Node
            name: ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal
            uid: acca4411-af0d-4387-b73e-52b2484295ad
          phase: Running
          providerStatus:
            apiVersion: awsproviderconfig.openshift.io/v1beta1
            conditions:
            - lastProbeTime: "2020-04-20T16:53:50Z"
              lastTransitionTime: "2020-04-20T16:53:50Z"
              message: machine successfully created
              reason: MachineCreationSucceeded
              status: "True"
              type: MachineCreation
            instanceId: i-0fdb85790d76d0c3f
            instanceState: stopped
            kind: AWSMachineProviderStatus
      2. Remove the providerID field:

          providerID: aws:///us-east-1a/i-0fdb85790d76d0c3f
      3. Change the name field to a new name.

        It is recommended to keep the same base name as the old machine and change the ending number to the next available number. In this example, clustername-8qw5l-master-0 is changed to clustername-8qw5l-master-3.

        For example:

        apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
        kind: Machine
        metadata:
          ...
          name: clustername-8qw5l-master-3
          ...
      4. Update the selfLink field to use the new machine name from the previous step.

        apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
        kind: Machine
        metadata:
          ...
          selfLink: /apis/machine.openshift.io/v1beta1/namespaces/openshift-machine-api/machines/clustername-8qw5l-master-3
          ...
    4. Delete the machine of the unhealthy member:

      $ oc delete machine -n openshift-machine-api clustername-8qw5l-master-0 1
      1
      Specify the name of the master machine for the unhealthy node.
    5. Verify that the machine was deleted:

      $ oc get machines -n openshift-machine-api -o wide
      
      NAME                                        PHASE     TYPE        REGION      ZONE         AGE     NODE                           PROVIDERID                              STATE
      clustername-8qw5l-master-1                  Running   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1b   3h37m   ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1b/i-096c349b700a19631   running
      clustername-8qw5l-master-2                  Running   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1c   3h37m   ip-10-0-164-97.ec2.internal    aws:///us-east-1c/i-02626f1dba9ed5bba   running
      clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1a-wbtgd   Running   m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1a   3h28m   ip-10-0-129-226.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1a/i-010ef6279b4662ced   running
      clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1b-lrdxb   Running   m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1b   3h28m   ip-10-0-144-248.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1b/i-0cb45ac45a166173b   running
      clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1c-pkg26   Running   m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1c   3h28m   ip-10-0-170-181.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1c/i-06861c00007751b0a   running
    6. Create the new machine using the new-master-machine.yaml file:

      $ oc apply -f new-master-machine.yaml
    7. Verify that the new machine has been created:

      $ oc get machines -n openshift-machine-api -o wide
      
      NAME                                        PHASE          TYPE        REGION      ZONE         AGE     NODE                           PROVIDERID                              STATE
      clustername-8qw5l-master-1                  Running        m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1b   3h37m   ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1b/i-096c349b700a19631   running
      clustername-8qw5l-master-2                  Running        m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1c   3h37m   ip-10-0-164-97.ec2.internal    aws:///us-east-1c/i-02626f1dba9ed5bba   running
      clustername-8qw5l-master-3                  Provisioning   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1a   85s     ip-10-0-133-53.ec2.internal    aws:///us-east-1a/i-015b0888fe17bc2c8   running 1
      clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1a-wbtgd   Running        m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1a   3h28m   ip-10-0-129-226.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1a/i-010ef6279b4662ced   running
      clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1b-lrdxb   Running        m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1b   3h28m   ip-10-0-144-248.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1b/i-0cb45ac45a166173b   running
      clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1c-pkg26   Running        m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1c   3h28m   ip-10-0-170-181.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1c/i-06861c00007751b0a   running
      1
      The new machine, clustername-8qw5l-master-3 is being created and is ready once the phase changes from Provisioning to Running.

      It might take a few minutes for the new machine to be created. The etcd cluster Operator will automatically sync when the machine or node returns to a healthy state.

  3. Verify that all etcd Pods are running properly:

    In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

    $ oc get pods -n openshift-etcd | grep etcd
    etcd-ip-10-0-133-53.ec2.internal                 3/3     Running     0          7m49s
    etcd-ip-10-0-164-97.ec2.internal                 3/3     Running     0          123m
    etcd-ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal                3/3     Running     0          124m

2.4.2. Replacing an unhealthy etcd member whose etcd Pod is crashlooping

This procedure details the steps to replace an etcd member that is unhealthy because the etcd Pod is crashlooping.

Prerequisites

  • You have identified the unhealthy etcd member.
  • You have verified that the etcd Pod is crashlooping.
  • You have access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.
  • You have taken an etcd backup.

    Important

    It is important to take an etcd backup before performing this procedure so that your cluster can be restored if you encounter any issues.

Procedure

  1. Stop the crashlooping etcd Pod.

    1. Debug the node that is crashlooping.

      In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

      $ oc debug node/ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal 1
      1
      Replace this with the name of the unhealthy node.
    2. Change your root directory to the host:

      sh-4.2# chroot /host
    3. Move the existing etcd Pod file out of the kubelet manifest directory:

      sh-4.2# mv /etc/kubernetes/manifests/etcd-pod.yaml /var/lib/etcd-backup/
    4. Move the etcd data directory to a different location:

      sh-4.2# mv /var/lib/etcd/ /tmp

      You can now exit the node shell.

  2. Remove the unhealthy member.

    1. Choose a Pod that is not on the affected node.

      In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

      $ oc get pods -n openshift-etcd | grep etcd
      etcd-ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal                2/3     Error       7          6h9m
      etcd-ip-10-0-164-97.ec2.internal                 3/3     Running     0          6h6m
      etcd-ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal                3/3     Running     0          6h6m
    2. Connect to the running etcd container, passing in the name of a Pod that is not on the affected node.

      In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

      $ oc rsh -n openshift-etcd etcd-ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal
    3. View the member list:

      sh-4.2# etcdctl member list -w table
      
      +------------------+---------+------------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
      |        ID        | STATUS  |             NAME             |        PEER ADDRS         |       CLIENT ADDRS        |
      +------------------+---------+------------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
      | 62bcf33650a7170a | started | ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal | https://10.0.131.183:2380 | https://10.0.131.183:2379 |
      | b78e2856655bc2eb | started |  ip-10-0-164-97.ec2.internal |  https://10.0.164.97:2380 |  https://10.0.164.97:2379 |
      | d022e10b498760d5 | started | ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal | https://10.0.154.204:2380 | https://10.0.154.204:2379 |
      +------------------+---------+------------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
    4. Remove the unhealthy etcd member by providing the ID to the etcdctl member remove command:

      sh-4.2# etcdctl member remove 62bcf33650a7170a
      Member 62bcf33650a7170a removed from cluster ead669ce1fbfb346
    5. View the member list again and verify that the member was removed:

      sh-4.2# etcdctl member list -w table
      
      +------------------+---------+------------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
      |        ID        | STATUS  |             NAME             |        PEER ADDRS         |       CLIENT ADDRS        |
      +------------------+---------+------------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
      | b78e2856655bc2eb | started |  ip-10-0-164-97.ec2.internal |  https://10.0.164.97:2380 |  https://10.0.164.97:2379 |
      | d022e10b498760d5 | started | ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal | https://10.0.154.204:2380 | https://10.0.154.204:2379 |
      +------------------+---------+------------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+

      You can now exit the node shell.

  3. Force etcd redeployment.

    In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

    $ oc patch etcd cluster -p='{"spec": {"forceRedeploymentReason": "single-master-recovery-'"$( date --rfc-3339=ns )"'"}}' --type=merge 1
    1
    The forceRedeploymentReason value must be unique, which is why a timestamp is appended.

    When the etcd cluster Operator performs a redeployment, it ensures that all master nodes have a functioning etcd Pod.

  4. Verify that the new member is available and healthy.

    1. Connect to the running etcd container again.

      In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

      $ oc rsh -n openshift-etcd etcd-ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal
    2. Verify that all members are healthy:

      sh-4.2# etcdctl endpoint health --cluster
      https://10.0.131.183:2379 is healthy: successfully committed proposal: took = 16.671434ms
      https://10.0.154.204:2379 is healthy: successfully committed proposal: took = 16.698331ms
      https://10.0.164.97:2379 is healthy: successfully committed proposal: took = 16.621645ms

Chapter 3. Disaster recovery

3.1. About disaster recovery

The disaster recovery documentation provides information for administrators on how to recover from several disaster situations that might occur with their OpenShift Container Platform cluster. As an administrator, you might need to follow one or more of the following procedures in order to return your cluster to a working state.

Restoring to a previous cluster state

This solution handles situations where you want to restore your cluster to a previous state, for example, if an administrator deletes something critical. This also includes situations where you have lost the majority of your master hosts, leading to etcd quorum loss and the cluster going offline. As long as you have taken an etcd backup, you can follow this procedure to restore your cluster to a previous state.

If applicable, you might also need to recover from expired control plane certificates.

Note

If you have a majority of your masters still available and have an etcd quorum, then follow the procedure to replace a single unhealthy etcd member.

Recovering from expired control plane certificates
This solution handles situations where your control plane certificates have expired. For example, if you shut down your cluster before the first certificate rotation, which occurs 24 hours after installation, your certificates will not be rotated and will expire. You can follow this procedure to recover from expired control plane certificates.

3.2. Recovering from lost master hosts

As of OpenShift Container Platform 4.4, follow the procedure to restore to a previous cluster state in order to recover from lost master hosts.

Note

If you have a majority of your masters still available and have an etcd quorum, then follow the procedure to replace a single unhealthy etcd member.

3.3. Restoring to a previous cluster state

To restore the cluster to a previous state, you must have previously backed up etcd data by creating a snapshot. You will use this snapshot to restore the cluster state.

3.3.1. Restoring to a previous cluster state

You can use a saved etcd backup to restore back to a previous cluster state. You use the etcd backup to restore a single master host. Then the etcd cluster Operator handles scaling to the remaining master hosts.

Prerequisites

  • Access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.
  • SSH access to master hosts.
  • A backup directory containing both the etcd snapshot and the resources for the static Pods, which were from the same backup. The file names in the directory must be in the following formats: snapshot_<datetimestamp>.db and static_kuberesources_<datetimestamp>.tar.gz.

Procedure

  1. Select a master host to use as the recovery host. This is the host that you will run the restore operation on.
  2. Establish SSH connectivity to each of the master nodes, including the recovery host.

    The Kubernetes API server will become inaccessible once the restore process has started, so you cannot access the master nodes. For this reason, it is recommended to establish SSH connectivity to each master host in a separate terminal.

    Important

    If you do not complete this step, you will not be able to access the master hosts to complete the restore procedure, and you will be unable to recover your cluster from this state.

  3. Copy the etcd backup directory to the recovery master host.

    This procedure assumes that you copied the backup directory containing the etcd snapshot and the resources for the static Pods to the /home/core/ directory of your recovery master host.

  4. Stop the static Pods on all other master nodes.

    Note

    It is not required to manually stop the Pods on the recovery host. The recovery script will stop the Pods on the recovery host.

    1. Access a master host that is not the recovery host.
    2. Move the existing etcd Pod file out of the kubelet manifest directory:

      [core@ip-10-0-154-194 ~]$ sudo mv /etc/kubernetes/manifests/etcd-pod.yaml /tmp
    3. Verify that the etcd Pods are stopped.

      [core@ip-10-0-154-194 ~]$ sudo crictl ps | grep etcd

      The output of this command should be empty. If it is not empty, wait a few minutes and check again.

    4. Move the existing Kubernetes API server Pod file out of the kubelet manifest directory:

      [core@ip-10-0-154-194 ~]$ sudo mv /etc/kubernetes/manifests/kube-apiserver-pod.yaml /tmp
    5. Verify that the Kubernetes API server Pods are stopped.

      [core@ip-10-0-154-194 ~]$ sudo crictl ps | grep kube-apiserver

      The output of this command should be empty. If it is not empty, wait a few minutes and check again.

    6. Move the etcd data directory to a different location:

      [core@ip-10-0-154-194 ~]$ sudo mv /var/lib/etcd/ /tmp
    7. Repeat this step on each of the other master hosts that is not the recovery host.
  5. Access the recovery master host.
  6. If the cluster-wide proxy is enabled, be sure that you have exported the NO_PROXY, HTTP_PROXY, and HTTPS_PROXY environment variables.

    Tip

    You can check whether the proxy is enabled by reviewing the output of oc get proxy cluster -o yaml. The proxy is enabled if the httpProxy, httpsProxy, and noProxy fields have values set.

  7. Run the restore script on the recovery master host and pass in the path to the etcd backup directory:

    [core@ip-10-0-143-125 ~]$ sudo -E /usr/local/bin/cluster-restore.sh /home/core/backup
    ...stopping kube-scheduler-pod.yaml
    ...stopping kube-controller-manager-pod.yaml
    ...stopping etcd-pod.yaml
    ...stopping kube-apiserver-pod.yaml
    Waiting for container etcd to stop
    .complete
    Waiting for container etcdctl to stop
    .............................complete
    Waiting for container etcd-metrics to stop
    complete
    Waiting for container kube-controller-manager to stop
    complete
    Waiting for container kube-apiserver to stop
    ..........................................................................................complete
    Waiting for container kube-scheduler to stop
    complete
    Moving etcd data-dir /var/lib/etcd/member to /var/lib/etcd-backup
    starting restore-etcd static pod
    starting kube-apiserver-pod.yaml
    static-pod-resources/kube-apiserver-pod-7/kube-apiserver-pod.yaml
    starting kube-controller-manager-pod.yaml
    static-pod-resources/kube-controller-manager-pod-7/kube-controller-manager-pod.yaml
    starting kube-scheduler-pod.yaml
    static-pod-resources/kube-scheduler-pod-8/kube-scheduler-pod.yaml
  8. Restart the kubelet service on all master hosts.

    1. From the recovery host, run the following command:

      [core@ip-10-0-143-125 ~]$ sudo systemctl restart kubelet.service
    2. Repeat this step on all other master hosts.
  9. Verify that the single member control plane has started successfully.

    1. From the recovery host, verify that the etcd container is running.

      [core@ip-10-0-143-125 ~]$ sudo crictl ps | grep etcd
      3ad41b7908e32       36f86e2eeaaffe662df0d21041eb22b8198e0e58abeeae8c743c3e6e977e8009                                                         About a minute ago   Running             etcd                                          0                   7c05f8af362f0
    2. From the recovery host, verify that the etcd Pod is running.

      [core@ip-10-0-143-125 ~]$ oc get pods -n openshift-etcd | grep etcd
      
      NAME                                             READY   STATUS      RESTARTS   AGE
      etcd-ip-10-0-143-125.ec2.internal                1/1     Running     1          2m47s

      If the status is Pending, or the output lists more than one running etcd Pod, wait a few minutes and check again.

  10. Force etcd redeployment.

    In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

    $ oc patch etcd cluster -p='{"spec": {"forceRedeploymentReason": "recovery-'"$( date --rfc-3339=ns )"'"}}' --type=merge 1
    1
    The forceRedeploymentReason value must be unique, which is why a timestamp is appended.

    When the etcd cluster Operator performs a redeployment, the existing nodes are started with new Pods similar to the initial bootstrap scale up.

  11. Verify all nodes are updated to the latest revision.

    In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

    $ oc get etcd -o=jsonpath='{range .items[0].status.conditions[?(@.type=="NodeInstallerProgressing")]}{.reason}{"\n"}{.message}{"\n"}'

    Review the NodeInstallerProgressing status condition for etcd to verify that all nodes are at the latest revision. The output shows AllNodesAtLatestRevision upon successful update:

    AllNodesAtLatestRevision
    3 nodes are at revision 3

    If the output shows a message such as 2 nodes are at revision 3; 1 nodes are at revision 4, this means that the update is still in progress. Wait a few minutes and try again.

  12. After etcd is redeployed, force new rollouts for the control plane. The Kubernetes API server will reinstall itself on the other nodes because the kubelet is connected to API servers using an internal load balancer.

    In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following commands.

    1. Update the kubeapiserver:

      $ oc patch kubeapiserver cluster -p='{"spec": {"forceRedeploymentReason": "recovery-'"$( date --rfc-3339=ns )"'"}}' --type=merge

      Verify all nodes are updated to the latest revision.

      $ oc get kubeapiserver -o=jsonpath='{range .items[0].status.conditions[?(@.type=="NodeInstallerProgressing")]}{.reason}{"\n"}{.message}{"\n"}'

      Review the NodeInstallerProgressing status condition to verify that all nodes are at the latest revision. The output shows AllNodesAtLatestRevision upon successful update:

      AllNodesAtLatestRevision
      3 nodes are at revision 3
    2. Update the kubecontrollermanager:

      $ oc patch kubecontrollermanager cluster -p='{"spec": {"forceRedeploymentReason": "recovery-'"$( date --rfc-3339=ns )"'"}}' --type=merge

      Verify all nodes are updated to the latest revision.

      $ oc get kubecontrollermanager -o=jsonpath='{range .items[0].status.conditions[?(@.type=="NodeInstallerProgressing")]}{.reason}{"\n"}{.message}{"\n"}'

      Review the NodeInstallerProgressing status condition to verify that all nodes are at the latest revision. The output shows AllNodesAtLatestRevision upon successful update:

      AllNodesAtLatestRevision
      3 nodes are at revision 3
    3. Update the kubescheduler:

      $ oc patch kubescheduler cluster -p='{"spec": {"forceRedeploymentReason": "recovery-'"$( date --rfc-3339=ns )"'"}}' --type=merge

      Verify all nodes are updated to the latest revision.

      $ oc get kubescheduler -o=jsonpath='{range .items[0].status.conditions[?(@.type=="NodeInstallerProgressing")]}{.reason}{"\n"}{.message}{"\n"}'

      Review the NodeInstallerProgressing status condition to verify that all nodes are at the latest revision. The output shows AllNodesAtLatestRevision upon successful update:

      AllNodesAtLatestRevision
      3 nodes are at revision 3
  13. Verify that all master hosts have started and joined the cluster.

    In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

    $ oc get pods -n openshift-etcd | grep etcd
    etcd-ip-10-0-143-125.ec2.internal                2/2     Running     0          9h
    etcd-ip-10-0-154-194.ec2.internal                2/2     Running     0          9h
    etcd-ip-10-0-173-171.ec2.internal                2/2     Running     0          9h

Note that it might take several minutes after completing this procedure for all services to be restored. For example, authentication by using oc login might not immediately work until the OAuth server Pods are restarted.

3.4. Recovering from expired control plane certificates

3.4.1. Recovering from expired control plane certificates

As of OpenShift Container Platform 4.4.8, the cluster can automatically recover from expired control plane certificates. You no longer need to perform the manual steps that were required in previous versions.

The exception is that you must manually approve the pending node-bootstrapper certificate signing requests (CSRs) to recover kubelet certificates.

Use the following steps to approve the pending node-bootstrapper CSRs.

Procedure

  1. Get the list of current CSRs:

    $ oc get csr
  2. Review the details of a CSR to verify that it is valid:

    $ oc describe csr <csr_name> 1
    1
    <csr_name> is the name of a CSR from the list of current CSRs.
  3. Approve each valid node-bootstrapper CSR:

    $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name>

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