Postinstallation configuration

OpenShift Container Platform 4.15

Day 2 operations for OpenShift Container Platform

Red Hat OpenShift Documentation Team

Abstract

This document provides instructions and guidance on post installation activities for OpenShift Container Platform.

Chapter 1. Postinstallation configuration overview

After installing OpenShift Container Platform, a cluster administrator can configure and customize the following components:

  • Machine
  • Bare metal
  • Cluster
  • Node
  • Network
  • Storage
  • Users
  • Alerts and notifications

1.1. Post-installation configuration tasks

You can perform the post-installation configuration tasks to configure your environment to meet your need.

The following lists details these configurations:

  • Configure operating system features: The Machine Config Operator (MCO) manages MachineConfig objects. By using the MCO, you can configure nodes and custom resources.
  • Configure bare metal nodes: You can use the Bare Metal Operator (BMO) to manage bare metal hosts. The BMO can complete the following operations:

    • Inspects hardware details of the host and report them to the bare metal host.
    • Inspect firmware and configure BIOS settings.
    • Provision hosts with a desired image.
    • Clean disk contents for the host before or after provisioning the host.
  • Configure cluster features. You can modify the following features of an OpenShift Container Platform cluster:

    • Image registry
    • Networking configuration
    • Image build behavior
    • Identity provider
    • The etcd configuration
    • Machine set creation to handle the workloads
    • Cloud provider credential management
  • Configuring a private cluster: By default, the installation program provisions OpenShift Container Platform by using a publicly accessible DNS and endpoints. To make your cluster accessible only from within an internal network, configure the following components to make them private:

    • DNS
    • Ingress Controller
    • API server
  • Perform node operations: By default, OpenShift Container Platform uses Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) compute machines. You can perform the following node operations:

    • Add and remove compute machines.
    • Add and remove taints and tolerations.
    • Configure the maximum number of pods per node.
    • Enable Device Manager.
  • Configure network: After installing OpenShift Container Platform, you can configure the following components:

    • Ingress cluster traffic
    • Node port service range
    • Network policy
    • Enabling the cluster-wide proxy
  • Configure storage: By default, containers operate by using the ephemeral storage or transient local storage. The ephemeral storage has a lifetime limitation. To store the data for a long time, you must configure persistent storage. You can configure storage by using one of the following methods:

    • Dynamic provisioning: You can dynamically provision storage on demand by defining and creating storage classes that control different levels of storage, including storage access.
    • Static provisioning: You can use Kubernetes persistent volumes to make existing storage available to a cluster. Static provisioning can support various device configurations and mount options.
  • Configure users: OAuth access tokens allow users to authenticate themselves to the API. You can configure OAuth to perform the following tasks:
  • Specify an identity provider
  • Use role-based access control to define and supply permissions to users
  • Install an Operator from OperatorHub
  • Configuring alert notifications: By default, firing alerts are displayed on the Alerting UI of the web console. You can also configure OpenShift Container Platform to send alert notifications to external systems.

Chapter 2. Configuring a private cluster

After you install an OpenShift Container Platform version 4.15 cluster, you can set some of its core components to be private.

2.1. About private clusters

By default, OpenShift Container Platform is provisioned using publicly-accessible DNS and endpoints. You can set the DNS, Ingress Controller, and API server to private after you deploy your private cluster.

Important

If the cluster has any public subnets, load balancer services created by administrators might be publicly accessible. To ensure cluster security, verify that these services are explicitly annotated as private.

DNS

If you install OpenShift Container Platform on installer-provisioned infrastructure, the installation program creates records in a pre-existing public zone and, where possible, creates a private zone for the cluster’s own DNS resolution. In both the public zone and the private zone, the installation program or cluster creates DNS entries for *.apps, for the Ingress object, and api, for the API server.

The *.apps records in the public and private zone are identical, so when you delete the public zone, the private zone seamlessly provides all DNS resolution for the cluster.

Ingress Controller

Because the default Ingress object is created as public, the load balancer is internet-facing and in the public subnets.

The Ingress Operator generates a default certificate for an Ingress Controller to serve as a placeholder until you configure a custom default certificate. Do not use Operator-generated default certificates in production clusters. The Ingress Operator does not rotate its own signing certificate or the default certificates that it generates. Operator-generated default certificates are intended as placeholders for custom default certificates that you configure.

API server

By default, the installation program creates appropriate network load balancers for the API server to use for both internal and external traffic.

On Amazon Web Services (AWS), separate public and private load balancers are created. The load balancers are identical except that an additional port is available on the internal one for use within the cluster. Although the installation program automatically creates or destroys the load balancer based on API server requirements, the cluster does not manage or maintain them. As long as you preserve the cluster’s access to the API server, you can manually modify or move the load balancers. For the public load balancer, port 6443 is open and the health check is configured for HTTPS against the /readyz path.

On Google Cloud Platform, a single load balancer is created to manage both internal and external API traffic, so you do not need to modify the load balancer.

On Microsoft Azure, both public and private load balancers are created. However, because of limitations in current implementation, you just retain both load balancers in a private cluster.

2.2. Setting DNS to private

After you deploy a cluster, you can modify its DNS to use only a private zone.

Procedure

  1. Review the DNS custom resource for your cluster:

    $ oc get dnses.config.openshift.io/cluster -o yaml

    Example output

    apiVersion: config.openshift.io/v1
    kind: DNS
    metadata:
      creationTimestamp: "2019-10-25T18:27:09Z"
      generation: 2
      name: cluster
      resourceVersion: "37966"
      selfLink: /apis/config.openshift.io/v1/dnses/cluster
      uid: 0e714746-f755-11f9-9cb1-02ff55d8f976
    spec:
      baseDomain: <base_domain>
      privateZone:
        tags:
          Name: <infrastructure_id>-int
          kubernetes.io/cluster/<infrastructure_id>: owned
      publicZone:
        id: Z2XXXXXXXXXXA4
    status: {}

    Note that the spec section contains both a private and a public zone.

  2. Patch the DNS custom resource to remove the public zone:

    $ oc patch dnses.config.openshift.io/cluster --type=merge --patch='{"spec": {"publicZone": null}}'
    dns.config.openshift.io/cluster patched

    Because the Ingress Controller consults the DNS definition when it creates Ingress objects, when you create or modify Ingress objects, only private records are created.

    Important

    DNS records for the existing Ingress objects are not modified when you remove the public zone.

  3. Optional: Review the DNS custom resource for your cluster and confirm that the public zone was removed:

    $ oc get dnses.config.openshift.io/cluster -o yaml

    Example output

    apiVersion: config.openshift.io/v1
    kind: DNS
    metadata:
      creationTimestamp: "2019-10-25T18:27:09Z"
      generation: 2
      name: cluster
      resourceVersion: "37966"
      selfLink: /apis/config.openshift.io/v1/dnses/cluster
      uid: 0e714746-f755-11f9-9cb1-02ff55d8f976
    spec:
      baseDomain: <base_domain>
      privateZone:
        tags:
          Name: <infrastructure_id>-int
          kubernetes.io/cluster/<infrastructure_id>-wfpg4: owned
    status: {}

2.3. Setting the Ingress Controller to private

After you deploy a cluster, you can modify its Ingress Controller to use only a private zone.

Procedure

  1. Modify the default Ingress Controller to use only an internal endpoint:

    $ oc replace --force --wait --filename - <<EOF
    apiVersion: operator.openshift.io/v1
    kind: IngressController
    metadata:
      namespace: openshift-ingress-operator
      name: default
    spec:
      endpointPublishingStrategy:
        type: LoadBalancerService
        loadBalancer:
          scope: Internal
    EOF

    Example output

    ingresscontroller.operator.openshift.io "default" deleted
    ingresscontroller.operator.openshift.io/default replaced

    The public DNS entry is removed, and the private zone entry is updated.

2.4. Restricting the API server to private

After you deploy a cluster to Amazon Web Services (AWS) or Microsoft Azure, you can reconfigure the API server to use only the private zone.

Prerequisites

  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Have access to the web console as a user with admin privileges.

Procedure

  1. In the web portal or console for your cloud provider, take the following actions:

    1. Locate and delete the appropriate load balancer component:

      • For AWS, delete the external load balancer. The API DNS entry in the private zone already points to the internal load balancer, which uses an identical configuration, so you do not need to modify the internal load balancer.
      • For Azure, delete the api-internal rule for the load balancer.
    2. Delete the api.$clustername.$yourdomain DNS entry in the public zone.
  2. Remove the external load balancers:

    Important

    You can run the following steps only for an installer-provisioned infrastructure (IPI) cluster. For a user-provisioned infrastructure (UPI) cluster, you must manually remove or disable the external load balancers.

    • If your cluster uses a control plane machine set, delete the following lines in the control plane machine set custom resource:

      providerSpec:
        value:
          loadBalancers:
          - name: lk4pj-ext 1
            type: network 2
          - name: lk4pj-int
            type: network
      1 2
      Delete this line.
    • If your cluster does not use a control plane machine set, you must delete the external load balancers from each control plane machine.

      1. From your terminal, list the cluster machines by running the following command:

        $ oc get machine -n openshift-machine-api

        Example output

        NAME                            STATE     TYPE        REGION      ZONE         AGE
        lk4pj-master-0                  running   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1a   17m
        lk4pj-master-1                  running   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1b   17m
        lk4pj-master-2                  running   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1a   17m
        lk4pj-worker-us-east-1a-5fzfj   running   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1a   15m
        lk4pj-worker-us-east-1a-vbghs   running   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1a   15m
        lk4pj-worker-us-east-1b-zgpzg   running   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1b   15m

        The control plane machines contain master in the name.

      2. Remove the external load balancer from each control plane machine:

        1. Edit a control plane machine object to by running the following command:

          $ oc edit machines -n openshift-machine-api <control_plane_name> 1
          1
          Specify the name of the control plane machine object to modify.
        2. Remove the lines that describe the external load balancer, which are marked in the following example:

          providerSpec:
            value:
              loadBalancers:
              - name: lk4pj-ext 1
                type: network 2
              - name: lk4pj-int
                type: network
          1 2
          Delete this line.
        3. Save your changes and exit the object specification.
        4. Repeat this process for each of the control plane machines.

2.4.1. Configuring the Ingress Controller endpoint publishing scope to Internal

When a cluster administrator installs a new cluster without specifying that the cluster is private, the default Ingress Controller is created with a scope set to External. Cluster administrators can change an External scoped Ingress Controller to Internal.

Prerequisites

  • You installed the oc CLI.

Procedure

  • To change an External scoped Ingress Controller to Internal, enter the following command:

    $ oc -n openshift-ingress-operator patch ingresscontrollers/default --type=merge --patch='{"spec":{"endpointPublishingStrategy":{"type":"LoadBalancerService","loadBalancer":{"scope":"Internal"}}}}'
  • To check the status of the Ingress Controller, enter the following command:

    $ oc -n openshift-ingress-operator get ingresscontrollers/default -o yaml
    • The Progressing status condition indicates whether you must take further action. For example, the status condition can indicate that you need to delete the service by entering the following command:

      $ oc -n openshift-ingress delete services/router-default

      If you delete the service, the Ingress Operator recreates it as Internal.

2.5. Configuring a private storage endpoint on Azure

You can leverage the Image Registry Operator to use private endpoints on Azure, which enables seamless configuration of private storage accounts when OpenShift Container Platform is deployed on private Azure clusters. This allows you to deploy the image registry without exposing public-facing storage endpoints.

You can configure the Image Registry Operator to use private storage endpoints on Azure in one of two ways:

  • By configuring the Image Registry Operator to discover the VNet and subnet names
  • With user-provided Azure Virtual Network (VNet) and subnet names

2.5.1. Limitations for configuring a private storage endpoint on Azure

The following limitations apply when configuring a private storage endpoint on Azure:

  • When configuring the Image Registry Operator to use a private storage endpoint, public network access to the storage account is disabled. Consequently, pulling images from the registry outside of OpenShift Container Platform only works by setting disableRedirect: true in the registry Operator configuration. With redirect enabled, the registry redirects the client to pull images directly from the storage account, which will no longer work due to disabled public network access. For more information, see "Disabling redirect when using a private storage endpoint on Azure".
  • This operation cannot be undone by the Image Registry Operator.

2.5.2. Configuring a private storage endpoint on Azure by enabling the Image Registry Operator to discover VNet and subnet names

The following procedure shows you how to set up a private storage endpoint on Azure by configuring the Image Registry Operator to discover VNet and subnet names.

Prerequisites

  • You have configured the image registry to run on Azure.
  • Your network has been set up using the Installer Provisioned Infrastructure installation method.

    For users with a custom network setup, see "Configuring a private storage endpoint on Azure with user-provided VNet and subnet names".

Procedure

  1. Edit the Image Registry Operator config object and set networkAccess.type to Internal:

    $ oc edit configs.imageregistry/cluster
    # ...
    spec:
      # ...
       storage:
          azure:
            # ...
            networkAccess:
              type: Internal
    # ...
  2. Optional: Enter the following command to confirm that the Operator has completed provisioning. This might take a few minutes.

    $ oc get configs.imageregistry/cluster -o=jsonpath="{.spec.storage.azure.privateEndpointName}" -w
  3. Optional: If the registry is exposed by a route, and you are configuring your storage account to be private, you must disable redirect if you want pulls external to the cluster to continue to work. Enter the following command to disable redirect on the Image Operator configuration:

    $ oc patch configs.imageregistry cluster --type=merge -p '{"spec":{"disableRedirect": true}}'
    Note

    When redirect is enabled, pulling images from outside of the cluster will not work.

Verification

  1. Fetch the registry service name by running the following command:

    $ oc registry info --internal=true

    Example output

    image-registry.openshift-image-registry.svc:5000

  2. Enter debug mode by running the following command:

    $ oc debug node/<node_name>
  3. Run the suggested chroot command. For example:

    $ chroot /host
  4. Enter the following command to log in to your container registry:

    $ podman login --tls-verify=false -u unused -p $(oc whoami -t) image-registry.openshift-image-registry.svc:5000

    Example output

    Login Succeeded!

  5. Enter the following command to verify that you can pull an image from the registry:

    $ podman pull --tls-verify=false image-registry.openshift-image-registry.svc:5000/openshift/tools

    Example output

    Trying to pull image-registry.openshift-image-registry.svc:5000/openshift/tools/openshift/tools...
    Getting image source signatures
    Copying blob 6b245f040973 done
    Copying config 22667f5368 done
    Writing manifest to image destination
    Storing signatures
    22667f53682a2920948d19c7133ab1c9c3f745805c14125859d20cede07f11f9

2.5.3. Configuring a private storage endpoint on Azure with user-provided VNet and subnet names

Use the following procedure to configure a storage account that has public network access disabled and is exposed behind a private storage endpoint on Azure.

Prerequisites

  • You have configured the image registry to run on Azure.
  • You must know the VNet and subnet names used for your Azure environment.
  • If your network was configured in a separate resource group in Azure, you must also know its name.

Procedure

  1. Edit the Image Registry Operator config object and configure the private endpoint using your VNet and subnet names:

    $ oc edit configs.imageregistry/cluster
    # ...
    spec:
      # ...
       storage:
          azure:
            # ...
            networkAccess:
              type: Internal
              internal:
                subnetName: <subnet_name>
                vnetName: <vnet_name>
                networkResourceGroupName: <network_resource_group_name>
    # ...
  2. Optional: Enter the following command to confirm that the Operator has completed provisioning. This might take a few minutes.

    $ oc get configs.imageregistry/cluster -o=jsonpath="{.spec.storage.azure.privateEndpointName}" -w
    Note

    When redirect is enabled, pulling images from outside of the cluster will not work.

Verification

  1. Fetch the registry service name by running the following command:

    $ oc registry info --internal=true

    Example output

    image-registry.openshift-image-registry.svc:5000

  2. Enter debug mode by running the following command:

    $ oc debug node/<node_name>
  3. Run the suggested chroot command. For example:

    $ chroot /host
  4. Enter the following command to log in to your container registry:

    $ podman login --tls-verify=false -u unused -p $(oc whoami -t) image-registry.openshift-image-registry.svc:5000

    Example output

    Login Succeeded!

  5. Enter the following command to verify that you can pull an image from the registry:

    $ podman pull --tls-verify=false image-registry.openshift-image-registry.svc:5000/openshift/tools

    Example output

    Trying to pull image-registry.openshift-image-registry.svc:5000/openshift/tools/openshift/tools...
    Getting image source signatures
    Copying blob 6b245f040973 done
    Copying config 22667f5368 done
    Writing manifest to image destination
    Storing signatures
    22667f53682a2920948d19c7133ab1c9c3f745805c14125859d20cede07f11f9

2.5.4. Optional: Disabling redirect when using a private storage endpoint on Azure

By default, redirect is enabled when using the image registry. Redirect allows off-loading of traffic from the registry pods into the object storage, which makes pull faster. When redirect is enabled and the storage account is private, users from outside of the cluster are unable to pull images from the registry.

In some cases, users might want to disable redirect so that users from outside of the cluster can pull images from the registry.

Use the following procedure to disable redirect.

Prerequisites

  • You have configured the image registry to run on Azure.
  • You have configured a route.

Procedure

  • Enter the following command to disable redirect on the image registry configuration:

    $ oc patch configs.imageregistry cluster --type=merge -p '{"spec":{"disableRedirect": true}}'

Verification

  1. Fetch the registry service name by running the following command:

    $ oc registry info

    Example output

    default-route-openshift-image-registry.<cluster_dns>

  2. Enter the following command to log in to your container registry:

    $ podman login --tls-verify=false -u unused -p $(oc whoami -t) default-route-openshift-image-registry.<cluster_dns>

    Example output

    Login Succeeded!

  3. Enter the following command to verify that you can pull an image from the registry:

    $ podman pull --tls-verify=false default-route-openshift-image-registry.<cluster_dns>
    /openshift/tools

    Example output

    Trying to pull default-route-openshift-image-registry.<cluster_dns>/openshift/tools...
    Getting image source signatures
    Copying blob 6b245f040973 done
    Copying config 22667f5368 done
    Writing manifest to image destination
    Storing signatures
    22667f53682a2920948d19c7133ab1c9c3f745805c14125859d20cede07f11f9

Chapter 3. Bare metal configuration

When deploying OpenShift Container Platform on bare metal hosts, there are times when you need to make changes to the host either before or after provisioning. This can include inspecting the host’s hardware, firmware, and firmware details. It can also include formatting disks or changing modifiable firmware settings.

3.1. About the Bare Metal Operator

Use the Bare Metal Operator (BMO) to provision, manage, and inspect bare-metal hosts in your cluster.

The BMO uses three resources to complete these tasks:

  • BareMetalHost
  • HostFirmwareSettings
  • FirmwareSchema

The BMO maintains an inventory of the physical hosts in the cluster by mapping each bare-metal host to an instance of the BareMetalHost custom resource definition. Each BareMetalHost resource features hardware, software, and firmware details. The BMO continually inspects the bare-metal hosts in the cluster to ensure each BareMetalHost resource accurately details the components of the corresponding host.

The BMO also uses the HostFirmwareSettings resource and the FirmwareSchema resource to detail firmware specifications for the bare-metal host.

The BMO interfaces with bare-metal hosts in the cluster by using the Ironic API service. The Ironic service uses the Baseboard Management Controller (BMC) on the host to interface with the machine.

Some common tasks you can complete by using the BMO include the following:

  • Provision bare-metal hosts to the cluster with a specific image
  • Format a host’s disk contents before provisioning or after deprovisioning
  • Turn on or off a host
  • Change firmware settings
  • View the host’s hardware details

3.1.1. Bare Metal Operator architecture

The Bare Metal Operator (BMO) uses three resources to provision, manage, and inspect bare-metal hosts in your cluster. The following diagram illustrates the architecture of these resources:

BMO architecture overview

BareMetalHost

The BareMetalHost resource defines a physical host and its properties. When you provision a bare-metal host to the cluster, you must define a BareMetalHost resource for that host. For ongoing management of the host, you can inspect the information in the BareMetalHost or update this information.

The BareMetalHost resource features provisioning information such as the following:

  • Deployment specifications such as the operating system boot image or the custom RAM disk
  • Provisioning state
  • Baseboard Management Controller (BMC) address
  • Desired power state

The BareMetalHost resource features hardware information such as the following:

  • Number of CPUs
  • MAC address of a NIC
  • Size of the host’s storage device
  • Current power state

HostFirmwareSettings

You can use the HostFirmwareSettings resource to retrieve and manage the firmware settings for a host. When a host moves to the Available state, the Ironic service reads the host’s firmware settings and creates the HostFirmwareSettings resource. There is a one-to-one mapping between the BareMetalHost resource and the HostFirmwareSettings resource.

You can use the HostFirmwareSettings resource to inspect the firmware specifications for a host or to update a host’s firmware specifications.

Note

You must adhere to the schema specific to the vendor firmware when you edit the spec field of the HostFirmwareSettings resource. This schema is defined in the read-only FirmwareSchema resource.

FirmwareSchema

Firmware settings vary among hardware vendors and host models. A FirmwareSchema resource is a read-only resource that contains the types and limits for each firmware setting on each host model. The data comes directly from the BMC by using the Ironic service. The FirmwareSchema resource enables you to identify valid values you can specify in the spec field of the HostFirmwareSettings resource.

A FirmwareSchema resource can apply to many BareMetalHost resources if the schema is the same.

3.2. About the BareMetalHost resource

Metal3 introduces the concept of the BareMetalHost resource, which defines a physical host and its properties. The BareMetalHost resource contains two sections:

  1. The BareMetalHost spec
  2. The BareMetalHost status

3.2.1. The BareMetalHost spec

The spec section of the BareMetalHost resource defines the desired state of the host.

Table 3.1. BareMetalHost spec

ParametersDescription

automatedCleaningMode

An interface to enable or disable automated cleaning during provisioning and de-provisioning. When set to disabled, it skips automated cleaning. When set to metadata, automated cleaning is enabled. The default setting is metadata.

bmc:
  address:
  credentialsName:
  disableCertificateVerification:

The bmc configuration setting contains the connection information for the baseboard management controller (BMC) on the host. The fields are:

  • address: The URL for communicating with the host’s BMC controller.
  • credentialsName: A reference to a secret containing the username and password for the BMC.
  • disableCertificateVerification: A boolean to skip certificate validation when set to true.

bootMACAddress

The MAC address of the NIC used for provisioning the host.

bootMode

The boot mode of the host. It defaults to UEFI, but it can also be set to legacy for BIOS boot, or UEFISecureBoot.

consumerRef

A reference to another resource that is using the host. It could be empty if another resource is not currently using the host. For example, a Machine resource might use the host when the machine-api is using the host.

description

A human-provided string to help identify the host.

externallyProvisioned

A boolean indicating whether the host provisioning and deprovisioning are managed externally. When set:

  • Power status can still be managed using the online field.
  • Hardware inventory will be monitored, but no provisioning or deprovisioning operations are performed on the host.

firmware

Contains information about the BIOS configuration of bare metal hosts. Currently, firmware is only supported by iRMC, iDRAC, iLO4 and iLO5 BMCs. The sub fields are:

  • simultaneousMultithreadingEnabled: Allows a single physical processor core to appear as several logical processors. Valid settings are true or false.
  • sriovEnabled: SR-IOV support enables a hypervisor to create virtual instances of a PCI-express device, potentially increasing performance. Valid settings are true or false.
  • virtualizationEnabled: Supports the virtualization of platform hardware. Valid settings are true or false.
image:
  url:
  checksum:
  checksumType:
  format:

The image configuration setting holds the details for the image to be deployed on the host. Ironic requires the image fields. However, when the externallyProvisioned configuration setting is set to true and the external management doesn’t require power control, the fields can be empty. The fields are:

  • url: The URL of an image to deploy to the host.
  • checksum: The actual checksum or a URL to a file containing the checksum for the image at image.url.
  • checksumType: You can specify checksum algorithms. Currently image.checksumType only supports md5, sha256, and sha512. The default checksum type is md5.
  • format: This is the disk format of the image. It can be one of raw, qcow2, vdi, vmdk, live-iso or be left unset. Setting it to raw enables raw image streaming in the Ironic agent for that image. Setting it to live-iso enables iso images to live boot without deploying to disk, and it ignores the checksum fields.

networkData

A reference to the secret containing the network configuration data and its namespace, so that it can be attached to the host before the host boots to set up the network.

online

A boolean indicating whether the host should be powered on (true) or off (false). Changing this value will trigger a change in the power state of the physical host.

raid:
  hardwareRAIDVolumes:
  softwareRAIDVolumes:

(Optional) Contains the information about the RAID configuration for bare metal hosts. If not specified, it retains the current configuration.

Note

OpenShift Container Platform 4.15 supports hardware RAID for BMCs, including:

  • Fujitsu iRMC with support for RAID levels 0, 1, 5, 6, and 10
  • Dell iDRAC using the Redfish API with firmware version 6.10.30.20 or later and RAID levels 0, 1, and 5

OpenShift Container Platform 4.15 does not support software RAID.

See the following configuration settings:

  • hardwareRAIDVolumes: Contains the list of logical drives for hardware RAID, and defines the desired volume configuration in the hardware RAID. If you don’t specify rootDeviceHints, the first volume is the root volume. The sub-fields are:

    • level: The RAID level for the logical drive. The following levels are supported: 0,1,2,5,6,1+0,5+0,6+0.
    • name: The name of the volume as a string. It should be unique within the server. If not specified, the volume name will be auto-generated.
    • numberOfPhysicalDisks: The number of physical drives as an integer to use for the logical drove. Defaults to the minimum number of disk drives required for the particular RAID level.
    • physicalDisks: The list of names of physical disk drives as a string. This is an optional field. If specified, the controller field must be specified too.
    • controller: (Optional) The name of the RAID controller as a string to use in the hardware RAID volume.
    • rotational: If set to true, it will only select rotational disk drives. If set to false, it will only select solid-state and NVMe drives. If not set, it selects any drive types, which is the default behavior.
    • sizeGibibytes: The size of the logical drive as an integer to create in GiB. If unspecified or set to 0, it will use the maximum capacity of physical drive for the logical drive.
  • softwareRAIDVolumes: OpenShift Container Platform 4.15 does not support software RAID. The following information is for reference only. This configuration contains the list of logical disks for software RAID. If you don’t specify rootDeviceHints, the first volume is the root volume. If you set HardwareRAIDVolumes, this item will be invalid. Software RAIDs will always be deleted. The number of created software RAID devices must be 1 or 2. If there is only one software RAID device, it must be RAID-1. If there are two RAID devices, the first device must be RAID-1, while the RAID level for the second device can be 0, 1, or 1+0. The first RAID device will be the deployment device. Therefore, enforcing RAID-1 reduces the risk of a non-booting node in case of a device failure. The softwareRAIDVolume field defines the desired configuration of the volume in the software RAID. The sub-fields are:

    • level: The RAID level for the logical drive. The following levels are supported: 0,1,1+0.
    • physicalDisks: A list of device hints. The number of items should be greater than or equal to 2.
    • sizeGibibytes: The size of the logical disk drive as an integer to be created in GiB. If unspecified or set to 0, it will use the maximum capacity of physical drive for logical drive.

You can set the hardwareRAIDVolume as an empty slice to clear the hardware RAID configuration. For example:

spec:
   raid:
     hardwareRAIDVolume: []

If you receive an error message indicating that the driver does not support RAID, set the raid, hardwareRAIDVolumes or softwareRAIDVolumes to nil. You might need to ensure the host has a RAID controller.

rootDeviceHints:
  deviceName:
  hctl:
  model:
  vendor:
  serialNumber:
  minSizeGigabytes:
  wwn:
  wwnWithExtension:
  wwnVendorExtension:
  rotational:

The rootDeviceHints parameter enables provisioning of the RHCOS image to a particular device. It examines the devices in the order it discovers them, and compares the discovered values with the hint values. It uses the first discovered device that matches the hint value. The configuration can combine multiple hints, but a device must match all hints to get selected. The fields are:

  • deviceName: A string containing a Linux device name like /dev/vda. The hint must match the actual value exactly.
  • hctl: A string containing a SCSI bus address like 0:0:0:0. The hint must match the actual value exactly.
  • model: A string containing a vendor-specific device identifier. The hint can be a substring of the actual value.
  • vendor: A string containing the name of the vendor or manufacturer of the device. The hint can be a sub-string of the actual value.
  • serialNumber: A string containing the device serial number. The hint must match the actual value exactly.
  • minSizeGigabytes: An integer representing the minimum size of the device in gigabytes.
  • wwn: A string containing the unique storage identifier. The hint must match the actual value exactly.
  • wwnWithExtension: A string containing the unique storage identifier with the vendor extension appended. The hint must match the actual value exactly.
  • wwnVendorExtension: A string containing the unique vendor storage identifier. The hint must match the actual value exactly.
  • rotational: A boolean indicating whether the device should be a rotating disk (true) or not (false).

3.2.2. The BareMetalHost status

The BareMetalHost status represents the host’s current state, and includes tested credentials, current hardware details, and other information.

Table 3.2. BareMetalHost status

ParametersDescription

goodCredentials

A reference to the secret and its namespace holding the last set of baseboard management controller (BMC) credentials the system was able to validate as working.

errorMessage

Details of the last error reported by the provisioning backend, if any.

errorType

Indicates the class of problem that has caused the host to enter an error state. The error types are:

  • provisioned registration error: Occurs when the controller is unable to re-register an already provisioned host.
  • registration error: Occurs when the controller is unable to connect to the host’s baseboard management controller.
  • inspection error: Occurs when an attempt to obtain hardware details from the host fails.
  • preparation error: Occurs when cleaning fails.
  • provisioning error: Occurs when the controller fails to provision or deprovision the host.
  • power management error: Occurs when the controller is unable to modify the power state of the host.
  • detach error: Occurs when the controller is unable to detatch the host from the provisioner.
hardware:
  cpu
    arch:
    model:
    clockMegahertz:
    flags:
    count:

The hardware.cpu field details of the CPU(s) in the system. The fields include:

  • arch: The architecture of the CPU.
  • model: The CPU model as a string.
  • clockMegahertz: The speed in MHz of the CPU.
  • flags: The list of CPU flags. For example, 'mmx','sse','sse2','vmx' etc.
  • count: The number of CPUs available in the system.
hardware:
  firmware:

Contains BIOS firmware information. For example, the hardware vendor and version.

hardware:
  nics:
  - ip:
    name:
    mac:
    speedGbps:
    vlans:
    vlanId:
    pxe:

The hardware.nics field contains a list of network interfaces for the host. The fields include:

  • ip: The IP address of the NIC, if one was assigned when the discovery agent ran.
  • name: A string identifying the network device. For example, nic-1.
  • mac: The MAC address of the NIC.
  • speedGbps: The speed of the device in Gbps.
  • vlans: A list holding all the VLANs available for this NIC.
  • vlanId: The untagged VLAN ID.
  • pxe: Whether the NIC is able to boot using PXE.
hardware:
  ramMebibytes:

The host’s amount of memory in Mebibytes (MiB).

hardware:
  storage:
  - name:
    rotational:
    sizeBytes:
    serialNumber:

The hardware.storage field contains a list of storage devices available to the host. The fields include:

  • name: A string identifying the storage device. For example, disk 1 (boot).
  • rotational: Indicates whether the disk is rotational, and returns either true or false.
  • sizeBytes: The size of the storage device.
  • serialNumber: The device’s serial number.
hardware:
  systemVendor:
    manufacturer:
    productName:
    serialNumber:

Contains information about the host’s manufacturer, the productName, and the serialNumber.

lastUpdated

The timestamp of the last time the status of the host was updated.

operationalStatus

The status of the server. The status is one of the following:

  • OK: Indicates all the details for the host are known, correctly configured, working, and manageable.
  • discovered: Implies some of the host’s details are either not working correctly or missing. For example, the BMC address is known but the login credentials are not.
  • error: Indicates the system found some sort of irrecoverable error. Refer to the errorMessage field in the status section for more details.
  • delayed: Indicates that provisioning is delayed to limit simultaneous provisioning of multiple hosts.
  • detached: Indicates the host is marked unmanaged.

poweredOn

Boolean indicating whether the host is powered on.

provisioning:
  state:
  id:
  image:
  raid:
  firmware:
  rootDeviceHints:

The provisioning field contains values related to deploying an image to the host. The sub-fields include:

  • state: The current state of any ongoing provisioning operation. The states include:

    • <empty string>: There is no provisioning happening at the moment.
    • unmanaged: There is insufficient information available to register the host.
    • registering: The agent is checking the host’s BMC details.
    • match profile: The agent is comparing the discovered hardware details on the host against known profiles.
    • available: The host is available for provisioning. This state was previously known as ready.
    • preparing: The existing configuration will be removed, and the new configuration will be set on the host.
    • provisioning: The provisioner is writing an image to the host’s storage.
    • provisioned: The provisioner wrote an image to the host’s storage.
    • externally provisioned: Metal3 does not manage the image on the host.
    • deprovisioning: The provisioner is wiping the image from the host’s storage.
    • inspecting: The agent is collecting hardware details for the host.
    • deleting: The agent is deleting the from the cluster.
  • id: The unique identifier for the service in the underlying provisioning tool.
  • image: The image most recently provisioned to the host.
  • raid: The list of hardware or software RAID volumes recently set.
  • firmware: The BIOS configuration for the bare metal server.
  • rootDeviceHints: The root device selection instructions used for the most recent provisioning operation.

triedCredentials

A reference to the secret and its namespace holding the last set of BMC credentials that were sent to the provisioning backend.

3.3. Getting the BareMetalHost resource

The BareMetalHost resource contains the properties of a physical host. You must get the BareMetalHost resource for a physical host to review its properties.

Procedure

  1. Get the list of BareMetalHost resources:

    $ oc get bmh -n openshift-machine-api -o yaml
    Note

    You can use baremetalhost as the long form of bmh with oc get command.

  2. Get the list of hosts:

    $ oc get bmh -n openshift-machine-api
  3. Get the BareMetalHost resource for a specific host:

    $ oc get bmh <host_name> -n openshift-machine-api -o yaml

    Where <host_name> is the name of the host.

    Example output

    apiVersion: metal3.io/v1alpha1
    kind: BareMetalHost
    metadata:
      creationTimestamp: "2022-06-16T10:48:33Z"
      finalizers:
      - baremetalhost.metal3.io
      generation: 2
      name: openshift-worker-0
      namespace: openshift-machine-api
      resourceVersion: "30099"
      uid: 1513ae9b-e092-409d-be1b-ad08edeb1271
    spec:
      automatedCleaningMode: metadata
      bmc:
        address: redfish://10.46.61.19:443/redfish/v1/Systems/1
        credentialsName: openshift-worker-0-bmc-secret
        disableCertificateVerification: true
      bootMACAddress: 48:df:37:c7:f7:b0
      bootMode: UEFI
      consumerRef:
        apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
        kind: Machine
        name: ocp-edge-958fk-worker-0-nrfcg
        namespace: openshift-machine-api
      customDeploy:
        method: install_coreos
      hardwareProfile: unknown
      online: true
      rootDeviceHints:
        deviceName: /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-<serial_number>
      userData:
        name: worker-user-data-managed
        namespace: openshift-machine-api
    status:
      errorCount: 0
      errorMessage: ""
      goodCredentials:
        credentials:
          name: openshift-worker-0-bmc-secret
          namespace: openshift-machine-api
        credentialsVersion: "16120"
      hardware:
        cpu:
          arch: x86_64
          clockMegahertz: 2300
          count: 64
          flags:
          - 3dnowprefetch
          - abm
          - acpi
          - adx
          - aes
          model: Intel(R) Xeon(R) Gold 5218 CPU @ 2.30GHz
        firmware:
          bios:
            date: 10/26/2020
            vendor: HPE
            version: U30
        hostname: openshift-worker-0
        nics:
        - mac: 48:df:37:c7:f7:b3
          model: 0x8086 0x1572
          name: ens1f3
        ramMebibytes: 262144
        storage:
        - hctl: "0:0:0:0"
          model: VK000960GWTTB
          name: /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-<serial_number>
          sizeBytes: 960197124096
          type: SSD
          vendor: ATA
        systemVendor:
          manufacturer: HPE
          productName: ProLiant DL380 Gen10 (868703-B21)
          serialNumber: CZ200606M3
      hardwareProfile: unknown
      lastUpdated: "2022-06-16T11:41:42Z"
      operationalStatus: OK
      poweredOn: true
      provisioning:
        ID: 217baa14-cfcf-4196-b764-744e184a3413
        bootMode: UEFI
        customDeploy:
          method: install_coreos
        image:
          url: ""
        raid:
          hardwareRAIDVolumes: null
          softwareRAIDVolumes: []
        rootDeviceHints:
          deviceName: /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-<serial_number>
        state: provisioned
      triedCredentials:
        credentials:
          name: openshift-worker-0-bmc-secret
          namespace: openshift-machine-api
        credentialsVersion: "16120"

3.4. About the HostFirmwareSettings resource

You can use the HostFirmwareSettings resource to retrieve and manage the BIOS settings for a host. When a host moves to the Available state, Ironic reads the host’s BIOS settings and creates the HostFirmwareSettings resource. The resource contains the complete BIOS configuration returned from the baseboard management controller (BMC). Whereas, the firmware field in the BareMetalHost resource returns three vendor-independent fields, the HostFirmwareSettings resource typically comprises many BIOS settings of vendor-specific fields per host.

The HostFirmwareSettings resource contains two sections:

  1. The HostFirmwareSettings spec.
  2. The HostFirmwareSettings status.

3.4.1. The HostFirmwareSettings spec

The spec section of the HostFirmwareSettings resource defines the desired state of the host’s BIOS, and it is empty by default. Ironic uses the settings in the spec.settings section to update the baseboard management controller (BMC) when the host is in the Preparing state. Use the FirmwareSchema resource to ensure that you do not send invalid name/value pairs to hosts. See "About the FirmwareSchema resource" for additional details.

Example

spec:
  settings:
    ProcTurboMode: Disabled1

1
In the foregoing example, the spec.settings section contains a name/value pair that will set the ProcTurboMode BIOS setting to Disabled.
Note

Integer parameters listed in the status section appear as strings. For example, "1". When setting integers in the spec.settings section, the values should be set as integers without quotes. For example, 1.

3.4.2. The HostFirmwareSettings status

The status represents the current state of the host’s BIOS.

Table 3.3. HostFirmwareSettings

ParametersDescription
status:
  conditions:
  - lastTransitionTime:
    message:
    observedGeneration:
    reason:
    status:
    type:

The conditions field contains a list of state changes. The sub-fields include:

  • lastTransitionTime: The last time the state changed.
  • message: A description of the state change.
  • observedGeneration: The current generation of the status. If metadata.generation and this field are not the same, the status.conditions might be out of date.
  • reason: The reason for the state change.
  • status: The status of the state change. The status can be True, False or Unknown.
  • type: The type of state change. The types are Valid and ChangeDetected.
status:
  schema:
    name:
    namespace:
    lastUpdated:

The FirmwareSchema for the firmware settings. The fields include:

  • name: The name or unique identifier referencing the schema.
  • namespace: The namespace where the schema is stored.
  • lastUpdated: The last time the resource was updated.
status:
  settings:

The settings field contains a list of name/value pairs of a host’s current BIOS settings.

3.5. Getting the HostFirmwareSettings resource

The HostFirmwareSettings resource contains the vendor-specific BIOS properties of a physical host. You must get the HostFirmwareSettings resource for a physical host to review its BIOS properties.

Procedure

  1. Get the detailed list of HostFirmwareSettings resources:

    $ oc get hfs -n openshift-machine-api -o yaml
    Note

    You can use hostfirmwaresettings as the long form of hfs with the oc get command.

  2. Get the list of HostFirmwareSettings resources:

    $ oc get hfs -n openshift-machine-api
  3. Get the HostFirmwareSettings resource for a particular host

    $ oc get hfs <host_name> -n openshift-machine-api -o yaml

    Where <host_name> is the name of the host.

3.6. Editing the HostFirmwareSettings resource

You can edit the HostFirmwareSettings of provisioned hosts.

Important

You can only edit hosts when they are in the provisioned state, excluding read-only values. You cannot edit hosts in the externally provisioned state.

Procedure

  1. Get the list of HostFirmwareSettings resources:

    $ oc get hfs -n openshift-machine-api
  2. Edit a host’s HostFirmwareSettings resource:

    $ oc edit hfs <host_name> -n openshift-machine-api

    Where <host_name> is the name of a provisioned host. The HostFirmwareSettings resource will open in the default editor for your terminal.

  3. Add name/value pairs to the spec.settings section:

    Example

    spec:
      settings:
        name: value 1

    1
    Use the FirmwareSchema resource to identify the available settings for the host. You cannot set values that are read-only.
  4. Save the changes and exit the editor.
  5. Get the host’s machine name:

     $ oc get bmh <host_name> -n openshift-machine name

    Where <host_name> is the name of the host. The machine name appears under the CONSUMER field.

  6. Annotate the machine to delete it from the machineset:

    $ oc annotate machine <machine_name> machine.openshift.io/delete-machine=true -n openshift-machine-api

    Where <machine_name> is the name of the machine to delete.

  7. Get a list of nodes and count the number of worker nodes:

    $ oc get nodes
  8. Get the machineset:

    $ oc get machinesets -n openshift-machine-api
  9. Scale the machineset:

    $ oc scale machineset <machineset_name> -n openshift-machine-api --replicas=<n-1>

    Where <machineset_name> is the name of the machineset and <n-1> is the decremented number of worker nodes.

  10. When the host enters the Available state, scale up the machineset to make the HostFirmwareSettings resource changes take effect:

    $ oc scale machineset <machineset_name> -n openshift-machine-api --replicas=<n>

    Where <machineset_name> is the name of the machineset and <n> is the number of worker nodes.

3.7. Verifying the HostFirmware Settings resource is valid

When the user edits the spec.settings section to make a change to the HostFirmwareSetting(HFS) resource, the Bare Metal Operator (BMO) validates the change against the FimwareSchema resource, which is a read-only resource. If the setting is invalid, the BMO will set the Type value of the status.Condition setting to False and also generate an event and store it in the HFS resource. Use the following procedure to verify that the resource is valid.

Procedure

  1. Get a list of HostFirmwareSetting resources:

    $ oc get hfs -n openshift-machine-api
  2. Verify that the HostFirmwareSettings resource for a particular host is valid:

    $ oc describe hfs <host_name> -n openshift-machine-api

    Where <host_name> is the name of the host.

    Example output

    Events:
      Type    Reason            Age    From                                    Message
      ----    ------            ----   ----                                    -------
      Normal  ValidationFailed  2m49s  metal3-hostfirmwaresettings-controller  Invalid BIOS setting: Setting ProcTurboMode is invalid, unknown enumeration value - Foo

    Important

    If the response returns ValidationFailed, there is an error in the resource configuration and you must update the values to conform to the FirmwareSchema resource.

3.8. About the FirmwareSchema resource

BIOS settings vary among hardware vendors and host models. A FirmwareSchema resource is a read-only resource that contains the types and limits for each BIOS setting on each host model. The data comes directly from the BMC through Ironic. The FirmwareSchema enables you to identify valid values you can specify in the spec field of the HostFirmwareSettings resource. The FirmwareSchema resource has a unique identifier derived from its settings and limits. Identical host models use the same FirmwareSchema identifier. It is likely that multiple instances of HostFirmwareSettings use the same FirmwareSchema.

Table 3.4. FirmwareSchema specification

ParametersDescription
<BIOS_setting_name>
  attribute_type:
  allowable_values:
  lower_bound:
  upper_bound:
  min_length:
  max_length:
  read_only:
  unique:

The spec is a simple map consisting of the BIOS setting name and the limits of the setting. The fields include:

  • attribute_type: The type of setting. The supported types are:

    • Enumeration
    • Integer
    • String
    • Boolean
  • allowable_values: A list of allowable values when the attribute_type is Enumeration.
  • lower_bound: The lowest allowed value when attribute_type is Integer.
  • upper_bound: The highest allowed value when attribute_type is Integer.
  • min_length: The shortest string length that the value can have when attribute_type is String.
  • max_length: The longest string length that the value can have when attribute_type is String.
  • read_only: The setting is read only and cannot be modified.
  • unique: The setting is specific to this host.

3.9. Getting the FirmwareSchema resource

Each host model from each vendor has different BIOS settings. When editing the HostFirmwareSettings resource’s spec section, the name/value pairs you set must conform to that host’s firmware schema. To ensure you are setting valid name/value pairs, get the FirmwareSchema for the host and review it.

Procedure

  1. To get a list of FirmwareSchema resource instances, execute the following:

    $ oc get firmwareschema -n openshift-machine-api
  2. To get a particular FirmwareSchema instance, execute:

    $ oc get firmwareschema <instance_name> -n openshift-machine-api -o yaml

    Where <instance_name> is the name of the schema instance stated in the HostFirmwareSettings resource (see Table 3).

Chapter 4. Configuring multi-architecture compute machines on an OpenShift cluster

4.1. About clusters with multi-architecture compute machines

An OpenShift Container Platform cluster with multi-architecture compute machines is a cluster that supports compute machines with different architectures. Clusters with multi-architecture compute machines are available only on Amazon Web Services (AWS) or Microsoft Azure installer-provisioned infrastructures and bare metal, IBM Power®, and IBM Z® user-provisioned infrastructures with 64-bit x86 control plane machines.

Note

When there are nodes with multiple architectures in your cluster, the architecture of your image must be consistent with the architecture of the node. You need to ensure that the pod is assigned to the node with the appropriate architecture and that it matches the image architecture. For more information on assigning pods to nodes, see Assigning pods to nodes.

Important

The Cluster Samples Operator is not supported on clusters with multi-architecture compute machines. Your cluster can be created without this capability. For more information, see Enabling cluster capabilities

For information on migrating your single-architecture cluster to a cluster that supports multi-architecture compute machines, see Migrating to a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines.

4.1.1. Configuring your cluster with multi-architecture compute machines

To create a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines with different installation options and platforms, you can use the documentation in the following table:

Table 4.1. Cluster with multi-architecture compute machine installation options

Documentation sectionPlatformUser-provisioned installationInstaller-provisioned installationControl PlaneCompute node

Creating a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines on Azure

Microsoft Azure

 

x86_64

aarch64

Creating a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines on AWS

Amazon Web Services (AWS)

 

x86_64

aarch64

Creating a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines on GCP

Google Cloud Platform (GCP)

 

x86_64

aarch64

Creating a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines on bare metal, IBM Power, or IBM Z

Bare metal

 

x86_64

aarch64

IBM Power

 

x86_64 or ppc64le

x86_64, ppc64le

IBM Z

 

x86_64 or s390x

x86_64, s390x

Creating a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines on IBM Z® and IBM® LinuxONE with z/VM

IBM Z® and IBM® LinuxONE

 

x86_64

x86_64, s390x

Creating a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines on IBM Z® and IBM® LinuxONE with RHEL KVM

IBM Z® and IBM® LinuxONE

 

x86_64

x86_64, s390x

Creating a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines on IBM Power®

IBM Power®

 

x86_64

x86_64, ppc64le

Important

Autoscaling from zero is currently not supported on Google Cloud Platform (GCP).

4.2. Creating a cluster with multi-architecture compute machine on Azure

To deploy an Azure cluster with multi-architecture compute machines, you must first create a single-architecture Azure installer-provisioned cluster that uses the multi-architecture installer binary. For more information on Azure installations, see Installing a cluster on Azure with customizations. You can then add an ARM64 compute machine set to your cluster to create a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines.

The following procedures explain how to generate an ARM64 boot image and create an Azure compute machine set that uses the ARM64 boot image. This adds ARM64 compute nodes to your cluster and deploys the amount of ARM64 virtual machines (VM) that you need.

4.2.1. Verifying cluster compatibility

Before you can start adding compute nodes of different architectures to your cluster, you must verify that your cluster is multi-architecture compatible.

Prerequisites

  • You installed the OpenShift CLI (oc)

Procedure

  • You can check that your cluster uses the architecture payload by running the following command:

    $ oc adm release info -o jsonpath="{ .metadata.metadata}"

Verification

  1. If you see the following output, then your cluster is using the multi-architecture payload:

    {
     "release.openshift.io/architecture": "multi",
     "url": "https://access.redhat.com/errata/<errata_version>"
    }

    You can then begin adding multi-arch compute nodes to your cluster.

  2. If you see the following output, then your cluster is not using the multi-architecture payload:

    {
     "url": "https://access.redhat.com/errata/<errata_version>"
    }
    Important

    To migrate your cluster so the cluster supports multi-architecture compute machines, follow the procedure in Migrating to a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines.

4.2.2. Creating an ARM64 boot image using the Azure image gallery

The following procedure describes how to manually generate an ARM64 boot image.

Prerequisites

  • You installed the Azure CLI (az).
  • You created a single-architecture Azure installer-provisioned cluster with the multi-architecture installer binary.

Procedure

  1. Log in to your Azure account:

    $ az login
  2. Create a storage account and upload the arm64 virtual hard disk (VHD) to your storage account. The OpenShift Container Platform installation program creates a resource group, however, the boot image can also be uploaded to a custom named resource group:

    $ az storage account create -n ${STORAGE_ACCOUNT_NAME} -g ${RESOURCE_GROUP} -l westus --sku Standard_LRS 1
    1
    The westus object is an example region.
  3. Create a storage container using the storage account you generated:

    $ az storage container create -n ${CONTAINER_NAME} --account-name ${STORAGE_ACCOUNT_NAME}
  4. You must use the OpenShift Container Platform installation program JSON file to extract the URL and aarch64 VHD name:

    1. Extract the URL field and set it to RHCOS_VHD_ORIGIN_URL as the file name by running the following command:

      $ RHCOS_VHD_ORIGIN_URL=$(oc -n openshift-machine-config-operator get configmap/coreos-bootimages -o jsonpath='{.data.stream}' | jq -r '.architectures.aarch64."rhel-coreos-extensions"."azure-disk".url')
    2. Extract the aarch64 VHD name and set it to BLOB_NAME as the file name by running the following command:

      $ BLOB_NAME=rhcos-$(oc -n openshift-machine-config-operator get configmap/coreos-bootimages -o jsonpath='{.data.stream}' | jq -r '.architectures.aarch64."rhel-coreos-extensions"."azure-disk".release')-azure.aarch64.vhd
  5. Generate a shared access signature (SAS) token. Use this token to upload the RHCOS VHD to your storage container with the following commands:

    $ end=`date -u -d "30 minutes" '+%Y-%m-%dT%H:%MZ'`
    $ sas=`az storage container generate-sas -n ${CONTAINER_NAME} --account-name ${STORAGE_ACCOUNT_NAME} --https-only --permissions dlrw --expiry $end -o tsv`
  6. Copy the RHCOS VHD into the storage container:

    $ az storage blob copy start --account-name ${STORAGE_ACCOUNT_NAME} --sas-token "$sas" \
     --source-uri "${RHCOS_VHD_ORIGIN_URL}" \
     --destination-blob "${BLOB_NAME}" --destination-container ${CONTAINER_NAME}

    You can check the status of the copying process with the following command:

    $ az storage blob show -c ${CONTAINER_NAME} -n ${BLOB_NAME} --account-name ${STORAGE_ACCOUNT_NAME} | jq .properties.copy

    Example output

    {
     "completionTime": null,
     "destinationSnapshot": null,
     "id": "1fd97630-03ca-489a-8c4e-cfe839c9627d",
     "incrementalCopy": null,
     "progress": "17179869696/17179869696",
     "source": "https://rhcos.blob.core.windows.net/imagebucket/rhcos-411.86.202207130959-0-azure.aarch64.vhd",
     "status": "success", 1
     "statusDescription": null
    }

    1
    If the status parameter displays the success object, the copying process is complete.
  7. Create an image gallery using the following command:

    $ az sig create --resource-group ${RESOURCE_GROUP} --gallery-name ${GALLERY_NAME}

    Use the image gallery to create an image definition. In the following example command, rhcos-arm64 is the name of the image definition.

    $ az sig image-definition create --resource-group ${RESOURCE_GROUP} --gallery-name ${GALLERY_NAME} --gallery-image-definition rhcos-arm64 --publisher RedHat --offer arm --sku arm64 --os-type linux --architecture Arm64 --hyper-v-generation V2
  8. To get the URL of the VHD and set it to RHCOS_VHD_URL as the file name, run the following command:

    $ RHCOS_VHD_URL=$(az storage blob url --account-name ${STORAGE_ACCOUNT_NAME} -c ${CONTAINER_NAME} -n "${BLOB_NAME}" -o tsv)
  9. Use the RHCOS_VHD_URL file, your storage account, resource group, and image gallery to create an image version. In the following example, 1.0.0 is the image version.

    $ az sig image-version create --resource-group ${RESOURCE_GROUP} --gallery-name ${GALLERY_NAME} --gallery-image-definition rhcos-arm64 --gallery-image-version 1.0.0 --os-vhd-storage-account ${STORAGE_ACCOUNT_NAME} --os-vhd-uri ${RHCOS_VHD_URL}
  10. Your arm64 boot image is now generated. You can access the ID of your image with the following command:

    $ az sig image-version show -r $GALLERY_NAME -g $RESOURCE_GROUP -i rhcos-arm64 -e 1.0.0

    The following example image ID is used in the recourseID parameter of the compute machine set:

    Example resourceID

    /resourceGroups/${RESOURCE_GROUP}/providers/Microsoft.Compute/galleries/${GALLERY_NAME}/images/rhcos-arm64/versions/1.0.0

4.2.3. Adding a multi-architecture compute machine set to your cluster

To add ARM64 compute nodes to your cluster, you must create an Azure compute machine set that uses the ARM64 boot image. To create your own custom compute machine set on Azure, see "Creating a compute machine set on Azure".

Prerequisites

  • You installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).

Procedure

  • Create a compute machine set and modify the resourceID and vmSize parameters with the following command. This compute machine set will control the arm64 worker nodes in your cluster:

    $ oc create -f arm64-machine-set-0.yaml

    Sample YAML compute machine set with arm64 boot image

    apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
    kind: MachineSet
    metadata:
      labels:
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: worker
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: worker
      name: <infrastructure_id>-arm64-machine-set-0
      namespace: openshift-machine-api
    spec:
      replicas: 2
      selector:
        matchLabels:
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-arm64-machine-set-0
      template:
        metadata:
          labels:
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: worker
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: worker
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-arm64-machine-set-0
        spec:
          lifecycleHooks: {}
          metadata: {}
          providerSpec:
            value:
              acceleratedNetworking: true
              apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
              credentialsSecret:
                name: azure-cloud-credentials
                namespace: openshift-machine-api
              image:
                offer: ""
                publisher: ""
                resourceID: /resourceGroups/${RESOURCE_GROUP}/providers/Microsoft.Compute/galleries/${GALLERY_NAME}/images/rhcos-arm64/versions/1.0.0 1
                sku: ""
                version: ""
              kind: AzureMachineProviderSpec
              location: <region>
              managedIdentity: <infrastructure_id>-identity
              networkResourceGroup: <infrastructure_id>-rg
              osDisk:
                diskSettings: {}
                diskSizeGB: 128
                managedDisk:
                  storageAccountType: Premium_LRS
                osType: Linux
              publicIP: false
              publicLoadBalancer: <infrastructure_id>
              resourceGroup: <infrastructure_id>-rg
              subnet: <infrastructure_id>-worker-subnet
              userDataSecret:
                name: worker-user-data
              vmSize: Standard_D4ps_v5 2
              vnet: <infrastructure_id>-vnet
              zone: "<zone>"

    1
    Set the resourceID parameter to the arm64 boot image.
    2
    Set the vmSize parameter to the instance type used in your installation. Some example instance types are Standard_D4ps_v5 or D8ps.

Verification

  1. Verify that the new ARM64 machines are running by entering the following command:

    $ oc get machineset -n openshift-machine-api

    Example output

    NAME                                                DESIRED  CURRENT  READY  AVAILABLE  AGE
    <infrastructure_id>-arm64-machine-set-0                   2        2      2          2  10m

  2. You can check that the nodes are ready and scheduable with the following command:

    $ oc get nodes

4.3. Creating a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines on AWS

To create an AWS cluster with multi-architecture compute machines, you must first create a single-architecture AWS installer-provisioned cluster with the multi-architecture installer binary. For more information on AWS installations, refer to Installing a cluster on AWS with customizations. You can then add a ARM64 compute machine set to your AWS cluster.

4.3.1. Verifying cluster compatibility

Before you can start adding compute nodes of different architectures to your cluster, you must verify that your cluster is multi-architecture compatible.

Prerequisites

  • You installed the OpenShift CLI (oc)

Procedure

  • You can check that your cluster uses the architecture payload by running the following command:

    $ oc adm release info -o jsonpath="{ .metadata.metadata}"

Verification

  1. If you see the following output, then your cluster is using the multi-architecture payload:

    {
     "release.openshift.io/architecture": "multi",
     "url": "https://access.redhat.com/errata/<errata_version>"
    }

    You can then begin adding multi-arch compute nodes to your cluster.

  2. If you see the following output, then your cluster is not using the multi-architecture payload:

    {
     "url": "https://access.redhat.com/errata/<errata_version>"
    }
    Important

    To migrate your cluster so the cluster supports multi-architecture compute machines, follow the procedure in Migrating to a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines.

4.3.2. Adding an ARM64 compute machine set to your cluster

To configure a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines, you must create a AWS ARM64 compute machine set. This adds ARM64 compute nodes to your cluster so that your cluster has multi-architecture compute machines.

Prerequisites

  • You installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • You used the installation program to create an AMD64 single-architecture AWS cluster with the multi-architecture installer binary.

Procedure

  • Create and modify a compute machine set, this will control the ARM64 compute nodes in your cluster.

    $ oc create -f aws-arm64-machine-set-0.yaml

    Sample YAML compute machine set to deploy an ARM64 compute node

    apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
    kind: MachineSet
    metadata:
      labels:
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
      name: <infrastructure_id>-aws-arm64-machine-set-0 2
      namespace: openshift-machine-api
    spec:
      replicas: 1
      selector:
        matchLabels:
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 3
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>-<zone> 4
      template:
        metadata:
          labels:
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role> 5
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role> 6
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>-<zone> 7
        spec:
          metadata:
            labels:
              node-role.kubernetes.io/<role>: ""
          providerSpec:
            value:
              ami:
                id: ami-02a574449d4f4d280 8
              apiVersion: awsproviderconfig.openshift.io/v1beta1
              blockDevices:
                - ebs:
                    iops: 0
                    volumeSize: 120
                    volumeType: gp2
              credentialsSecret:
                name: aws-cloud-credentials
              deviceIndex: 0
              iamInstanceProfile:
                id: <infrastructure_id>-worker-profile 9
              instanceType: m6g.xlarge 10
              kind: AWSMachineProviderConfig
              placement:
                availabilityZone: us-east-1a 11
                region: <region> 12
              securityGroups:
                - filters:
                    - name: tag:Name
                      values:
                        - <infrastructure_id>-worker-sg 13
              subnet:
                filters:
                  - name: tag:Name
                    values:
                      - <infrastructure_id>-private-<zone>
              tags:
                - name: kubernetes.io/cluster/<infrastructure_id> 14
                  value: owned
                - name: <custom_tag_name>
                  value: <custom_tag_value>
              userDataSecret:
                name: worker-user-data

    1 2 3 9 13 14
    Specify the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster. If you have the OpenShift CLI installed, you can obtain the infrastructure ID by running the following command:
    $ oc get -o jsonpath=‘{.status.infrastructureName}{“\n”}’ infrastructure cluster
    4 7
    Specify the infrastructure ID, role node label, and zone.
    5 6
    Specify the role node label to add.
    8
    Specify an ARM64 supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) Amazon Machine Image (AMI) for your AWS zone for your OpenShift Container Platform nodes.
    $ oc get configmap/coreos-bootimages \
    	  -n openshift-machine-config-operator \
    	  -o jsonpath='{.data.stream}' | jq \
    	  -r '.architectures.<arch>.images.aws.regions."<region>".image'
    10
    Specify an ARM64 supported machine type. For more information, refer to "Tested instance types for AWS 64-bit ARM"
    11
    Specify the zone, for example us-east-1a. Ensure that the zone you select offers 64-bit ARM machines.
    12
    Specify the region, for example, us-east-1. Ensure that the zone you select offers 64-bit ARM machines.

Verification

  1. View the list of compute machine sets by entering the following command:

    $ oc get machineset -n openshift-machine-api

    You can then see your created ARM64 machine set.

    Example output

    NAME                                                DESIRED  CURRENT  READY  AVAILABLE  AGE
    <infrastructure_id>-aws-arm64-machine-set-0                   2        2      2          2  10m

  2. You can check that the nodes are ready and scheduable with the following command:

    $ oc get nodes

4.4. Creating a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines on GCP

To create a Google Cloud Platform (GCP) cluster with multi-architecture compute machines, you must first create a single-architecture GCP installer-provisioned cluster with the multi-architecture installer binary. For more information on AWS installations, refer to Installing a cluster on GCP with customizations. You can then add ARM64 compute machines sets to your GCP cluster.

Note

Secure booting is currently not supported on ARM64 machines for GCP

4.4.1. Verifying cluster compatibility

Before you can start adding compute nodes of different architectures to your cluster, you must verify that your cluster is multi-architecture compatible.

Prerequisites

  • You installed the OpenShift CLI (oc)

Procedure

  • You can check that your cluster uses the architecture payload by running the following command:

    $ oc adm release info -o jsonpath="{ .metadata.metadata}"

Verification

  1. If you see the following output, then your cluster is using the multi-architecture payload:

    {
     "release.openshift.io/architecture": "multi",
     "url": "https://access.redhat.com/errata/<errata_version>"
    }

    You can then begin adding multi-arch compute nodes to your cluster.

  2. If you see the following output, then your cluster is not using the multi-architecture payload:

    {
     "url": "https://access.redhat.com/errata/<errata_version>"
    }
    Important

    To migrate your cluster so the cluster supports multi-architecture compute machines, follow the procedure in Migrating to a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines.

4.4.2. Adding an ARM64 compute machine set to your GCP cluster

To configure a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines, you must create a GCP ARM64 compute machine set. This adds ARM64 compute nodes to your cluster.

Prerequisites

  • You installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • You used the installation program to create an AMD64 single-architecture AWS cluster with the multi-architecture installer binary.

Procedure

  • Create and modify a compute machine set, this controls the ARM64 compute nodes in your cluster:

    $ oc create -f gcp-arm64-machine-set-0.yaml

    Sample GCP YAML compute machine set to deploy an ARM64 compute node

    apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
    kind: MachineSet
    metadata:
      labels:
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
      name: <infrastructure_id>-w-a
      namespace: openshift-machine-api
    spec:
      replicas: 1
      selector:
        matchLabels:
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-w-a
      template:
        metadata:
          creationTimestamp: null
          labels:
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role> 2
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role>
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-w-a
        spec:
          metadata:
            labels:
              node-role.kubernetes.io/<role>: ""
          providerSpec:
            value:
              apiVersion: gcpprovider.openshift.io/v1beta1
              canIPForward: false
              credentialsSecret:
                name: gcp-cloud-credentials
              deletionProtection: false
              disks:
              - autoDelete: true
                boot: true
                image: <path_to_image> 3
                labels: null
                sizeGb: 128
                type: pd-ssd
              gcpMetadata: 4
              - key: <custom_metadata_key>
                value: <custom_metadata_value>
              kind: GCPMachineProviderSpec
              machineType: n1-standard-4 5
              metadata:
                creationTimestamp: null
              networkInterfaces:
              - network: <infrastructure_id>-network
                subnetwork: <infrastructure_id>-worker-subnet
              projectID: <project_name> 6
              region: us-central1 7
              serviceAccounts:
              - email: <infrastructure_id>-w@<project_name>.iam.gserviceaccount.com
                scopes:
                - https://www.googleapis.com/auth/cloud-platform
              tags:
                - <infrastructure_id>-worker
              userDataSecret:
                name: worker-user-data
              zone: us-central1-a

    1
    Specify the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster. You can obtain the infrastructure ID by running the following command:
    $ oc get -o jsonpath='{.status.infrastructureName}{"\n"}' infrastructure cluster
    2
    Specify the role node label to add.
    3
    Specify the path to the image that is used in current compute machine sets. You need the project and image name for your path to image.

    To access the project and image name, run the following command:

    $ oc get configmap/coreos-bootimages \
      -n openshift-machine-config-operator \
      -o jsonpath='{.data.stream}' | jq \
      -r '.architectures.aarch64.images.gcp'

    Example output

      "gcp": {
        "release": "415.92.202309142014-0",
        "project": "rhcos-cloud",
        "name": "rhcos-415-92-202309142014-0-gcp-aarch64"
      }

    Use the project and name parameters from the output to create the path to image field in your machine set. The path to the image should follow the following format:

    $ projects/<project>/global/images/<image_name>
    4
    Optional: Specify custom metadata in the form of a key:value pair. For example use cases, see the GCP documentation for setting custom metadata.
    5
    Specify an ARM64 supported machine type. For more information, refer to Tested instance types for GCP on 64-bit ARM infrastructures in "Additional resources".
    6
    Specify the name of the GCP project that you use for your cluster.
    7
    Specify the region, for example, us-central1. Ensure that the zone you select offers 64-bit ARM machines.

Verification

  1. View the list of compute machine sets by entering the following command:

    $ oc get machineset -n openshift-machine-api

    You can then see your created ARM64 machine set.

    Example output

    NAME                                                DESIRED  CURRENT  READY  AVAILABLE  AGE
    <infrastructure_id>-gcp-arm64-machine-set-0                   2        2      2          2  10m

  2. You can check that the nodes are ready and scheduable with the following command:

    $ oc get nodes

4.5. Creating a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines on bare metal, IBM Power, or IBM Z

To create a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines on bare metal (x86_64), IBM Power® (ppc64le), or IBM Z® (s390x) you must have an existing single-architecture cluster on one of these platforms. Follow the installations procedures for your platform:

Before you can add additional compute nodes to your cluster, you must upgrade your cluster to one that uses the multi-architecture payload. For more information on migrating to the multi-architecture payload, see Migrating to a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines.

The following procedures explain how to create a RHCOS compute machine using an ISO image or network PXE booting. This will allow you to add additional nodes to your cluster and deploy a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines.

4.5.1. Verifying cluster compatibility

Before you can start adding compute nodes of different architectures to your cluster, you must verify that your cluster is multi-architecture compatible.

Prerequisites

  • You installed the OpenShift CLI (oc)

Procedure

  • You can check that your cluster uses the architecture payload by running the following command:

    $ oc adm release info -o jsonpath="{ .metadata.metadata}"

Verification

  1. If you see the following output, then your cluster is using the multi-architecture payload:

    {
     "release.openshift.io/architecture": "multi",
     "url": "https://access.redhat.com/errata/<errata_version>"
    }

    You can then begin adding multi-arch compute nodes to your cluster.

  2. If you see the following output, then your cluster is not using the multi-architecture payload:

    {
     "url": "https://access.redhat.com/errata/<errata_version>"
    }
    Important

    To migrate your cluster so the cluster supports multi-architecture compute machines, follow the procedure in Migrating to a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines.

4.5.2. Creating RHCOS machines using an ISO image

You can create more Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) compute machines for your bare metal cluster by using an ISO image to create the machines.

Prerequisites

  • Obtain the URL of the Ignition config file for the compute machines for your cluster. You uploaded this file to your HTTP server during installation.
  • You must have the OpenShift CLI (oc) installed.

Procedure

  1. Extract the Ignition config file from the cluster by running the following command:

    $ oc extract -n openshift-machine-api secret/worker-user-data-managed --keys=userData --to=- > worker.ign
  2. Upload the worker.ign Ignition config file you exported from your cluster to your HTTP server. Note the URLs of these files.
  3. You can validate that the ignition files are available on the URLs. The following example gets the Ignition config files for the compute node:

    $ curl -k http://<HTTP_server>/worker.ign
  4. You can access the ISO image for booting your new machine by running to following command:

    RHCOS_VHD_ORIGIN_URL=$(oc -n openshift-machine-config-operator get configmap/coreos-bootimages -o jsonpath='{.data.stream}' | jq -r '.architectures.<architecture>.artifacts.metal.formats.iso.disk.location')
  5. Use the ISO file to install RHCOS on more compute machines. Use the same method that you used when you created machines before you installed the cluster:

    • Burn the ISO image to a disk and boot it directly.
    • Use ISO redirection with a LOM interface.
  6. Boot the RHCOS ISO image without specifying any options, or interrupting the live boot sequence. Wait for the installer to boot into a shell prompt in the RHCOS live environment.

    Note

    You can interrupt the RHCOS installation boot process to add kernel arguments. However, for this ISO procedure you must use the coreos-installer command as outlined in the following steps, instead of adding kernel arguments.

  7. Run the coreos-installer command and specify the options that meet your installation requirements. At a minimum, you must specify the URL that points to the Ignition config file for the node type, and the device that you are installing to:

    $ sudo coreos-installer install --ignition-url=http://<HTTP_server>/<node_type>.ign <device> --ignition-hash=sha512-<digest> 12
    1
    You must run the coreos-installer command by using sudo, because the core user does not have the required root privileges to perform the installation.
    2
    The --ignition-hash option is required when the Ignition config file is obtained through an HTTP URL to validate the authenticity of the Ignition config file on the cluster node. <digest> is the Ignition config file SHA512 digest obtained in a preceding step.
    Note

    If you want to provide your Ignition config files through an HTTPS server that uses TLS, you can add the internal certificate authority (CA) to the system trust store before running coreos-installer.

    The following example initializes a bootstrap node installation to the /dev/sda device. The Ignition config file for the bootstrap node is obtained from an HTTP web server with the IP address 192.168.1.2:

    $ sudo coreos-installer install --ignition-url=http://192.168.1.2:80/installation_directory/bootstrap.ign /dev/sda --ignition-hash=sha512-a5a2d43879223273c9b60af66b44202a1d1248fc01cf156c46d4a79f552b6bad47bc8cc78ddf0116e80c59d2ea9e32ba53bc807afbca581aa059311def2c3e3b
  8. Monitor the progress of the RHCOS installation on the console of the machine.

    Important

    Ensure that the installation is successful on each node before commencing with the OpenShift Container Platform installation. Observing the installation process can also help to determine the cause of RHCOS installation issues that might arise.

  9. Continue to create more compute machines for your cluster.

4.5.3. Creating RHCOS machines by PXE or iPXE booting

You can create more Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) compute machines for your bare metal cluster by using PXE or iPXE booting.

Prerequisites

  • Obtain the URL of the Ignition config file for the compute machines for your cluster. You uploaded this file to your HTTP server during installation.
  • Obtain the URLs of the RHCOS ISO image, compressed metal BIOS, kernel, and initramfs files that you uploaded to your HTTP server during cluster installation.
  • You have access to the PXE booting infrastructure that you used to create the machines for your OpenShift Container Platform cluster during installation. The machines must boot from their local disks after RHCOS is installed on them.
  • If you use UEFI, you have access to the grub.conf file that you modified during OpenShift Container Platform installation.

Procedure

  1. Confirm that your PXE or iPXE installation for the RHCOS images is correct.

    • For PXE:

      DEFAULT pxeboot
      TIMEOUT 20
      PROMPT 0
      LABEL pxeboot
          KERNEL http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-kernel-<architecture> 1
          APPEND initrd=http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-initramfs.<architecture>.img coreos.inst.install_dev=/dev/sda coreos.inst.ignition_url=http://<HTTP_server>/worker.ign coreos.live.rootfs_url=http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-rootfs.<architecture>.img 2
      1
      Specify the location of the live kernel file that you uploaded to your HTTP server.
      2
      Specify locations of the RHCOS files that you uploaded to your HTTP server. The initrd parameter value is the location of the live initramfs file, the coreos.inst.ignition_url parameter value is the location of the worker Ignition config file, and the coreos.live.rootfs_url parameter value is the location of the live rootfs file. The coreos.inst.ignition_url and coreos.live.rootfs_url parameters only support HTTP and HTTPS.
      Note

      This configuration does not enable serial console access on machines with a graphical console. To configure a different console, add one or more console= arguments to the APPEND line. For example, add console=tty0 console=ttyS0 to set the first PC serial port as the primary console and the graphical console as a secondary console. For more information, see How does one set up a serial terminal and/or console in Red Hat Enterprise Linux?.

    • For iPXE (x86_64 + aarch64):

      kernel http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-kernel-<architecture> initrd=main coreos.live.rootfs_url=http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-rootfs.<architecture>.img coreos.inst.install_dev=/dev/sda coreos.inst.ignition_url=http://<HTTP_server>/worker.ign 1 2
      initrd --name main http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-initramfs.<architecture>.img 3
      boot
      1
      Specify the locations of the RHCOS files that you uploaded to your HTTP server. The kernel parameter value is the location of the kernel file, the initrd=main argument is needed for booting on UEFI systems, the coreos.live.rootfs_url parameter value is the location of the rootfs file, and the coreos.inst.ignition_url parameter value is the location of the worker Ignition config file.
      2
      If you use multiple NICs, specify a single interface in the ip option. For example, to use DHCP on a NIC that is named eno1, set ip=eno1:dhcp.
      3
      Specify the location of the initramfs file that you uploaded to your HTTP server.
      Note

      This configuration does not enable serial console access on machines with a graphical console To configure a different console, add one or more console= arguments to the kernel line. For example, add console=tty0 console=ttyS0 to set the first PC serial port as the primary console and the graphical console as a secondary console. For more information, see How does one set up a serial terminal and/or console in Red Hat Enterprise Linux? and "Enabling the serial console for PXE and ISO installation" in the "Advanced RHCOS installation configuration" section.

      Note

      To network boot the CoreOS kernel on aarch64 architecture, you need to use a version of iPXE build with the IMAGE_GZIP option enabled. See IMAGE_GZIP option in iPXE.

    • For PXE (with UEFI and GRUB as second stage) on aarch64:

      menuentry 'Install CoreOS' {
          linux rhcos-<version>-live-kernel-<architecture>  coreos.live.rootfs_url=http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-rootfs.<architecture>.img coreos.inst.install_dev=/dev/sda coreos.inst.ignition_url=http://<HTTP_server>/worker.ign 1 2
          initrd rhcos-<version>-live-initramfs.<architecture>.img 3
      }
      1
      Specify the locations of the RHCOS files that you uploaded to your HTTP/TFTP server. The kernel parameter value is the location of the kernel file on your TFTP server. The coreos.live.rootfs_url parameter value is the location of the rootfs file, and the coreos.inst.ignition_url parameter value is the location of the worker Ignition config file on your HTTP Server.
      2
      If you use multiple NICs, specify a single interface in the ip option. For example, to use DHCP on a NIC that is named eno1, set ip=eno1:dhcp.
      3
      Specify the location of the initramfs file that you uploaded to your TFTP server.
  2. Use the PXE or iPXE infrastructure to create the required compute machines for your cluster.

4.5.4. Approving the certificate signing requests for your machines

When you add machines to a cluster, two pending certificate signing requests (CSRs) are generated for each machine that you added. You must confirm that these CSRs are approved or, if necessary, approve them yourself. The client requests must be approved first, followed by the server requests.

Prerequisites

  • You added machines to your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Confirm that the cluster recognizes the machines:

    $ oc get nodes

    Example output

    NAME      STATUS    ROLES   AGE  VERSION
    master-0  Ready     master  63m  v1.28.5
    master-1  Ready     master  63m  v1.28.5
    master-2  Ready     master  64m  v1.28.5

    The output lists all of the machines that you created.

    Note

    The preceding output might not include the compute nodes, also known as worker nodes, until some CSRs are approved.

  2. Review the pending CSRs and ensure that you see the client requests with the Pending or Approved status for each machine that you added to the cluster:

    $ oc get csr

    Example output

    NAME        AGE     REQUESTOR                                                                   CONDITION
    csr-8b2br   15m     system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending
    csr-8vnps   15m     system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending
    ...

    In this example, two machines are joining the cluster. You might see more approved CSRs in the list.

  3. If the CSRs were not approved, after all of the pending CSRs for the machines you added are in Pending status, approve the CSRs for your cluster machines:

    Note

    Because the CSRs rotate automatically, approve your CSRs within an hour of adding the machines to the cluster. If you do not approve them within an hour, the certificates will rotate, and more than two certificates will be present for each node. You must approve all of these certificates. After the client CSR is approved, the Kubelet creates a secondary CSR for the serving certificate, which requires manual approval. Then, subsequent serving certificate renewal requests are automatically approved by the machine-approver if the Kubelet requests a new certificate with identical parameters.

    Note

    For clusters running on platforms that are not machine API enabled, such as bare metal and other user-provisioned infrastructure, you must implement a method of automatically approving the kubelet serving certificate requests (CSRs). If a request is not approved, then the oc exec, oc rsh, and oc logs commands cannot succeed, because a serving certificate is required when the API server connects to the kubelet. Any operation that contacts the Kubelet endpoint requires this certificate approval to be in place. The method must watch for new CSRs, confirm that the CSR was submitted by the node-bootstrapper service account in the system:node or system:admin groups, and confirm the identity of the node.

    • To approve them individually, run the following command for each valid CSR:

      $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name> 1
      1
      <csr_name> is the name of a CSR from the list of current CSRs.
    • To approve all pending CSRs, run the following command:

      $ oc get csr -o go-template='{{range .items}}{{if not .status}}{{.metadata.name}}{{"\n"}}{{end}}{{end}}' | xargs --no-run-if-empty oc adm certificate approve
      Note

      Some Operators might not become available until some CSRs are approved.

  4. Now that your client requests are approved, you must review the server requests for each machine that you added to the cluster:

    $ oc get csr

    Example output

    NAME        AGE     REQUESTOR                                                                   CONDITION
    csr-bfd72   5m26s   system:node:ip-10-0-50-126.us-east-2.compute.internal                       Pending
    csr-c57lv   5m26s   system:node:ip-10-0-95-157.us-east-2.compute.internal                       Pending
    ...

  5. If the remaining CSRs are not approved, and are in the Pending status, approve the CSRs for your cluster machines:

    • To approve them individually, run the following command for each valid CSR:

      $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name> 1
      1
      <csr_name> is the name of a CSR from the list of current CSRs.
    • To approve all pending CSRs, run the following command:

      $ oc get csr -o go-template='{{range .items}}{{if not .status}}{{.metadata.name}}{{"\n"}}{{end}}{{end}}' | xargs oc adm certificate approve
  6. After all client and server CSRs have been approved, the machines have the Ready status. Verify this by running the following command:

    $ oc get nodes

    Example output

    NAME      STATUS    ROLES   AGE  VERSION
    master-0  Ready     master  73m  v1.28.5
    master-1  Ready     master  73m  v1.28.5
    master-2  Ready     master  74m  v1.28.5
    worker-0  Ready     worker  11m  v1.28.5
    worker-1  Ready     worker  11m  v1.28.5

    Note

    It can take a few minutes after approval of the server CSRs for the machines to transition to the Ready status.

Additional information

4.6. Creating a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines on IBM Z and IBM LinuxONE with z/VM

To create a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines on IBM Z® and IBM® LinuxONE (s390x) with z/VM, you must have an existing single-architecture x86_64 cluster. You can then add s390x compute machines to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

Before you can add s390x nodes to your cluster, you must upgrade your cluster to one that uses the multi-architecture payload. For more information on migrating to the multi-architecture payload, see Migrating to a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines.

The following procedures explain how to create a RHCOS compute machine using a z/VM instance. This will allow you to add s390x nodes to your cluster and deploy a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines.

Note

To create an IBM Z® or IBM® LinuxONE (s390x) cluster with multi-architecture compute machines on x86_64, follow the instructions for Installing a cluster on IBM Z® and IBM® LinuxONE. You can then add x86_64 compute machines as described in Creating a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines on bare metal, IBM Power, or IBM Z.

4.6.1. Verifying cluster compatibility

Before you can start adding compute nodes of different architectures to your cluster, you must verify that your cluster is multi-architecture compatible.

Prerequisites

  • You installed the OpenShift CLI (oc)

Procedure

  • You can check that your cluster uses the architecture payload by running the following command:

    $ oc adm release info -o jsonpath="{ .metadata.metadata}"

Verification

  1. If you see the following output, then your cluster is using the multi-architecture payload:

    {
     "release.openshift.io/architecture": "multi",
     "url": "https://access.redhat.com/errata/<errata_version>"
    }

    You can then begin adding multi-arch compute nodes to your cluster.

  2. If you see the following output, then your cluster is not using the multi-architecture payload:

    {
     "url": "https://access.redhat.com/errata/<errata_version>"
    }
    Important

    To migrate your cluster so the cluster supports multi-architecture compute machines, follow the procedure in Migrating to a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines.

4.6.2. Creating RHCOS machines on IBM Z with z/VM

You can create more Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) compute machines running on IBM Z® with z/VM and attach them to your existing cluster.

Prerequisites

  • You have a domain name server (DNS) that can perform hostname and reverse lookup for the nodes.
  • You have an HTTP or HTTPS server running on your provisioning machine that is accessible to the machines you create.

Procedure

  1. Disable UDP aggregation.

    Currently, UDP aggregation is not supported on IBM Z® and is not automatically deactivated on multi-architecture compute clusters with an x86_64 control plane and additional s390x compute machines. To ensure that the addtional compute nodes are added to the cluster correctly, you must manually disable UDP aggregation.

    1. Create a YAML file udp-aggregation-config.yaml with the following content:

      apiVersion: v1
      kind: ConfigMap
      data:
        disable-udp-aggregation: "true"
      metadata:
        name: udp-aggregation-config
        namespace: openshift-network-operator
    2. Create the ConfigMap resource by running the following command:

      $ oc create -f udp-aggregation-config.yaml
  2. Extract the Ignition config file from the cluster by running the following command:

    $ oc extract -n openshift-machine-api secret/worker-user-data-managed --keys=userData --to=- > worker.ign
  3. Upload the worker.ign Ignition config file you exported from your cluster to your HTTP server. Note the URL of this file.
  4. You can validate that the Ignition file is available on the URL. The following example gets the Ignition config file for the compute node:

    $ curl -k http://<HTTP_server>/worker.ign
  5. Download the RHEL live kernel, initramfs, and rootfs files by running the following commands:

    $ curl -LO $(oc -n openshift-machine-config-operator get configmap/coreos-bootimages -o jsonpath='{.data.stream}' \
    | jq -r '.architectures.s390x.artifacts.metal.formats.pxe.kernel.location')
    $ curl -LO $(oc -n openshift-machine-config-operator get configmap/coreos-bootimages -o jsonpath='{.data.stream}' \
    | jq -r '.architectures.s390x.artifacts.metal.formats.pxe.initramfs.location')
    $ curl -LO $(oc -n openshift-machine-config-operator get configmap/coreos-bootimages -o jsonpath='{.data.stream}' \
    | jq -r '.architectures.s390x.artifacts.metal.formats.pxe.rootfs.location')
  6. Move the downloaded RHEL live kernel, initramfs, and rootfs files to an HTTP or HTTPS server that is accessible from the z/VM guest you want to add.
  7. Create a parameter file for the z/VM guest. The following parameters are specific for the virtual machine:

    • Optional: To specify a static IP address, add an ip= parameter with the following entries, with each separated by a colon:

      1. The IP address for the machine.
      2. An empty string.
      3. The gateway.
      4. The netmask.
      5. The machine host and domain name in the form hostname.domainname. Omit this value to let RHCOS decide.
      6. The network interface name. Omit this value to let RHCOS decide.
      7. The value none.
    • For coreos.inst.ignition_url=, specify the URL to the worker.ign file. Only HTTP and HTTPS protocols are supported.
    • For coreos.live.rootfs_url=, specify the matching rootfs artifact for the kernel and initramfs you are booting. Only HTTP and HTTPS protocols are supported.
    • For installations on DASD-type disks, complete the following tasks:

      1. For coreos.inst.install_dev=, specify /dev/dasda.
      2. Use rd.dasd= to specify the DASD where RHCOS is to be installed.
      3. Leave all other parameters unchanged.

        The following is an example parameter file, additional-worker-dasd.parm:

        rd.neednet=1 \
        console=ttysclp0 \
        coreos.inst.install_dev=/dev/dasda \
        coreos.live.rootfs_url=http://cl1.provide.example.com:8080/assets/rhcos-live-rootfs.s390x.img \
        coreos.inst.ignition_url=http://cl1.provide.example.com:8080/ignition/worker.ign \
        ip=172.18.78.2::172.18.78.1:255.255.255.0:::none nameserver=172.18.78.1 \
        rd.znet=qeth,0.0.bdf0,0.0.bdf1,0.0.bdf2,layer2=1,portno=0 \
        zfcp.allow_lun_scan=0 \
        rd.dasd=0.0.3490

        Write all options in the parameter file as a single line and make sure that you have no newline characters.

    • For installations on FCP-type disks, complete the following tasks:

      1. Use rd.zfcp=<adapter>,<wwpn>,<lun> to specify the FCP disk where RHCOS is to be installed. For multipathing, repeat this step for each additional path.

        Note

        When you install with multiple paths, you must enable multipathing directly after the installation, not at a later point in time, as this can cause problems.

      2. Set the install device as: coreos.inst.install_dev=/dev/sda.

        Note

        If additional LUNs are configured with NPIV, FCP requires zfcp.allow_lun_scan=0. If you must enable zfcp.allow_lun_scan=1 because you use a CSI driver, for example, you must configure your NPIV so that each node cannot access the boot partition of another node.

      3. Leave all other parameters unchanged.

        Important

        Additional postinstallation steps are required to fully enable multipathing. For more information, see “Enabling multipathing with kernel arguments on RHCOS" in Postinstallation machine configuration tasks.

        The following is an example parameter file, additional-worker-fcp.parm for a worker node with multipathing:

        rd.neednet=1 \
        console=ttysclp0 \
        coreos.inst.install_dev=/dev/sda \
        coreos.live.rootfs_url=http://cl1.provide.example.com:8080/assets/rhcos-live-rootfs.s390x.img \
        coreos.inst.ignition_url=http://cl1.provide.example.com:8080/ignition/worker.ign \
        ip=172.18.78.2::172.18.78.1:255.255.255.0:::none nameserver=172.18.78.1 \
        rd.znet=qeth,0.0.bdf0,0.0.bdf1,0.0.bdf2,layer2=1,portno=0 \
        zfcp.allow_lun_scan=0 \
        rd.zfcp=0.0.1987,0x50050763070bc5e3,0x4008400B00000000 \
        rd.zfcp=0.0.19C7,0x50050763070bc5e3,0x4008400B00000000 \
        rd.zfcp=0.0.1987,0x50050763071bc5e3,0x4008400B00000000 \
        rd.zfcp=0.0.19C7,0x50050763071bc5e3,0x4008400B00000000

        Write all options in the parameter file as a single line and make sure that you have no newline characters.

  8. Transfer the initramfs, kernel, parameter files, and RHCOS images to z/VM, for example, by using FTP. For details about how to transfer the files with FTP and boot from the virtual reader, see Installing under Z/VM.
  9. Punch the files to the virtual reader of the z/VM guest virtual machine.

    See PUNCH in IBM® Documentation.

    Tip

    You can use the CP PUNCH command or, if you use Linux, the vmur command to transfer files between two z/VM guest virtual machines.

  10. Log in to CMS on the bootstrap machine.
  11. IPL the bootstrap machine from the reader by running the following command:

    $ ipl c

    See IPL in IBM® Documentation.

4.6.3. Approving the certificate signing requests for your machines

When you add machines to a cluster, two pending certificate signing requests (CSRs) are generated for each machine that you added. You must confirm that these CSRs are approved or, if necessary, approve them yourself. The client requests must be approved first, followed by the server requests.

Prerequisites

  • You added machines to your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Confirm that the cluster recognizes the machines:

    $ oc get nodes

    Example output

    NAME      STATUS    ROLES   AGE  VERSION
    master-0  Ready     master  63m  v1.28.5
    master-1  Ready     master  63m  v1.28.5
    master-2  Ready     master  64m  v1.28.5

    The output lists all of the machines that you created.

    Note

    The preceding output might not include the compute nodes, also known as worker nodes, until some CSRs are approved.

  2. Review the pending CSRs and ensure that you see the client requests with the Pending or Approved status for each machine that you added to the cluster:

    $ oc get csr

    Example output

    NAME        AGE     REQUESTOR                                                                   CONDITION
    csr-8b2br   15m     system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending
    csr-8vnps   15m     system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending
    ...

    In this example, two machines are joining the cluster. You might see more approved CSRs in the list.

  3. If the CSRs were not approved, after all of the pending CSRs for the machines you added are in Pending status, approve the CSRs for your cluster machines:

    Note

    Because the CSRs rotate automatically, approve your CSRs within an hour of adding the machines to the cluster. If you do not approve them within an hour, the certificates will rotate, and more than two certificates will be present for each node. You must approve all of these certificates. After the client CSR is approved, the Kubelet creates a secondary CSR for the serving certificate, which requires manual approval. Then, subsequent serving certificate renewal requests are automatically approved by the machine-approver if the Kubelet requests a new certificate with identical parameters.

    Note

    For clusters running on platforms that are not machine API enabled, such as bare metal and other user-provisioned infrastructure, you must implement a method of automatically approving the kubelet serving certificate requests (CSRs). If a request is not approved, then the oc exec, oc rsh, and oc logs commands cannot succeed, because a serving certificate is required when the API server connects to the kubelet. Any operation that contacts the Kubelet endpoint requires this certificate approval to be in place. The method must watch for new CSRs, confirm that the CSR was submitted by the node-bootstrapper service account in the system:node or system:admin groups, and confirm the identity of the node.

    • To approve them individually, run the following command for each valid CSR:

      $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name> 1
      1
      <csr_name> is the name of a CSR from the list of current CSRs.
    • To approve all pending CSRs, run the following command:

      $ oc get csr -o go-template='{{range .items}}{{if not .status}}{{.metadata.name}}{{"\n"}}{{end}}{{end}}' | xargs --no-run-if-empty oc adm certificate approve
      Note

      Some Operators might not become available until some CSRs are approved.

  4. Now that your client requests are approved, you must review the server requests for each machine that you added to the cluster:

    $ oc get csr

    Example output

    NAME        AGE     REQUESTOR                                                                   CONDITION
    csr-bfd72   5m26s   system:node:ip-10-0-50-126.us-east-2.compute.internal                       Pending
    csr-c57lv   5m26s   system:node:ip-10-0-95-157.us-east-2.compute.internal                       Pending
    ...

  5. If the remaining CSRs are not approved, and are in the Pending status, approve the CSRs for your cluster machines:

    • To approve them individually, run the following command for each valid CSR:

      $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name> 1
      1
      <csr_name> is the name of a CSR from the list of current CSRs.
    • To approve all pending CSRs, run the following command:

      $ oc get csr -o go-template='{{range .items}}{{if not .status}}{{.metadata.name}}{{"\n"}}{{end}}{{end}}' | xargs oc adm certificate approve
  6. After all client and server CSRs have been approved, the machines have the Ready status. Verify this by running the following command:

    $ oc get nodes

    Example output

    NAME      STATUS    ROLES   AGE  VERSION
    master-0  Ready     master  73m  v1.28.5
    master-1  Ready     master  73m  v1.28.5
    master-2  Ready     master  74m  v1.28.5
    worker-0  Ready     worker  11m  v1.28.5
    worker-1  Ready     worker  11m  v1.28.5

    Note

    It can take a few minutes after approval of the server CSRs for the machines to transition to the Ready status.

Additional information

4.7. Creating a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines on IBM Z and IBM LinuxONE with RHEL KVM

To create a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines on IBM Z® and IBM® LinuxONE (s390x) with RHEL KVM, you must have an existing single-architecture x86_64 cluster. You can then add s390x compute machines to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

Before you can add s390x nodes to your cluster, you must upgrade your cluster to one that uses the multi-architecture payload. For more information on migrating to the multi-architecture payload, see Migrating to a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines.

The following procedures explain how to create a RHCOS compute machine using a RHEL KVM instance. This will allow you to add s390x nodes to your cluster and deploy a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines.

Note

To create an IBM Z® or IBM® LinuxONE (s390x) cluster with multi-architecture compute machines on x86_64, follow the instructions for Installing a cluster on IBM Z® and IBM® LinuxONE. You can then add x86_64 compute machines as described in Creating a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines on bare metal, IBM Power, or IBM Z.

4.7.1. Verifying cluster compatibility

Before you can start adding compute nodes of different architectures to your cluster, you must verify that your cluster is multi-architecture compatible.

Prerequisites

  • You installed the OpenShift CLI (oc)

Procedure

  • You can check that your cluster uses the architecture payload by running the following command:

    $ oc adm release info -o jsonpath="{ .metadata.metadata}"

Verification

  1. If you see the following output, then your cluster is using the multi-architecture payload:

    {
     "release.openshift.io/architecture": "multi",
     "url": "https://access.redhat.com/errata/<errata_version>"
    }

    You can then begin adding multi-arch compute nodes to your cluster.

  2. If you see the following output, then your cluster is not using the multi-architecture payload:

    {
     "url": "https://access.redhat.com/errata/<errata_version>"
    }
    Important

    To migrate your cluster so the cluster supports multi-architecture compute machines, follow the procedure in Migrating to a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines.

4.7.2. Creating RHCOS machines using virt-install

You can create more Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) compute machines for your cluster by using virt-install.

Prerequisites

  • You have at least one LPAR running on RHEL 8.7 or later with KVM, referred to as RHEL KVM host in this procedure.
  • The KVM/QEMU hypervisor is installed on the RHEL KVM host.
  • You have a domain name server (DNS) that can perform hostname and reverse lookup for the nodes.
  • An HTTP or HTTPS server is set up.

Procedure

  1. Disable UDP aggregation.

    Currently, UDP aggregation is not supported on IBM Z® and is not automatically deactivated on multi-architecture compute clusters with an x86_64 control plane and additional s390x compute machines. To ensure that the addtional compute nodes are added to the cluster correctly, you must manually disable UDP aggregation.

    1. Create a YAML file udp-aggregation-config.yaml with the following content:

      apiVersion: v1
      kind: ConfigMap
      data:
        disable-udp-aggregation: "true"
      metadata:
        name: udp-aggregation-config
        namespace: openshift-network-operator
    2. Create the ConfigMap resource by running the following command:

      $ oc create -f udp-aggregation-config.yaml
  2. Extract the Ignition config file from the cluster by running the following command:

    $ oc extract -n openshift-machine-api secret/worker-user-data-managed --keys=userData --to=- > worker.ign
  3. Upload the worker.ign Ignition config file you exported from your cluster to your HTTP server. Note the URL of this file.
  4. You can validate that the Ignition file is available on the URL. The following example gets the Ignition config file for the compute node:

    $ curl -k http://<HTTP_server>/worker.ign
  5. Download the RHEL live kernel, initramfs, and rootfs files by running the following commands:

     $ curl -LO $(oc -n openshift-machine-config-operator get configmap/coreos-bootimages -o jsonpath='{.data.stream}' \
    | jq -r '.architectures.s390x.artifacts.metal.formats.pxe.kernel.location')
    $ curl -LO $(oc -n openshift-machine-config-operator get configmap/coreos-bootimages -o jsonpath='{.data.stream}' \
    | jq -r '.architectures.s390x.artifacts.metal.formats.pxe.initramfs.location')
    $ curl -LO $(oc -n openshift-machine-config-operator get configmap/coreos-bootimages -o jsonpath='{.data.stream}' \
    | jq -r '.architectures.s390x.artifacts.metal.formats.pxe.rootfs.location')
  6. Move the downloaded RHEL live kernel, initramfs and rootfs files to an HTTP or HTTPS server before you launch virt-install.
  7. Create the new KVM guest nodes using the RHEL kernel, initramfs, and Ignition files; the new disk image; and adjusted parm line arguments.

    $ virt-install \
       --connect qemu:///system \
       --name <vm_name> \
       --autostart \
       --os-variant rhel9.2 \ 1
       --cpu host \
       --vcpus <vcpus> \
       --memory <memory_mb> \
       --disk <vm_name>.qcow2,size=<image_size> \
       --network network=<virt_network_parm> \
       --location <media_location>,kernel=<rhcos_kernel>,initrd=<rhcos_initrd> \ 2
       --extra-args "rd.neednet=1" \
       --extra-args "coreos.inst.install_dev=/dev/vda" \
       --extra-args "coreos.inst.ignition_url=<worker_ign>" \ 3
       --extra-args "coreos.live.rootfs_url=<rhcos_rootfs>" \ 4
       --extra-args "ip=<ip>::<default_gateway>:<subnet_mask_length>:<hostname>::none:<MTU>" \ 5
       --extra-args "nameserver=<dns>" \
       --extra-args "console=ttysclp0" \
       --noautoconsole \
       --wait
    1
    For os-variant, specify the RHEL version for the RHCOS compute machine. rhel9.2 is the recommended version. To query the supported RHEL version of your operating system, run the following command:
    $ osinfo-query os -f short-id
    Note

    The os-variant is case sensitive.

    2
    For --location, specify the location of the kernel/initrd on the HTTP or HTTPS server.
    3
    For coreos.inst.ignition_url=, specify the worker.ign Ignition file for the machine role. Only HTTP and HTTPS protocols are supported.
    4
    For coreos.live.rootfs_url=, specify the matching rootfs artifact for the kernel and initramfs you are booting. Only HTTP and HTTPS protocols are supported.
    5
    Optional: For hostname, specify the fully qualified hostname of the client machine.
    Note

    If you are using HAProxy as a load balancer, update your HAProxy rules for ingress-router-443 and ingress-router-80 in the /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg configuration file.

  8. Continue to create more compute machines for your cluster.

4.7.3. Approving the certificate signing requests for your machines

When you add machines to a cluster, two pending certificate signing requests (CSRs) are generated for each machine that you added. You must confirm that these CSRs are approved or, if necessary, approve them yourself. The client requests must be approved first, followed by the server requests.

Prerequisites

  • You added machines to your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Confirm that the cluster recognizes the machines:

    $ oc get nodes

    Example output

    NAME      STATUS    ROLES   AGE  VERSION
    master-0  Ready     master  63m  v1.28.5
    master-1  Ready     master  63m  v1.28.5
    master-2  Ready     master  64m  v1.28.5

    The output lists all of the machines that you created.

    Note

    The preceding output might not include the compute nodes, also known as worker nodes, until some CSRs are approved.

  2. Review the pending CSRs and ensure that you see the client requests with the Pending or Approved status for each machine that you added to the cluster:

    $ oc get csr

    Example output

    NAME        AGE     REQUESTOR                                                                   CONDITION
    csr-8b2br   15m     system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending
    csr-8vnps   15m     system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending
    ...

    In this example, two machines are joining the cluster. You might see more approved CSRs in the list.

  3. If the CSRs were not approved, after all of the pending CSRs for the machines you added are in Pending status, approve the CSRs for your cluster machines:

    Note

    Because the CSRs rotate automatically, approve your CSRs within an hour of adding the machines to the cluster. If you do not approve them within an hour, the certificates will rotate, and more than two certificates will be present for each node. You must approve all of these certificates. After the client CSR is approved, the Kubelet creates a secondary CSR for the serving certificate, which requires manual approval. Then, subsequent serving certificate renewal requests are automatically approved by the machine-approver if the Kubelet requests a new certificate with identical parameters.

    Note

    For clusters running on platforms that are not machine API enabled, such as bare metal and other user-provisioned infrastructure, you must implement a method of automatically approving the kubelet serving certificate requests (CSRs). If a request is not approved, then the oc exec, oc rsh, and oc logs commands cannot succeed, because a serving certificate is required when the API server connects to the kubelet. Any operation that contacts the Kubelet endpoint requires this certificate approval to be in place. The method must watch for new CSRs, confirm that the CSR was submitted by the node-bootstrapper service account in the system:node or system:admin groups, and confirm the identity of the node.

    • To approve them individually, run the following command for each valid CSR:

      $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name> 1
      1
      <csr_name> is the name of a CSR from the list of current CSRs.
    • To approve all pending CSRs, run the following command:

      $ oc get csr -o go-template='{{range .items}}{{if not .status}}{{.metadata.name}}{{"\n"}}{{end}}{{end}}' | xargs --no-run-if-empty oc adm certificate approve
      Note

      Some Operators might not become available until some CSRs are approved.

  4. Now that your client requests are approved, you must review the server requests for each machine that you added to the cluster:

    $ oc get csr

    Example output

    NAME        AGE     REQUESTOR                                                                   CONDITION
    csr-bfd72   5m26s   system:node:ip-10-0-50-126.us-east-2.compute.internal                       Pending
    csr-c57lv   5m26s   system:node:ip-10-0-95-157.us-east-2.compute.internal                       Pending
    ...

  5. If the remaining CSRs are not approved, and are in the Pending status, approve the CSRs for your cluster machines:

    • To approve them individually, run the following command for each valid CSR:

      $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name> 1
      1
      <csr_name> is the name of a CSR from the list of current CSRs.
    • To approve all pending CSRs, run the following command:

      $ oc get csr -o go-template='{{range .items}}{{if not .status}}{{.metadata.name}}{{"\n"}}{{end}}{{end}}' | xargs oc adm certificate approve
  6. After all client and server CSRs have been approved, the machines have the Ready status. Verify this by running the following command:

    $ oc get nodes

    Example output

    NAME      STATUS    ROLES   AGE  VERSION
    master-0  Ready     master  73m  v1.28.5
    master-1  Ready     master  73m  v1.28.5
    master-2  Ready     master  74m  v1.28.5
    worker-0  Ready     worker  11m  v1.28.5
    worker-1  Ready     worker  11m  v1.28.5

    Note

    It can take a few minutes after approval of the server CSRs for the machines to transition to the Ready status.

Additional information

4.8. Creating a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines on IBM Power

To create a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines on IBM Power® (ppc64le), you must have an existing single-architecture (x86_64) cluster. You can then add ppc64le compute machines to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

Important

Before you can add ppc64le nodes to your cluster, you must upgrade your cluster to one that uses the multi-architecture payload. For more information on migrating to the multi-architecture payload, see Migrating to a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines.

The following procedures explain how to create a RHCOS compute machine using an ISO image or network PXE booting. This will allow you to add ppc64le nodes to your cluster and deploy a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines.

Note

To create an IBM Power® (ppc64le) cluster with multi-architecture compute machines on x86_64, follow the instructions for Installing a cluster on IBM Power®. You can then add x86_64 compute machines as described in Creating a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines on bare metal, IBM Power, or IBM Z.

4.8.1. Verifying cluster compatibility

Before you can start adding compute nodes of different architectures to your cluster, you must verify that your cluster is multi-architecture compatible.

Prerequisites

  • You installed the OpenShift CLI (oc)
Note

When using multiple architectures, hosts for OpenShift Container Platform nodes must share the same storage layer. If they do not have the same storage layer, use a storage provider such as nfs-provisioner.

Note

You should limit the number of network hops between the compute and control plane as much as possible.

Procedure

  • You can check that your cluster uses the architecture payload by running the following command:

    $ oc adm release info -o jsonpath="{ .metadata.metadata}"

Verification

  1. If you see the following output, then your cluster is using the multi-architecture payload:

    {
     "release.openshift.io/architecture": "multi",
     "url": "https://access.redhat.com/errata/<errata_version>"
    }

    You can then begin adding multi-arch compute nodes to your cluster.

  2. If you see the following output, then your cluster is not using the multi-architecture payload:

    {
     "url": "https://access.redhat.com/errata/<errata_version>"
    }
    Important

    To migrate your cluster so the cluster supports multi-architecture compute machines, follow the procedure in Migrating to a cluster with multi-architecture compute machines.

4.8.2. Creating RHCOS machines using an ISO image

You can create more Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) compute machines for your cluster by using an ISO image to create the machines.

Prerequisites

  • Obtain the URL of the Ignition config file for the compute machines for your cluster. You uploaded this file to your HTTP server during installation.
  • You must have the OpenShift CLI (oc) installed.

Procedure

  1. Extract the Ignition config file from the cluster by running the following command:

    $ oc extract -n openshift-machine-api secret/worker-user-data-managed --keys=userData --to=- > worker.ign
  2. Upload the worker.ign Ignition config file you exported from your cluster to your HTTP server. Note the URLs of these files.
  3. You can validate that the ignition files are available on the URLs. The following example gets the Ignition config files for the compute node:

    $ curl -k http://<HTTP_server>/worker.ign
  4. You can access the ISO image for booting your new machine by running to following command:

    RHCOS_VHD_ORIGIN_URL=$(oc -n openshift-machine-config-operator get configmap/coreos-bootimages -o jsonpath='{.data.stream}' | jq -r '.architectures.<architecture>.artifacts.metal.formats.iso.disk.location')
  5. Use the ISO file to install RHCOS on more compute machines. Use the same method that you used when you created machines before you installed the cluster:

    • Burn the ISO image to a disk and boot it directly.
    • Use ISO redirection with a LOM interface.
  6. Boot the RHCOS ISO image without specifying any options, or interrupting the live boot sequence. Wait for the installer to boot into a shell prompt in the RHCOS live environment.

    Note

    You can interrupt the RHCOS installation boot process to add kernel arguments. However, for this ISO procedure you must use the coreos-installer command as outlined in the following steps, instead of adding kernel arguments.

  7. Run the coreos-installer command and specify the options that meet your installation requirements. At a minimum, you must specify the URL that points to the Ignition config file for the node type, and the device that you are installing to:

    $ sudo coreos-installer install --ignition-url=http://<HTTP_server>/<node_type>.ign <device> --ignition-hash=sha512-<digest> 12
    1
    You must run the coreos-installer command by using sudo, because the core user does not have the required root privileges to perform the installation.
    2
    The --ignition-hash option is required when the Ignition config file is obtained through an HTTP URL to validate the authenticity of the Ignition config file on the cluster node. <digest> is the Ignition config file SHA512 digest obtained in a preceding step.
    Note

    If you want to provide your Ignition config files through an HTTPS server that uses TLS, you can add the internal certificate authority (CA) to the system trust store before running coreos-installer.

    The following example initializes a bootstrap node installation to the /dev/sda device. The Ignition config file for the bootstrap node is obtained from an HTTP web server with the IP address 192.168.1.2:

    $ sudo coreos-installer install --ignition-url=http://192.168.1.2:80/installation_directory/bootstrap.ign /dev/sda --ignition-hash=sha512-a5a2d43879223273c9b60af66b44202a1d1248fc01cf156c46d4a79f552b6bad47bc8cc78ddf0116e80c59d2ea9e32ba53bc807afbca581aa059311def2c3e3b
  8. Monitor the progress of the RHCOS installation on the console of the machine.

    Important

    Ensure that the installation is successful on each node before commencing with the OpenShift Container Platform installation. Observing the installation process can also help to determine the cause of RHCOS installation issues that might arise.

  9. Continue to create more compute machines for your cluster.

4.8.3. Creating RHCOS machines by PXE or iPXE booting

You can create more Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) compute machines for your bare metal cluster by using PXE or iPXE booting.

Prerequisites

  • Obtain the URL of the Ignition config file for the compute machines for your cluster. You uploaded this file to your HTTP server during installation.
  • Obtain the URLs of the RHCOS ISO image, compressed metal BIOS, kernel, and initramfs files that you uploaded to your HTTP server during cluster installation.
  • You have access to the PXE booting infrastructure that you used to create the machines for your OpenShift Container Platform cluster during installation. The machines must boot from their local disks after RHCOS is installed on them.
  • If you use UEFI, you have access to the grub.conf file that you modified during OpenShift Container Platform installation.

Procedure

  1. Confirm that your PXE or iPXE installation for the RHCOS images is correct.

    • For PXE:

      DEFAULT pxeboot
      TIMEOUT 20
      PROMPT 0
      LABEL pxeboot
          KERNEL http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-kernel-<architecture> 1
          APPEND initrd=http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-initramfs.<architecture>.img coreos.inst.install_dev=/dev/sda coreos.inst.ignition_url=http://<HTTP_server>/worker.ign coreos.live.rootfs_url=http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-rootfs.<architecture>.img 2
      1
      Specify the location of the live kernel file that you uploaded to your HTTP server.
      2
      Specify locations of the RHCOS files that you uploaded to your HTTP server. The initrd parameter value is the location of the live initramfs file, the coreos.inst.ignition_url parameter value is the location of the worker Ignition config file, and the coreos.live.rootfs_url parameter value is the location of the live rootfs file. The coreos.inst.ignition_url and coreos.live.rootfs_url parameters only support HTTP and HTTPS.
      Note

      This configuration does not enable serial console access on machines with a graphical console. To configure a different console, add one or more console= arguments to the APPEND line. For example, add console=tty0 console=ttyS0 to set the first PC serial port as the primary console and the graphical console as a secondary console. For more information, see How does one set up a serial terminal and/or console in Red Hat Enterprise Linux?.

    • For iPXE (x86_64 + ppc64le):

      kernel http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-kernel-<architecture> initrd=main coreos.live.rootfs_url=http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-rootfs.<architecture>.img coreos.inst.install_dev=/dev/sda coreos.inst.ignition_url=http://<HTTP_server>/worker.ign 1 2
      initrd --name main http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-initramfs.<architecture>.img 3
      boot
      1
      Specify the locations of the RHCOS files that you uploaded to your HTTP server. The kernel parameter value is the location of the kernel file, the initrd=main argument is needed for booting on UEFI systems, the coreos.live.rootfs_url parameter value is the location of the rootfs file, and the coreos.inst.ignition_url parameter value is the location of the worker Ignition config file.
      2
      If you use multiple NICs, specify a single interface in the ip option. For example, to use DHCP on a NIC that is named eno1, set ip=eno1:dhcp.
      3
      Specify the location of the initramfs file that you uploaded to your HTTP server.
      Note

      This configuration does not enable serial console access on machines with a graphical console To configure a different console, add one or more console= arguments to the kernel line. For example, add console=tty0 console=ttyS0 to set the first PC serial port as the primary console and the graphical console as a secondary console. For more information, see How does one set up a serial terminal and/or console in Red Hat Enterprise Linux? and "Enabling the serial console for PXE and ISO installation" in the "Advanced RHCOS installation configuration" section.

      Note

      To network boot the CoreOS kernel on ppc64le architecture, you need to use a version of iPXE build with the IMAGE_GZIP option enabled. See IMAGE_GZIP option in iPXE.

    • For PXE (with UEFI and GRUB as second stage) on ppc64le:

      menuentry 'Install CoreOS' {
          linux rhcos-<version>-live-kernel-<architecture>  coreos.live.rootfs_url=http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-rootfs.<architecture>.img coreos.inst.install_dev=/dev/sda coreos.inst.ignition_url=http://<HTTP_server>/worker.ign 1 2
          initrd rhcos-<version>-live-initramfs.<architecture>.img 3
      }
      1
      Specify the locations of the RHCOS files that you uploaded to your HTTP/TFTP server. The kernel parameter value is the location of the kernel file on your TFTP server. The coreos.live.rootfs_url parameter value is the location of the rootfs file, and the coreos.inst.ignition_url parameter value is the location of the worker Ignition config file on your HTTP Server.
      2
      If you use multiple NICs, specify a single interface in the ip option. For example, to use DHCP on a NIC that is named eno1, set ip=eno1:dhcp.
      3
      Specify the location of the initramfs file that you uploaded to your TFTP server.
  2. Use the PXE or iPXE infrastructure to create the required compute machines for your cluster.

4.8.4. Approving the certificate signing requests for your machines

When you add machines to a cluster, two pending certificate signing requests (CSRs) are generated for each machine that you added. You must confirm that these CSRs are approved or, if necessary, approve them yourself. The client requests must be approved first, followed by the server requests.

Prerequisites

  • You added machines to your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Confirm that the cluster recognizes the machines:

    $ oc get nodes

    Example output

    NAME      STATUS    ROLES   AGE  VERSION
    master-0  Ready     master  63m  v1.28.5
    master-1  Ready     master  63m  v1.28.5
    master-2  Ready     master  64m  v1.28.5

    The output lists all of the machines that you created.

    Note

    The preceding output might not include the compute nodes, also known as worker nodes, until some CSRs are approved.

  2. Review the pending CSRs and ensure that you see the client requests with the Pending or Approved status for each machine that you added to the cluster:

    $ oc get csr

    Example output

    NAME        AGE     REQUESTOR                                                                   CONDITION
    csr-8b2br   15m     system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending
    csr-8vnps   15m     system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending
    ...

    In this example, two machines are joining the cluster. You might see more approved CSRs in the list.

  3. If the CSRs were not approved, after all of the pending CSRs for the machines you added are in Pending status, approve the CSRs for your cluster machines:

    Note

    Because the CSRs rotate automatically, approve your CSRs within an hour of adding the machines to the cluster. If you do not approve them within an hour, the certificates will rotate, and more than two certificates will be present for each node. You must approve all of these certificates. After the client CSR is approved, the Kubelet creates a secondary CSR for the serving certificate, which requires manual approval. Then, subsequent serving certificate renewal requests are automatically approved by the machine-approver if the Kubelet requests a new certificate with identical parameters.

    Note

    For clusters running on platforms that are not machine API enabled, such as bare metal and other user-provisioned infrastructure, you must implement a method of automatically approving the kubelet serving certificate requests (CSRs). If a request is not approved, then the oc exec, oc rsh, and oc logs commands cannot succeed, because a serving certificate is required when the API server connects to the kubelet. Any operation that contacts the Kubelet endpoint requires this certificate approval to be in place. The method must watch for new CSRs, confirm that the CSR was submitted by the node-bootstrapper service account in the system:node or system:admin groups, and confirm the identity of the node.

    • To approve them individually, run the following command for each valid CSR:

      $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name> 1
      1
      <csr_name> is the name of a CSR from the list of current CSRs.
    • To approve all pending CSRs, run the following command:

      $ oc get csr -o go-template='{{range .items}}{{if not .status}}{{.metadata.name}}{{"\n"}}{{end}}{{end}}' | xargs --no-run-if-empty oc adm certificate approve
      Note

      Some Operators might not become available until some CSRs are approved.

  4. Now that your client requests are approved, you must review the server requests for each machine that you added to the cluster:

    $ oc get csr

    Example output

    NAME        AGE     REQUESTOR                                                                   CONDITION
    csr-bfd72   5m26s   system:node:ip-10-0-50-126.us-east-2.compute.internal                       Pending
    csr-c57lv   5m26s   system:node:ip-10-0-95-157.us-east-2.compute.internal                       Pending
    ...

  5. If the remaining CSRs are not approved, and are in the Pending status, approve the CSRs for your cluster machines:

    • To approve them individually, run the following command for each valid CSR:

      $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name> 1
      1
      <csr_name> is the name of a CSR from the list of current CSRs.
    • To approve all pending CSRs, run the following command:

      $ oc get csr -o go-template='{{range .items}}{{if not .status}}{{.metadata.name}}{{"\n"}}{{end}}{{end}}' | xargs oc adm certificate approve
  6. After all client and server CSRs have been approved, the machines have the Ready status. Verify this by running the following command:

    $ oc get nodes -o wide

    Example output

    NAME               STATUS   ROLES                  AGE   VERSION           INTERNAL-IP      EXTERNAL-IP   OS-IMAGE                                                       KERNEL-VERSION                  CONTAINER-RUNTIME
    worker-0-ppc64le   Ready    worker                 42d   v1.28.2+e3ba6d9   192.168.200.21   <none>        Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS 415.92.202309261919-0 (Plow)   5.14.0-284.34.1.el9_2.ppc64le   cri-o://1.28.1-3.rhaos4.15.gitb36169e.el9
    worker-1-ppc64le   Ready    worker                 42d   v1.28.2+e3ba6d9   192.168.200.20   <none>        Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS 415.92.202309261919-0 (Plow)   5.14.0-284.34.1.el9_2.ppc64le   cri-o://1.28.1-3.rhaos4.15.gitb36169e.el9
    master-0-x86       Ready    control-plane,master   75d   v1.28.2+e3ba6d9   10.248.0.38      10.248.0.38   Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS 415.92.202309261919-0 (Plow)   5.14.0-284.34.1.el9_2.x86_64    cri-o://1.28.1-3.rhaos4.15.gitb36169e.el9
    master-1-x86       Ready    control-plane,master   75d   v1.28.2+e3ba6d9   10.248.0.39      10.248.0.39   Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS 415.92.202309261919-0 (Plow)   5.14.0-284.34.1.el9_2.x86_64    cri-o://1.28.1-3.rhaos4.15.gitb36169e.el9
    master-2-x86       Ready    control-plane,master   75d   v1.28.2+e3ba6d9   10.248.0.40      10.248.0.40   Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS 415.92.202309261919-0 (Plow)   5.14.0-284.34.1.el9_2.x86_64    cri-o://1.28.1-3.rhaos4.15.gitb36169e.el9
    worker-0-x86       Ready    worker                 75d   v1.28.2+e3ba6d9   10.248.0.43      10.248.0.43   Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS 415.92.202309261919-0 (Plow)   5.14.0-284.34.1.el9_2.x86_64    cri-o://1.28.1-3.rhaos4.15.gitb36169e.el9
    worker-1-x86       Ready    worker                 75d   v1.28.2+e3ba6d9   10.248.0.44      10.248.0.44   Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS 415.92.202309261919-0 (Plow)   5.14.0-284.34.1.el9_2.x86_64    cri-o://1.28.1-3.rhaos4.15.gitb36169e.el9

    Note

    It can take a few minutes after approval of the server CSRs for the machines to transition to the Ready status.

Additional information

4.9. Managing your cluster with multi-architecture compute machines

4.9.1. Scheduling workloads on clusters with multi-architecture compute machines

Deploying a workload on a cluster with compute nodes of different architectures requires attention and monitoring of your cluster. There might be further actions you need to take in order to successfully place pods in the nodes of your cluster.

For more detailed information on node affinity, scheduling, taints and tolerlations, see the following documentatinon:

4.9.1.1. Sample multi-architecture node workload deployments

Before you schedule workloads on a cluster with compute nodes of different architectures, consider the following use cases:

Using node affinity to schedule workloads on a node

You can allow a workload to be scheduled on only a set of nodes with architectures supported by its images, you can set the spec.affinity.nodeAffinity field in your pod’s template specification.

Example deployment with the nodeAffinity set to certain architectures

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata: # ...
spec:
   # ...
  template:
     # ...
    spec:
      affinity:
        nodeAffinity:
          requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
            nodeSelectorTerms:
            - matchExpressions:
              - key: kubernetes.io/arch
                operator: In
                values: 1
                - amd64
                - arm64

1
Specify the supported architectures. Valid values include amd64,arm64, or both values.
Tainting every node for a specific architecture

You can taint a node to avoid workloads that are not compatible with its architecture to be scheduled on that node. In the case where your cluster is using a MachineSet object, you can add parameters to the .spec.template.spec.taints field to avoid workloads being scheduled on nodes with non-supported architectures.

  • Before you can taint a node, you must scale down the MachineSet object or remove available machines. You can scale down the machine set by using one of following commands:

    $ oc scale --replicas=0 machineset <machineset> -n openshift-machine-api

    Or:

    $ oc edit machineset <machineset> -n openshift-machine-api

    For more information on scaling machine sets, see "Modifying a compute machine set".

Example MachineSet with a taint set

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
kind: MachineSet
metadata: # ...
spec:
  # ...
  template:
    # ...
    spec:
      # ...
      taints:
      - effect: NoSchedule
        key: multi-arch.openshift.io/arch
        value: arm64

You can also set a taint on a specific node by running the following command:

$ oc adm taint nodes <node-name> multi-arch.openshift.io/arch=arm64:NoSchedule
Creating a default toleration

You can annotate a namespace so all of the workloads get the same default toleration by running the following command:

$ oc annotate namespace my-namespace \
  'scheduler.alpha.kubernetes.io/defaultTolerations'='[{"operator": "Exists", "effect": "NoSchedule", "key": "multi-arch.openshift.io/arch"}]'
Tolerating architecture taints in workloads

On a node with a defined taint, workloads will not be scheduled on that node. However, you can allow them to be scheduled by setting a toleration in the pod’s specification.

Example deployment with a toleration

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata: # ...
spec:
  # ...
  template:
    # ...
    spec:
      tolerations:
      - key: "multi-arch.openshift.io/arch"
        value: "arm64"
        operator: "Equal"
        effect: "NoSchedule"

This example deployment can also be allowed on nodes with the multi-arch.openshift.io/arch=arm64 taint specified.

Using node affinity with taints and tolerations

When a scheduler computes the set of nodes to schedule a pod, tolerations can broaden the set while node affinity restricts the set. If you set a taint to the nodes of a specific architecture, the following example toleration is required for scheduling pods.

Example deployment with a node affinity and toleration set.

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata: # ...
spec:
  # ...
  template:
    # ...
    spec:
      affinity:
        nodeAffinity:
          requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
            nodeSelectorTerms:
            - matchExpressions:
              - key: kubernetes.io/arch
                operator: In
                values:
                - amd64
                - arm64
      tolerations:
      - key: "multi-arch.openshift.io/arch"
        value: "arm64"
        operator: "Equal"
        effect: "NoSchedule"

Additional resources

4.9.2. Enabling 64k pages on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) kernel

You can enable the 64k memory page in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) kernel on the 64-bit ARM compute machines in your cluster. The 64k page size kernel specification can be used for large GPU or high memory workloads. This is done using the Machine Config Operator (MCO) which uses a machine config pool to update the kernel. To enable 64k page sizes, you must dedicate a machine config pool for ARM64 to enable on the kernel.

Important

Using 64k pages is exclusive to 64-bit ARM architecture compute nodes or clusters installed on 64-bit ARM machines. If you configure the 64k pages kernel on a machine config pool using 64-bit x86 machines, the machine config pool and MCO will degrade.

Prerequisites:

  • You installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • You created a cluster with compute nodes of different architecture on one of the supported platforms.

Procedure:

  1. Label the nodes where you want to run the 64k page size kernel:

    $ oc label node <node_name> <label>

    Example command

    $ oc label node worker-arm64-01 node-role.kubernetes.io/worker-64k-pages=

  2. Create a machine config pool that contains the worker role that uses the ARM64 architecture and the worker-64k-pages role:

    apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
    kind: MachineConfigPool
    metadata:
      name: worker-64k-pages
    spec:
      machineConfigSelector:
        matchExpressions:
          - key: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role
            operator: In
            values:
            - worker
            - worker-64k-pages
      nodeSelector:
        matchLabels:
          node-role.kubernetes.io/worker-64k-pages: ""
          kubernetes.io/arch: arm64
  3. Create a machine config on your compute node to enable 64k-pages with the 64k-pages parameter.

    $ oc create -f <filename>.yaml

    Example MachineConfig

    apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
    kind: MachineConfig
    metadata:
      labels:
        machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role: "worker-64k-pages" 1
      name: 99-worker-64kpages
    spec:
      kernelType: 64k-pages 2

    1
    Specify the value of the machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role label in the custom machine config pool. The example MachineConfig uses the worker-64k-pages label to enable 64k pages in the worker-64k-pages pool.
    2
    Specify your desired kernel type. Valid values are 64k-pages and default
    Note

    The 64k-pages type is supported on only 64-bit ARM architecture based compute nodes. The realtime type is supported on only 64-bit x86 architecture based compute nodes.

Verification

  • To view your new worker-64k-pages machine config pool, run the following command:

    $ oc get mcp

    Example output

    NAME     CONFIG                                                                UPDATED   UPDATING   DEGRADED   MACHINECOUNT   READYMACHINECOUNT   UPDATEDMACHINECOUNT   DEGRADEDMACHINECOUNT   AGE
    master   rendered-master-9d55ac9a91127c36314e1efe7d77fbf8                      True      False      False      3              3                   3                     0                      361d
    worker   rendered-worker-e7b61751c4a5b7ff995d64b967c421ff                      True      False      False      7              7                   7                     0                      361d
    worker-64k-pages  rendered-worker-64k-pages-e7b61751c4a5b7ff995d64b967c421ff   True      False      False      2              2                   2                     0                      35m

4.9.3. Importing manifest lists in image streams on your multi-architecture compute machines

On an OpenShift Container Platform 4.15 cluster with multi-architecture compute machines, the image streams in the cluster do not import manifest lists automatically. You must manually change the default importMode option to the PreserveOriginal option in order to import the manifest list.

Prerequisites

  • You installed the OpenShift Container Platform CLI (oc).

Procedure

  • The following example command shows how to patch the ImageStream cli-artifacts so that the cli-artifacts:latest image stream tag is imported as a manifest list.

    $ oc patch is/cli-artifacts -n openshift -p '{"spec":{"tags":[{"name":"latest","importPolicy":{"importMode":"PreserveOriginal"}}]}}'

Verification

  • You can check that the manifest lists imported properly by inspecting the image stream tag. The following command will list the individual architecture manifests for a particular tag.

    $ oc get istag cli-artifacts:latest -n openshift -oyaml

    If the dockerImageManifests object is present, then the manifest list import was successful.

    Example output of the dockerImageManifests object

    dockerImageManifests:
      - architecture: amd64
        digest: sha256:16d4c96c52923a9968fbfa69425ec703aff711f1db822e4e9788bf5d2bee5d77
        manifestSize: 1252
        mediaType: application/vnd.docker.distribution.manifest.v2+json
        os: linux
      - architecture: arm64
        digest: sha256:6ec8ad0d897bcdf727531f7d0b716931728999492709d19d8b09f0d90d57f626
        manifestSize: 1252
        mediaType: application/vnd.docker.distribution.manifest.v2+json
        os: linux
      - architecture: ppc64le
        digest: sha256:65949e3a80349cdc42acd8c5b34cde6ebc3241eae8daaeea458498fedb359a6a
        manifestSize: 1252
        mediaType: application/vnd.docker.distribution.manifest.v2+json
        os: linux
      - architecture: s390x
        digest: sha256:75f4fa21224b5d5d511bea8f92dfa8e1c00231e5c81ab95e83c3013d245d1719
        manifestSize: 1252
        mediaType: application/vnd.docker.distribution.manifest.v2+json
        os: linux

Chapter 5. Enabling encryption on a vSphere cluster

You can encrypt your virtual machines after installing OpenShift Container Platform 4.15 on vSphere by draining and shutting down your nodes one at a time. While each virtual machine is shutdown, you can enable encryption in the vCenter web interface.

5.1. Encrypting virtual machines

You can encrypt your virtual machines with the following process. You can drain your virtual machines, power them down and encrypt them using the vCenter interface. Finally, you can create a storage class to use the encrypted storage.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Drain and cordon one of your nodes. For detailed instructions on node management, see "Working with Nodes".
  2. Shutdown the virtual machine associated with that node in the vCenter interface.
  3. Right-click on the virtual machine in the vCenter interface and select VM PoliciesEdit VM Storage Policies.
  4. Select an encrypted storage policy and select OK.
  5. Start the encrypted virtual machine in the vCenter interface.
  6. Repeat steps 1-5 for all nodes that you want to encrypt.
  7. Configure a storage class that uses the encrypted storage policy. For more information about configuring an encrypted storage class, see "VMware vSphere CSI Driver Operator".

5.2. Additional resources

Chapter 6. Configuring the vSphere connection settings after an installation

After installing an OpenShift Container Platform cluster on vSphere with the platform integration feature enabled, you might need to update the vSphere connection settings manually, depending on the installation method.

For installations using the Assisted Installer, you must update the connection settings. This is because the Assisted Installer adds default connection settings to the vSphere connection configuration wizard as placeholders during the installation.

For installer-provisioned or user-provisioned infrastructure installations, you should have entered valid connection settings during the installation. You can use the vSphere connection configuration wizard at any time to validate or modify the connection settings, but this is not mandatory for completing the installation.

6.1. Configuring the vSphere connection settings

Modify the following vSphere configuration settings as required:

  • vCenter address
  • vCenter cluster
  • vCenter username
  • vCenter password
  • vCenter address
  • vSphere data center
  • vSphere datastore
  • Virtual machine folder

Prerequisites

  • The Assisted Installer has finished installing the cluster successfully.
  • The cluster is connected to https://console.redhat.com.

Procedure

  1. In the Administrator perspective, navigate to Home → Overview.
  2. Under Status, click vSphere connection to open the vSphere connection configuration wizard.
  3. In the vCenter field, enter the network address of the vSphere vCenter server. This can be either a domain name or an IP address. It appears in the vSphere web client URL; for example https://[your_vCenter_address]/ui.
  4. In the vCenter cluster field, enter the name of the vSphere vCenter cluster where OpenShift Container Platform is installed.

    Important

    This step is mandatory if you installed OpenShift Container Platform 4.13 or later.

  5. In the Username field, enter your vSphere vCenter username.
  6. In the Password field, enter your vSphere vCenter password.

    Warning

    The system stores the username and password in the vsphere-creds secret in the kube-system namespace of the cluster. An incorrect vCenter username or password makes the cluster nodes unschedulable.

  7. In the Datacenter field, enter the name of the vSphere data center that contains the virtual machines used to host the cluster; for example, SDDC-Datacenter.
  8. In the Default data store field, enter the path and name of the vSphere data store that stores the persistent data volumes; for example, /SDDC-Datacenter/datastore/datastorename.

    Warning

    Updating the vSphere data center or default data store after the configuration has been saved detaches any active vSphere PersistentVolumes.

  9. In the Virtual Machine Folder field, enter the data center folder that contains the virtual machine of the cluster; for example, /SDDC-Datacenter/vm/ci-ln-hjg4vg2-c61657-t2gzr. For the OpenShift Container Platform installation to succeed, all virtual machines comprising the cluster must be located in a single data center folder.
  10. Click Save Configuration. This updates the cloud-provider-config ConfigMap resource in the openshift-config namespace, and starts the configuration process.
  11. Reopen the vSphere connection configuration wizard and expand the Monitored operators panel. Check that the status of the operators is either Progressing or Healthy.

6.2. Verifying the configuration

The connection configuration process updates operator statuses and control plane nodes. It takes approximately an hour to complete. During the configuration process, the nodes will reboot. Previously bound PersistentVolumeClaims objects might become disconnected.

Prerequisites

  • You have saved the configuration settings in the vSphere connection configuration wizard.

Procedure

  1. Check that the configuration process completed successfully:

    1. In the OpenShift Container Platform Administrator perspective, navigate to Home → Overview.
    2. Under Status click Operators. Wait for all operator statuses to change from Progressing to All succeeded. A Failed status indicates that the configuration failed.
    3. Under Status, click Control Plane. Wait for the response rate of all Control Pane components to return to 100%. A Failed control plane component indicates that the configuration failed.

    A failure indicates that at least one of the connection settings is incorrect. Change the settings in the vSphere connection configuration wizard and save the configuration again.

  2. Check that you are able to bind PersistentVolumeClaims objects by performing the following steps:

    1. Create a StorageClass object using the following YAML:

      kind: StorageClass
      apiVersion: storage.k8s.io/v1
      metadata:
       name: vsphere-sc
      provisioner: kubernetes.io/vsphere-volume
      parameters:
       datastore: YOURVCENTERDATASTORE
       diskformat: thin
      reclaimPolicy: Delete
      volumeBindingMode: Immediate
    2. Create a PersistentVolumeClaims object using the following YAML:

      kind: PersistentVolumeClaim
      apiVersion: v1
      metadata:
       name: test-pvc
       namespace: openshift-config
       annotations:
         volume.beta.kubernetes.io/storage-provisioner: kubernetes.io/vsphere-volume
       finalizers:
         - kubernetes.io/pvc-protection
      spec:
       accessModes:
         - ReadWriteOnce
       resources:
         requests:
          storage: 10Gi
       storageClassName: vsphere-sc
       volumeMode: Filesystem

      If you are unable to create a PersistentVolumeClaims object, you can troubleshoot by navigating to StoragePersistentVolumeClaims in the Administrator perspective of the OpenShift Container Platform web console.

For instructions on creating storage objects, see Dynamic provisioning.

Chapter 7. Postinstallation machine configuration tasks

There are times when you need to make changes to the operating systems running on OpenShift Container Platform nodes. This can include changing settings for network time service, adding kernel arguments, or configuring journaling in a specific way.

Aside from a few specialized features, most changes to operating systems on OpenShift Container Platform nodes can be done by creating what are referred to as MachineConfig objects that are managed by the Machine Config Operator.

Tasks in this section describe how to use features of the Machine Config Operator to configure operating system features on OpenShift Container Platform nodes.

Important

NetworkManager stores new network configurations to /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/ in a key file format.

Previously, NetworkManager stored new network configurations to /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ in the ifcfg format. Starting with RHEL 9.0, RHEL stores new network configurations at /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/ in a key file format. The connections configurations stored to /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ in the old format still work uninterrupted. Modifications in existing profiles continue updating the older files.

7.1. Understanding the Machine Config Operator

7.1.1. Machine Config Operator

Purpose

The Machine Config Operator manages and applies configuration and updates of the base operating system and container runtime, including everything between the kernel and kubelet.

There are four components:

  • machine-config-server: Provides Ignition configuration to new machines joining the cluster.
  • machine-config-controller: Coordinates the upgrade of machines to the desired configurations defined by a MachineConfig object. Options are provided to control the upgrade for sets of machines individually.
  • machine-config-daemon: Applies new machine configuration during update. Validates and verifies the state of the machine to the requested machine configuration.
  • machine-config: Provides a complete source of machine configuration at installation, first start up, and updates for a machine.
Important

Currently, there is no supported way to block or restrict the machine config server endpoint. The machine config server must be exposed to the network so that newly-provisioned machines, which have no existing configuration or state, are able to fetch their configuration. In this model, the root of trust is the certificate signing requests (CSR) endpoint, which is where the kubelet sends its certificate signing request for approval to join the cluster. Because of this, machine configs should not be used to distribute sensitive information, such as secrets and certificates.

To ensure that the machine config server endpoints, ports 22623 and 22624, are secured in bare metal scenarios, customers must configure proper network policies.

Project

openshift-machine-config-operator

7.1.2. Machine config overview

The Machine Config Operator (MCO) manages updates to systemd, CRI-O and Kubelet, the kernel, Network Manager and other system features. It also offers a MachineConfig CRD that can write configuration files onto the host (see machine-config-operator). Understanding what MCO does and how it interacts with other components is critical to making advanced, system-level changes to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster. Here are some things you should know about MCO, machine configs, and how they are used:

  • Machine configs are processed alphabetically, in lexicographically increasing order, of their name. The render controller uses the first machine config in the list as the base and appends the rest to the base machine config.
  • A machine config can make a specific change to a file or service on the operating system of each system representing a pool of OpenShift Container Platform nodes.
  • MCO applies changes to operating systems in pools of machines. All OpenShift Container Platform clusters start with worker and control plane node pools. By adding more role labels, you can configure custom pools of nodes. For example, you can set up a custom pool of worker nodes that includes particular hardware features needed by an application. However, examples in this section focus on changes to the default pool types.

    Important

    A node can have multiple labels applied that indicate its type, such as master or worker, however it can be a member of only a single machine config pool.

  • After a machine config change, the MCO updates the affected nodes alphabetically by zone, based on the topology.kubernetes.io/zone label. If a zone has more than one node, the oldest nodes are updated first. For nodes that do not use zones, such as in bare metal deployments, the nodes are upgraded by age, with the oldest nodes updated first. The MCO updates the number of nodes as specified by the maxUnavailable field on the machine configuration pool at a time.
  • Some machine configuration must be in place before OpenShift Container Platform is installed to disk. In most cases, this can be accomplished by creating a machine config that is injected directly into the OpenShift Container Platform installer process, instead of running as a postinstallation machine config. In other cases, you might need to do bare metal installation where you pass kernel arguments at OpenShift Container Platform installer startup, to do such things as setting per-node individual IP addresses or advanced disk partitioning.
  • MCO manages items that are set in machine configs. Manual changes you do to your systems will not be overwritten by MCO, unless MCO is explicitly told to manage a conflicting file. In other words, MCO only makes specific updates you request, it does not claim control over the whole node.
  • Manual changes to nodes are strongly discouraged. If you need to decommission a node and start a new one, those direct changes would be lost.
  • MCO is only supported for writing to files in /etc and /var directories, although there are symbolic links to some directories that can be writeable by being symbolically linked to one of those areas. The /opt and /usr/local directories are examples.
  • Ignition is the configuration format used in MachineConfigs. See the Ignition Configuration Specification v3.2.0 for details.
  • Although Ignition config settings can be delivered directly at OpenShift Container Platform installation time, and are formatted in the same way that MCO delivers Ignition configs, MCO has no way of seeing what those original Ignition configs are. Therefore, you should wrap Ignition config settings into a machine config before deploying them.
  • When a file managed by MCO changes outside of MCO, the Machine Config Daemon (MCD) sets the node as degraded. It will not overwrite the offending file, however, and should continue to operate in a degraded state.
  • A key reason for using a machine config is that it will be applied when you spin up new nodes for a pool in your OpenShift Container Platform cluster. The machine-api-operator provisions a new machine and MCO configures it.

MCO uses Ignition as the configuration format. OpenShift Container Platform 4.6 moved from Ignition config specification version 2 to version 3.

7.1.2.1. What can you change with machine configs?

The kinds of components that MCO can change include:

  • config: Create Ignition config objects (see the Ignition configuration specification) to do things like modify files, systemd services, and other features on OpenShift Container Platform machines, including:

    • Configuration files: Create or overwrite files in the /var or /etc directory.
    • systemd units: Create and set the status of a systemd service or add to an existing systemd service by dropping in additional settings.
    • users and groups: Change SSH keys in the passwd section postinstallation.

      Important
      • Changing SSH keys by using a machine config is supported only for the core user.
      • Adding new users by using a machine config is not supported.
  • kernelArguments: Add arguments to the kernel command line when OpenShift Container Platform nodes boot.
  • kernelType: Optionally identify a non-standard kernel to use instead of the standard kernel. Use realtime to use the RT kernel (for RAN). This is only supported on select platforms. Use the 64k-pages parameter to enable the 64k page size kernel. This setting is exclusive to machines with 64-bit ARM architectures.
  • fips: Enable FIPS mode. FIPS should be set at installation-time setting and not a postinstallation procedure.
Important

To enable FIPS mode for your cluster, you must run the installation program from a Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) computer configured to operate in FIPS mode. For more information about configuring FIPS mode on RHEL, see Installing the system in FIPS mode. When running Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) or Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) booted in FIPS mode, OpenShift Container Platform core components use the RHEL cryptographic libraries that have been submitted to NIST for FIPS 140-2/140-3 Validation on only the x86_64, ppc64le, and s390x architectures.

  • extensions: Extend RHCOS features by adding selected pre-packaged software. For this feature, available extensions include usbguard and kernel modules.
  • Custom resources (for ContainerRuntime and Kubelet): Outside of machine configs, MCO manages two special custom resources for modifying CRI-O container runtime settings (ContainerRuntime CR) and the Kubelet service (Kubelet CR).

The MCO is not the only Operator that can change operating system components on OpenShift Container Platform nodes. Other Operators can modify operating system-level features as well. One example is the Node Tuning Operator, which allows you to do node-level tuning through Tuned daemon profiles.

Tasks for the MCO configuration that can be done postinstallation are included in the following procedures. See descriptions of RHCOS bare metal installation for system configuration tasks that must be done during or before OpenShift Container Platform installation.

There might be situations where the configuration on a node does not fully match what the currently-applied machine config specifies. This state is called configuration drift. The Machine Config Daemon (MCD) regularly checks the nodes for configuration drift. If the MCD detects configuration drift, the MCO marks the node degraded until an administrator corrects the node configuration. A degraded node is online and operational, but, it cannot be updated. For more information on configuration drift, see Understanding configuration drift detection.

7.1.2.2. Project

See the openshift-machine-config-operator GitHub site for details.

7.1.3. Understanding configuration drift detection

There might be situations when the on-disk state of a node differs from what is configured in the machine config. This is known as configuration drift. For example, a cluster admin might manually modify a file, a systemd unit file, or a file permission that was configured through a machine config. This causes configuration drift. Configuration drift can cause problems between nodes in a Machine Config Pool or when the machine configs are updated.

The Machine Config Operator (MCO) uses the Machine Config Daemon (MCD) to check nodes for configuration drift on a regular basis. If detected, the MCO sets the node and the machine config pool (MCP) to Degraded and reports the error. A degraded node is online and operational, but, it cannot be updated.

The MCD performs configuration drift detection upon each of the following conditions:

  • When a node boots.
  • After any of the files (Ignition files and systemd drop-in units) specified in the machine config are modified outside of the machine config.
  • Before a new machine config is applied.

    Note

    If you apply a new machine config to the nodes, the MCD temporarily shuts down configuration drift detection. This shutdown is needed because the new machine config necessarily differs from the machine config on the nodes. After the new machine config is applied, the MCD restarts detecting configuration drift using the new machine config.

When performing configuration drift detection, the MCD validates that the file contents and permissions fully match what the currently-applied machine config specifies. Typically, the MCD detects configuration drift in less than a second after the detection is triggered.

If the MCD detects configuration drift, the MCD performs the following tasks:

  • Emits an error to the console logs
  • Emits a Kubernetes event
  • Stops further detection on the node
  • Sets the node and MCP to degraded

You can check if you have a degraded node by listing the MCPs:

$ oc get mcp worker

If you have a degraded MCP, the DEGRADEDMACHINECOUNT field is non-zero, similar to the following output:

Example output

NAME     CONFIG                                             UPDATED   UPDATING   DEGRADED   MACHINECOUNT   READYMACHINECOUNT   UPDATEDMACHINECOUNT   DEGRADEDMACHINECOUNT   AGE
worker   rendered-worker-404caf3180818d8ac1f50c32f14b57c3   False     True       True       2              1                   1                     1                      5h51m

You can determine if the problem is caused by configuration drift by examining the machine config pool:

$ oc describe mcp worker

Example output

 ...
    Last Transition Time:  2021-12-20T18:54:00Z
    Message:               Node ci-ln-j4h8nkb-72292-pxqxz-worker-a-fjks4 is reporting: "content mismatch for file \"/etc/mco-test-file\"" 1
    Reason:                1 nodes are reporting degraded status on sync
    Status:                True
    Type:                  NodeDegraded 2
 ...

1
This message shows that a node’s /etc/mco-test-file file, which was added by the machine config, has changed outside of the machine config.
2
The state of the node is NodeDegraded.

Or, if you know which node is degraded, examine that node:

$ oc describe node/ci-ln-j4h8nkb-72292-pxqxz-worker-a-fjks4

Example output

 ...

Annotations:        cloud.network.openshift.io/egress-ipconfig: [{"interface":"nic0","ifaddr":{"ipv4":"10.0.128.0/17"},"capacity":{"ip":10}}]
                    csi.volume.kubernetes.io/nodeid:
                      {"pd.csi.storage.gke.io":"projects/openshift-gce-devel-ci/zones/us-central1-a/instances/ci-ln-j4h8nkb-72292-pxqxz-worker-a-fjks4"}
                    machine.openshift.io/machine: openshift-machine-api/ci-ln-j4h8nkb-72292-pxqxz-worker-a-fjks4
                    machineconfiguration.openshift.io/controlPlaneTopology: HighlyAvailable
                    machineconfiguration.openshift.io/currentConfig: rendered-worker-67bd55d0b02b0f659aef33680693a9f9
                    machineconfiguration.openshift.io/desiredConfig: rendered-worker-67bd55d0b02b0f659aef33680693a9f9
                    machineconfiguration.openshift.io/reason: content mismatch for file "/etc/mco-test-file" 1
                    machineconfiguration.openshift.io/state: Degraded 2
 ...

1
The error message indicating that configuration drift was detected between the node and the listed machine config. Here the error message indicates that the contents of the /etc/mco-test-file, which was added by the machine config, has changed outside of the machine config.
2
The state of the node is Degraded.

You can correct configuration drift and return the node to the Ready state by performing one of the following remediations:

  • Ensure that the contents and file permissions of the files on the node match what is configured in the machine config. You can manually rewrite the file contents or change the file permissions.
  • Generate a force file on the degraded node. The force file causes the MCD to bypass the usual configuration drift detection and reapplies the current machine config.

    Note

    Generating a force file on a node causes that node to reboot.

7.1.4. Checking machine config pool status

To see the status of the Machine Config Operator (MCO), its sub-components, and the resources it manages, use the following oc commands:

Procedure

  1. To see the number of MCO-managed nodes available on your cluster for each machine config pool (MCP), run the following command:

    $ oc get machineconfigpool

    Example output

    NAME      CONFIG                    UPDATED  UPDATING   DEGRADED  MACHINECOUNT  READYMACHINECOUNT  UPDATEDMACHINECOUNT DEGRADEDMACHINECOUNT  AGE
    master    rendered-master-06c9c4…   True     False      False     3             3                  3                   0                     4h42m
    worker    rendered-worker-f4b64…    False    True       False     3             2                  2                   0                     4h42m

    where:

    UPDATED
    The True status indicates that the MCO has applied the current machine config to the nodes in that MCP. The current machine config is specified in the STATUS field in the oc get mcp output. The False status indicates a node in the MCP is updating.
    UPDATING
    The True status indicates that the MCO is applying the desired machine config, as specified in the MachineConfigPool custom resource, to at least one of the nodes in that MCP. The desired machine config is the new, edited machine config. Nodes that are updating might not be available for scheduling. The False status indicates that all nodes in the MCP are updated.
    DEGRADED
    A True status indicates the MCO is blocked from applying the current or desired machine config to at least one of the nodes in that MCP, or the configuration is failing. Nodes that are degraded might not be available for scheduling. A False status indicates that all nodes in the MCP are ready.
    MACHINECOUNT
    Indicates the total number of machines in that MCP.
    READYMACHINECOUNT
    Indicates the total number of machines in that MCP that are ready for scheduling.
    UPDATEDMACHINECOUNT
    Indicates the total number of machines in that MCP that have the current machine config.
    DEGRADEDMACHINECOUNT
    Indicates the total number of machines in that MCP that are marked as degraded or unreconcilable.

    In the previous output, there are three control plane (master) nodes and three worker nodes. The control plane MCP and the associated nodes are updated to the current machine config. The nodes in the worker MCP are being updated to the desired machine config. Two of the nodes in the worker MCP are updated and one is still updating, as indicated by the UPDATEDMACHINECOUNT being 2. There are no issues, as indicated by the DEGRADEDMACHINECOUNT being 0 and DEGRADED being False.

    While the nodes in the MCP are updating, the machine config listed under CONFIG is the current machine config, which the MCP is being updated from. When the update is complete, the listed machine config is the desired machine config, which the MCP was updated to.

    Note

    If a node is being cordoned, that node is not included in the READYMACHINECOUNT, but is included in the MACHINECOUNT. Also, the MCP status is set to UPDATING. Because the node has the current machine config, it is counted in the UPDATEDMACHINECOUNT total:

    Example output

    NAME      CONFIG                    UPDATED  UPDATING   DEGRADED  MACHINECOUNT  READYMACHINECOUNT  UPDATEDMACHINECOUNT DEGRADEDMACHINECOUNT  AGE
    master    rendered-master-06c9c4…   True     False      False     3             3                  3                   0                     4h42m
    worker    rendered-worker-c1b41a…   False    True       False     3             2                  3                   0                     4h42m

  2. To check the status of the nodes in an MCP by examining the MachineConfigPool custom resource, run the following command: :

    $ oc describe mcp worker

    Example output

    ...
      Degraded Machine Count:     0
      Machine Count:              3
      Observed Generation:        2
      Ready Machine Count:        3
      Unavailable Machine Count:  0
      Updated Machine Count:      3
    Events:                       <none>

    Note

    If a node is being cordoned, the node is not included in the Ready Machine Count. It is included in the Unavailable Machine Count:

    Example output

    ...
      Degraded Machine Count:     0
      Machine Count:              3
      Observed Generation:        2
      Ready Machine Count:        2
      Unavailable Machine Count:  1
      Updated Machine Count:      3

  3. To see each existing MachineConfig object, run the following command:

    $ oc get machineconfigs

    Example output

    NAME                             GENERATEDBYCONTROLLER          IGNITIONVERSION  AGE
    00-master                        2c9371fbb673b97a6fe8b1c52...   3.2.0            5h18m
    00-worker                        2c9371fbb673b97a6fe8b1c52...   3.2.0            5h18m
    01-master-container-runtime      2c9371fbb673b97a6fe8b1c52...   3.2.0            5h18m
    01-master-kubelet                2c9371fbb673b97a6fe8b1c52…     3.2.0            5h18m
    ...
    rendered-master-dde...           2c9371fbb673b97a6fe8b1c52...   3.2.0            5h18m
    rendered-worker-fde...           2c9371fbb673b97a6fe8b1c52...   3.2.0            5h18m

    Note that the MachineConfig objects listed as rendered are not meant to be changed or deleted.

  4. To view the contents of a particular machine config (in this case, 01-master-kubelet), run the following command:

    $ oc describe machineconfigs 01-master-kubelet

    The output from the command shows that this MachineConfig object contains both configuration files (cloud.conf and kubelet.conf) and a systemd service (Kubernetes Kubelet):

    Example output

    Name:         01-master-kubelet
    ...
    Spec:
      Config:
        Ignition:
          Version:  3.2.0
        Storage:
          Files:
            Contents:
              Source:   data:,
            Mode:       420
            Overwrite:  true
            Path:       /etc/kubernetes/cloud.conf
            Contents:
              Source:   data:,kind%3A%20KubeletConfiguration%0AapiVersion%3A%20kubelet.config.k8s.io%2Fv1beta1%0Aauthentication%3A%0A%20%20x509%3A%0A%20%20%20%20clientCAFile%3A%20%2Fetc%2Fkubernetes%2Fkubelet-ca.crt%0A%20%20anonymous...
            Mode:       420
            Overwrite:  true
            Path:       /etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf
        Systemd:
          Units:
            Contents:  [Unit]
    Description=Kubernetes Kubelet
    Wants=rpc-statd.service network-online.target crio.service
    After=network-online.target crio.service
    
    ExecStart=/usr/bin/hyperkube \
        kubelet \
          --config=/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf \ ...

If something goes wrong with a machine config that you apply, you can always back out that change. For example, if you had run oc create -f ./myconfig.yaml to apply a machine config, you could remove that machine config by running the following command:

$ oc delete -f ./myconfig.yaml

If that was the only problem, the nodes in the affected pool should return to a non-degraded state. This actually causes the rendered configuration to roll back to its previously rendered state.

If you add your own machine configs to your cluster, you can use the commands shown in the previous example to check their status and the related status of the pool to which they are applied.

7.1.5. Checking machine config node status

During updates you might want to monitor the progress of individual nodes in case issues arise and you need to troubleshoot a node.

To see the status of the Machine Config Operator (MCO) updates to your cluster, use the following oc commands:

Important

Improved MCO state reporting is a Technology Preview feature only. Technology Preview features are not supported with Red Hat production service level agreements (SLAs) and might not be functionally complete. Red Hat does not recommend using them in production. These features provide early access to upcoming product features, enabling customers to test functionality and provide feedback during the development process.

For more information about the support scope of Red Hat Technology Preview features, see Technology Preview Features Support Scope.

Procedure

  1. Get a summary of update statuses for all nodes in all machine config pools by running the following command:

    $ oc get machineconfignodes

    Example output

    NAME                          UPDATED   UPDATEPREPARED   UPDATEEXECUTED   UPDATEPOSTACTIONCOMPLETED   UPDATECOMPLETED   RESUMED
    ip-10-0-12-194.ec2.internal   True      False             False              False                    False              False
    ip-10-0-17-102.ec2.internal   False     True              False              False                    False              False
    ip-10-0-2-232.ec2.internal    False     False             True               False                    False              False
    ip-10-0-59-251.ec2.internal   False     False             False              True                     False              False
    ip-10-0-59-56.ec2.internal    False     False             False              False                    True               True
    ip-10-0-6-214.ec2.internal    False     False             Unknown            False                    False              False

    where:

    UPDATED
    The True status indicates that the MCO has applied the current machine config to that particular node. The False status indicates that the node is currently updating. The Unknown status means the operation is processing.
    UPDATEPREPARED
    The False status indicates that the MCO has not started reconciling the new machine configs to be distributed. The True status indicates that the MCO has completed this phase of the update. The Unknown status means the operation is processing.
    UPDATEEXECUTED
    The False status indicates that the MCO has not started cordoning and draining the node. It also indicates that the disk state and operating system have not started updating. The True status indicates that the MCO has completed this phase of the update. The Unknown status means the operation is processing.
    UPDATEPOSTACTIONCOMPLETED
    The False status indicates that the MCO has not started rebooting the node or closing the daemon. The True status indicates that the MCO has completed reboot and updating the node status. The Unknown status indicates either that an error has occurred during the update process at this phase, or that the MCO is currently applying the update.
    UPDATECOMPLETED
    The False status indicates that the MCO has not started uncordoning the node and updating the node state and metrics. The True status indicates that the MCO has finished updating the node state and available metrics.
    RESUMED

    The False status indicates that the MCO has not started the config drift monitor. The True status indicates that the node has resumed operation. The Unknown status means the operation is processing.

    Note

    Within the primary phases previously described, you can have secondary phases which you can use to see the update progression in more detail. You can get more information that includes secondary phases of updates by using the -o wide option of the preceding command. This provides the additional UPDATECOMPATIBLE, UPDATEFILESANDOS, DRAINEDNODE, CORDONEDNODE, REBOOTNODE, RELOADEDCRIO and UNCORDONED columns. These secondary phases do not always occur and depend on the type of update you want to apply.

  2. Check the update status of nodes in a specific machine config pool by running the following command:

    $ oc get machineconfignodes $(oc get machineconfignodes -o json | jq -r '.items[]|select(.spec.pool.name=="<pool_name>")|.metadata.name') 1
    1
    The name of the pool is the MachineConfigPool object name.

    Example output

    NAME                          UPDATED   UPDATEPREPARED   UPDATEEXECUTED   UPDATEPOSTACTIONCOMPLETE   UPDATECOMPLETE   RESUMED
    ip-10-0-48-226.ec2.internal   True      False            False            False                      False            False
    ip-10-0-5-241.ec2.internal    True      False            False            False                      False            False
    ip-10-0-74-108.ec2.internal   True      False            False            False                      False            False

  3. Check the update status of an individual node by running the following command:

    $ oc describe machineconfignode/<node_name> 1
    1
    The name of the node is the MachineConfigNode object name.

    Example output

    Name:         <node_name>
    Namespace:
    Labels:       <none>
    Annotations:  <none>
    API Version:  machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    Kind:         MachineConfigNode
    Metadata:
      Creation Timestamp:  2023-10-17T13:08:58Z
      Generation:          1
      Resource Version:    49443
      UID:                 4bd758ab-2187-413c-ac42-882e61761b1d
    Spec:
      Node Ref:
        Name:         <node_name>
      Pool:
        Name:         master
      ConfigVersion:
        Desired: rendered-worker-823ff8dc2b33bf444709ed7cd2b9855b 1
    Status:
      Conditions:
        Last Transition Time:  2023-10-17T13:09:02Z
        Message:               Node has completed update to config rendered-master-cf99e619747ab19165f11e3546c71f1e
        Reason:                NodeUpgradeComplete
        Status:                True
        Type:                  Updated
        Last Transition Time:  2023-10-17T13:09:02Z
        Message:               This node has not yet entered the UpdatePreparing phase
        Reason:                NotYetOccured
        Status:                False
      Config Version:
        Current:            rendered-worker-823ff8dc2b33bf444709ed7cd2b9855b
        Desired:            rendered-worker-823ff8dc2b33bf444709ed7cd2b9855b 2
      Health:               Healthy
      Most Recent Error:
      Observed Generation:  3

    1
    The desired configuration specified in the spec.configversion.desired field updates immediately when a new configuration is detected on the node.
    2
    The desired configuration specified in the status.configversion.desired field updates only when the new configuration is validated by the Machine Config Daemon (MCD). The MCD performs validation by checking the current phase of the update. If the update successfully passes the UPDATEPREPARED phase, then the status adds the new configuration.

7.1.6. Viewing and interacting with certificates

The following certificates are handled in the cluster by the Machine Config Controller (MCC) and can be found in the ControllerConfig resource:

  • /etc/kubernetes/kubelet-ca.crt
  • /etc/kubernetes/static-pod-resources/configmaps/cloud-config/ca-bundle.pem
  • /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors/openshift-config-user-ca-bundle.crt

The MCC also handles the image registry certificates and its associated user bundle certificate.

You can get information about the listed certificates, including the underyling bundle the certificate comes from, and the signing and subject data.

Procedure

  • Get detailed certificate information by running the following command:

    $ oc get controllerconfig/machine-config-controller -o yaml | yq -y '.status.controllerCertificates'

    Example output

    "controllerCertificates": [
                       {
                           "bundleFile": "KubeAPIServerServingCAData",
                           "signer": "<signer_data1>",
                           "subject": "CN=openshift-kube-apiserver-operator_node-system-admin-signer@168909215"
                       },
                       {
                           "bundleFile": "RootCAData",
                           "signer": "<signer_data2>",
                           "subject": "CN=root-ca,OU=openshift"
                       }
                    ]

  • Get a simpler version of the information found in the ControllerConfig by checking the machine config pool status using the following command:

    $ oc get mcp master -o yaml | yq -y '.status.certExpirys'

    Example output

    status:
      certExpirys:
      - bundle: KubeAPIServerServingCAData
        subject: CN=admin-kubeconfig-signer,OU=openshift
      - bundle: KubeAPIServerServingCAData
        subject: CN=kube-csr-signer_@1689585558
      - bundle: KubeAPIServerServingCAData
        subject: CN=kubelet-signer,OU=openshift
      - bundle: KubeAPIServerServingCAData
        subject: CN=kube-apiserver-to-kubelet-signer,OU=openshift
      - bundle: KubeAPIServerServingCAData
        subject: CN=kube-control-plane-signer,OU=openshift

    This method is meant for OpenShift Container Platform applications that already consume machine config pool information.

  • Check which image registry certificates are on the nodes by looking at the contents of the /etc/docker/cert.d directory:

    # ls /etc/docker/certs.d

    Example output

    image-registry.openshift-image-registry.svc.cluster.local:5000 image-registry.openshift-image-registry.svc:5000

7.2. Using MachineConfig objects to configure nodes

You can use the tasks in this section to create MachineConfig objects that modify files, systemd unit files, and other operating system features running on OpenShift Container Platform nodes. For more ideas on working with machine configs, see content related to updating SSH authorized keys, verifying image signatures, enabling SCTP, and configuring iSCSI initiatornames for OpenShift Container Platform.

OpenShift Container Platform supports Ignition specification version 3.2. All new machine configs you create going forward should be based on Ignition specification version 3.2. If you are upgrading your OpenShift Container Platform cluster, any existing Ignition specification version 2.x machine configs will be translated automatically to specification version 3.2.

There might be situations where the configuration on a node does not fully match what the currently-applied machine config specifies. This state is called configuration drift. The Machine Config Daemon (MCD) regularly checks the nodes for configuration drift. If the MCD detects configuration drift, the MCO marks the node degraded until an administrator corrects the node configuration. A degraded node is online and operational, but, it cannot be updated. For more information on configuration drift, see Understanding configuration drift detection.

Tip

Use the following "Configuring chrony time service" procedure as a model for how to go about adding other configuration files to OpenShift Container Platform nodes.

7.2.1. Configuring chrony time service

You can set the time server and related settings used by the chrony time service (chronyd) by modifying the contents of the chrony.conf file and passing those contents to your nodes as a machine config.

Procedure

  1. Create a Butane config including the contents of the chrony.conf file. For example, to configure chrony on worker nodes, create a 99-worker-chrony.bu file.

    Note

    See "Creating machine configs with Butane" for information about Butane.

    variant: openshift
    version: 4.15.0
    metadata:
      name: 99-worker-chrony 1
      labels:
        machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role: worker 2
    storage:
      files:
      - path: /etc/chrony.conf
        mode: 0644 3
        overwrite: true
        contents:
          inline: |
            pool 0.rhel.pool.ntp.org iburst 4
            driftfile /var/lib/chrony/drift
            makestep 1.0 3
            rtcsync
            logdir /var/log/chrony
    1 2
    On control plane nodes, substitute master for worker in both of these locations.
    3
    Specify an octal value mode for the mode field in the machine config file. After creating the file and applying the changes, the mode is converted to a decimal value. You can check the YAML file with the command oc get mc <mc-name> -o yaml.
    4
    Specify any valid, reachable time source, such as the one provided by your DHCP server. Alternately, you can specify any of the following NTP servers: 1.rhel.pool.ntp.org, 2.rhel.pool.ntp.org, or 3.rhel.pool.ntp.org.
  2. Use Butane to generate a MachineConfig object file, 99-worker-chrony.yaml, containing the configuration to be delivered to the nodes:

    $ butane 99-worker-chrony.bu -o 99-worker-chrony.yaml
  3. Apply the configurations in one of two ways:

    • If the cluster is not running yet, after you generate manifest files, add the MachineConfig object file to the <installation_directory>/openshift directory, and then continue to create the cluster.
    • If the cluster is already running, apply the file:

      $ oc apply -f ./99-worker-chrony.yaml

7.2.2. Disabling the chrony time service

You can disable the chrony time service (chronyd) for nodes with a specific role by using a MachineConfig custom resource (CR).

Prerequisites

  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Log in as a user with cluster-admin privileges.

Procedure

  1. Create the MachineConfig CR that disables chronyd for the specified node role.

    1. Save the following YAML in the disable-chronyd.yaml file:

      apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
      kind: MachineConfig
      metadata:
        labels:
          machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role: <node_role> 1
        name: disable-chronyd
      spec:
        config:
          ignition:
            version: 3.2.0
          systemd:
            units:
              - contents: |
                  [Unit]
                  Description=NTP client/server
                  Documentation=man:chronyd(8) man:chrony.conf(5)
                  After=ntpdate.service sntp.service ntpd.service
                  Conflicts=ntpd.service systemd-timesyncd.service
                  ConditionCapability=CAP_SYS_TIME
                  [Service]
                  Type=forking
                  PIDFile=/run/chrony/chronyd.pid
                  EnvironmentFile=-/etc/sysconfig/chronyd
                  ExecStart=/usr/sbin/chronyd $OPTIONS
                  ExecStartPost=/usr/libexec/chrony-helper update-daemon
                  PrivateTmp=yes
                  ProtectHome=yes
                  ProtectSystem=full
                  [Install]
                  WantedBy=multi-user.target
                enabled: false
                name: "chronyd.service"
      1
      Node role where you want to disable chronyd, for example, master.
    2. Create the MachineConfig CR by running the following command:

      $ oc create -f disable-chronyd.yaml

7.2.3. Adding kernel arguments to nodes

In some special cases, you might want to add kernel arguments to a set of nodes in your cluster. This should only be done with caution and clear understanding of the implications of the arguments you set.

Warning

Improper use of kernel arguments can result in your systems becoming unbootable.

Examples of kernel arguments you could set include:

  • nosmt: Disables symmetric multithreading (SMT) in the kernel. Multithreading allows multiple logical threads for each CPU. You could consider nosmt in multi-tenant environments to reduce risks from potential cross-thread attacks. By disabling SMT, you essentially choose security over performance.
  • systemd.unified_cgroup_hierarchy: Enables Linux control group version 2 (cgroup v2). cgroup v2 is the next version of the kernel control group and offers multiple improvements.
  • enforcing=0: Configures Security Enhanced Linux (SELinux) to run in permissive mode. In permissive mode, the system acts as if SELinux is enforcing the loaded security policy, including labeling objects and emitting access denial entries in the logs, but it does not actually deny any operations. While not supported for production systems, permissive mode can be helpful for debugging.

    Warning

    Disabling SELinux on RHCOS in production is not supported. Once SELinux has been disabled on a node, it must be re-provisioned before re-inclusion in a production cluster.

See Kernel.org kernel parameters for a list and descriptions of kernel arguments.

In the following procedure, you create a MachineConfig object that identifies:

  • A set of machines to which you want to add the kernel argument. In this case, machines with a worker role.
  • Kernel arguments that are appended to the end of the existing kernel arguments.
  • A label that indicates where in the list of machine configs the change is applied.

Prerequisites

  • Have administrative privilege to a working OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

Procedure

  1. List existing MachineConfig objects for your OpenShift Container Platform cluster to determine how to label your machine config:

    $ oc get MachineConfig

    Example output

    NAME                                               GENERATEDBYCONTROLLER                      IGNITIONVERSION   AGE
    00-master                                          52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    00-worker                                          52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    01-master-container-runtime                        52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    01-master-kubelet                                  52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    01-worker-container-runtime                        52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    01-worker-kubelet                                  52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    99-master-generated-registries                     52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    99-master-ssh                                                                                 3.2.0             40m
    99-worker-generated-registries                     52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    99-worker-ssh                                                                                 3.2.0             40m
    rendered-master-23e785de7587df95a4b517e0647e5ab7   52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    rendered-worker-5d596d9293ca3ea80c896a1191735bb1   52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m

  2. Create a MachineConfig object file that identifies the kernel argument (for example, 05-worker-kernelarg-selinuxpermissive.yaml)

    apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
    kind: MachineConfig
    metadata:
      labels:
        machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role: worker1
      name: 05-worker-kernelarg-selinuxpermissive2
    spec:
      kernelArguments:
        - enforcing=03
    1
    Applies the new kernel argument only to worker nodes.
    2
    Named to identify where it fits among the machine configs (05) and what it does (adds a kernel argument to configure SELinux permissive mode).
    3
    Identifies the exact kernel argument as enforcing=0.
  3. Create the new machine config:

    $ oc create -f 05-worker-kernelarg-selinuxpermissive.yaml
  4. Check the machine configs to see that the new one was added:

    $ oc get MachineConfig

    Example output

    NAME                                               GENERATEDBYCONTROLLER                      IGNITIONVERSION   AGE
    00-master                                          52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    00-worker                                          52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    01-master-container-runtime                        52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    01-master-kubelet                                  52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    01-worker-container-runtime                        52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    01-worker-kubelet                                  52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    05-worker-kernelarg-selinuxpermissive                                                         3.2.0             105s
    99-master-generated-registries                     52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    99-master-ssh                                                                                 3.2.0             40m
    99-worker-generated-registries                     52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    99-worker-ssh                                                                                 3.2.0             40m
    rendered-master-23e785de7587df95a4b517e0647e5ab7   52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    rendered-worker-5d596d9293ca3ea80c896a1191735bb1   52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m

  5. Check the nodes:

    $ oc get nodes

    Example output

    NAME                           STATUS                     ROLES    AGE   VERSION
    ip-10-0-136-161.ec2.internal   Ready                      worker   28m   v1.28.5
    ip-10-0-136-243.ec2.internal   Ready                      master   34m   v1.28.5
    ip-10-0-141-105.ec2.internal   Ready,SchedulingDisabled   worker   28m   v1.28.5
    ip-10-0-142-249.ec2.internal   Ready                      master   34m   v1.28.5
    ip-10-0-153-11.ec2.internal    Ready                      worker   28m   v1.28.5
    ip-10-0-153-150.ec2.internal   Ready                      master   34m   v1.28.5

    You can see that scheduling on each worker node is disabled as the change is being applied.

  6. Check that the kernel argument worked by going to one of the worker nodes and listing the kernel command line arguments (in /proc/cmdline on the host):

    $ oc debug node/ip-10-0-141-105.ec2.internal

    Example output

    Starting pod/ip-10-0-141-105ec2internal-debug ...
    To use host binaries, run `chroot /host`
    
    sh-4.2# cat /host/proc/cmdline
    BOOT_IMAGE=/ostree/rhcos-... console=tty0 console=ttyS0,115200n8
    rootflags=defaults,prjquota rw root=UUID=fd0... ostree=/ostree/boot.0/rhcos/16...
    coreos.oem.id=qemu coreos.oem.id=ec2 ignition.platform.id=ec2 enforcing=0
    
    sh-4.2# exit

    You should see the enforcing=0 argument added to the other kernel arguments.

7.2.4. Enabling multipathing with kernel arguments on RHCOS

Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) supports multipathing on the primary disk, allowing stronger resilience to hardware failure to achieve higher host availability. Postinstallation support is available by activating multipathing via the machine config.

Important

Enabling multipathing during installation is supported and recommended for nodes provisioned in OpenShift Container Platform 4.8 or higher. In setups where any I/O to non-optimized paths results in I/O system errors, you must enable multipathing at installation time. For more information about enabling multipathing during installation time, see "Enabling multipathing with kernel arguments on RHCOS" in the Installing on bare metal documentation.

Important

On IBM Z® and IBM® LinuxONE, you can enable multipathing only if you configured your cluster for it during installation. For more information, see "Installing RHCOS and starting the OpenShift Container Platform bootstrap process" in Installing a cluster with z/VM on IBM Z® and IBM® LinuxONE.

Prerequisites

  • You have a running OpenShift Container Platform cluster that uses version 4.7 or later.
  • You are logged in to the cluster as a user with administrative privileges.
  • You have confirmed that the disk is enabled for multipathing. Multipathing is only supported on hosts that are connected to a SAN via an HBA adapter.

Procedure

  1. To enable multipathing postinstallation on control plane nodes:

    • Create a machine config file, such as 99-master-kargs-mpath.yaml, that instructs the cluster to add the master label and that identifies the multipath kernel argument, for example:

      apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
      kind: MachineConfig
      metadata:
        labels:
          machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role: "master"
        name: 99-master-kargs-mpath
      spec:
        kernelArguments:
          - 'rd.multipath=default'
          - 'root=/dev/disk/by-label/dm-mpath-root'
  2. To enable multipathing postinstallation on worker nodes:

    • Create a machine config file, such as 99-worker-kargs-mpath.yaml, that instructs the cluster to add the worker label and that identifies the multipath kernel argument, for example:

      apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
      kind: MachineConfig
      metadata:
        labels:
          machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role: "worker"
        name: 99-worker-kargs-mpath
      spec:
        kernelArguments:
          - 'rd.multipath=default'
          - 'root=/dev/disk/by-label/dm-mpath-root'
  3. Create the new machine config by using either the master or worker YAML file you previously created:

    $ oc create -f ./99-worker-kargs-mpath.yaml
  4. Check the machine configs to see that the new one was added:

    $ oc get MachineConfig

    Example output

    NAME                                               GENERATEDBYCONTROLLER                      IGNITIONVERSION   AGE
    00-master                                          52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    00-worker                                          52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    01-master-container-runtime                        52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    01-master-kubelet                                  52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    01-worker-container-runtime                        52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    01-worker-kubelet                                  52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    99-master-generated-registries                     52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    99-master-ssh                                                                                 3.2.0             40m
    99-worker-generated-registries                     52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    99-worker-kargs-mpath                              52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             105s
    99-worker-ssh                                                                                 3.2.0             40m
    rendered-master-23e785de7587df95a4b517e0647e5ab7   52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    rendered-worker-5d596d9293ca3ea80c896a1191735bb1   52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m

  5. Check the nodes:

    $ oc get nodes

    Example output

    NAME                           STATUS                     ROLES    AGE   VERSION
    ip-10-0-136-161.ec2.internal   Ready                      worker   28m   v1.28.5
    ip-10-0-136-243.ec2.internal   Ready                      master   34m   v1.28.5
    ip-10-0-141-105.ec2.internal   Ready,SchedulingDisabled   worker   28m   v1.28.5
    ip-10-0-142-249.ec2.internal   Ready                      master   34m   v1.28.5
    ip-10-0-153-11.ec2.internal    Ready                      worker   28m   v1.28.5
    ip-10-0-153-150.ec2.internal   Ready                      master   34m   v1.28.5

    You can see that scheduling on each worker node is disabled as the change is being applied.

  6. Check that the kernel argument worked by going to one of the worker nodes and listing the kernel command line arguments (in /proc/cmdline on the host):

    $ oc debug node/ip-10-0-141-105.ec2.internal

    Example output

    Starting pod/ip-10-0-141-105ec2internal-debug ...
    To use host binaries, run `chroot /host`
    
    sh-4.2# cat /host/proc/cmdline
    ...
    rd.multipath=default root=/dev/disk/by-label/dm-mpath-root
    ...
    
    sh-4.2# exit

    You should see the added kernel arguments.

Additional resources

7.2.5. Adding a real-time kernel to nodes

Some OpenShift Container Platform workloads require a high degree of determinism.While Linux is not a real-time operating system, the Linux real-time kernel includes a preemptive scheduler that provides the operating system with real-time characteristics.

If your OpenShift Container Platform workloads require these real-time characteristics, you can switch your machines to the Linux real-time kernel. For OpenShift Container Platform, 4.15 you can make this switch using a MachineConfig object. Although making the change is as simple as changing a machine config kernelType setting to realtime, there are a few other considerations before making the change:

  • Currently, real-time kernel is supported only on worker nodes, and only for radio access network (RAN) use.
  • The following procedure is fully supported with bare metal installations that use systems that are certified for Red Hat Enterprise Linux for Real Time 8.
  • Real-time support in OpenShift Container Platform is limited to specific subscriptions.
  • The following procedure is also supported for use with Google Cloud Platform.

Prerequisites

  • Have a running OpenShift Container Platform cluster (version 4.4 or later).
  • Log in to the cluster as a user with administrative privileges.

Procedure

  1. Create a machine config for the real-time kernel: Create a YAML file (for example, 99-worker-realtime.yaml) that contains a MachineConfig object for the realtime kernel type. This example tells the cluster to use a real-time kernel for all worker nodes:

    $ cat << EOF > 99-worker-realtime.yaml
    apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
    kind: MachineConfig
    metadata:
      labels:
        machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role: "worker"
      name: 99-worker-realtime
    spec:
      kernelType: realtime
    EOF
  2. Add the machine config to the cluster. Type the following to add the machine config to the cluster:

    $ oc create -f 99-worker-realtime.yaml
  3. Check the real-time kernel: Once each impacted node reboots, log in to the cluster and run the following commands to make sure that the real-time kernel has replaced the regular kernel for the set of nodes you configured:

    $ oc get nodes

    Example output

    NAME                                        STATUS  ROLES    AGE   VERSION
    ip-10-0-143-147.us-east-2.compute.internal  Ready   worker   103m  v1.28.5
    ip-10-0-146-92.us-east-2.compute.internal   Ready   worker   101m  v1.28.5
    ip-10-0-169-2.us-east-2.compute.internal    Ready   worker   102m  v1.28.5

    $ oc debug node/ip-10-0-143-147.us-east-2.compute.internal

    Example output

    Starting pod/ip-10-0-143-147us-east-2computeinternal-debug ...
    To use host binaries, run `chroot /host`
    
    sh-4.4# uname -a
    Linux <worker_node> 4.18.0-147.3.1.rt24.96.el8_1.x86_64 #1 SMP PREEMPT RT
            Wed Nov 27 18:29:55 UTC 2019 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

    The kernel name contains rt and text “PREEMPT RT” indicates that this is a real-time kernel.

  4. To go back to the regular kernel, delete the MachineConfig object:

    $ oc delete -f 99-worker-realtime.yaml

7.2.6. Configuring journald settings

If you need to configure settings for the journald service on OpenShift Container Platform nodes, you can do that by modifying the appropriate configuration file and passing the file to the appropriate pool of nodes as a machine config.

This procedure describes how to modify journald rate limiting settings in the /etc/systemd/journald.conf file and apply them to worker nodes. See the journald.conf man page for information on how to use that file.

Prerequisites

  • Have a running OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • Log in to the cluster as a user with administrative privileges.

Procedure

  1. Create a Butane config file, 40-worker-custom-journald.bu, that includes an /etc/systemd/journald.conf file with the required settings.

    Note

    See "Creating machine configs with Butane" for information about Butane.

    variant: openshift
    version: 4.15.0
    metadata:
      name: 40-worker-custom-journald
      labels:
        machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role: worker
    storage:
      files:
      - path: /etc/systemd/journald.conf
        mode: 0644
        overwrite: true
        contents:
          inline: |
            # Disable rate limiting
            RateLimitInterval=1s
            RateLimitBurst=10000
            Storage=volatile
            Compress=no
            MaxRetentionSec=30s
  2. Use Butane to generate a MachineConfig object file, 40-worker-custom-journald.yaml, containing the configuration to be delivered to the worker nodes:

    $ butane 40-worker-custom-journald.bu -o 40-worker-custom-journald.yaml
  3. Apply the machine config to the pool:

    $ oc apply -f 40-worker-custom-journald.yaml
  4. Check that the new machine config is applied and that the nodes are not in a degraded state. It might take a few minutes. The worker pool will show the updates in progress, as each node successfully has the new machine config applied:

    $ oc get machineconfigpool
    NAME   CONFIG             UPDATED UPDATING DEGRADED MACHINECOUNT READYMACHINECOUNT UPDATEDMACHINECOUNT DEGRADEDMACHINECOUNT AGE
    master rendered-master-35 True    False    False    3            3                 3                   0                    34m
    worker rendered-worker-d8 False   True     False    3            1                 1                   0                    34m
  5. To check that the change was applied, you can log in to a worker node:

    $ oc get node | grep worker
    ip-10-0-0-1.us-east-2.compute.internal   Ready    worker   39m   v0.0.0-master+$Format:%h$
    $ oc debug node/ip-10-0-0-1.us-east-2.compute.internal
    Starting pod/ip-10-0-141-142us-east-2computeinternal-debug ...
    ...
    sh-4.2# chroot /host
    sh-4.4# cat /etc/systemd/journald.conf
    # Disable rate limiting
    RateLimitInterval=1s
    RateLimitBurst=10000
    Storage=volatile
    Compress=no
    MaxRetentionSec=30s
    sh-4.4# exit

7.2.7. Adding extensions to RHCOS

RHCOS is a minimal container-oriented RHEL operating system, designed to provide a common set of capabilities to OpenShift Container Platform clusters across all platforms. While adding software packages to RHCOS systems is generally discouraged, the MCO provides an extensions feature you can use to add a minimal set of features to RHCOS nodes.

Currently, the following extensions are available:

  • usbguard: Adding the usbguard extension protects RHCOS systems from attacks from intrusive USB devices. See USBGuard for details.
  • kerberos: Adding the kerberos extension provides a mechanism that allows both users and machines to identify themselves to the network to receive defined, limited access to the areas and services that an administrator has configured. See Using Kerberos for details, including how to set up a Kerberos client and mount a Kerberized NFS share.

The following procedure describes how to use a machine config to add one or more extensions to your RHCOS nodes.

Prerequisites

  • Have a running OpenShift Container Platform cluster (version 4.6 or later).
  • Log in to the cluster as a user with administrative privileges.

Procedure

  1. Create a machine config for extensions: Create a YAML file (for example, 80-extensions.yaml) that contains a MachineConfig extensions object. This example tells the cluster to add the usbguard extension.

    $ cat << EOF > 80-extensions.yaml
    apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
    kind: MachineConfig
    metadata:
      labels:
        machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role: worker
      name: 80-worker-extensions
    spec:
      config:
        ignition:
          version: 3.2.0
      extensions:
        - usbguard
    EOF
  2. Add the machine config to the cluster. Type the following to add the machine config to the cluster:

    $ oc create -f 80-extensions.yaml

    This sets all worker nodes to have rpm packages for usbguard installed.

  3. Check that the extensions were applied:

    $ oc get machineconfig 80-worker-extensions

    Example output

    NAME                 GENERATEDBYCONTROLLER IGNITIONVERSION AGE
    80-worker-extensions                       3.2.0           57s

  4. Check that the new machine config is now applied and that the nodes are not in a degraded state. It may take a few minutes. The worker pool will show the updates in progress, as each machine successfully has the new machine config applied:

    $ oc get machineconfigpool

    Example output

    NAME   CONFIG             UPDATED UPDATING DEGRADED MACHINECOUNT READYMACHINECOUNT UPDATEDMACHINECOUNT DEGRADEDMACHINECOUNT AGE
    master rendered-master-35 True    False    False    3            3                 3                   0                    34m
    worker rendered-worker-d8 False   True     False    3            1                 1                   0                    34m

  5. Check the extensions. To check that the extension was applied, run:

    $ oc get node | grep worker

    Example output

    NAME                                        STATUS  ROLES    AGE   VERSION
    ip-10-0-169-2.us-east-2.compute.internal    Ready   worker   102m  v1.28.5

    $ oc debug node/ip-10-0-169-2.us-east-2.compute.internal

    Example output

    ...
    To use host binaries, run `chroot /host`
    sh-4.4# chroot /host
    sh-4.4# rpm -q usbguard
    usbguard-0.7.4-4.el8.x86_64.rpm

7.2.8. Loading custom firmware blobs in the machine config manifest

Because the default location for firmware blobs in /usr/lib is read-only, you can locate a custom firmware blob by updating the search path. This enables you to load local firmware blobs in the machine config manifest when the blobs are not managed by RHCOS.

Procedure

  1. Create a Butane config file, 98-worker-firmware-blob.bu, that updates the search path so that it is root-owned and writable to local storage. The following example places the custom blob file from your local workstation onto nodes under /var/lib/firmware.

    Note

    See "Creating machine configs with Butane" for information about Butane.

    Butane config file for custom firmware blob

    variant: openshift
    version: 4.15.0
    metadata:
      labels:
        machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role: worker
      name: 98-worker-firmware-blob
    storage:
      files:
      - path: /var/lib/firmware/<package_name> 1
        contents:
          local: <package_name> 2
        mode: 0644 3
    openshift:
      kernel_arguments:
        - 'firmware_class.path=/var/lib/firmware' 4

    1
    Sets the path on the node where the firmware package is copied to.
    2
    Specifies a file with contents that are read from a local file directory on the system running Butane. The path of the local file is relative to a files-dir directory, which must be specified by using the --files-dir option with Butane in the following step.
    3
    Sets the permissions for the file on the RHCOS node. It is recommended to set 0644 permissions.
    4
    The firmware_class.path parameter customizes the kernel search path of where to look for the custom firmware blob that was copied from your local workstation onto the root file system of the node. This example uses /var/lib/firmware as the customized path.
  2. Run Butane to generate a MachineConfig object file that uses a copy of the firmware blob on your local workstation named 98-worker-firmware-blob.yaml. The firmware blob contains the configuration to be delivered to the nodes. The following example uses the --files-dir option to specify the directory on your workstation where the local file or files are located:

    $ butane 98-worker-firmware-blob.bu -o 98-worker-firmware-blob.yaml --files-dir <directory_including_package_name>
  3. Apply the configurations to the nodes in one of two ways:

    • If the cluster is not running yet, after you generate manifest files, add the MachineConfig object file to the <installation_directory>/openshift directory, and then continue to create the cluster.
    • If the cluster is already running, apply the file:

      $ oc apply -f 98-worker-firmware-blob.yaml

      A MachineConfig object YAML file is created for you to finish configuring your machines.

  4. Save the Butane config in case you need to update the MachineConfig object in the future.

7.2.9. Changing the core user password for node access

By default, Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) creates a user named core on the nodes in your cluster. You can use the core user to access the node through a cloud provider serial console or a bare metal baseboard controller manager (BMC). This can be helpful, for example, if a node is down and you cannot access that node by using SSH or the oc debug node command. However, by default, there is no password for this user, so you cannot log in without creating one.

You can create a password for the core user by using a machine config. The Machine Config Operator (MCO) assigns the password and injects the password into the /etc/shadow file, allowing you to log in with the core user. The MCO does not examine the password hash. As such, the MCO cannot report if there is a problem with the password.

Note
  • The password works only through a cloud provider serial console or a BMC. It does not work with SSH.
  • If you have a machine config that includes an /etc/shadow file or a systemd unit that sets a password, it takes precedence over the password hash.

You can change the password, if needed, by editing the machine config you used to create the password. Also, you can remove the password by deleting the machine config. Deleting the machine config does not remove the user account.

Prerequisites

  • Create a hashed password by using a tool that is supported by your operating system.

Procedure

  1. Create a machine config file that contains the core username and the hashed password:

    apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
    kind: MachineConfig
    metadata:
      labels:
        machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role: worker
      name: set-core-user-password
    spec:
      config:
        ignition:
          version: 3.2.0
        passwd:
          users:
          - name: core 1
            passwordHash: <password> 2
    1
    This must be core.
    2
    The hashed password to use with the core account.
  2. Create the machine config by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <file-name>.yaml

    The nodes do not reboot and should become available in a few moments. You can use the oc get mcp to watch for the machine config pools to be updated, as shown in the following example:

    NAME     CONFIG                                             UPDATED   UPDATING   DEGRADED   MACHINECOUNT   READYMACHINECOUNT   UPDATEDMACHINECOUNT   DEGRADEDMACHINECOUNT   AGE
    master   rendered-master-d686a3ffc8fdec47280afec446fce8dd   True      False      False      3              3                   3                     0                      64m
    worker   rendered-worker-4605605a5b1f9de1d061e9d350f251e5   False     True       False      3              0                   0                     0                      64m

Verification

  1. After the nodes return to the UPDATED=True state, start a debug session for a node by running the following command:

    $ oc debug node/<node_name>
  2. Set /host as the root directory within the debug shell by running the following command:

    sh-4.4# chroot /host
  3. Check the contents of the /etc/shadow file:

    Example output

    ...
    core:$6$2sE/010goDuRSxxv$o18K52wor.wIwZp:19418:0:99999:7:::
    ...

    The hashed password is assigned to the core user.

7.3. Configuring MCO-related custom resources

Besides managing MachineConfig objects, the MCO manages two custom resources (CRs): KubeletConfig and ContainerRuntimeConfig. Those CRs let you change node-level settings impacting how the Kubelet and CRI-O container runtime services behave.

7.3.1. Creating a KubeletConfig CRD to edit kubelet parameters

The kubelet configuration is currently serialized as an Ignition configuration, so it can be directly edited. However, there is also a new kubelet-config-controller added to the Machine Config Controller (MCC). This lets you use a KubeletConfig custom resource (CR) to edit the kubelet parameters.

Note

As the fields in the kubeletConfig object are passed directly to the kubelet from upstream Kubernetes, the kubelet validates those values directly. Invalid values in the kubeletConfig object might cause cluster nodes to become unavailable. For valid values, see the Kubernetes documentation.

Consider the following guidance:

  • Edit an existing KubeletConfig CR to modify existing settings or add new settings, instead of creating a CR for each change. It is recommended that you create a CR only to modify a different machine config pool, or for changes that are intended to be temporary, so that you can revert the changes.
  • Create one KubeletConfig CR for each machine config pool with all the config changes you want for that pool.
  • As needed, create multiple KubeletConfig CRs with a limit of 10 per cluster. For the first KubeletConfig CR, the Machine Config Operator (MCO) creates a machine config appended with kubelet. With each subsequent CR, the controller creates another kubelet machine config with a numeric suffix. For example, if you have a kubelet machine config with a -2 suffix, the next kubelet machine config is appended with -3.
Note

If you are applying a kubelet or container runtime config to a custom machine config pool, the custom role in the machineConfigSelector must match the name of the custom machine config pool.

For example, because the following custom machine config pool is named infra, the custom role must also be infra:

apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
kind: MachineConfigPool
metadata:
  name: infra
spec:
  machineConfigSelector:
    matchExpressions:
      - {key: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role, operator: In, values: [worker,infra]}
# ...

If you want to delete the machine configs, delete them in reverse order to avoid exceeding the limit. For example, you delete the kubelet-3 machine config before deleting the kubelet-2 machine config.

Note

If you have a machine config with a kubelet-9 suffix, and you create another KubeletConfig CR, a new machine config is not created, even if there are fewer than 10 kubelet machine configs.

Example KubeletConfig CR

$ oc get kubeletconfig

NAME                AGE
set-max-pods        15m

Example showing a KubeletConfig machine config

$ oc get mc | grep kubelet

...
99-worker-generated-kubelet-1                  b5c5119de007945b6fe6fb215db3b8e2ceb12511   3.2.0             26m
...

The following procedure is an example to show how to configure the maximum number of pods per node on the worker nodes.

Prerequisites

  1. Obtain the label associated with the static MachineConfigPool CR for the type of node you want to configure. Perform one of the following steps:

    1. View the machine config pool:

      $ oc describe machineconfigpool <name>

      For example:

      $ oc describe machineconfigpool worker

      Example output

      apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
      kind: MachineConfigPool
      metadata:
        creationTimestamp: 2019-02-08T14:52:39Z
        generation: 1
        labels:
          custom-kubelet: set-max-pods 1

      1
      If a label has been added it appears under labels.
    2. If the label is not present, add a key/value pair:

      $ oc label machineconfigpool worker custom-kubelet=set-max-pods

Procedure

  1. View the available machine configuration objects that you can select:

    $ oc get machineconfig

    By default, the two kubelet-related configs are 01-master-kubelet and 01-worker-kubelet.

  2. Check the current value for the maximum pods per node:

    $ oc describe node <node_name>

    For example:

    $ oc describe node ci-ln-5grqprb-f76d1-ncnqq-worker-a-mdv94

    Look for value: pods: <value> in the Allocatable stanza:

    Example output

    Allocatable:
     attachable-volumes-aws-ebs:  25
     cpu:                         3500m
     hugepages-1Gi:               0
     hugepages-2Mi:               0
     memory:                      15341844Ki
     pods:                        250

  3. Set the maximum pods per node on the worker nodes by creating a custom resource file that contains the kubelet configuration:

    Important

    Kubelet configurations that target a specific machine config pool also affect any dependent pools. For example, creating a kubelet configuration for the pool containing worker nodes will also apply to any subset pools, including the pool containing infrastructure nodes. To avoid this, you must create a new machine config pool with a selection expression that only includes worker nodes, and have your kubelet configuration target this new pool.

    apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
    kind: KubeletConfig
    metadata:
      name: set-max-pods
    spec:
      machineConfigPoolSelector:
        matchLabels:
          custom-kubelet: set-max-pods 1
      kubeletConfig:
        maxPods: 500 2
    1
    Enter the label from the machine config pool.
    2
    Add the kubelet configuration. In this example, use maxPods to set the maximum pods per node.
    Note

    The rate at which the kubelet talks to the API server depends on queries per second (QPS) and burst values. The default values, 50 for kubeAPIQPS and 100 for kubeAPIBurst, are sufficient if there are limited pods running on each node. It is recommended to update the kubelet QPS and burst rates if there are enough CPU and memory resources on the node.

    apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
    kind: KubeletConfig
    metadata:
      name: set-max-pods
    spec:
      machineConfigPoolSelector:
        matchLabels:
          custom-kubelet: set-max-pods
      kubeletConfig:
        maxPods: <pod_count>
        kubeAPIBurst: <burst_rate>
        kubeAPIQPS: <QPS>
    1. Update the machine config pool for workers with the label:

      $ oc label machineconfigpool worker custom-kubelet=set-max-pods
    2. Create the KubeletConfig object:

      $ oc create -f change-maxPods-cr.yaml
    3. Verify that the KubeletConfig object is created:

      $ oc get kubeletconfig

      Example output

      NAME                AGE
      set-max-pods        15m

      Depending on the number of worker nodes in the cluster, wait for the worker nodes to be rebooted one by one. For a cluster with 3 worker nodes, this could take about 10 to 15 minutes.

  4. Verify that the changes are applied to the node:

    1. Check on a worker node that the maxPods value changed:

      $ oc describe node <node_name>
    2. Locate the Allocatable stanza:

       ...
      Allocatable:
        attachable-volumes-gce-pd:  127
        cpu:                        3500m
        ephemeral-storage:          123201474766
        hugepages-1Gi:              0
        hugepages-2Mi:              0
        memory:                     14225400Ki
        pods:                       500 1
       ...
      1
      In this example, the pods parameter should report the value you set in the KubeletConfig object.
  5. Verify the change in the KubeletConfig object:

    $ oc get kubeletconfigs set-max-pods -o yaml

    This should show a status of True and type:Success, as shown in the following example:

    spec:
      kubeletConfig:
        maxPods: 500
      machineConfigPoolSelector:
        matchLabels:
          custom-kubelet: set-max-pods
    status:
      conditions:
      - lastTransitionTime: "2021-06-30T17:04:07Z"
        message: Success
        status: "True"
        type: Success

7.3.2. Creating a ContainerRuntimeConfig CR to edit CRI-O parameters

You can change some of the settings associated with the OpenShift Container Platform CRI-O runtime for the nodes associated with a specific machine config pool (MCP). Using a ContainerRuntimeConfig custom resource (CR), you set the configuration values and add a label to match the MCP. The MCO then rebuilds the crio.conf and storage.conf configuration files on the associated nodes with the updated values.

Note

To revert the changes implemented by using a ContainerRuntimeConfig CR, you must delete the CR. Removing the label from the machine config pool does not revert the changes.

You can modify the following settings by using a ContainerRuntimeConfig CR:

  • PIDs limit: Setting the PIDs limit in the ContainerRuntimeConfig is expected to be deprecated. If PIDs limits are required, it is recommended to use the podPidsLimit field in the KubeletConfig CR instead. The default value of the podPidsLimit field is 4096.

    Note

    The CRI-O flag is applied on the cgroup of the container, while the Kubelet flag is set on the cgroup of the pod. Please adjust the PIDs limit accordingly.

  • Log level: The logLevel parameter sets the CRI-O log_level parameter, which is the level of verbosity for log messages. The default is info (log_level = info). Other options include fatal, panic, error, warn, debug, and trace.
  • Overlay size: The overlaySize parameter sets the CRI-O Overlay storage driver size parameter, which is the maximum size of a container image.
  • Maximum log size: Setting the maximum log size in the ContainerRuntimeConfig is expected to be deprecated. If a maximum log size is required, it is recommended to use the containerLogMaxSize field in the KubeletConfig CR instead.
  • Container runtime: The defaultRuntime parameter sets the container runtime to either runc or crun. The default is runc.

You should have one ContainerRuntimeConfig CR for each machine config pool with all the config changes you want for that pool. If you are applying the same content to all the pools, you only need one ContainerRuntimeConfig CR for all the pools.

You should edit an existing ContainerRuntimeConfig CR to modify existing settings or add new settings instead of creating a new CR for each change. It is recommended to create a new ContainerRuntimeConfig CR only to modify a different machine config pool, or for changes that are intended to be temporary so that you can revert the changes.

You can create multiple ContainerRuntimeConfig CRs, as needed, with a limit of 10 per cluster. For the first ContainerRuntimeConfig CR, the MCO creates a machine config appended with containerruntime. With each subsequent CR, the controller creates a new containerruntime machine config with a numeric suffix. For example, if you have a containerruntime machine config with a -2 suffix, the next containerruntime machine config is appended with -3.

If you want to delete the machine configs, you should delete them in reverse order to avoid exceeding the limit. For example, you should delete the containerruntime-3 machine config before deleting the containerruntime-2 machine config.

Note

If you have a machine config with a containerruntime-9 suffix, and you create another ContainerRuntimeConfig CR, a new machine config is not created, even if there are fewer than 10 containerruntime machine configs.

Example showing multiple ContainerRuntimeConfig CRs

$ oc get ctrcfg

Example output

NAME         AGE
ctr-overlay  15m
ctr-level    5m45s

Example showing multiple containerruntime machine configs

$ oc get mc | grep container

Example output

...
01-master-container-runtime                        b5c5119de007945b6fe6fb215db3b8e2ceb12511   3.2.0             57m
...
01-worker-container-runtime                        b5c5119de007945b6fe6fb215db3b8e2ceb12511   3.2.0             57m
...
99-worker-generated-containerruntime               b5c5119de007945b6fe6fb215db3b8e2ceb12511   3.2.0             26m
99-worker-generated-containerruntime-1             b5c5119de007945b6fe6fb215db3b8e2ceb12511   3.2.0             17m
99-worker-generated-containerruntime-2             b5c5119de007945b6fe6fb215db3b8e2ceb12511   3.2.0             7m26s
...

The following example sets the log_level field to debug and sets the overlay size to 8 GB:

Example ContainerRuntimeConfig CR

apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
kind: ContainerRuntimeConfig
metadata:
 name: overlay-size
spec:
 machineConfigPoolSelector:
   matchLabels:
     pools.operator.machineconfiguration.openshift.io/worker: '' 1
 containerRuntimeConfig:
   logLevel: debug 2
   overlaySize: 8G 3
   defaultRuntime: "crun" 4

1
Specifies the machine config pool label. For a container runtime config, the role must match the name of the associated machine config pool.
2
Optional: Specifies the level of verbosity for log messages.
3
Optional: Specifies the maximum size of a container image.
4
Optional: Specifies the container runtime to deploy to new containers. The default value is runc.

Procedure

To change CRI-O settings using the ContainerRuntimeConfig CR:

  1. Create a YAML file for the ContainerRuntimeConfig CR:

    apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
    kind: ContainerRuntimeConfig
    metadata:
     name: overlay-size
    spec:
     machineConfigPoolSelector:
       matchLabels:
         pools.operator.machineconfiguration.openshift.io/worker: '' 1
     containerRuntimeConfig: 2
       logLevel: debug
       overlaySize: 8G
    1
    Specify a label for the machine config pool that you want you want to modify.
    2
    Set the parameters as needed.
  2. Create the ContainerRuntimeConfig CR:

    $ oc create -f <file_name>.yaml
  3. Verify that the CR is created:

    $ oc get ContainerRuntimeConfig

    Example output

    NAME           AGE
    overlay-size   3m19s

  4. Check that a new containerruntime machine config is created:

    $ oc get machineconfigs | grep containerrun

    Example output

    99-worker-generated-containerruntime   2c9371fbb673b97a6fe8b1c52691999ed3a1bfc2  3.2.0  31s

  5. Monitor the machine config pool until all are shown as ready:

    $ oc get mcp worker

    Example output

    NAME    CONFIG               UPDATED  UPDATING  DEGRADED  MACHINECOUNT  READYMACHINECOUNT  UPDATEDMACHINECOUNT  DEGRADEDMACHINECOUNT  AGE
    worker  rendered-worker-169  False    True      False     3             1                  1                    0                     9h

  6. Verify that the settings were applied in CRI-O:

    1. Open an oc debug session to a node in the machine config pool and run chroot /host.

      $ oc debug node/<node_name>
      sh-4.4# chroot /host
    2. Verify the changes in the crio.conf file:

      sh-4.4# crio config | grep 'log_level'

      Example output

      log_level = "debug"

    3. Verify the changes in the `storage.conf`file:

      sh-4.4# head -n 7 /etc/containers/storage.conf

      Example output

      [storage]
        driver = "overlay"
        runroot = "/var/run/containers/storage"
        graphroot = "/var/lib/containers/storage"
        [storage.options]
          additionalimagestores = []
          size = "8G"

7.3.3. Setting the default maximum container root partition size for Overlay with CRI-O

The root partition of each container shows all of the available disk space of the underlying host. Follow this guidance to set a maximum partition size for the root disk of all containers.

To configure the maximum Overlay size, as well as other CRI-O options like the log level, you can create the following ContainerRuntimeConfig custom resource definition (CRD):

apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
kind: ContainerRuntimeConfig
metadata:
 name: overlay-size
spec:
 machineConfigPoolSelector:
   matchLabels:
     custom-crio: overlay-size
 containerRuntimeConfig:
   logLevel: debug
   overlaySize: 8G

Procedure

  1. Create the configuration object:

    $ oc apply -f overlaysize.yml
  2. To apply the new CRI-O configuration to your worker nodes, edit the worker machine config pool:

    $ oc edit machineconfigpool worker
  3. Add the custom-crio label based on the matchLabels name you set in the ContainerRuntimeConfig CRD:

    apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
    kind: MachineConfigPool
    metadata:
      creationTimestamp: "2020-07-09T15:46:34Z"
      generation: 3
      labels:
        custom-crio: overlay-size
        machineconfiguration.openshift.io/mco-built-in: ""
  4. Save the changes, then view the machine configs:

    $ oc get machineconfigs

    New 99-worker-generated-containerruntime and rendered-worker-xyz objects are created:

    Example output

    99-worker-generated-containerruntime  4173030d89fbf4a7a0976d1665491a4d9a6e54f1   3.2.0             7m42s
    rendered-worker-xyz                   4173030d89fbf4a7a0976d1665491a4d9a6e54f1   3.2.0             7m36s

  5. After those objects are created, monitor the machine config pool for the changes to be applied:

    $ oc get mcp worker

    The worker nodes show UPDATING as True, as well as the number of machines, the number updated, and other details:

    Example output

    NAME   CONFIG              UPDATED   UPDATING   DEGRADED  MACHINECOUNT  READYMACHINECOUNT  UPDATEDMACHINECOUNT   DEGRADEDMACHINECOUNT   AGE
    worker rendered-worker-xyz False True False     3             2                   2                    0                      20h

    When complete, the worker nodes transition back to UPDATING as False, and the UPDATEDMACHINECOUNT number matches the MACHINECOUNT:

    Example output

    NAME   CONFIG              UPDATED   UPDATING   DEGRADED  MACHINECOUNT  READYMACHINECOUNT  UPDATEDMACHINECOUNT   DEGRADEDMACHINECOUNT   AGE
    worker   rendered-worker-xyz   True      False      False      3         3            3             0           20h

    Looking at a worker machine, you see that the new 8 GB max size configuration is applied to all of the workers:

    Example output

    head -n 7 /etc/containers/storage.conf
    [storage]
      driver = "overlay"
      runroot = "/var/run/containers/storage"
      graphroot = "/var/lib/containers/storage"
      [storage.options]
        additionalimagestores = []
        size = "8G"

    Looking inside a container, you see that the root partition is now 8 GB:

    Example output

    ~ $ df -h
    Filesystem                Size      Used Available Use% Mounted on
    overlay                   8.0G      8.0K      8.0G   0% /

Chapter 8. Postinstallation cluster tasks

After installing OpenShift Container Platform, you can further expand and customize your cluster to your requirements.

8.1. Available cluster customizations

You complete most of the cluster configuration and customization after you deploy your OpenShift Container Platform cluster. A number of configuration resources are available.

Note

If you install your cluster on IBM Z®, not all features and functions are available.

You modify the configuration resources to configure the major features of the cluster, such as the image registry, networking configuration, image build behavior, and the identity provider.

For current documentation of the settings that you control by using these resources, use the oc explain command, for example oc explain builds --api-version=config.openshift.io/v1

8.1.1. Cluster configuration resources

All cluster configuration resources are globally scoped (not namespaced) and named cluster.

Resource nameDescription

apiserver.config.openshift.io

Provides API server configuration such as certificates and certificate authorities.

authentication.config.openshift.io

Controls the identity provider and authentication configuration for the cluster.

build.config.openshift.io

Controls default and enforced configuration for all builds on the cluster.

console.config.openshift.io

Configures the behavior of the web console interface, including the logout behavior.

featuregate.config.openshift.io

Enables FeatureGates so that you can use Tech Preview features.

image.config.openshift.io

Configures how specific image registries should be treated (allowed, disallowed, insecure, CA details).

ingress.config.openshift.io

Configuration details related to routing such as the default domain for routes.

oauth.config.openshift.io

Configures identity providers and other behavior related to internal OAuth server flows.

project.config.openshift.io

Configures how projects are created including the project template.

proxy.config.openshift.io

Defines proxies to be used by components needing external network access. Note: not all components currently consume this value.

scheduler.config.openshift.io

Configures scheduler behavior such as profiles and default node selectors.

8.1.2. Operator configuration resources

These configuration resources are cluster-scoped instances, named cluster, which control the behavior of a specific component as owned by a particular Operator.

Resource nameDescription

consoles.operator.openshift.io

Controls console appearance such as branding customizations

config.imageregistry.operator.openshift.io

Configures OpenShift image registry settings such as public routing, log levels, proxy settings, resource constraints, replica counts, and storage type.

config.samples.operator.openshift.io

Configures the Samples Operator to control which example image streams and templates are installed on the cluster.

8.1.3. Additional configuration resources

These configuration resources represent a single instance of a particular component. In some cases, you can request multiple instances by creating multiple instances of the resource. In other cases, the Operator can use only a specific resource instance name in a specific namespace. Reference the component-specific documentation for details on how and when you can create additional resource instances.

Resource nameInstance nameNamespaceDescription

alertmanager.monitoring.coreos.com

main

openshift-monitoring

Controls the Alertmanager deployment parameters.

ingresscontroller.operator.openshift.io

default

openshift-ingress-operator

Configures Ingress Operator behavior such as domain, number of replicas, certificates, and controller placement.

8.1.4. Informational Resources

You use these resources to retrieve information about the cluster. Some configurations might require you to edit these resources directly.

Resource nameInstance nameDescription

clusterversion.config.openshift.io

version

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.15, you must not customize the ClusterVersion resource for production clusters. Instead, follow the process to update a cluster.

dns.config.openshift.io

cluster

You cannot modify the DNS settings for your cluster. You can view the DNS Operator status.

infrastructure.config.openshift.io

cluster

Configuration details allowing the cluster to interact with its cloud provider.

network.config.openshift.io

cluster

You cannot modify your cluster networking after installation. To customize your network, follow the process to customize networking during installation.

8.2. Updating the global cluster pull secret

You can update the global pull secret for your cluster by either replacing the current pull secret or appending a new pull secret.

The procedure is required when users use a separate registry to store images than the registry used during installation.

Prerequisites

  • You have access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.

Procedure

  1. Optional: To append a new pull secret to the existing pull secret, complete the following steps:

    1. Enter the following command to download the pull secret:

      $ oc get secret/pull-secret -n openshift-config --template='{{index .data ".dockerconfigjson" | base64decode}}' ><pull_secret_location> 1
      1
      Provide the path to the pull secret file.
    2. Enter the following command to add the new pull secret:

      $ oc registry login --registry="<registry>" \ 1
      --auth-basic="<username>:<password>" \ 2
      --to=<pull_secret_location> 3
      1
      Provide the new registry. You can include multiple repositories within the same registry, for example: --registry="<registry/my-namespace/my-repository>".
      2
      Provide the credentials of the new registry.
      3
      Provide the path to the pull secret file.

      Alternatively, you can perform a manual update to the pull secret file.

  2. Enter the following command to update the global pull secret for your cluster:

    $ oc set data secret/pull-secret -n openshift-config --from-file=.dockerconfigjson=<pull_secret_location> 1
    1
    Provide the path to the new pull secret file.

    This update is rolled out to all nodes, which can take some time depending on the size of your cluster.

    Note

    As of OpenShift Container Platform 4.7.4, changes to the global pull secret no longer trigger a node drain or reboot.

8.3. Adding worker nodes

After you deploy your OpenShift Container Platform cluster, you can add worker nodes to scale cluster resources. There are different ways you can add worker nodes depending on the installation method and the environment of your cluster.

8.3.1. Adding worker nodes to installer-provisioned infrastructure clusters

For installer-provisioned infrastructure clusters, you can manually or automatically scale the MachineSet object to match the number of available bare-metal hosts.

To add a bare-metal host, you must configure all network prerequisites, configure an associated baremetalhost object, then provision the worker node to the cluster. You can add a bare-metal host manually or by using the web console.

8.3.2. Adding worker nodes to user-provisioned infrastructure clusters

For user-provisioned infrastructure clusters, you can add worker nodes by using a RHEL or RHCOS ISO image and connecting it to your cluster using cluster Ignition config files. For RHEL worker nodes, the following example uses Ansible playbooks to add worker nodes to the cluster. For RHCOS worker nodes, the following example uses an ISO image and network booting to add worker nodes to the cluster.

8.3.3. Adding worker nodes to clusters managed by the Assisted Installer

For clusters managed by the Assisted Installer, you can add worker nodes by using the Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager console, the Assisted Installer REST API or you can manually add worker nodes using an ISO image and cluster Ignition config files.

8.3.4. Adding worker nodes to clusters managed by the multicluster engine for Kubernetes

For clusters managed by the multicluster engine for Kubernetes, you can add worker nodes by using the dedicated multicluster engine console.

8.4. Adjust worker nodes

If you incorrectly sized the worker nodes during deployment, adjust them by creating one or more new compute machine sets, scale them up, then scale the original compute machine set down before removing them.

8.4.1. Understanding the difference between compute machine sets and the machine config pool

MachineSet objects describe OpenShift Container Platform nodes with respect to the cloud or machine provider.

The MachineConfigPool object allows MachineConfigController components to define and provide the status of machines in the context of upgrades.

The MachineConfigPool object allows users to configure how upgrades are rolled out to the OpenShift Container Platform nodes in the machine config pool.

The NodeSelector object can be replaced with a reference to the MachineSet object.

8.4.2. Scaling a compute machine set manually

To add or remove an instance of a machine in a compute machine set, you can manually scale the compute machine set.

This guidance is relevant to fully automated, installer-provisioned infrastructure installations. Customized, user-provisioned infrastructure installations do not have compute machine sets.

Prerequisites

  • Install an OpenShift Container Platform cluster and the oc command line.
  • Log in to oc as a user with cluster-admin permission.

Procedure

  1. View the compute machine sets that are in the cluster by running the following command:

    $ oc get machinesets -n openshift-machine-api

    The compute machine sets are listed in the form of <clusterid>-worker-<aws-region-az>.

  2. View the compute machines that are in the cluster by running the following command:

    $ oc get machine -n openshift-machine-api
  3. Set the annotation on the compute machine that you want to delete by running the following command:

    $ oc annotate machine/<machine_name> -n openshift-machine-api machine.openshift.io/delete-machine="true"
  4. Scale the compute machine set by running one of the following commands:

    $ oc scale --replicas=2 machineset <machineset> -n openshift-machine-api

    Or:

    $ oc edit machineset <machineset> -n openshift-machine-api
    Tip

    You can alternatively apply the following YAML to scale the compute machine set:

    apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
    kind: MachineSet
    metadata:
      name: <machineset>
      namespace: openshift-machine-api
    spec:
      replicas: 2

    You can scale the compute machine set up or down. It takes several minutes for the new machines to be available.

    Important

    By default, the machine controller tries to drain the node that is backed by the machine until it succeeds. In some situations, such as with a misconfigured pod disruption budget, the drain operation might not be able to succeed. If the drain operation fails, the machine controller cannot proceed removing the machine.

    You can skip draining the node by annotating machine.openshift.io/exclude-node-draining in a specific machine.

Verification

  • Verify the deletion of the intended machine by running the following command:

    $ oc get machines

8.4.3. The compute machine set deletion policy

Random, Newest, and Oldest are the three supported deletion options. The default is Random, meaning that random machines are chosen and deleted when scaling compute machine sets down. The deletion policy can be set according to the use case by modifying the particular compute machine set:

spec:
  deletePolicy: <delete_policy>
  replicas: <desired_replica_count>

Specific machines can also be prioritized for deletion by adding the annotation machine.openshift.io/delete-machine=true to the machine of interest, regardless of the deletion policy.

Important

By default, the OpenShift Container Platform router pods are deployed on workers. Because the router is required to access some cluster resources, including the web console, do not scale the worker compute machine set to 0 unless you first relocate the router pods.

Note

Custom compute machine sets can be used for use cases requiring that services run on specific nodes and that those services are ignored by the controller when the worker compute machine sets are scaling down. This prevents service disruption.

8.4.4. Creating default cluster-wide node selectors

You can use default cluster-wide node selectors on pods together with labels on nodes to constrain all pods created in a cluster to specific nodes.

With cluster-wide node selectors, when you create a pod in that cluster, OpenShift Container Platform adds the default node selectors to the pod and schedules the pod on nodes with matching labels.

You configure cluster-wide node selectors by editing the Scheduler Operator custom resource (CR). You add labels to a node, a compute machine set, or a machine config. Adding the label to the compute machine set ensures that if the node or machine goes down, new nodes have the label. Labels added to a node or machine config do not persist if the node or machine goes down.

Note

You can add additional key/value pairs to a pod. But you cannot add a different value for a default key.

Procedure

To add a default cluster-wide node selector:

  1. Edit the Scheduler Operator CR to add the default cluster-wide node selectors:

    $ oc edit scheduler cluster

    Example Scheduler Operator CR with a node selector

    apiVersion: config.openshift.io/v1
    kind: Scheduler
    metadata:
      name: cluster
    ...
    spec:
      defaultNodeSelector: type=user-node,region=east 1
      mastersSchedulable: false

    1
    Add a node selector with the appropriate <key>:<value> pairs.

    After making this change, wait for the pods in the openshift-kube-apiserver project to redeploy. This can take several minutes. The default cluster-wide node selector does not take effect until the pods redeploy.

  2. Add labels to a node by using a compute machine set or editing the node directly:

    • Use a compute machine set to add labels to nodes managed by the compute machine set when a node is created:

      1. Run the following command to add labels to a MachineSet object:

        $ oc patch MachineSet <name> --type='json' -p='[{"op":"add","path":"/spec/template/spec/metadata/labels", "value":{"<key>"="<value>","<key>"="<value>"}}]'  -n openshift-machine-api 1
        1
        Add a <key>/<value> pair for each label.

        For example:

        $ oc patch MachineSet ci-ln-l8nry52-f76d1-hl7m7-worker-c --type='json' -p='[{"op":"add","path":"/spec/template/spec/metadata/labels", "value":{"type":"user-node","region":"east"}}]'  -n openshift-machine-api
        Tip

        You can alternatively apply the following YAML to add labels to a compute machine set:

        apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
        kind: MachineSet
        metadata:
          name: <machineset>
          namespace: openshift-machine-api
        spec:
          template:
            spec:
              metadata:
                labels:
                  region: "east"
                  type: "user-node"
      2. Verify that the labels are added to the MachineSet object by using the oc edit command:

        For example:

        $ oc edit MachineSet abc612-msrtw-worker-us-east-1c -n openshift-machine-api

        Example MachineSet object

        apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
        kind: MachineSet
          ...
        spec:
          ...
          template:
            metadata:
          ...
            spec:
              metadata:
                labels:
                  region: east
                  type: user-node
          ...

      3. Redeploy the nodes associated with that compute machine set by scaling down to 0 and scaling up the nodes:

        For example:

        $ oc scale --replicas=0 MachineSet ci-ln-l8nry52-f76d1-hl7m7-worker-c -n openshift-machine-api
        $ oc scale --replicas=1 MachineSet ci-ln-l8nry52-f76d1-hl7m7-worker-c -n openshift-machine-api
      4. When the nodes are ready and available, verify that the label is added to the nodes by using the oc get command:

        $ oc get nodes -l <key>=<value>

        For example:

        $ oc get nodes -l type=user-node

        Example output

        NAME                                       STATUS   ROLES    AGE   VERSION
        ci-ln-l8nry52-f76d1-hl7m7-worker-c-vmqzp   Ready    worker   61s   v1.28.5

    • Add labels directly to a node:

      1. Edit the Node object for the node:

        $ oc label nodes <name> <key>=<value>

        For example, to label a node:

        $ oc label nodes ci-ln-l8nry52-f76d1-hl7m7-worker-b-tgq49 type=user-node region=east
        Tip

        You can alternatively apply the following YAML to add labels to a node:

        kind: Node
        apiVersion: v1
        metadata:
          name: <node_name>
          labels:
            type: "user-node"
            region: "east"
      2. Verify that the labels are added to the node using the oc get command:

        $ oc get nodes -l <key>=<value>,<key>=<value>

        For example:

        $ oc get nodes -l type=user-node,region=east

        Example output

        NAME                                       STATUS   ROLES    AGE   VERSION
        ci-ln-l8nry52-f76d1-hl7m7-worker-b-tgq49   Ready    worker   17m   v1.28.5

8.5. Improving cluster stability in high latency environments using worker latency profiles

If the cluster administrator has performed latency tests for platform verification, they can discover the need to adjust the operation of the cluster to ensure stability in cases of high latency. The cluster administrator need change only one parameter, recorded in a file, which controls four parameters affecting how supervisory processes read status and interpret the health of the cluster. Changing only the one parameter provides cluster tuning in an easy, supportable manner.

The Kubelet process provides the starting point for monitoring cluster health. The Kubelet sets status values for all nodes in the OpenShift Container Platform cluster. The Kubernetes Controller Manager (kube controller) reads the status values every 10 seconds, by default. If the kube controller cannot read a node status value, it loses contact with that node after a configured period. The default behavior is:

  1. The node controller on the control plane updates the node health to Unhealthy and marks the node Ready condition`Unknown`.
  2. In response, the scheduler stops scheduling pods to that node.
  3. The Node Lifecycle Controller adds a node.kubernetes.io/unreachable taint with a NoExecute effect to the node and schedules any pods on the node for eviction after five minutes, by default.

This behavior can cause problems if your network is prone to latency issues, especially if you have nodes at the network edge. In some cases, the Kubernetes Controller Manager might not receive an update from a healthy node due to network latency. The Kubelet evicts pods from the node even though the node is healthy.

To avoid this problem, you can use worker latency profiles to adjust the frequency that the Kubelet and the Kubernetes Controller Manager wait for status updates before taking action. These adjustments help to ensure that your cluster runs properly if network latency between the control plane and the worker nodes is not optimal.

These worker latency profiles contain three sets of parameters that are pre-defined with carefully tuned values to control the reaction of the cluster to increased latency. No need to experimentally find the best values manually.

You can configure worker latency profiles when installing a cluster or at any time you notice increased latency in your cluster network.

8.5.1. Understanding worker latency profiles

Worker latency profiles are four different categories of carefully-tuned parameters. The four parameters which implement these values are node-status-update-frequency, node-monitor-grace-period, default-not-ready-toleration-seconds and default-unreachable-toleration-seconds. These parameters can use values which allow you control the reaction of the cluster to latency issues without needing to determine the best values using manual methods.

Important

Setting these parameters manually is not supported. Incorrect parameter settings adversely affect cluster stability.

All worker latency profiles configure the following parameters:

node-status-update-frequency
Specifies how often the kubelet posts node status to the API server.
node-monitor-grace-period
Specifies the amount of time in seconds that the Kubernetes Controller Manager waits for an update from a kubelet before marking the node unhealthy and adding the node.kubernetes.io/not-ready or node.kubernetes.io/unreachable taint to the node.
default-not-ready-toleration-seconds
Specifies the amount of time in seconds after marking a node unhealthy that the Kube API Server Operator waits before evicting pods from that node.
default-unreachable-toleration-seconds
Specifies the amount of time in seconds after marking a node unreachable that the Kube API Server Operator waits before evicting pods from that node.

The following Operators monitor the changes to the worker latency profiles and respond accordingly:

  • The Machine Config Operator (MCO) updates the node-status-update-frequency parameter on the worker nodes.
  • The Kubernetes Controller Manager updates the node-monitor-grace-period parameter on the control plane nodes.
  • The Kubernetes API Server Operator updates the default-not-ready-toleration-seconds and default-unreachable-toleration-seconds parameters on the control plane nodes.

Although the default configuration works in most cases, OpenShift Container Platform offers two other worker latency profiles for situations where the network is experiencing higher latency than usual. The three worker latency profiles are described in the following sections:

Default worker latency profile

With the Default profile, each Kubelet updates it’s status every 10 seconds (node-status-update-frequency). The Kube Controller Manager checks the statuses of Kubelet every 5 seconds (node-monitor-grace-period).

The Kubernetes Controller Manager waits 40 seconds for a status update from Kubelet before considering the Kubelet unhealthy. If no status is made available to the Kubernetes Controller Manager, it then marks the node with the node.kubernetes.io/not-ready or node.kubernetes.io/unreachable taint and evicts the pods on that node.

If a pod on that node has the NoExecute taint, the pod is run according to tolerationSeconds. If the pod has no taint, it will be evicted in 300 seconds (default-not-ready-toleration-seconds and default-unreachable-toleration-seconds settings of the Kube API Server).

ProfileComponentParameterValue

Default

kubelet

node-status-update-frequency

10s

Kubelet Controller Manager

node-monitor-grace-period

40s

Kubernetes API Server Operator

default-not-ready-toleration-seconds

300s

Kubernetes API Server Operator

default-unreachable-toleration-seconds

300s

Medium worker latency profile

Use the MediumUpdateAverageReaction profile if the network latency is slightly higher than usual.

The MediumUpdateAverageReaction profile reduces the frequency of kubelet updates to 20 seconds and changes the period that the Kubernetes Controller Manager waits for those updates to 2 minutes. The pod eviction period for a pod on that node is reduced to 60 seconds. If the pod has the tolerationSeconds parameter, the eviction waits for the period specified by that parameter.

The Kubernetes Controller Manager waits for 2 minutes to consider a node unhealthy. In another minute, the eviction process starts.

ProfileComponentParameterValue

MediumUpdateAverageReaction

kubelet

node-status-update-frequency

20s

Kubelet Controller Manager

node-monitor-grace-period

2m

Kubernetes API Server Operator

default-not-ready-toleration-seconds

60s

Kubernetes API Server Operator

default-unreachable-toleration-seconds

60s

Low worker latency profile

Use the LowUpdateSlowReaction profile if the network latency is extremely high.

The LowUpdateSlowReaction profile reduces the frequency of kubelet updates to 1 minute and changes the period that the Kubernetes Controller Manager waits for those updates to 5 minutes. The pod eviction period for a pod on that node is reduced to 60 seconds. If the pod has the tolerationSeconds parameter, the eviction waits for the period specified by that parameter.

The Kubernetes Controller Manager waits for 5 minutes to consider a node unhealthy. In another minute, the eviction process starts.

ProfileComponentParameterValue

LowUpdateSlowReaction

kubelet

node-status-update-frequency

1m

Kubelet Controller Manager

node-monitor-grace-period

5m

Kubernetes API Server Operator

default-not-ready-toleration-seconds

60s

Kubernetes API Server Operator

default-unreachable-toleration-seconds

60s

8.5.2. Using and changing worker latency profiles

To change a worker latency profile to deal with network latency, edit the node.config object to add the name of the profile. You can change the profile at any time as latency increases or decreases.

You must move one worker latency profile at a time. For example, you cannot move directly from the Default profile to the LowUpdateSlowReaction worker latency profile. You must move from the Default worker latency profile to the MediumUpdateAverageReaction profile first, then to LowUpdateSlowReaction. Similarly, when returning to the Default profile, you must move from the low profile to the medium profile first, then to Default.

Note

You can also configure worker latency profiles upon installing an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

Procedure

To move from the default worker latency profile:

  1. Move to the medium worker latency profile:

    1. Edit the node.config object:

      $ oc edit nodes.config/cluster
    2. Add spec.workerLatencyProfile: MediumUpdateAverageReaction:

      Example node.config object

      apiVersion: config.openshift.io/v1
      kind: Node
      metadata:
        annotations:
          include.release.openshift.io/ibm-cloud-managed: "true"
          include.release.openshift.io/self-managed-high-availability: "true"
          include.release.openshift.io/single-node-developer: "true"
          release.openshift.io/create-only: "true"
        creationTimestamp: "2022-07-08T16:02:51Z"
        generation: 1
        name: cluster
        ownerReferences:
        - apiVersion: config.openshift.io/v1
          kind: ClusterVersion
          name: version
          uid: 36282574-bf9f-409e-a6cd-3032939293eb
        resourceVersion: "1865"
        uid: 0c0f7a4c-4307-4187-b591-6155695ac85b
      spec:
        workerLatencyProfile: MediumUpdateAverageReaction 1
      
      # ...

      1
      Specifies the medium worker latency policy.

      Scheduling on each worker node is disabled as the change is being applied.

  2. Optional: Move to the low worker latency profile:

    1. Edit the node.config object:

      $ oc edit nodes.config/cluster
    2. Change the spec.workerLatencyProfile value to LowUpdateSlowReaction:

      Example node.config object

      apiVersion: config.openshift.io/v1
      kind: Node
      metadata:
        annotations:
          include.release.openshift.io/ibm-cloud-managed: "true"
          include.release.openshift.io/self-managed-high-availability: "true"
          include.release.openshift.io/single-node-developer: "true"
          release.openshift.io/create-only: "true"
        creationTimestamp: "2022-07-08T16:02:51Z"
        generation: 1
        name: cluster
        ownerReferences:
        - apiVersion: config.openshift.io/v1
          kind: ClusterVersion
          name: version
          uid: 36282574-bf9f-409e-a6cd-3032939293eb
        resourceVersion: "1865"
        uid: 0c0f7a4c-4307-4187-b591-6155695ac85b
      spec:
        workerLatencyProfile: LowUpdateSlowReaction 1
      
      # ...

      1
      Specifies use of the low worker latency policy.

Scheduling on each worker node is disabled as the change is being applied.

Verification

  • When all nodes return to the Ready condition, you can use the following command to look in the Kubernetes Controller Manager to ensure it was applied:

    $ oc get KubeControllerManager -o yaml | grep -i workerlatency -A 5 -B 5

    Example output

    # ...
        - lastTransitionTime: "2022-07-11T19:47:10Z"
          reason: ProfileUpdated
          status: "False"
          type: WorkerLatencyProfileProgressing
        - lastTransitionTime: "2022-07-11T19:47:10Z" 1
          message: all static pod revision(s) have updated latency profile
          reason: ProfileUpdated
          status: "True"
          type: WorkerLatencyProfileComplete
        - lastTransitionTime: "2022-07-11T19:20:11Z"
          reason: AsExpected
          status: "False"
          type: WorkerLatencyProfileDegraded
        - lastTransitionTime: "2022-07-11T19:20:36Z"
          status: "False"
    # ...

    1
    Specifies that the profile is applied and active.

To change the medium profile to default or change the default to medium, edit the node.config object and set the spec.workerLatencyProfile parameter to the appropriate value.

8.6. Managing control plane machines

Control plane machine sets provide management capabilities for control plane machines that are similar to what compute machine sets provide for compute machines. The availability and initial status of control plane machine sets on your cluster depend on your cloud provider and the version of OpenShift Container Platform that you installed. For more information, see Getting started with control plane machine sets.

8.7. Creating infrastructure machine sets for production environments

You can create a compute machine set to create machines that host only infrastructure components, such as the default router, the integrated container image registry, and components for cluster metrics and monitoring. These infrastructure machines are not counted toward the total number of subscriptions that are required to run the environment.

In a production deployment, it is recommended that you deploy at least three compute machine sets to hold infrastructure components. Both OpenShift Logging and Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh deploy Elasticsearch, which requires three instances to be installed on different nodes. Each of these nodes can be deployed to different availability zones for high availability. A configuration like this requires three different compute machine sets, one for each availability zone. In global Azure regions that do not have multiple availability zones, you can use availability sets to ensure high availability.

For information on infrastructure nodes and which components can run on infrastructure nodes, see Creating infrastructure machine sets.

To create an infrastructure node, you can use a machine set, assign a label to the nodes, or use a machine config pool.

For sample machine sets that you can use with these procedures, see Creating machine sets for different clouds.

Applying a specific node selector to all infrastructure components causes OpenShift Container Platform to schedule those workloads on nodes with that label.

8.7.1. Creating a compute machine set

In addition to the compute machine sets created by the installation program, you can create your own to dynamically manage the machine compute resources for specific workloads of your choice.

Prerequisites

  • Deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Log in to oc as a user with cluster-admin permission.

Procedure

  1. Create a new YAML file that contains the compute machine set custom resource (CR) sample and is named <file_name>.yaml.

    Ensure that you set the <clusterID> and <role> parameter values.

  2. Optional: If you are not sure which value to set for a specific field, you can check an existing compute machine set from your cluster.

    1. To list the compute machine sets in your cluster, run the following command:

      $ oc get machinesets -n openshift-machine-api

      Example output

      NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1b   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1c   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1d   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1e   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1f   0         0                             55m

    2. To view values of a specific compute machine set custom resource (CR), run the following command:

      $ oc get machineset <machineset_name> \
        -n openshift-machine-api -o yaml

      Example output

      apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
      kind: MachineSet
      metadata:
        labels:
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
        name: <infrastructure_id>-<role> 2
        namespace: openshift-machine-api
      spec:
        replicas: 1
        selector:
          matchLabels:
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>
        template:
          metadata:
            labels:
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>
          spec:
            providerSpec: 3
              ...

      1
      The cluster infrastructure ID.
      2
      A default node label.
      Note

      For clusters that have user-provisioned infrastructure, a compute machine set can only create worker and infra type machines.

      3
      The values in the <providerSpec> section of the compute machine set CR are platform-specific. For more information about <providerSpec> parameters in the CR, see the sample compute machine set CR configuration for your provider.
  3. Create a MachineSet CR by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <file_name>.yaml

Verification

  • View the list of compute machine sets by running the following command:

    $ oc get machineset -n openshift-machine-api

    Example output

    NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
    agl030519-vplxk-infra-us-east-1a    1         1         1       1           11m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1b   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1c   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1d   0         0                             55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1e   0         0                             55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1f   0         0                             55m

    When the new compute machine set is available, the DESIRED and CURRENT values match. If the compute machine set is not available, wait a few minutes and run the command again.

8.7.2. Creating an infrastructure node

Important

See Creating infrastructure machine sets for installer-provisioned infrastructure environments or for any cluster where the control plane nodes are managed by the machine API.

Requirements of the cluster dictate that infrastructure, also called infra nodes, be provisioned. The installer only provides provisions for control plane and worker nodes. Worker nodes can be designated as infrastructure nodes or application, also called app, nodes through labeling.

Procedure

  1. Add a label to the worker node that you want to act as application node:

    $ oc label node <node-name> node-role.kubernetes.io/app=""
  2. Add a label to the worker nodes that you want to act as infrastructure nodes:

    $ oc label node <node-name> node-role.kubernetes.io/infra=""
  3. Check to see if applicable nodes now have the infra role and app roles:

    $ oc get nodes
  4. Create a default cluster-wide node selector. The default node selector is applied to pods created in all namespaces. This creates an intersection with any existing node selectors on a pod, which additionally constrains the pod’s selector.

    Important

    If the default node selector key conflicts with the key of a pod’s label, then the default node selector is not applied.

    However, do not set a default node selector that might cause a pod to become unschedulable. For example, setting the default node selector to a specific node role, such as node-role.kubernetes.io/infra="", when a pod’s label is set to a different node role, such as node-role.kubernetes.io/master="", can cause the pod to become unschedulable. For this reason, use caution when setting the default node selector to specific node roles.

    You can alternatively use a project node selector to avoid cluster-wide node selector key conflicts.

    1. Edit the Scheduler object:

      $ oc edit scheduler cluster
    2. Add the defaultNodeSelector field with the appropriate node selector:

      apiVersion: config.openshift.io/v1
      kind: Scheduler
      metadata:
        name: cluster
      spec:
        defaultNodeSelector: topology.kubernetes.io/region=us-east-1 1
      # ...
      1
      This example node selector deploys pods on nodes in the us-east-1 region by default.
    3. Save the file to apply the changes.

You can now move infrastructure resources to the newly labeled infra nodes.

Additional resources

  • For information on how to configure project node selectors to avoid cluster-wide node selector key conflicts, see Project node selectors.

8.7.3. Creating a machine config pool for infrastructure machines

If you need infrastructure machines to have dedicated configurations, you must create an infra pool.

Important

Creating a custom machine configuration pool overrides default worker pool configurations if they refer to the same file or unit.

Procedure

  1. Add a label to the node you want to assign as the infra node with a specific label:

    $ oc label node <node_name> <label>
    $ oc label node ci-ln-n8mqwr2-f76d1-xscn2-worker-c-6fmtx node-role.kubernetes.io/infra=
  2. Create a machine config pool that contains both the worker role and your custom role as machine config selector:

    $ cat infra.mcp.yaml

    Example output

    apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
    kind: MachineConfigPool
    metadata:
      name: infra
    spec:
      machineConfigSelector:
        matchExpressions:
          - {key: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role, operator: In, values: [worker,infra]} 1
      nodeSelector:
        matchLabels:
          node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: "" 2

    1
    Add the worker role and your custom role.
    2
    Add the label you added to the node as a nodeSelector.
    Note

    Custom machine config pools inherit machine configs from the worker pool. Custom pools use any machine config targeted for the worker pool, but add the ability to also deploy changes that are targeted at only the custom pool. Because a custom pool inherits resources from the worker pool, any change to the worker pool also affects the custom pool.

  3. After you have the YAML file, you can create the machine config pool:

    $ oc create -f infra.mcp.yaml
  4. Check the machine configs to ensure that the infrastructure configuration rendered successfully:

    $ oc get machineconfig

    Example output

    NAME                                                        GENERATEDBYCONTROLLER                      IGNITIONVERSION   CREATED
    00-master                                                   365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             31d
    00-worker                                                   365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             31d
    01-master-container-runtime                                 365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             31d
    01-master-kubelet                                           365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             31d
    01-worker-container-runtime                                 365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             31d
    01-worker-kubelet                                           365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             31d
    99-master-1ae2a1e0-a115-11e9-8f14-005056899d54-registries   365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             31d
    99-master-ssh                                                                                          3.2.0             31d
    99-worker-1ae64748-a115-11e9-8f14-005056899d54-registries   365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             31d
    99-worker-ssh                                                                                          3.2.0             31d
    rendered-infra-4e48906dca84ee702959c71a53ee80e7             365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             23m
    rendered-master-072d4b2da7f88162636902b074e9e28e            5b6fb8349a29735e48446d435962dec4547d3090   3.2.0             31d
    rendered-master-3e88ec72aed3886dec061df60d16d1af            02c07496ba0417b3e12b78fb32baf6293d314f79   3.2.0             31d
    rendered-master-419bee7de96134963a15fdf9dd473b25            365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             17d
    rendered-master-53f5c91c7661708adce18739cc0f40fb            365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             13d
    rendered-master-a6a357ec18e5bce7f5ac426fc7c5ffcd            365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             7d3h
    rendered-master-dc7f874ec77fc4b969674204332da037            5b6fb8349a29735e48446d435962dec4547d3090   3.2.0             31d
    rendered-worker-1a75960c52ad18ff5dfa6674eb7e533d            5b6fb8349a29735e48446d435962dec4547d3090   3.2.0             31d
    rendered-worker-2640531be11ba43c61d72e82dc634ce6            5b6fb8349a29735e48446d435962dec4547d3090   3.2.0             31d
    rendered-worker-4e48906dca84ee702959c71a53ee80e7            365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             7d3h
    rendered-worker-4f110718fe88e5f349987854a1147755            365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             17d
    rendered-worker-afc758e194d6188677eb837842d3b379            02c07496ba0417b3e12b78fb32baf6293d314f79   3.2.0             31d
    rendered-worker-daa08cc1e8f5fcdeba24de60cd955cc3            365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             13d

    You should see a new machine config, with the rendered-infra-* prefix.

  5. Optional: To deploy changes to a custom pool, create a machine config that uses the custom pool name as the label, such as infra. Note that this is not required and only shown for instructional purposes. In this manner, you can apply any custom configurations specific to only your infra nodes.

    Note

    After you create the new machine config pool, the MCO generates a new rendered config for that pool, and associated nodes of that pool reboot to apply the new configuration.

    1. Create a machine config:

      $ cat infra.mc.yaml

      Example output

      apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
      kind: MachineConfig
      metadata:
        name: 51-infra
        labels:
          machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role: infra 1
      spec:
        config:
          ignition:
            version: 3.2.0
          storage:
            files:
            - path: /etc/infratest
              mode: 0644
              contents:
                source: data:,infra

      1
      Add the label you added to the node as a nodeSelector.
    2. Apply the machine config to the infra-labeled nodes:

      $ oc create -f infra.mc.yaml
  6. Confirm that your new machine config pool is available:

    $ oc get mcp

    Example output

    NAME     CONFIG                                             UPDATED   UPDATING   DEGRADED   MACHINECOUNT   READYMACHINECOUNT   UPDATEDMACHINECOUNT   DEGRADEDMACHINECOUNT   AGE
    infra    rendered-infra-60e35c2e99f42d976e084fa94da4d0fc    True      False      False      1              1                   1                     0                      4m20s
    master   rendered-master-9360fdb895d4c131c7c4bebbae099c90   True      False      False      3              3                   3                     0                      91m
    worker   rendered-worker-60e35c2e99f42d976e084fa94da4d0fc   True      False      False      2              2                   2                     0                      91m

    In this example, a worker node was changed to an infra node.

Additional resources

8.8. Assigning machine set resources to infrastructure nodes

After creating an infrastructure machine set, the worker and infra roles are applied to new infra nodes. Nodes with the infra role are not counted toward the total number of subscriptions that are required to run the environment, even when the worker role is also applied.

However, when an infra node is assigned the worker role, there is a chance that user workloads can get assigned inadvertently to the infra node. To avoid this, you can apply a taint to the infra node and tolerations for the pods that you want to control.

8.8.1. Binding infrastructure node workloads using taints and tolerations

If you have an infra node that has the infra and worker roles assigned, you must configure the node so that user workloads are not assigned to it.

Important

It is recommended that you preserve the dual infra,worker label that is created for infra nodes and use taints and tolerations to manage nodes that user workloads are scheduled on. If you remove the worker label from the node, you must create a custom pool to manage it. A node with a label other than master or worker is not recognized by the MCO without a custom pool. Maintaining the worker label allows the node to be managed by the default worker machine config pool, if no custom pools that select the custom label exists. The infra label communicates to the cluster that it does not count toward the total number of subscriptions.

Prerequisites

  • Configure additional MachineSet objects in your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

Procedure

  1. Add a taint to the infra node to prevent scheduling user workloads on it:

    1. Determine if the node has the taint:

      $ oc describe nodes <node_name>

      Sample output

      oc describe node ci-ln-iyhx092-f76d1-nvdfm-worker-b-wln2l
      Name:               ci-ln-iyhx092-f76d1-nvdfm-worker-b-wln2l
      Roles:              worker
       ...
      Taints:             node-role.kubernetes.io/infra:NoSchedule
       ...

      This example shows that the node has a taint. You can proceed with adding a toleration to your pod in the next step.

    2. If you have not configured a taint to prevent scheduling user workloads on it:

      $ oc adm taint nodes <node_name> <key>=<value>:<effect>

      For example:

      $ oc adm taint nodes node1 node-role.kubernetes.io/infra=reserved:NoExecute
      Tip

      You can alternatively apply the following YAML to add the taint:

      kind: Node
      apiVersion: v1
      metadata:
        name: <node_name>
        labels:
          ...
      spec:
        taints:
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            effect: NoExecute
            value: reserved
        ...

      This example places a taint on node1 that has key node-role.kubernetes.io/infra and taint effect NoSchedule. Nodes with the NoSchedule effect schedule only pods that tolerate the taint, but allow existing pods to remain scheduled on the node.

      Note

      If a descheduler is used, pods violating node taints could be evicted from the cluster.

  2. Add tolerations for the pod configurations you want to schedule on the infra node, like router, registry, and monitoring workloads. Add the following code to the Pod object specification:

    tolerations:
      - effect: NoExecute 1
        key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra 2
        operator: Exists 3
        value: reserved 4
    1
    Specify the effect that you added to the node.
    2
    Specify the key that you added to the node.
    3
    Specify the Exists Operator to require a taint with the key node-role.kubernetes.io/infra to be present on the node.
    4
    Specify the value of the key-value pair taint that you added to the node.

    This toleration matches the taint created by the oc adm taint command. A pod with this toleration can be scheduled onto the infra node.

    Note

    Moving pods for an Operator installed via OLM to an infra node is not always possible. The capability to move Operator pods depends on the configuration of each Operator.

  3. Schedule the pod to the infra node using a scheduler. See the documentation for Controlling pod placement onto nodes for details.

Additional resources

8.9. Moving resources to infrastructure machine sets

Some of the infrastructure resources are deployed in your cluster by default. You can move them to the infrastructure machine sets that you created.

8.9.1. Moving the router

You can deploy the router pod to a different compute machine set. By default, the pod is deployed to a worker node.

Prerequisites

  • Configure additional compute machine sets in your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

Procedure

  1. View the IngressController custom resource for the router Operator:

    $ oc get ingresscontroller default -n openshift-ingress-operator -o yaml

    The command output resembles the following text:

    apiVersion: operator.openshift.io/v1
    kind: IngressController
    metadata:
      creationTimestamp: 2019-04-18T12:35:39Z
      finalizers:
      - ingresscontroller.operator.openshift.io/finalizer-ingresscontroller
      generation: 1
      name: default
      namespace: openshift-ingress-operator
      resourceVersion: "11341"
      selfLink: /apis/operator.openshift.io/v1/namespaces/openshift-ingress-operator/ingresscontrollers/default
      uid: 79509e05-61d6-11e9-bc55-02ce4781844a
    spec: {}
    status:
      availableReplicas: 2
      conditions:
      - lastTransitionTime: 2019-04-18T12:36:15Z
        status: "True"
        type: Available
      domain: apps.<cluster>.example.com
      endpointPublishingStrategy:
        type: LoadBalancerService
      selector: ingresscontroller.operator.openshift.io/deployment-ingresscontroller=default
  2. Edit the ingresscontroller resource and change the nodeSelector to use the infra label:

    $ oc edit ingresscontroller default -n openshift-ingress-operator
      spec:
        nodePlacement:
          nodeSelector: 1
            matchLabels:
              node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
          tolerations:
          - effect: NoSchedule
            key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
          - effect: NoExecute
            key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
    1
    Add a nodeSelector parameter with the appropriate value to the component you want to move. You can use a nodeSelector in the format shown or use <key>: <value> pairs, based on the value specified for the node. If you added a taint to the infrastructure node, also add a matching toleration.
  3. Confirm that the router pod is running on the infra node.

    1. View the list of router pods and note the node name of the running pod:

      $ oc get pod -n openshift-ingress -o wide

      Example output

      NAME                              READY     STATUS        RESTARTS   AGE       IP           NODE                           NOMINATED NODE   READINESS GATES
      router-default-86798b4b5d-bdlvd   1/1      Running       0          28s       10.130.2.4   ip-10-0-217-226.ec2.internal   <none>           <none>
      router-default-955d875f4-255g8    0/1      Terminating   0          19h       10.129.2.4   ip-10-0-148-172.ec2.internal   <none>           <none>

      In this example, the running pod is on the ip-10-0-217-226.ec2.internal node.

    2. View the node status of the running pod:

      $ oc get node <node_name> 1
      1
      Specify the <node_name> that you obtained from the pod list.

      Example output

      NAME                          STATUS  ROLES         AGE   VERSION
      ip-10-0-217-226.ec2.internal  Ready   infra,worker  17h   v1.28.5

      Because the role list includes infra, the pod is running on the correct node.

8.9.2. Moving the default registry

You configure the registry Operator to deploy its pods to different nodes.

Prerequisites

  • Configure additional compute machine sets in your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

Procedure

  1. View the config/instance object:

    $ oc get configs.imageregistry.operator.openshift.io/cluster -o yaml

    Example output

    apiVersion: imageregistry.operator.openshift.io/v1
    kind: Config
    metadata:
      creationTimestamp: 2019-02-05T13:52:05Z
      finalizers:
      - imageregistry.operator.openshift.io/finalizer
      generation: 1
      name: cluster
      resourceVersion: "56174"
      selfLink: /apis/imageregistry.operator.openshift.io/v1/configs/cluster
      uid: 36fd3724-294d-11e9-a524-12ffeee2931b
    spec:
      httpSecret: d9a012ccd117b1e6616ceccb2c3bb66a5fed1b5e481623
      logging: 2
      managementState: Managed
      proxy: {}
      replicas: 1
      requests:
        read: {}
        write: {}
      storage:
        s3:
          bucket: image-registry-us-east-1-c92e88cad85b48ec8b312344dff03c82-392c
          region: us-east-1
    status:
    ...

  2. Edit the config/instance object:

    $ oc edit configs.imageregistry.operator.openshift.io/cluster
    spec:
      affinity:
        podAntiAffinity:
          preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
          - podAffinityTerm:
              namespaces:
              - openshift-image-registry
              topologyKey: kubernetes.io/hostname
            weight: 100
      logLevel: Normal
      managementState: Managed
      nodeSelector: 1
        node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
      tolerations:
      - effect: NoSchedule
        key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
        value: reserved
      - effect: NoExecute
        key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
        value: reserved
    1
    Add a nodeSelector parameter with the appropriate value to the component you want to move. You can use a nodeSelector in the format shown or use <key>: <value> pairs, based on the value specified for the node. If you added a taint to the infrasructure node, also add a matching toleration.
  3. Verify the registry pod has been moved to the infrastructure node.

    1. Run the following command to identify the node where the registry pod is located:

      $ oc get pods -o wide -n openshift-image-registry
    2. Confirm the node has the label you specified:

      $ oc describe node <node_name>

      Review the command output and confirm that node-role.kubernetes.io/infra is in the LABELS list.

8.9.3. Moving the monitoring solution

The monitoring stack includes multiple components, including Prometheus, Thanos Querier, and Alertmanager. The Cluster Monitoring Operator manages this stack. To redeploy the monitoring stack to infrastructure nodes, you can create and apply a custom config map.

Procedure

  1. Edit the cluster-monitoring-config config map and change the nodeSelector to use the infra label:

    $ oc edit configmap cluster-monitoring-config -n openshift-monitoring
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: ConfigMap
    metadata:
      name: cluster-monitoring-config
      namespace: openshift-monitoring
    data:
      config.yaml: |+
        alertmanagerMain:
          nodeSelector: 1
            node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
          tolerations:
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoSchedule
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoExecute
        prometheusK8s:
          nodeSelector:
            node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
          tolerations:
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoSchedule
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoExecute
        prometheusOperator:
          nodeSelector:
            node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
          tolerations:
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoSchedule
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoExecute
        k8sPrometheusAdapter:
          nodeSelector:
            node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
          tolerations:
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoSchedule
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoExecute
        kubeStateMetrics:
          nodeSelector:
            node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
          tolerations:
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoSchedule
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoExecute
        telemeterClient:
          nodeSelector:
            node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
          tolerations:
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoSchedule
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoExecute
        openshiftStateMetrics:
          nodeSelector:
            node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
          tolerations:
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoSchedule
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoExecute
        thanosQuerier:
          nodeSelector:
            node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
          tolerations:
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoSchedule
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoExecute
        monitoringPlugin:
          nodeSelector:
            node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
          tolerations:
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoSchedule
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoExecute
    1
    Add a nodeSelector parameter with the appropriate value to the component you want to move. You can use a nodeSelector in the format shown or use <key>: <value> pairs, based on the value specified for the node. If you added a taint to the infrastructure node, also add a matching toleration.
  2. Watch the monitoring pods move to the new machines:

    $ watch 'oc get pod -n openshift-monitoring -o wide'
  3. If a component has not moved to the infra node, delete the pod with this component:

    $ oc delete pod -n openshift-monitoring <pod>

    The component from the deleted pod is re-created on the infra node.

8.9.4. Moving logging resources

For information about moving logging resources, see:

8.10. About the cluster autoscaler

The cluster autoscaler adjusts the size of an OpenShift Container Platform cluster to meet its current deployment needs. It uses declarative, Kubernetes-style arguments to provide infrastructure management that does not rely on objects of a specific cloud provider. The cluster autoscaler has a cluster scope, and is not associated with a particular namespace.

The cluster autoscaler increases the size of the cluster when there are pods that fail to schedule on any of the current worker nodes due to insufficient resources or when another node is necessary to meet deployment needs. The cluster autoscaler does not increase the cluster resources beyond the limits that you specify.

The cluster autoscaler computes the total memory, CPU, and GPU on all nodes the cluster, even though it does not manage the control plane nodes. These values are not single-machine oriented. They are an aggregation of all the resources in the entire cluster. For example, if you set the maximum memory resource limit, the cluster autoscaler includes all the nodes in the cluster when calculating the current memory usage. That calculation is then used to determine if the cluster autoscaler has the capacity to add more worker resources.

Important

Ensure that the maxNodesTotal value in the ClusterAutoscaler resource definition that you create is large enough to account for the total possible number of machines in your cluster. This value must encompass the number of control plane machines and the possible number of compute machines that you might scale to.

Every 10 seconds, the cluster autoscaler checks which nodes are unnecessary in the cluster and removes them. The cluster autoscaler considers a node for removal if the following conditions apply:

  • The node utilization is less than the node utilization level threshold for the cluster. The node utilization level is the sum of the requested resources divided by the allocated resources for the node. If you do not specify a value in the ClusterAutoscaler custom resource, the cluster autoscaler uses a default value of 0.5, which corresponds to 50% utilization.
  • The cluster autoscaler can move all pods running on the node to the other nodes. The Kubernetes scheduler is responsible for scheduling pods on the nodes.
  • The cluster autoscaler does not have scale down disabled annotation.

If the following types of pods are present on a node, the cluster autoscaler will not remove the node:

  • Pods with restrictive pod disruption budgets (PDBs).
  • Kube-system pods that do not run on the node by default.
  • Kube-system pods that do not have a PDB or have a PDB that is too restrictive.
  • Pods that are not backed by a controller object such as a deployment, replica set, or stateful set.
  • Pods with local storage.
  • Pods that cannot be moved elsewhere because of a lack of resources, incompatible node selectors or affinity, matching anti-affinity, and so on.
  • Unless they also have a "cluster-autoscaler.kubernetes.io/safe-to-evict": "true" annotation, pods that have a "cluster-autoscaler.kubernetes.io/safe-to-evict": "false" annotation.

For example, you set the maximum CPU limit to 64 cores and configure the cluster autoscaler to only create machines that have 8 cores each. If your cluster starts with 30 cores, the cluster autoscaler can add up to 4 more nodes with 32 cores, for a total of 62.

If you configure the cluster autoscaler, additional usage restrictions apply:

  • Do not modify the nodes that are in autoscaled node groups directly. All nodes within the same node group have the same capacity and labels and run the same system pods.
  • Specify requests for your pods.
  • If you have to prevent pods from being deleted too quickly, configure appropriate PDBs.
  • Confirm that your cloud provider quota is large enough to support the maximum node pools that you configure.
  • Do not run additional node group autoscalers, especially the ones offered by your cloud provider.

The horizontal pod autoscaler (HPA) and the cluster autoscaler modify cluster resources in different ways. The HPA changes the deployment’s or replica set’s number of replicas based on the current CPU load. If the load increases, the HPA creates new replicas, regardless of the amount of resources available to the cluster. If there are not enough resources, the cluster autoscaler adds resources so that the HPA-created pods can run. If the load decreases, the HPA stops some replicas. If this action causes some nodes to be underutilized or completely empty, the cluster autoscaler deletes the unnecessary nodes.

The cluster autoscaler takes pod priorities into account. The Pod Priority and Preemption feature enables scheduling pods based on priorities if the cluster does not have enough resources, but the cluster autoscaler ensures that the cluster has resources to run all pods. To honor the intention of both features, the cluster autoscaler includes a priority cutoff function. You can use this cutoff to schedule "best-effort" pods, which do not cause the cluster autoscaler to increase resources but instead run only when spare resources are available.

Pods with priority lower than the cutoff value do not cause the cluster to scale up or prevent the cluster from scaling down. No new nodes are added to run the pods, and nodes running these pods might be deleted to free resources.

Cluster autoscaling is supported for the platforms that have machine API available on it.

8.10.1. Cluster autoscaler resource definition

This ClusterAutoscaler resource definition shows the parameters and sample values for the cluster autoscaler.

apiVersion: "autoscaling.openshift.io/v1"
kind: "ClusterAutoscaler"
metadata:
  name: "default"
spec:
  podPriorityThreshold: -10 1
  resourceLimits:
    maxNodesTotal: 24 2
    cores:
      min: 8 3
      max: 128 4
    memory:
      min: 4 5
      max: 256 6
    gpus:
      - type: nvidia.com/gpu 7
        min: 0 8
        max: 16 9
      - type: amd.com/gpu
        min: 0
        max: 4
  logVerbosity: 4 10
  scaleDown: 11
    enabled: true 12
    delayAfterAdd: 10m 13
    delayAfterDelete: 5m 14
    delayAfterFailure: 30s 15
    unneededTime: 5m 16
    utilizationThreshold: "0.4" 17
1
Specify the priority that a pod must exceed to cause the cluster autoscaler to deploy additional nodes. Enter a 32-bit integer value. The podPriorityThreshold value is compared to the value of the PriorityClass that you assign to each pod.
2
Specify the maximum number of nodes to deploy. This value is the total number of machines that are deployed in your cluster, not just the ones that the autoscaler controls. Ensure that this value is large enough to account for all of your control plane and compute machines and the total number of replicas that you specify in your MachineAutoscaler resources.
3
Specify the minimum number of cores to deploy in the cluster.
4
Specify the maximum number of cores to deploy in the cluster.
5
Specify the minimum amount of memory, in GiB, in the cluster.
6
Specify the maximum amount of memory, in GiB, in the cluster.
7
Optional: Specify the type of GPU node to deploy. Only nvidia.com/gpu and amd.com/gpu are valid types.
8
Specify the minimum number of GPUs to deploy in the cluster.
9
Specify the maximum number of GPUs to deploy in the cluster.
10
Specify the logging verbosity level between 0 and 10. The following log level thresholds are provided for guidance:
  • 1: (Default) Basic information about changes.
  • 4: Debug-level verbosity for troubleshooting typical issues.
  • 9: Extensive, protocol-level debugging information.

If you do not specify a value, the default value of 1 is used.

11
In this section, you can specify the period to wait for each action by using any valid ParseDuration interval, including ns, us, ms, s, m, and h.
12
Specify whether the cluster autoscaler can remove unnecessary nodes.
13
Optional: Specify the period to wait before deleting a node after a node has recently been added. If you do not specify a value, the default value of 10m is used.
14
Optional: Specify the period to wait before deleting a node after a node has recently been deleted. If you do not specify a value, the default value of 0s is used.
15
Optional: Specify the period to wait before deleting a node after a scale down failure occurred. If you do not specify a value, the default value of 3m is used.
16
Optional: Specify a period of time before an unnecessary node is eligible for deletion. If you do not specify a value, the default value of 10m is used.
17
Optional: Specify the node utilization level. Nodes below this utilization level are eligible for deletion. If you do not specify a value, the default value of 10m is used.. The node utilization level is the sum of the requested resources divided by the allocated resources for the node, and must be a value greater than "0" but less than "1". If you do not specify a value, the cluster autoscaler uses a default value of "0.5", which corresponds to 50% utilization. This value must be expressed as a string.
Note

When performing a scaling operation, the cluster autoscaler remains within the ranges set in the ClusterAutoscaler resource definition, such as the minimum and maximum number of cores to deploy or the amount of memory in the cluster. However, the cluster autoscaler does not correct the current values in your cluster to be within those ranges.

The minimum and maximum CPUs, memory, and GPU values are determined by calculating those resources on all nodes in the cluster, even if the cluster autoscaler does not manage the nodes. For example, the control plane nodes are considered in the total memory in the cluster, even though the cluster autoscaler does not manage the control plane nodes.

8.10.2. Deploying a cluster autoscaler

To deploy a cluster autoscaler, you create an instance of the ClusterAutoscaler resource.

Procedure

  1. Create a YAML file for a ClusterAutoscaler resource that contains the custom resource definition.
  2. Create the custom resource in the cluster by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <filename>.yaml 1
    1
    <filename> is the name of the custom resource file.

8.11. About the machine autoscaler

The machine autoscaler adjusts the number of Machines in the compute machine sets that you deploy in an OpenShift Container Platform cluster. You can scale both the default worker compute machine set and any other compute machine sets that you create. The machine autoscaler makes more Machines when the cluster runs out of resources to support more deployments. Any changes to the values in MachineAutoscaler resources, such as the minimum or maximum number of instances, are immediately applied to the compute machine set they target.

Important

You must deploy a machine autoscaler for the cluster autoscaler to scale your machines. The cluster autoscaler uses the annotations on compute machine sets that the machine autoscaler sets to determine the resources that it can scale. If you define a cluster autoscaler without also defining machine autoscalers, the cluster autoscaler will never scale your cluster.

8.11.1. Machine autoscaler resource definition

This MachineAutoscaler resource definition shows the parameters and sample values for the machine autoscaler.

apiVersion: "autoscaling.openshift.io/v1beta1"
kind: "MachineAutoscaler"
metadata:
  name: "worker-us-east-1a" 1
  namespace: "openshift-machine-api"
spec:
  minReplicas: 1 2
  maxReplicas: 12 3
  scaleTargetRef: 4
    apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
    kind: MachineSet 5
    name: worker-us-east-1a 6
1
Specify the machine autoscaler name. To make it easier to identify which compute machine set this machine autoscaler scales, specify or include the name of the compute machine set to scale. The compute machine set name takes the following form: <clusterid>-<machineset>-<region>.
2
Specify the minimum number machines of the specified type that must remain in the specified zone after the cluster autoscaler initiates cluster scaling. If running in AWS, GCP, Azure, RHOSP, or vSphere, this value can be set to 0. For other providers, do not set this value to 0.

You can save on costs by setting this value to 0 for use cases such as running expensive or limited-usage hardware that is used for specialized workloads, or by scaling a compute machine set with extra large machines. The cluster autoscaler scales the compute machine set down to zero if the machines are not in use.

Important

Do not set the spec.minReplicas value to 0 for the three compute machine sets that are created during the OpenShift Container Platform installation process for an installer provisioned infrastructure.

3
Specify the maximum number machines of the specified type that the cluster autoscaler can deploy in the specified zone after it initiates cluster scaling. Ensure that the maxNodesTotal value in the ClusterAutoscaler resource definition is large enough to allow the machine autoscaler to deploy this number of machines.
4
In this section, provide values that describe the existing compute machine set to scale.
5
The kind parameter value is always MachineSet.
6
The name value must match the name of an existing compute machine set, as shown in the metadata.name parameter value.

8.11.2. Deploying a machine autoscaler

To deploy a machine autoscaler, you create an instance of the MachineAutoscaler resource.

Procedure

  1. Create a YAML file for a MachineAutoscaler resource that contains the custom resource definition.
  2. Create the custom resource in the cluster by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <filename>.yaml 1
    1
    <filename> is the name of the custom resource file.

8.12. Configuring Linux cgroup

As of OpenShift Container Platform 4.14, OpenShift Container Platform uses Linux control group version 2 (cgroup v2) in your cluster. If you are using cgroup v1 on OpenShift Container Platform 4.13 or earlier, migrating to OpenShift Container Platform 4.14 or later will not automatically update your cgroup configuration to version 2. A fresh installation of OpenShift Container Platform 4.14 or later will use cgroup v2 by default. However, you can enable Linux control group version 1 (cgroup v1) upon installation.

cgroup v2 is the current version of the Linux cgroup API. cgroup v2 offers several improvements over cgroup v1, including a unified hierarchy, safer sub-tree delegation, new features such as Pressure Stall Information, and enhanced resource management and isolation. However, cgroup v2 has different CPU, memory, and I/O management characteristics than cgroup v1. Therefore, some workloads might experience slight differences in memory or CPU usage on clusters that run cgroup v2.

You can change between cgroup v1 and cgroup v2, as needed. Enabling cgroup v1 in OpenShift Container Platform disables all cgroup v2 controllers and hierarchies in your cluster.

Note

Currently, disabling CPU load balancing is not supported by cgroup v2. As a result, you might not get the desired behavior from performance profiles if you have cgroup v2 enabled. Enabling cgroup v2 is not recommended if you are using performance profiles.

Prerequisites

  • You have a running OpenShift Container Platform cluster that uses version 4.12 or later.
  • You are logged in to the cluster as a user with administrative privileges.

Procedure

  1. Enable cgroup v1 on nodes:

    1. Edit the node.config object:

      $ oc edit nodes.config/cluster
    2. Add spec.cgroupMode: "v1":

      Example node.config object

      apiVersion: config.openshift.io/v2
      kind: Node
      metadata:
        annotations:
          include.release.openshift.io/ibm-cloud-managed: "true"
          include.release.openshift.io/self-managed-high-availability: "true"
          include.release.openshift.io/single-node-developer: "true"
          release.openshift.io/create-only: "true"
        creationTimestamp: "2022-07-08T16:02:51Z"
        generation: 1
        name: cluster
        ownerReferences:
        - apiVersion: config.openshift.io/v2
          kind: ClusterVersion
          name: version
          uid: 36282574-bf9f-409e-a6cd-3032939293eb
        resourceVersion: "1865"
        uid: 0c0f7a4c-4307-4187-b591-6155695ac85b
      spec:
        cgroupMode: "v1" 1
      ...

      1
      Enables cgroup v1.

Verification

  1. Check the machine configs to see that the new machine configs were added:

    $ oc get mc

    Example output

    NAME                                               GENERATEDBYCONTROLLER                      IGNITIONVERSION   AGE
    00-master                                          52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    00-worker                                          52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    01-master-container-runtime                        52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    01-master-kubelet                                  52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    01-worker-container-runtime                        52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    01-worker-kubelet                                  52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    97-master-generated-kubelet                        52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    99-worker-generated-kubelet                        52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    99-master-generated-registries                     52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    99-master-ssh                                                                                 3.2.0             40m
    99-worker-generated-registries                     52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    99-worker-ssh                                                                                 3.2.0             40m
    rendered-master-23d4317815a5f854bd3553d689cfe2e9   52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             10s 1
    rendered-master-23e785de7587df95a4b517e0647e5ab7   52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    rendered-worker-5d596d9293ca3ea80c896a1191735bb1   52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             33m
    rendered-worker-dcc7f1b92892d34db74d6832bcc9ccd4   52dd3ba6a9a527fc3ab42afac8d12b693534c8c9   3.2.0             10s

    1
    New machine configs are created, as expected.
  2. Check that the new kernelArguments were added to the new machine configs:

    $ oc describe mc <name>

    Example output for cgroup v1

    apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v2
    kind: MachineConfig
    metadata:
      labels:
        machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role: worker
      name: 05-worker-kernelarg-selinuxpermissive
    spec:
      kernelArguments:
        systemd.unified_cgroup_hierarchy=0 1
        systemd.legacy_systemd_cgroup_controller=1 2

    1
    Disables cgroup v2.
    2
    Enables cgroup v1 in systemd.
  3. Check the nodes to see that scheduling on the nodes is disabled. This indicates that the change is being applied:

    $ oc get nodes

    Example output

    NAME                                       STATUS                     ROLES    AGE   VERSION
    ci-ln-fm1qnwt-72292-99kt6-master-0         Ready,SchedulingDisabled   master   58m   v1.28.5
    ci-ln-fm1qnwt-72292-99kt6-master-1         Ready                      master   58m   v1.28.5
    ci-ln-fm1qnwt-72292-99kt6-master-2         Ready                      master   58m   v1.28.5
    ci-ln-fm1qnwt-72292-99kt6-worker-a-h5gt4   Ready,SchedulingDisabled   worker   48m   v1.28.5
    ci-ln-fm1qnwt-72292-99kt6-worker-b-7vtmd   Ready                      worker   48m   v1.28.5
    ci-ln-fm1qnwt-72292-99kt6-worker-c-rhzkv   Ready                      worker   48m   v1.28.5

  4. After a node returns to the Ready state, start a debug session for that node:

    $ oc debug node/<node_name>
  5. Set /host as the root directory within the debug shell:

    sh-4.4# chroot /host
  6. Check that the sys/fs/cgroup/cgroup2fs file is present on your nodes. This file is created by cgroup v1:

    $ stat -c %T -f /sys/fs/cgroup

    Example output

    cgroup2fs

8.13. Enabling Technology Preview features using FeatureGates

You can turn on a subset of the current Technology Preview features on for all nodes in the cluster by editing the FeatureGate custom resource (CR).

8.13.1. Understanding feature gates

You can use the FeatureGate custom resource (CR) to enable specific feature sets in your cluster. A feature set is a collection of OpenShift Container Platform features that are not enabled by default.

You can activate the following feature set by using the FeatureGate CR:

  • TechPreviewNoUpgrade. This feature set is a subset of the current Technology Preview features. This feature set allows you to enable these Technology Preview features on test clusters, where you can fully test them, while leaving the features disabled on production clusters.

    Warning

    Enabling the TechPreviewNoUpgrade feature set on your cluster cannot be undone and prevents minor version updates. You should not enable this feature set on production clusters.

    The following Technology Preview features are enabled by this feature set:

    • External cloud providers. Enables support for external cloud providers for clusters on vSphere, AWS, Azure, and GCP. Support for OpenStack is GA. This is an internal feature that most users do not need to interact with. (ExternalCloudProvider)
    • Shared Resources CSI Driver in OpenShift Builds. Enables the Container Storage Interface (CSI). (CSIDriverSharedResource)
    • Swap memory on nodes. Enables swap memory use for OpenShift Container Platform workloads on a per-node basis. (NodeSwap)
    • OpenStack Machine API Provider. This gate has no effect and is planned to be removed from this feature set in a future release. (MachineAPIProviderOpenStack)
    • Insights Operator. Enables the InsightsDataGather CRD, which allows users to configure some Insights data gathering options. The feature set also enables the DataGather CRD, which allows users to run Insights data gathering on-demand. (InsightsConfigAPI)
    • Retroactive Default Storage Class. Enables OpenShift Container Platform to retroactively assign the default storage class to PVCs if there was no default storage class when the PVC was created.(RetroactiveDefaultStorageClass)
    • Dynamic Resource Allocation API. Enables a new API for requesting and sharing resources between pods and containers. This is an internal feature that most users do not need to interact with. (DynamicResourceAllocation)
    • Pod security admission enforcement. Enables the restricted enforcement mode for pod security admission. Instead of only logging a warning, pods are rejected if they violate pod security standards. (OpenShiftPodSecurityAdmission)
    • StatefulSet pod availability upgrading limits. Enables users to define the maximum number of statefulset pods unavailable during updates which reduces application downtime. (MaxUnavailableStatefulSet)
    • Admin Network Policy and Baseline Admin Network Policy. Enables AdminNetworkPolicy and BaselineAdminNetworkPolicy resources, which are part of the Network Policy V2 API, in clusters running the OVN-Kubernetes CNI plugin. Cluster administrators can apply cluster-scoped policies and safeguards for an entire cluster before namespaces are created. Network administrators can secure clusters by enforcing network traffic controls that cannot be overridden by users. Network administrators can enforce optional baseline network traffic controls that can be overridden by users in the cluster, if necessary. Currently, these APIs support only expressing policies for intra-cluster traffic. (AdminNetworkPolicy)
    • MatchConditions is a list of conditions that must be met for a request to be sent to this webhook. Match conditions filter requests that have already been matched by the rules, namespaceSelector, and objectSelector. An empty list of matchConditions matches all requests. (admissionWebhookMatchConditions)
    • Gateway API. To enable the OpenShift Container Platform Gateway API, set the value of the enabled field to true in the techPreview.gatewayAPI specification of the ServiceMeshControlPlane resource.(gateGatewayAPI)
    • gcpLabelsTags
    • vSphereStaticIPs
    • routeExternalCertificate
    • automatedEtcdBackup
    • gcpClusterHostedDNS
    • vSphereControlPlaneMachineset
    • dnsNameResolver
    • machineConfigNodes
    • metricsServer
    • installAlternateInfrastructureAWS
    • sdnLiveMigration
    • mixedCPUsAllocation
    • managedBootImages
    • onClusterBuild
    • signatureStores

8.13.2. Enabling feature sets using the web console

You can use the OpenShift Container Platform web console to enable feature sets for all of the nodes in a cluster by editing the FeatureGate custom resource (CR).

Procedure

To enable feature sets:

  1. In the OpenShift Container Platform web console, switch to the AdministrationCustom Resource Definitions page.
  2. On the Custom Resource Definitions page, click FeatureGate.
  3. On the Custom Resource Definition Details page, click the Instances tab.
  4. Click the cluster feature gate, then click the YAML tab.
  5. Edit the cluster instance to add specific feature sets:

    Warning

    Enabling the TechPreviewNoUpgrade feature set on your cluster cannot be undone and prevents minor version updates. You should not enable this feature set on production clusters.

    Sample Feature Gate custom resource

    apiVersion: config.openshift.io/v1
    kind: FeatureGate
    metadata:
      name: cluster 1
    # ...
    spec:
      featureSet: TechPreviewNoUpgrade 2

    1
    The name of the FeatureGate CR must be cluster.
    2
    Add the feature set that you want to enable:
    • TechPreviewNoUpgrade enables specific Technology Preview features.

    After you save the changes, new machine configs are created, the machine config pools are updated, and scheduling on each node is disabled while the change is being applied.

Verification

You can verify that the feature gates are enabled by looking at the kubelet.conf file on a node after the nodes return to the ready state.

  1. From the Administrator perspective in the web console, navigate to ComputeNodes.
  2. Select a node.
  3. In the Node details page, click Terminal.
  4. In the terminal window, change your root directory to /host:

    sh-4.2# chroot /host
  5. View the kubelet.conf file:

    sh-4.2# cat /etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf

    Sample output

    # ...
    featureGates:
      InsightsOperatorPullingSCA: true,
      LegacyNodeRoleBehavior: false
    # ...

    The features that are listed as true are enabled on your cluster.

    Note

    The features listed vary depending upon the OpenShift Container Platform version.

8.13.3. Enabling feature sets using the CLI

You can use the OpenShift CLI (oc) to enable feature sets for all of the nodes in a cluster by editing the FeatureGate custom resource (CR).

Prerequisites

  • You have installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).

Procedure

To enable feature sets:

  1. Edit the FeatureGate CR named cluster:

    $ oc edit featuregate cluster
    Warning

    Enabling the TechPreviewNoUpgrade feature set on your cluster cannot be undone and prevents minor version updates. You should not enable this feature set on production clusters.

    Sample FeatureGate custom resource

    apiVersion: config.openshift.io/v1
    kind: FeatureGate
    metadata:
      name: cluster 1
    # ...
    spec:
      featureSet: TechPreviewNoUpgrade 2

    1
    The name of the FeatureGate CR must be cluster.
    2
    Add the feature set that you want to enable:
    • TechPreviewNoUpgrade enables specific Technology Preview features.

    After you save the changes, new machine configs are created, the machine config pools are updated, and scheduling on each node is disabled while the change is being applied.

Verification

You can verify that the feature gates are enabled by looking at the kubelet.conf file on a node after the nodes return to the ready state.

  1. From the Administrator perspective in the web console, navigate to ComputeNodes.
  2. Select a node.
  3. In the Node details page, click Terminal.
  4. In the terminal window, change your root directory to /host:

    sh-4.2# chroot /host
  5. View the kubelet.conf file:

    sh-4.2# cat /etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf

    Sample output

    # ...
    featureGates:
      InsightsOperatorPullingSCA: true,
      LegacyNodeRoleBehavior: false
    # ...

    The features that are listed as true are enabled on your cluster.

    Note

    The features listed vary depending upon the OpenShift Container Platform version.

8.14. etcd tasks

Back up etcd, enable or disable etcd encryption, or defragment etcd data.

8.14.1. About etcd encryption

By default, etcd data is not encrypted in OpenShift Container Platform. You can enable etcd encryption for your cluster to provide an additional layer of data security. For example, it can help protect the loss of sensitive data if an etcd backup is exposed to the incorrect parties.

When you enable etcd encryption, the following OpenShift API server and Kubernetes API server resources are encrypted:

  • Secrets
  • Config maps
  • Routes
  • OAuth access tokens
  • OAuth authorize tokens

When you enable etcd encryption, encryption keys are created. You must have these keys to restore from an etcd backup.

Note

Etcd encryption only encrypts values, not keys. Resource types, namespaces, and object names are unencrypted.

If etcd encryption is enabled during a backup, the static_kuberesources_<datetimestamp>.tar.gz file contains the encryption keys for the etcd snapshot. For security reasons, store this file separately from the etcd snapshot. However, this file is required to restore a previous state of etcd from the respective etcd snapshot.

8.14.2. Supported encryption types

The following encryption types are supported for encrypting etcd data in OpenShift Container Platform:

AES-CBC
Uses AES-CBC with PKCS#7 padding and a 32 byte key to perform the encryption. The encryption keys are rotated weekly.
AES-GCM
Uses AES-GCM with a random nonce and a 32 byte key to perform the encryption. The encryption keys are rotated weekly.

8.14.3. Enabling etcd encryption

You can enable etcd encryption to encrypt sensitive resources in your cluster.

Warning

Do not back up etcd resources until the initial encryption process is completed. If the encryption process is not completed, the backup might be only partially encrypted.

After you enable etcd encryption, several changes can occur:

  • The etcd encryption might affect the memory consumption of a few resources.
  • You might notice a transient affect on backup performance because the leader must serve the backup.
  • A disk I/O can affect the node that receives the backup state.

You can encrypt the etcd database in either AES-GCM or AES-CBC encryption.

Note

To migrate your etcd database from one encryption type to the other, you can modify the API server’s spec.encryption.type field. Migration of the etcd data to the new encryption type occurs automatically.

Prerequisites

  • Access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.

Procedure

  1. Modify the APIServer object:

    $ oc edit apiserver
  2. Set the spec.encryption.type field to aesgcm or aescbc:

    spec:
      encryption:
        type: aesgcm 1
    1
    Set to aesgcm for AES-GCM encryption or aescbc for AES-CBC encryption.
  3. Save the file to apply the changes.

    The encryption process starts. It can take 20 minutes or longer for this process to complete, depending on the size of the etcd database.

  4. Verify that etcd encryption was successful.

    1. Review the Encrypted status condition for the OpenShift API server to verify that its resources were successfully encrypted:

      $ oc get openshiftapiserver -o=jsonpath='{range .items[0].status.conditions[?(@.type=="Encrypted")]}{.reason}{"\n"}{.message}{"\n"}'

      The output shows EncryptionCompleted upon successful encryption:

      EncryptionCompleted
      All resources encrypted: routes.route.openshift.io

      If the output shows EncryptionInProgress, encryption is still in progress. Wait a few minutes and try again.

    2. Review the Encrypted status condition for the Kubernetes API server to verify that its resources were successfully encrypted:

      $ oc get kubeapiserver -o=jsonpath='{range .items[0].status.conditions[?(@.type=="Encrypted")]}{.reason}{"\n"}{.message}{"\n"}'

      The output shows EncryptionCompleted upon successful encryption:

      EncryptionCompleted
      All resources encrypted: secrets, configmaps

      If the output shows EncryptionInProgress, encryption is still in progress. Wait a few minutes and try again.

    3. Review the Encrypted status condition for the OpenShift OAuth API server to verify that its resources were successfully encrypted:

      $ oc get authentication.operator.openshift.io -o=jsonpath='{range .items[0].status.conditions[?(@.type=="Encrypted")]}{.reason}{"\n"}{.message}{"\n"}'

      The output shows EncryptionCompleted upon successful encryption:

      EncryptionCompleted
      All resources encrypted: oauthaccesstokens.oauth.openshift.io, oauthauthorizetokens.oauth.openshift.io

      If the output shows EncryptionInProgress, encryption is still in progress. Wait a few minutes and try again.

8.14.4. Disabling etcd encryption

You can disable encryption of etcd data in your cluster.

Prerequisites

  • Access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.

Procedure

  1. Modify the APIServer object:

    $ oc edit apiserver
  2. Set the encryption field type to identity:

    spec:
      encryption:
        type: identity 1
    1
    The identity type is the default value and means that no encryption is performed.
  3. Save the file to apply the changes.

    The decryption process starts. It can take 20 minutes or longer for this process to complete, depending on the size of your cluster.

  4. Verify that etcd decryption was successful.

    1. Review the Encrypted status condition for the OpenShift API server to verify that its resources were successfully decrypted:

      $ oc get openshiftapiserver -o=jsonpath='{range .items[0].status.conditions[?(@.type=="Encrypted")]}{.reason}{"\n"}{.message}{"\n"}'

      The output shows DecryptionCompleted upon successful decryption:

      DecryptionCompleted
      Encryption mode set to identity and everything is decrypted

      If the output shows DecryptionInProgress, decryption is still in progress. Wait a few minutes and try again.

    2. Review the Encrypted status condition for the Kubernetes API server to verify that its resources were successfully decrypted:

      $ oc get kubeapiserver -o=jsonpath='{range .items[0].status.conditions[?(@.type=="Encrypted")]}{.reason}{"\n"}{.message}{"\n"}'

      The output shows DecryptionCompleted upon successful decryption:

      DecryptionCompleted
      Encryption mode set to identity and everything is decrypted

      If the output shows DecryptionInProgress, decryption is still in progress. Wait a few minutes and try again.

    3. Review the Encrypted status condition for the OpenShift OAuth API server to verify that its resources were successfully decrypted:

      $ oc get authentication.operator.openshift.io -o=jsonpath='{range .items[0].status.conditions[?(@.type=="Encrypted")]}{.reason}{"\n"}{.message}{"\n"}'

      The output shows DecryptionCompleted upon successful decryption:

      DecryptionCompleted
      Encryption mode set to identity and everything is decrypted

      If the output shows DecryptionInProgress, decryption is still in progress. Wait a few minutes and try again.

8.14.5. Backing up etcd data

Follow these steps to back up etcd data by creating an etcd snapshot and backing up the resources for the static pods. This backup can be saved and used at a later time if you need to restore etcd.

Important

Only save a backup from a single control plane host. Do not take a backup from each control plane host in the cluster.

Prerequisites

  • You have access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.
  • You have checked whether the cluster-wide proxy is enabled.

    Tip

    You can check whether the proxy is enabled by reviewing the output of oc get proxy cluster -o yaml. The proxy is enabled if the httpProxy, httpsProxy, and noProxy fields have values set.

Procedure

  1. Start a debug session as root for a control plane node:

    $ oc debug --as-root node/<node_name>
  2. Change your root directory to /host in the debug shell:

    sh-4.4# chroot /host
  3. If the cluster-wide proxy is enabled, be sure that you have exported the NO_PROXY, HTTP_PROXY, and HTTPS_PROXY environment variables.
  4. Run the cluster-backup.sh script in the debug shell and pass in the location to save the backup to.

    Tip

    The cluster-backup.sh script is maintained as a component of the etcd Cluster Operator and is a wrapper around the etcdctl snapshot save command.

    sh-4.4# /usr/local/bin/cluster-backup.sh /home/core/assets/backup

    Example script output

    found latest kube-apiserver: /etc/kubernetes/static-pod-resources/kube-apiserver-pod-6
    found latest kube-controller-manager: /etc/kubernetes/static-pod-resources/kube-controller-manager-pod-7
    found latest kube-scheduler: /etc/kubernetes/static-pod-resources/kube-scheduler-pod-6
    found latest etcd: /etc/kubernetes/static-pod-resources/etcd-pod-3
    ede95fe6b88b87ba86a03c15e669fb4aa5bf0991c180d3c6895ce72eaade54a1
    etcdctl version: 3.4.14
    API version: 3.4
    {"level":"info","ts":1624647639.0188997,"caller":"snapshot/v3_snapshot.go:119","msg":"created temporary db file","path":"/home/core/assets/backup/snapshot_2021-06-25_190035.db.part"}
    {"level":"info","ts":"2021-06-25T19:00:39.030Z","caller":"clientv3/maintenance.go:200","msg":"opened snapshot stream; downloading"}
    {"level":"info","ts":1624647639.0301006,"caller":"snapshot/v3_snapshot.go:127","msg":"fetching snapshot","endpoint":"https://10.0.0.5:2379"}
    {"level":"info","ts":"2021-06-25T19:00:40.215Z","caller":"clientv3/maintenance.go:208","msg":"completed snapshot read; closing"}
    {"level":"info","ts":1624647640.6032252,"caller":"snapshot/v3_snapshot.go:142","msg":"fetched snapshot","endpoint":"https://10.0.0.5:2379","size":"114 MB","took":1.584090459}
    {"level":"info","ts":1624647640.6047094,"caller":"snapshot/v3_snapshot.go:152","msg":"saved","path":"/home/core/assets/backup/snapshot_2021-06-25_190035.db"}
    Snapshot saved at /home/core/assets/backup/snapshot_2021-06-25_190035.db
    {"hash":3866667823,"revision":31407,"totalKey":12828,"totalSize":114446336}
    snapshot db and kube resources are successfully saved to /home/core/assets/backup

    In this example, two files are created in the /home/core/assets/backup/ directory on the control plane host:

    • snapshot_<datetimestamp>.db: This file is the etcd snapshot. The cluster-backup.sh script confirms its validity.
    • static_kuberesources_<datetimestamp>.tar.gz: This file contains the resources for the static pods. If etcd encryption is enabled, it also contains the encryption keys for the etcd snapshot.

      Note

      If etcd encryption is enabled, it is recommended to store this second file separately from the etcd snapshot for security reasons. However, this file is required to restore from the etcd snapshot.

      Keep in mind that etcd encryption only encrypts values, not keys. This means that resource types, namespaces, and object names are unencrypted.

8.14.6. Defragmenting etcd data

For large and dense clusters, etcd can suffer from poor performance if the keyspace grows too large and exceeds the space quota. Periodically maintain and defragment etcd to free up space in the data store. Monitor Prometheus for etcd metrics and defragment it when required; otherwise, etcd can raise a cluster-wide alarm that puts the cluster into a maintenance mode that accepts only key reads and deletes.

Monitor these key metrics:

  • etcd_server_quota_backend_bytes, which is the current quota limit
  • etcd_mvcc_db_total_size_in_use_in_bytes, which indicates the actual database usage after a history compaction
  • etcd_mvcc_db_total_size_in_bytes, which shows the database size, including free space waiting for defragmentation

Defragment etcd data to reclaim disk space after events that cause disk fragmentation, such as etcd history compaction.

History compaction is performed automatically every five minutes and leaves gaps in the back-end database. This fragmented space is available for use by etcd, but is not available to the host file system. You must defragment etcd to make this space available to the host file system.

Defragmentation occurs automatically, but you can also trigger it manually.

Note

Automatic defragmentation is good for most cases, because the etcd operator uses cluster information to determine the most efficient operation for the user.

8.14.6.1. Automatic defragmentation

The etcd Operator automatically defragments disks. No manual intervention is needed.

Verify that the defragmentation process is successful by viewing one of these logs:

  • etcd logs
  • cluster-etcd-operator pod
  • operator status error log
Warning

Automatic defragmentation can cause leader election failure in various OpenShift core components, such as the Kubernetes controller manager, which triggers a restart of the failing component. The restart is harmless and either triggers failover to the next running instance or the component resumes work again after the restart.

Example log output for successful defragmentation

etcd member has been defragmented: <member_name>, memberID: <member_id>

Example log output for unsuccessful defragmentation

failed defrag on member: <member_name>, memberID: <member_id>: <error_message>

8.14.6.2. Manual defragmentation

A Prometheus alert indicates when you need to use manual defragmentation. The alert is displayed in two cases:

  • When etcd uses more than 50% of its available space for more than 10 minutes
  • When etcd is actively using less than 50% of its total database size for more than 10 minutes

You can also determine whether defragmentation is needed by checking the etcd database size in MB that will be freed by defragmentation with the PromQL expression: (etcd_mvcc_db_total_size_in_bytes - etcd_mvcc_db_total_size_in_use_in_bytes)/1024/1024

Warning

Defragmenting etcd is a blocking action. The etcd member will not respond until defragmentation is complete. For this reason, wait at least one minute between defragmentation actions on each of the pods to allow the cluster to recover.

Follow this procedure to defragment etcd data on each etcd member.

Prerequisites

  • You have access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.

Procedure

  1. Determine which etcd member is the leader, because the leader should be defragmented last.

    1. Get the list of etcd pods:

      $ oc -n openshift-etcd get pods -l k8s-app=etcd -o wide

      Example output

      etcd-ip-10-0-159-225.example.redhat.com                3/3     Running     0          175m   10.0.159.225   ip-10-0-159-225.example.redhat.com   <none>           <none>
      etcd-ip-10-0-191-37.example.redhat.com                 3/3     Running     0          173m   10.0.191.37    ip-10-0-191-37.example.redhat.com    <none>           <none>
      etcd-ip-10-0-199-170.example.redhat.com                3/3     Running     0          176m   10.0.199.170   ip-10-0-199-170.example.redhat.com   <none>           <none>

    2. Choose a pod and run the following command to determine which etcd member is the leader:

      $ oc rsh -n openshift-etcd etcd-ip-10-0-159-225.example.redhat.com etcdctl endpoint status --cluster -w table

      Example output

      Defaulting container name to etcdctl.
      Use 'oc describe pod/etcd-ip-10-0-159-225.example.redhat.com -n openshift-etcd' to see all of the containers in this pod.
      +---------------------------+------------------+---------+---------+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+--------------------+--------+
      |         ENDPOINT          |        ID        | VERSION | DB SIZE | IS LEADER | IS LEARNER | RAFT TERM | RAFT INDEX | RAFT APPLIED INDEX | ERRORS |
      +---------------------------+------------------+---------+---------+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+--------------------+--------+
      |  https://10.0.191.37:2379 | 251cd44483d811c3 |   3.5.9 |  104 MB |     false |      false |         7 |      91624 |              91624 |        |
      | https://10.0.159.225:2379 | 264c7c58ecbdabee |   3.5.9 |  104 MB |     false |      false |         7 |      91624 |              91624 |        |
      | https://10.0.199.170:2379 | 9ac311f93915cc79 |   3.5.9 |  104 MB |      true |      false |         7 |      91624 |              91624 |        |
      +---------------------------+------------------+---------+---------+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+--------------------+--------+

      Based on the IS LEADER column of this output, the https://10.0.199.170:2379 endpoint is the leader. Matching this endpoint with the output of the previous step, the pod name of the leader is etcd-ip-10-0-199-170.example.redhat.com.

  2. Defragment an etcd member.

    1. Connect to the running etcd container, passing in the name of a pod that is not the leader:

      $ oc rsh -n openshift-etcd etcd-ip-10-0-159-225.example.redhat.com
    2. Unset the ETCDCTL_ENDPOINTS environment variable:

      sh-4.4# unset ETCDCTL_ENDPOINTS
    3. Defragment the etcd member:

      sh-4.4# etcdctl --command-timeout=30s --endpoints=https://localhost:2379 defrag

      Example output

      Finished defragmenting etcd member[https://localhost:2379]

      If a timeout error occurs, increase the value for --command-timeout until the command succeeds.

    4. Verify that the database size was reduced:

      sh-4.4# etcdctl endpoint status -w table --cluster

      Example output

      +---------------------------+------------------+---------+---------+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+--------------------+--------+
      |         ENDPOINT          |        ID        | VERSION | DB SIZE | IS LEADER | IS LEARNER | RAFT TERM | RAFT INDEX | RAFT APPLIED INDEX | ERRORS |
      +---------------------------+------------------+---------+---------+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+--------------------+--------+
      |  https://10.0.191.37:2379 | 251cd44483d811c3 |   3.5.9 |  104 MB |     false |      false |         7 |      91624 |              91624 |        |
      | https://10.0.159.225:2379 | 264c7c58ecbdabee |   3.5.9 |   41 MB |     false |      false |         7 |      91624 |              91624 |        | 1
      | https://10.0.199.170:2379 | 9ac311f93915cc79 |   3.5.9 |  104 MB |      true |      false |         7 |      91624 |              91624 |        |
      +---------------------------+------------------+---------+---------+-----------+------------+-----------+------------+--------------------+--------+

      This example shows that the database size for this etcd member is now 41 MB as opposed to the starting size of 104 MB.

    5. Repeat these steps to connect to each of the other etcd members and defragment them. Always defragment the leader last.

      Wait at least one minute between defragmentation actions to allow the etcd pod to recover. Until the etcd pod recovers, the etcd member will not respond.

  3. If any NOSPACE alarms were triggered due to the space quota being exceeded, clear them.

    1. Check if there are any NOSPACE alarms:

      sh-4.4# etcdctl alarm list

      Example output

      memberID:12345678912345678912 alarm:NOSPACE

    2. Clear the alarms:

      sh-4.4# etcdctl alarm disarm

8.14.7. Restoring to a previous cluster state

You can use a saved etcd backup to restore a previous cluster state or restore a cluster that has lost the majority of control plane hosts.

Note

If your cluster uses a control plane machine set, see "Troubleshooting the control plane machine set" for a more simple etcd recovery procedure.

Important

When you restore your cluster, you must use an etcd backup that was taken from the same z-stream release. For example, an OpenShift Container Platform 4.7.2 cluster must use an etcd backup that was taken from 4.7.2.

Prerequisites

  • Access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role through a certificate-based kubeconfig file, like the one that was used during installation.
  • A healthy control plane host to use as the recovery host.
  • SSH access to control plane hosts.
  • A backup directory containing both the etcd snapshot and the resources for the static pods, which were from the same backup. The file names in the directory must be in the following formats: snapshot_<datetimestamp>.db and static_kuberesources_<datetimestamp>.tar.gz.
Important

For non-recovery control plane nodes, it is not required to establish SSH connectivity or to stop the static pods. You can delete and recreate other non-recovery, control plane machines, one by one.

Procedure

  1. Select a control plane host to use as the recovery host. This is the host that you will run the restore operation on.
  2. Establish SSH connectivity to each of the control plane nodes, including the recovery host.

    kube-apiserver becomes inaccessible after the restore process starts, so you cannot access the control plane nodes. For this reason, it is recommended to establish SSH connectivity to each control plane host in a separate terminal.

    Important

    If you do not complete this step, you will not be able to access the control plane hosts to complete the restore procedure, and you will be unable to recover your cluster from this state.

  3. Copy the etcd backup directory to the recovery control plane host.

    This procedure assumes that you copied the backup directory containing the etcd snapshot and the resources for the static pods to the /home/core/ directory of your recovery control plane host.

  4. Stop the static pods on any other control plane nodes.

    Note

    You do not need to stop the static pods on the recovery host.

    1. Access a control plane host that is not the recovery host.
    2. Move the existing etcd pod file out of the kubelet manifest directory by running:

      $ sudo mv -v /etc/kubernetes/manifests/etcd-pod.yaml /tmp
    3. Verify that the etcd pods are stopped by using:

      $ sudo crictl ps | grep etcd | egrep -v "operator|etcd-guard"

      If the output of this command is not empty, wait a few minutes and check again.

    4. Move the existing kube-apiserver file out of the kubelet manifest directory by running:

      $ sudo mv -v /etc/kubernetes/manifests/kube-apiserver-pod.yaml /tmp
    5. Verify that the kube-apiserver containers are stopped by running:

      $ sudo crictl ps | grep kube-apiserver | egrep -v "operator|guard"

      If the output of this command is not empty, wait a few minutes and check again.

    6. Move the existing kube-controller-manager file out of the kubelet manifest directory by using:

      $ sudo mv -v /etc/kubernetes/manifests/kube-controller-manager-pod.yaml /tmp
    7. Verify that the kube-controller-manager containers are stopped by running:

      $ sudo crictl ps | grep kube-controller-manager | egrep -v "operator|guard"

      If the output of this command is not empty, wait a few minutes and check again.

    8. Move the existing kube-scheduler file out of the kubelet manifest directory by using:

      $ sudo mv -v /etc/kubernetes/manifests/kube-scheduler-pod.yaml /tmp
    9. Verify that the kube-scheduler containers are stopped by using:

      $ sudo crictl ps | grep kube-scheduler | egrep -v "operator|guard"

      If the output of this command is not empty, wait a few minutes and check again.

    10. Move the etcd data directory to a different location with the following example:

      $ sudo mv -v /var/lib/etcd/ /tmp
    11. If the /etc/kubernetes/manifests/keepalived.yaml file exists and the node is deleted, follow these steps:

      1. Move the /etc/kubernetes/manifests/keepalived.yaml file out of the kubelet manifest directory:

        $ sudo mv -v /etc/kubernetes/manifests/keepalived.yaml /tmp
      2. Verify that any containers managed by the keepalived daemon are stopped:

        $ sudo crictl ps --name keepalived

        The output of this command should be empty. If it is not empty, wait a few minutes and check again.

      3. Check if the control plane has any Virtual IPs (VIPs) assigned to it:

        $ ip -o address | egrep '<api_vip>|<ingress_vip>'
      4. For each reported VIP, run the following command to remove it:

        $ sudo ip address del <reported_vip> dev <reported_vip_device>
    12. Repeat this step on each of the other control plane hosts that is not the recovery host.
  5. Access the recovery control plane host.
  6. If the keepalived daemon is in use, verify that the recovery control plane node owns the VIP:

    $ ip -o address | grep <api_vip>

    The address of the VIP is highlighted in the output if it exists. This command returns an empty string if the VIP is not set or configured incorrectly.

  7. If the cluster-wide proxy is enabled, be sure that you have exported the NO_PROXY, HTTP_PROXY, and HTTPS_PROXY environment variables.

    Tip

    You can check whether the proxy is enabled by reviewing the output of oc get proxy cluster -o yaml. The proxy is enabled if the httpProxy, httpsProxy, and noProxy fields have values set.

  8. Run the restore script on the recovery control plane host and pass in the path to the etcd backup directory:

    $ sudo -E /usr/local/bin/cluster-restore.sh /home/core/assets/backup

    Example script output

    ...stopping kube-scheduler-pod.yaml
    ...stopping kube-controller-manager-pod.yaml
    ...stopping etcd-pod.yaml
    ...stopping kube-apiserver-pod.yaml
    Waiting for container etcd to stop
    .complete
    Waiting for container etcdctl to stop
    .............................complete
    Waiting for container etcd-metrics to stop
    complete
    Waiting for container kube-controller-manager to stop
    complete
    Waiting for container kube-apiserver to stop
    ..........................................................................................complete
    Waiting for container kube-scheduler to stop
    complete
    Moving etcd data-dir /var/lib/etcd/member to /var/lib/etcd-backup
    starting restore-etcd static pod
    starting kube-apiserver-pod.yaml
    static-pod-resources/kube-apiserver-pod-7/kube-apiserver-pod.yaml
    starting kube-controller-manager-pod.yaml
    static-pod-resources/kube-controller-manager-pod-7/kube-controller-manager-pod.yaml
    starting kube-scheduler-pod.yaml
    static-pod-resources/kube-scheduler-pod-8/kube-scheduler-pod.yaml

    The cluster-restore.sh script must show that etcd, kube-apiserver, kube-controller-manager, and kube-scheduler pods are stopped and then started at the end of the restore process.

    Note

    The restore process can cause nodes to enter the NotReady state if the node certificates were updated after the last etcd backup.

  9. Check the nodes to ensure they are in the Ready state.

    1. Run the following command:

      $ oc get nodes -w

      Sample output

      NAME                STATUS  ROLES          AGE     VERSION
      host-172-25-75-28   Ready   master         3d20h   v1.28.5
      host-172-25-75-38   Ready   infra,worker   3d20h   v1.28.5
      host-172-25-75-40   Ready   master         3d20h   v1.28.5
      host-172-25-75-65   Ready   master         3d20h   v1.28.5
      host-172-25-75-74   Ready   infra,worker   3d20h   v1.28.5
      host-172-25-75-79   Ready   worker         3d20h   v1.28.5
      host-172-25-75-86   Ready   worker         3d20h   v1.28.5
      host-172-25-75-98   Ready   infra,worker   3d20h   v1.28.5

      It can take several minutes for all nodes to report their state.

    2. If any nodes are in the NotReady state, log in to the nodes and remove all of the PEM files from the /var/lib/kubelet/pki directory on each node. You can SSH into the nodes or use the terminal window in the web console.

      $  ssh -i <ssh-key-path> core@<master-hostname>

      Sample pki directory

      sh-4.4# pwd
      /var/lib/kubelet/pki
      sh-4.4# ls
      kubelet-client-2022-04-28-11-24-09.pem  kubelet-server-2022-04-28-11-24-15.pem
      kubelet-client-current.pem              kubelet-server-current.pem

  10. Restart the kubelet service on all control plane hosts.

    1. From the recovery host, run:

      $ sudo systemctl restart kubelet.service
    2. Repeat this step on all other control plane hosts.
  11. Approve the pending Certificate Signing Requests (CSRs):

    Note

    Clusters with no worker nodes, such as single-node clusters or clusters consisting of three schedulable control plane nodes, will not have any pending CSRs to approve. You can skip all the commands listed in this step.

    1. Get the list of current CSRs by running:

      $ oc get csr

      Example output

      NAME        AGE    SIGNERNAME                                    REQUESTOR                                                                   CONDITION
      csr-2s94x   8m3s   kubernetes.io/kubelet-serving                 system:node:<node_name>                                                     Pending 1
      csr-4bd6t   8m3s   kubernetes.io/kubelet-serving                 system:node:<node_name>                                                     Pending 2
      csr-4hl85   13m    kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending 3
      csr-zhhhp   3m8s   kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending 4
      ...

      1 1 2
      A pending kubelet serving CSR, requested by the node for the kubelet serving endpoint.
      3 4
      A pending kubelet client CSR, requested with the node-bootstrapper node bootstrap credentials.
    2. Review the details of a CSR to verify that it is valid by running:

      $ oc describe csr <csr_name> 1
      1
      <csr_name> is the name of a CSR from the list of current CSRs.
    3. Approve each valid node-bootstrapper CSR by running:

      $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name>
    4. For user-provisioned installations, approve each valid kubelet service CSR by running:

      $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name>
  12. Verify that the single member control plane has started successfully.

    1. From the recovery host, verify that the etcd container is running by using:

      $ sudo crictl ps | grep etcd | egrep -v "operator|etcd-guard"

      Example output

      3ad41b7908e32       36f86e2eeaaffe662df0d21041eb22b8198e0e58abeeae8c743c3e6e977e8009                                                         About a minute ago   Running             etcd                                          0                   7c05f8af362f0

    2. From the recovery host, verify that the etcd pod is running by using:

      $ oc -n openshift-etcd get pods -l k8s-app=etcd

      Example output

      NAME                                             READY   STATUS      RESTARTS   AGE
      etcd-ip-10-0-143-125.ec2.internal                1/1     Running     1          2m47s

      If the status is Pending, or the output lists more than one running etcd pod, wait a few minutes and check again.

  13. If you are using the OVNKubernetes network plugin, you must restart ovnkube-controlplane pods.

    1. Delete all of the ovnkube-controlplane pods by running:

      $ oc -n openshift-ovn-kubernetes delete pod -l app=ovnkube-control-plane
    2. Verify that all of the ovnkube-controlplane pods were redeployed by using:

      $ oc -n openshift-ovn-kubernetes get pod -l app=ovnkube-control-plane
  14. If you are using the OVN-Kubernetes network plugin, restart the Open Virtual Network (OVN) Kubernetes pods on all the nodes one by one. Use the following steps to restart OVN-Kubernetes pods on each node:

    Important

    Restart OVN-Kubernetes pods in the following order:

    1. The recovery control plane host
    2. The other control plane hosts (if available)
    3. The other nodes
    Note

    Validating and mutating admission webhooks can reject pods. If you add any additional webhooks with the failurePolicy set to Fail, then they can reject pods and the restoration process can fail. You can avoid this by saving and deleting webhooks while restoring the cluster state. After the cluster state is restored successfully, you can enable the webhooks again.

    Alternatively, you can temporarily set the failurePolicy to Ignore while restoring the cluster state. After the cluster state is restored successfully, you can set the failurePolicy to Fail.

    1. Remove the northbound database (nbdb) and southbound database (sbdb). Access the recovery host and the remaining control plane nodes by using Secure Shell (SSH) and run:

      $ sudo rm -f /var/lib/ovn-ic/etc/*.db
    2. Restart the OpenVSwitch services. Access the node by using Secure Shell (SSH) and run the following command:

      $ sudo systemctl restart ovs-vswitchd ovsdb-server
    3. Delete the ovnkube-node pod on the node by running the following command, replacing <node> with the name of the node that you are restarting:

      $ oc -n openshift-ovn-kubernetes delete pod -l app=ovnkube-node --field-selector=spec.nodeName==<node>
    4. Verify that the ovnkube-node pod is running again with:

      $ oc -n openshift-ovn-kubernetes get pod -l app=ovnkube-node --field-selector=spec.nodeName==<node>
      Note

      It might take several minutes for the pods to restart.

  15. Delete and re-create other non-recovery, control plane machines, one by one. After the machines are re-created, a new revision is forced and etcd automatically scales up.

    • If you use a user-provisioned bare metal installation, you can re-create a control plane machine by using the same method that you used to originally create it. For more information, see "Installing a user-provisioned cluster on bare metal".

      Warning

      Do not delete and re-create the machine for the recovery host.

    • If you are running installer-provisioned infrastructure, or you used the Machine API to create your machines, follow these steps:

      Warning

      Do not delete and re-create the machine for the recovery host.

      For bare metal installations on installer-provisioned infrastructure, control plane machines are not re-created. For more information, see "Replacing a bare-metal control plane node".

      1. Obtain the machine for one of the lost control plane hosts.

        In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

        $ oc get machines -n openshift-machine-api -o wide

        Example output:

        NAME                                        PHASE     TYPE        REGION      ZONE         AGE     NODE                           PROVIDERID                              STATE
        clustername-8qw5l-master-0                  Running   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1a   3h37m   ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1a/i-0ec2782f8287dfb7e   stopped 1
        clustername-8qw5l-master-1                  Running   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1b   3h37m   ip-10-0-143-125.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1b/i-096c349b700a19631   running
        clustername-8qw5l-master-2                  Running   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1c   3h37m   ip-10-0-154-194.ec2.internal    aws:///us-east-1c/i-02626f1dba9ed5bba  running
        clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1a-wbtgd   Running   m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1a   3h28m   ip-10-0-129-226.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1a/i-010ef6279b4662ced   running
        clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1b-lrdxb   Running   m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1b   3h28m   ip-10-0-144-248.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1b/i-0cb45ac45a166173b   running
        clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1c-pkg26   Running   m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1c   3h28m   ip-10-0-170-181.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1c/i-06861c00007751b0a   running
        1
        This is the control plane machine for the lost control plane host, ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal.
      2. Save the machine configuration to a file on your file system by running:

        $ oc get machine clustername-8qw5l-master-0 \ 1
            -n openshift-machine-api \
            -o yaml \
            > new-master-machine.yaml
        1
        Specify the name of the control plane machine for the lost control plane host.
      3. Edit the new-master-machine.yaml file that was created in the previous step to assign a new name and remove unnecessary fields.

        1. Remove the entire status section by running:

          status:
            addresses:
            - address: 10.0.131.183
              type: InternalIP
            - address: ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal
              type: InternalDNS
            - address: ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal
              type: Hostname
            lastUpdated: "2020-04-20T17:44:29Z"
            nodeRef:
              kind: Node
              name: ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal
              uid: acca4411-af0d-4387-b73e-52b2484295ad
            phase: Running
            providerStatus:
              apiVersion: awsproviderconfig.openshift.io/v1beta1
              conditions:
              - lastProbeTime: "2020-04-20T16:53:50Z"
                lastTransitionTime: "2020-04-20T16:53:50Z"
                message: machine successfully created
                reason: MachineCreationSucceeded
                status: "True"
                type: MachineCreation
              instanceId: i-0fdb85790d76d0c3f
              instanceState: stopped
              kind: AWSMachineProviderStatus
        2. Change the metadata.name field to a new name by running:

          It is recommended to keep the same base name as the old machine and change the ending number to the next available number. In this example, clustername-8qw5l-master-0 is changed to clustername-8qw5l-master-3:

          apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
          kind: Machine
          metadata:
            ...
            name: clustername-8qw5l-master-3
            ...
        3. Remove the spec.providerID field by running:

          providerID: aws:///us-east-1a/i-0fdb85790d76d0c3f
        4. Remove the metadata.annotations and metadata.generation fields by running:

          annotations:
            machine.openshift.io/instance-state: running
          ...
          generation: 2
        5. Remove the metadata.resourceVersion and metadata.uid fields by running:

          resourceVersion: "13291"
          uid: a282eb70-40a2-4e89-8009-d05dd420d31a
      4. Delete the machine of the lost control plane host by running:

        $ oc delete machine -n openshift-machine-api clustername-8qw5l-master-0 1
        1
        Specify the name of the control plane machine for the lost control plane host.
      5. Verify that the machine was deleted by running:

        $ oc get machines -n openshift-machine-api -o wide

        Example output:

        NAME                                        PHASE     TYPE        REGION      ZONE         AGE     NODE                           PROVIDERID                              STATE
        clustername-8qw5l-master-1                  Running   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1b   3h37m   ip-10-0-143-125.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1b/i-096c349b700a19631   running
        clustername-8qw5l-master-2                  Running   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1c   3h37m   ip-10-0-154-194.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1c/i-02626f1dba9ed5bba  running
        clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1a-wbtgd   Running   m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1a   3h28m   ip-10-0-129-226.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1a/i-010ef6279b4662ced   running
        clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1b-lrdxb   Running   m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1b   3h28m   ip-10-0-144-248.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1b/i-0cb45ac45a166173b   running
        clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1c-pkg26   Running   m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1c   3h28m   ip-10-0-170-181.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1c/i-06861c00007751b0a   running
      6. Create a machine by using the new-master-machine.yaml file by running:

        $ oc apply -f new-master-machine.yaml
      7. Verify that the new machine has been created by running:

        $ oc get machines -n openshift-machine-api -o wide

        Example output:

        NAME                                        PHASE          TYPE        REGION      ZONE         AGE     NODE                           PROVIDERID                              STATE
        clustername-8qw5l-master-1                  Running        m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1b   3h37m   ip-10-0-143-125.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1b/i-096c349b700a19631   running
        clustername-8qw5l-master-2                  Running        m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1c   3h37m   ip-10-0-154-194.ec2.internal    aws:///us-east-1c/i-02626f1dba9ed5bba  running
        clustername-8qw5l-master-3                  Provisioning   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1a   85s     ip-10-0-173-171.ec2.internal    aws:///us-east-1a/i-015b0888fe17bc2c8  running 1
        clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1a-wbtgd   Running        m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1a   3h28m   ip-10-0-129-226.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1a/i-010ef6279b4662ced   running
        clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1b-lrdxb   Running        m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1b   3h28m   ip-10-0-144-248.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1b/i-0cb45ac45a166173b   running
        clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1c-pkg26   Running        m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1c   3h28m   ip-10-0-170-181.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1c/i-06861c00007751b0a   running
        1
        The new machine, clustername-8qw5l-master-3 is being created and is ready after the phase changes from Provisioning to Running.

        It might take a few minutes for the new machine to be created. The etcd cluster Operator will automatically sync when the machine or node returns to a healthy state.

      8. Repeat these steps for each lost control plane host that is not the recovery host.
  16. Turn off the quorum guard by entering:

    $ oc patch etcd/cluster --type=merge -p '{"spec": {"unsupportedConfigOverrides": {"useUnsupportedUnsafeNonHANonProductionUnstableEtcd": true}}}'

    This command ensures that you can successfully re-create secrets and roll out the static pods.

  17. In a separate terminal window within the recovery host, export the recovery kubeconfig file by running:

    $ export KUBECONFIG=/etc/kubernetes/static-pod-resources/kube-apiserver-certs/secrets/node-kubeconfigs/localhost-recovery.kubeconfig
  18. Force etcd redeployment.

    In the same terminal window where you exported the recovery kubeconfig file, run:

    $ oc patch etcd cluster -p='{"spec": {"forceRedeploymentReason": "recovery-'"$( date --rfc-3339=ns )"'"}}' --type=merge 1
    1
    The forceRedeploymentReason value must be unique, which is why a timestamp is appended.

    When the etcd cluster Operator performs a redeployment, the existing nodes are started with new pods similar to the initial bootstrap scale up.

  19. Turn the quorum guard back on by entering:

    $ oc patch etcd/cluster --type=merge -p '{"spec": {"unsupportedConfigOverrides": null}}'
  20. You can verify that the unsupportedConfigOverrides section is removed from the object by running:

    $ oc get etcd/cluster -oyaml
  21. Verify all nodes are updated to the latest revision.

    In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run:

    $ oc get etcd -o=jsonpath='{range .items[0].status.conditions[?(@.type=="NodeInstallerProgressing")]}{.reason}{"\n"}{.message}{"\n"}'

    Review the NodeInstallerProgressing status condition for etcd to verify that all nodes are at the latest revision. The output shows AllNodesAtLatestRevision upon successful update:

    AllNodesAtLatestRevision
    3 nodes are at revision 7 1
    1
    In this example, the latest revision number is 7.

    If the output includes multiple revision numbers, such as 2 nodes are at revision 6; 1 nodes are at revision 7, this means that the update is still in progress. Wait a few minutes and try again.

  22. After etcd is redeployed, force new rollouts for the control plane. kube-apiserver will reinstall itself on the other nodes because the kubelet is connected to API servers using an internal load balancer.

    In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run:

    1. Force a new rollout for kube-apiserver:

      $ oc patch kubeapiserver cluster -p='{"spec": {"forceRedeploymentReason": "recovery-'"$( date --rfc-3339=ns )"'"}}' --type=merge

      Verify all nodes are updated to the latest revision.

      $ oc get kubeapiserver -o=jsonpath='{range .items[0].status.conditions[?(@.type=="NodeInstallerProgressing")]}{.reason}{"\n"}{.message}{"\n"}'

      Review the NodeInstallerProgressing status condition to verify that all nodes are at the latest revision. The output shows AllNodesAtLatestRevision upon successful update:

      AllNodesAtLatestRevision
      3 nodes are at revision 7 1
      1
      In this example, the latest revision number is 7.

      If the output includes multiple revision numbers, such as 2 nodes are at revision 6; 1 nodes are at revision 7, this means that the update is still in progress. Wait a few minutes and try again.

    2. Force a new rollout for the Kubernetes controller manager by running the following command:

      $ oc patch kubecontrollermanager cluster -p='{"spec": {"forceRedeploymentReason": "recovery-'"$( date --rfc-3339=ns )"'"}}' --type=merge

      Verify all nodes are updated to the latest revision by running:

      $ oc get kubecontrollermanager -o=jsonpath='{range .items[0].status.conditions[?(@.type=="NodeInstallerProgressing")]}{.reason}{"\n"}{.message}{"\n"}'

      Review the NodeInstallerProgressing status condition to verify that all nodes are at the latest revision. The output shows AllNodesAtLatestRevision upon successful update:

      AllNodesAtLatestRevision
      3 nodes are at revision 7 1
      1
      In this example, the latest revision number is 7.

      If the output includes multiple revision numbers, such as 2 nodes are at revision 6; 1 nodes are at revision 7, this means that the update is still in progress. Wait a few minutes and try again.

    3. Force a new rollout for the kube-scheduler by running:

      $ oc patch kubescheduler cluster -p='{"spec": {"forceRedeploymentReason": "recovery-'"$( date --rfc-3339=ns )"'"}}' --type=merge

      Verify all nodes are updated to the latest revision by using:

      $ oc get kubescheduler -o=jsonpath='{range .items[0].status.conditions[?(@.type=="NodeInstallerProgressing")]}{.reason}{"\n"}{.message}{"\n"}'

      Review the NodeInstallerProgressing status condition to verify that all nodes are at the latest revision. The output shows AllNodesAtLatestRevision upon successful update:

      AllNodesAtLatestRevision
      3 nodes are at revision 7 1
      1
      In this example, the latest revision number is 7.

      If the output includes multiple revision numbers, such as 2 nodes are at revision 6; 1 nodes are at revision 7, this means that the update is still in progress. Wait a few minutes and try again.

  23. Verify that all control plane hosts have started and joined the cluster.

    In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

    $ oc -n openshift-etcd get pods -l k8s-app=etcd

    Example output

    etcd-ip-10-0-143-125.ec2.internal                2/2     Running     0          9h
    etcd-ip-10-0-154-194.ec2.internal                2/2     Running     0          9h
    etcd-ip-10-0-173-171.ec2.internal                2/2     Running     0          9h

To ensure that all workloads return to normal operation following a recovery procedure, restart each pod that stores kube-apiserver information. This includes OpenShift Container Platform components such as routers, Operators, and third-party components.

Note

On completion of the previous procedural steps, you might need to wait a few minutes for all services to return to their restored state. For example, authentication by using oc login might not immediately work until the OAuth server pods are restarted.

Consider using the system:admin kubeconfig file for immediate authentication. This method basis its authentication on SSL/TLS client certificates as against OAuth tokens. You can authenticate with this file by issuing the following command:

$ export KUBECONFIG=<installation_directory>/auth/kubeconfig

Issue the following command to display your authenticated user name:

$ oc whoami

8.14.8. Issues and workarounds for restoring a persistent storage state

If your OpenShift Container Platform cluster uses persistent storage of any form, a state of the cluster is typically stored outside etcd. It might be an Elasticsearch cluster running in a pod or a database running in a StatefulSet object. When you restore from an etcd backup, the status of the workloads in OpenShift Container Platform is also restored. However, if the etcd snapshot is old, the status might be invalid or outdated.

Important

The contents of persistent volumes (PVs) are never part of the etcd snapshot. When you restore an OpenShift Container Platform cluster from an etcd snapshot, non-critical workloads might gain access to critical data, or vice-versa.

The following are some example scenarios that produce an out-of-date status:

  • MySQL database is running in a pod backed up by a PV object. Restoring OpenShift Container Platform from an etcd snapshot does not bring back the volume on the storage provider, and does not produce a running MySQL pod, despite the pod repeatedly attempting to start. You must manually restore this pod by restoring the volume on the storage provider, and then editing the PV to point to the new volume.
  • Pod P1 is using volume A, which is attached to node X. If the etcd snapshot is taken while another pod uses the same volume on node Y, then when the etcd restore is performed, pod P1 might not be able to start correctly due to the volume still being attached to node Y. OpenShift Container Platform is not aware of the attachment, and does not automatically detach it. When this occurs, the volume must be manually detached from node Y so that the volume can attach on node X, and then pod P1 can start.
  • Cloud provider or storage provider credentials were updated after the etcd snapshot was taken. This causes any CSI drivers or Operators that depend on the those credentials to not work. You might have to manually update the credentials required by those drivers or Operators.
  • A device is removed or renamed from OpenShift Container Platform nodes after the etcd snapshot is taken. The Local Storage Operator creates symlinks for each PV that it manages from /dev/disk/by-id or /dev directories. This situation might cause the local PVs to refer to devices that no longer exist.

    To fix this problem, an administrator must:

    1. Manually remove the PVs with invalid devices.
    2. Remove symlinks from respective nodes.
    3. Delete LocalVolume or LocalVolumeSet objects (see StorageConfiguring persistent storagePersistent storage using local volumesDeleting the Local Storage Operator Resources).

8.15. Pod disruption budgets

Understand and configure pod disruption budgets.

8.15.1. Understanding how to use pod disruption budgets to specify the number of pods that must be up

A pod disruption budget allows the specification of safety constraints on pods during operations, such as draining a node for maintenance.

PodDisruptionBudget is an API object that specifies the minimum number or percentage of replicas that must be up at a time. Setting these in projects can be helpful during node maintenance (such as scaling a cluster down or a cluster upgrade) and is only honored on voluntary evictions (not on node failures).

A PodDisruptionBudget object’s configuration consists of the following key parts:

  • A label selector, which is a label query over a set of pods.
  • An availability level, which specifies the minimum number of pods that must be available simultaneously, either:

    • minAvailable is the number of pods must always be available, even during a disruption.
    • maxUnavailable is the number of pods can be unavailable during a disruption.
Note

Available refers to the number of pods that has condition Ready=True. Ready=True refers to the pod that is able to serve requests and should be added to the load balancing pools of all matching services.

A maxUnavailable of 0% or 0 or a minAvailable of 100% or equal to the number of replicas is permitted but can block nodes from being drained.

Warning

The default setting for maxUnavailable is 1 for all the machine config pools in OpenShift Container Platform. It is recommended to not change this value and update one control plane node at a time. Do not change this value to 3 for the control plane pool.

You can check for pod disruption budgets across all projects with the following:

$ oc get poddisruptionbudget --all-namespaces

Example output

NAMESPACE                              NAME                                    MIN AVAILABLE   MAX UNAVAILABLE   ALLOWED DISRUPTIONS   AGE
openshift-apiserver                    openshift-apiserver-pdb                 N/A             1                 1                     121m
openshift-cloud-controller-manager     aws-cloud-controller-manager            1               N/A               1                     125m
openshift-cloud-credential-operator    pod-identity-webhook                    1               N/A               1                     117m
openshift-cluster-csi-drivers          aws-ebs-csi-driver-controller-pdb       N/A             1                 1                     121m
openshift-cluster-storage-operator     csi-snapshot-controller-pdb             N/A             1                 1                     122m
openshift-cluster-storage-operator     csi-snapshot-webhook-pdb                N/A             1                 1                     122m
openshift-console                      console                                 N/A             1                 1                     116m
#...

The PodDisruptionBudget is considered healthy when there are at least minAvailable pods running in the system. Every pod above that limit can be evicted.

Note

Depending on your pod priority and preemption settings, lower-priority pods might be removed despite their pod disruption budget requirements.

8.15.2. Specifying the number of pods that must be up with pod disruption budgets

You can use a PodDisruptionBudget object to specify the minimum number or percentage of replicas that must be up at a time.

Procedure

To configure a pod disruption budget:

  1. Create a YAML file with the an object definition similar to the following:

    apiVersion: policy/v1 1
    kind: PodDisruptionBudget
    metadata:
      name: my-pdb
    spec:
      minAvailable: 2  2
      selector:  3
        matchLabels:
          name: my-pod
    1
    PodDisruptionBudget is part of the policy/v1 API group.
    2
    The minimum number of pods that must be available simultaneously. This can be either an integer or a string specifying a percentage, for example, 20%.
    3
    A label query over a set of resources. The result of matchLabels and matchExpressions are logically conjoined. Leave this parameter blank, for example selector {}, to select all pods in the project.

    Or:

    apiVersion: policy/v1 1
    kind: PodDisruptionBudget
    metadata:
      name: my-pdb
    spec:
      maxUnavailable: 25% 2
      selector: 3
        matchLabels:
          name: my-pod
    1
    PodDisruptionBudget is part of the policy/v1 API group.
    2
    The maximum number of pods that can be unavailable simultaneously. This can be either an integer or a string specifying a percentage, for example, 20%.
    3
    A label query over a set of resources. The result of matchLabels and matchExpressions are logically conjoined. Leave this parameter blank, for example selector {}, to select all pods in the project.
  2. Run the following command to add the object to project:

    $ oc create -f </path/to/file> -n <project_name>

8.15.3. Specifying the eviction policy for unhealthy pods

When you use pod disruption budgets (PDBs) to specify how many pods must be available simultaneously, you can also define the criteria for how unhealthy pods are considered for eviction.

You can choose one of the following policies:

IfHealthyBudget
Running pods that are not yet healthy can be evicted only if the guarded application is not disrupted.
AlwaysAllow

Running pods that are not yet healthy can be evicted regardless of whether the criteria in the pod disruption budget is met. This policy can help evict malfunctioning applications, such as ones with pods stuck in the CrashLoopBackOff state or failing to report the Ready status.

Note

It is recommended to set the unhealthyPodEvictionPolicy field to AlwaysAllow in the PodDisruptionBudget object to support the eviction of misbehaving applications during a node drain. The default behavior is to wait for the application pods to become healthy before the drain can proceed.

Procedure

  1. Create a YAML file that defines a PodDisruptionBudget object and specify the unhealthy pod eviction policy:

    Example pod-disruption-budget.yaml file

    apiVersion: policy/v1
    kind: PodDisruptionBudget
    metadata:
      name: my-pdb
    spec:
      minAvailable: 2
      selector:
        matchLabels:
          name: my-pod
      unhealthyPodEvictionPolicy: AlwaysAllow 1

    1
    Choose either IfHealthyBudget or AlwaysAllow as the unhealthy pod eviction policy. The default is IfHealthyBudget when the unhealthyPodEvictionPolicy field is empty.
  2. Create the PodDisruptionBudget object by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f pod-disruption-budget.yaml

With a PDB that has the AlwaysAllow unhealthy pod eviction policy set, you can now drain nodes and evict the pods for a malfunctioning application guarded by this PDB.

Additional resources

8.16. Rotating or removing cloud provider credentials

After installing OpenShift Container Platform, some organizations require the rotation or removal of the cloud provider credentials that were used during the initial installation.

To allow the cluster to use the new credentials, you must update the secrets that the Cloud Credential Operator (CCO) uses to manage cloud provider credentials.

8.16.1. Rotating cloud provider credentials with the Cloud Credential Operator utility

The Cloud Credential Operator (CCO) utility ccoctl supports updating secrets for clusters installed on IBM Cloud®.

8.16.1.1. Rotating API keys

You can rotate API keys for your existing service IDs and update the corresponding secrets.

Prerequisites

  • You have configured the ccoctl binary.
  • You have existing service IDs in a live OpenShift Container Platform cluster installed.

Procedure

  • Use the ccoctl utility to rotate your API keys for the service IDs and update the secrets:

    $ ccoctl <provider_name> refresh-keys \ 1
        --kubeconfig <openshift_kubeconfig_file> \ 2
        --credentials-requests-dir <path_to_credential_requests_directory> \ 3
        --name <name> 4
    1
    The name of the provider. For example: ibmcloud or powervs.
    2
    The kubeconfig file associated with the cluster. For example, <installation_directory>/auth/kubeconfig.
    3
    The directory where the credential requests are stored.
    4
    The name of the OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
    Note

    If your cluster uses Technology Preview features that are enabled by the TechPreviewNoUpgrade feature set, you must include the --enable-tech-preview parameter.

8.16.2. Rotating cloud provider credentials manually

If your cloud provider credentials are changed for any reason, you must manually update the secret that the Cloud Credential Operator (CCO) uses to manage cloud provider credentials.

The process for rotating cloud credentials depends on the mode that the CCO is configured to use. After you rotate credentials for a cluster that is using mint mode, you must manually remove the component credentials that were created by the removed credential.

Prerequisites

  • Your cluster is installed on a platform that supports rotating cloud credentials manually with the CCO mode that you are using:

    • For mint mode, Amazon Web Services (AWS) and Google Cloud Platform (GCP) are supported.
    • For passthrough mode, Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud Platform (GCP), Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP), and VMware vSphere are supported.
  • You have changed the credentials that are used to interface with your cloud provider.
  • The new credentials have sufficient permissions for the mode CCO is configured to use in your cluster.

Procedure

  1. In the Administrator perspective of the web console, navigate to WorkloadsSecrets.
  2. In the table on the Secrets page, find the root secret for your cloud provider.

    PlatformSecret name

    AWS

    aws-creds

    Azure

    azure-credentials

    GCP

    gcp-credentials

    RHOSP

    openstack-credentials

    VMware vSphere

    vsphere-creds

  3. Click the Options menu kebab in the same row as the secret and select Edit Secret.
  4. Record the contents of the Value field or fields. You can use this information to verify that the value is different after updating the credentials.
  5. Update the text in the Value field or fields with the new authentication information for your cloud provider, and then click Save.
  6. If you are updating the credentials for a vSphere cluster that does not have the vSphere CSI Driver Operator enabled, you must force a rollout of the Kubernetes controller manager to apply the updated credentials.

    Note

    If the vSphere CSI Driver Operator is enabled, this step is not required.

    To apply the updated vSphere credentials, log in to the OpenShift Container Platform CLI as a user with the cluster-admin role and run the following command:

    $ oc patch kubecontrollermanager cluster \
      -p='{"spec": {"forceRedeploymentReason": "recovery-'"$( date )"'"}}' \
      --type=merge

    While the credentials are rolling out, the status of the Kubernetes Controller Manager Operator reports Progressing=true. To view the status, run the following command:

    $ oc get co kube-controller-manager
  7. If the CCO for your cluster is configured to use mint mode, delete each component secret that is referenced by the individual CredentialsRequest objects.

    1. Log in to the OpenShift Container Platform CLI as a user with the cluster-admin role.
    2. Get the names and namespaces of all referenced component secrets:

      $ oc -n openshift-cloud-credential-operator get CredentialsRequest \
        -o json | jq -r '.items[] | select (.spec.providerSpec.kind=="<provider_spec>") | .spec.secretRef'

      where <provider_spec> is the corresponding value for your cloud provider:

      • AWS: AWSProviderSpec
      • GCP: GCPProviderSpec

      Partial example output for AWS

      {
        "name": "ebs-cloud-credentials",
        "namespace": "openshift-cluster-csi-drivers"
      }
      {
        "name": "cloud-credential-operator-iam-ro-creds",
        "namespace": "openshift-cloud-credential-operator"
      }

    3. Delete each of the referenced component secrets:

      $ oc delete secret <secret_name> \1
        -n <secret_namespace> 2
      1
      Specify the name of a secret.
      2
      Specify the namespace that contains the secret.

      Example deletion of an AWS secret

      $ oc delete secret ebs-cloud-credentials -n openshift-cluster-csi-drivers

      You do not need to manually delete the credentials from your provider console. Deleting the referenced component secrets will cause the CCO to delete the existing credentials from the platform and create new ones.

Verification

To verify that the credentials have changed:

  1. In the Administrator perspective of the web console, navigate to WorkloadsSecrets.
  2. Verify that the contents of the Value field or fields have changed.

Additional resources

8.16.3. Removing cloud provider credentials

After installing an OpenShift Container Platform cluster with the Cloud Credential Operator (CCO) in mint mode, you can remove the administrator-level credential secret from the kube-system namespace in the cluster. The administrator-level credential is required only during changes that require its elevated permissions, such as upgrades.

Note

Prior to a non z-stream upgrade, you must reinstate the credential secret with the administrator-level credential. If the credential is not present, the upgrade might be blocked.

Prerequisites

  • Your cluster is installed on a platform that supports removing cloud credentials from the CCO. Supported platforms are AWS and GCP.

Procedure

  1. In the Administrator perspective of the web console, navigate to WorkloadsSecrets.
  2. In the table on the Secrets page, find the root secret for your cloud provider.

    PlatformSecret name

    AWS

    aws-creds

    GCP

    gcp-credentials

  3. Click the Options menu kebab in the same row as the secret and select Delete Secret.

8.17. Configuring image streams for a disconnected cluster

After installing OpenShift Container Platform in a disconnected environment, configure the image streams for the Cluster Samples Operator and the must-gather image stream.

8.17.1. Cluster Samples Operator assistance for mirroring

During installation, OpenShift Container Platform creates a config map named imagestreamtag-to-image in the openshift-cluster-samples-operator namespace. The imagestreamtag-to-image config map contains an entry, the populating image, for each image stream tag.

The format of the key for each entry in the data field in the config map is <image_stream_name>_<image_stream_tag_name>.

During a disconnected installation of OpenShift Container Platform, the status of the Cluster Samples Operator is set to Removed. If you choose to change it to Managed, it installs samples.

Note

The use of samples in a network-restricted or discontinued environment may require access to services external to your network. Some example services include: Github, Maven Central, npm, RubyGems, PyPi and others. There might be additional steps to take that allow the cluster samples operators’s objects to reach the services they require.

You can use this config map as a reference for which images need to be mirrored for your image streams to import.

  • While the Cluster Samples Operator is set to Removed, you can create your mirrored registry, or determine which existing mirrored registry you want to use.
  • Mirror the samples you want to the mirrored registry using the new config map as your guide.
  • Add any of the image streams you did not mirror to the skippedImagestreams list of the Cluster Samples Operator configuration object.
  • Set samplesRegistry of the Cluster Samples Operator configuration object to the mirrored registry.
  • Then set the Cluster Samples Operator to Managed to install the image streams you have mirrored.

8.17.2. Using Cluster Samples Operator image streams with alternate or mirrored registries

Most image streams in the openshift namespace managed by the Cluster Samples Operator point to images located in the Red Hat registry at registry.redhat.io. Mirroring will not apply to these image streams.

Note

The cli, installer, must-gather, and tests image streams, while part of the install payload, are not managed by the Cluster Samples Operator. These are not addressed in this procedure.

Important

The Cluster Samples Operator must be set to Managed in a disconnected environment. To install the image streams, you have a mirrored registry.

Prerequisites

  • Access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.
  • Create a pull secret for your mirror registry.

Procedure

  1. Access the images of a specific image stream to mirror, for example:

    $ oc get is <imagestream> -n openshift -o json | jq .spec.tags[].from.name | grep registry.redhat.io
  2. Mirror images from registry.redhat.io associated with any image streams you need in the restricted network environment into one of the defined mirrors, for example:

    $ oc image mirror registry.redhat.io/rhscl/ruby-25-rhel7:latest ${MIRROR_ADDR}/rhscl/ruby-25-rhel7:latest
  3. Create the cluster’s image configuration object:

    $ oc create configmap registry-config --from-file=${MIRROR_ADDR_HOSTNAME}..5000=$path/ca.crt -n openshift-config
  4. Add the required trusted CAs for the mirror in the cluster’s image configuration object:

    $ oc patch image.config.openshift.io/cluster --patch '{"spec":{"additionalTrustedCA":{"name":"registry-config"}}}' --type=merge
  5. Update the samplesRegistry field in the Cluster Samples Operator configuration object to contain the hostname portion of the mirror location defined in the mirror configuration:

    $ oc edit configs.samples.operator.openshift.io -n openshift-cluster-samples-operator
    Note

    This is required because the image stream import process does not use the mirror or search mechanism at this time.

  6. Add any image streams that are not mirrored into the skippedImagestreams field of the Cluster Samples Operator configuration object. Or if you do not want to support any of the sample image streams, set the Cluster Samples Operator to Removed in the Cluster Samples Operator configuration object.

    Note

    The Cluster Samples Operator issues alerts if image stream imports are failing but the Cluster Samples Operator is either periodically retrying or does not appear to be retrying them.

    Many of the templates in the openshift namespace reference the image streams. So using Removed to purge both the image streams and templates will eliminate the possibility of attempts to use them if they are not functional because of any missing image streams.

8.17.3. Preparing your cluster to gather support data

Clusters using a restricted network must import the default must-gather image to gather debugging data for Red Hat support. The must-gather image is not imported by default, and clusters on a restricted network do not have access to the internet to pull the latest image from a remote repository.

Procedure

  1. If you have not added your mirror registry’s trusted CA to your cluster’s image configuration object as part of the Cluster Samples Operator configuration, perform the following steps:

    1. Create the cluster’s image configuration object:

      $ oc create configmap registry-config --from-file=${MIRROR_ADDR_HOSTNAME}..5000=$path/ca.crt -n openshift-config
    2. Add the required trusted CAs for the mirror in the cluster’s image configuration object:

      $ oc patch image.config.openshift.io/cluster --patch '{"spec":{"additionalTrustedCA":{"name":"registry-config"}}}' --type=merge
  2. Import the default must-gather image from your installation payload:

    $ oc import-image is/must-gather -n openshift

When running the oc adm must-gather command, use the --image flag and point to the payload image, as in the following example:

$ oc adm must-gather --image=$(oc adm release info --image-for must-gather)

8.18. Configuring periodic importing of Cluster Sample Operator image stream tags

You can ensure that you always have access to the latest versions of the Cluster Sample Operator images by periodically importing the image stream tags when new versions become available.

Procedure

  1. Fetch all the imagestreams in the openshift namespace by running the following command:

    oc get imagestreams -nopenshift
  2. Fetch the tags for every imagestream in the openshift namespace by running the following command:

    $ oc get is <image-stream-name> -o jsonpath="{range .spec.tags[*]}{.name}{'\t'}{.from.name}{'\n'}{end}" -nopenshift

    For example:

    $ oc get is ubi8-openjdk-17 -o jsonpath="{range .spec.tags[*]}{.name}{'\t'}{.from.name}{'\n'}{end}" -nopenshift

    Example output

    1.11	registry.access.redhat.com/ubi8/openjdk-17:1.11
    1.12	registry.access.redhat.com/ubi8/openjdk-17:1.12

  3. Schedule periodic importing of images for each tag present in the image stream by running the following command:

    $ oc tag <repository/image> <image-stream-name:tag> --scheduled -nopenshift

    For example:

    $ oc tag registry.access.redhat.com/ubi8/openjdk-17:1.11 ubi8-openjdk-17:1.11 --scheduled -nopenshift
    $ oc tag registry.access.redhat.com/ubi8/openjdk-17:1.12 ubi8-openjdk-17:1.12 --scheduled -nopenshift

    This command causes OpenShift Container Platform to periodically update this particular image stream tag. This period is a cluster-wide setting set to 15 minutes by default.

  4. Verify the scheduling status of the periodic import by running the following command:

    oc get imagestream <image-stream-name> -o jsonpath="{range .spec.tags[*]}Tag: {.name}{'\t'}Scheduled: {.importPolicy.scheduled}{'\n'}{end}" -nopenshift

    For example:

    oc get imagestream ubi8-openjdk-17 -o jsonpath="{range .spec.tags[*]}Tag: {.name}{'\t'}Scheduled: {.importPolicy.scheduled}{'\n'}{end}" -nopenshift

    Example output

    Tag: 1.11	Scheduled: true
    Tag: 1.12	Scheduled: true

Chapter 9. Postinstallation node tasks

After installing OpenShift Container Platform, you can further expand and customize your cluster to your requirements through certain node tasks.

9.1. Adding RHEL compute machines to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster

Understand and work with RHEL compute nodes.

9.1.1. About adding RHEL compute nodes to a cluster

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.15, you have the option of using Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) machines as compute machines in your cluster if you use a user-provisioned or installer-provisioned infrastructure installation on the x86_64 architecture. You must use Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) machines for the control plane machines in your cluster.

If you choose to use RHEL compute machines in your cluster, you are responsible for all operating system life cycle management and maintenance. You must perform system updates, apply patches, and complete all other required tasks.

For installer-provisioned infrastructure clusters, you must manually add RHEL compute machines because automatic scaling in installer-provisioned infrastructure clusters adds Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) compute machines by default.

Important
  • Because removing OpenShift Container Platform from a machine in the cluster requires destroying the operating system, you must use dedicated hardware for any RHEL machines that you add to the cluster.
  • Swap memory is disabled on all RHEL machines that you add to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster. You cannot enable swap memory on these machines.

You must add any RHEL compute machines to the cluster after you initialize the control plane.

9.1.2. System requirements for RHEL compute nodes

The Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) compute machine hosts in your OpenShift Container Platform environment must meet the following minimum hardware specifications and system-level requirements:

  • You must have an active OpenShift Container Platform subscription on your Red Hat account. If you do not, contact your sales representative for more information.
  • Production environments must provide compute machines to support your expected workloads. As a cluster administrator, you must calculate the expected workload and add about 10% for overhead. For production environments, allocate enough resources so that a node host failure does not affect your maximum capacity.
  • Each system must meet the following hardware requirements:

    • Physical or virtual system, or an instance running on a public or private IaaS.
    • Base OS: RHEL 8.6 and later with "Minimal" installation option.

      Important

      Adding RHEL 7 compute machines to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster is not supported.

      If you have RHEL 7 compute machines that were previously supported in a past OpenShift Container Platform version, you cannot upgrade them to RHEL 8. You must deploy new RHEL 8 hosts, and the old RHEL 7 hosts should be removed. See the "Deleting nodes" section for more information.

      For the most recent list of major functionality that has been deprecated or removed within OpenShift Container Platform, refer to the Deprecated and removed features section of the OpenShift Container Platform release notes.

    • If you deployed OpenShift Container Platform in FIPS mode, you must enable FIPS on the RHEL machine before you boot it. See Installing a RHEL 8 system with FIPS mode enabled in the RHEL 8 documentation.
Important

To enable FIPS mode for your cluster, you must run the installation program from a Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) computer configured to operate in FIPS mode. For more information about configuring FIPS mode on RHEL, see Installing the system in FIPS mode. When running Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) or Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) booted in FIPS mode, OpenShift Container Platform core components use the RHEL cryptographic libraries that have been submitted to NIST for FIPS 140-2/140-3 Validation on only the x86_64, ppc64le, and s390x architectures.

  • NetworkManager 1.0 or later.
  • 1 vCPU.
  • Minimum 8 GB RAM.
  • Minimum 15 GB hard disk space for the file system containing /var/.
  • Minimum 1 GB hard disk space for the file system containing /usr/local/bin/.
  • Minimum 1 GB hard disk space for the file system containing its temporary directory. The temporary system directory is determined according to the rules defined in the tempfile module in the Python standard library.

    • Each system must meet any additional requirements for your system provider. For example, if you installed your cluster on VMware vSphere, your disks must be configured according to its storage guidelines and the disk.enableUUID=true attribute must be set.
    • Each system must be able to access the cluster’s API endpoints by using DNS-resolvable hostnames. Any network security access control that is in place must allow system access to the cluster’s API service endpoints.

Additional resources

9.1.2.1. Certificate signing requests management

Because your cluster has limited access to automatic machine management when you use infrastructure that you provision, you must provide a mechanism for approving cluster certificate signing requests (CSRs) after installation. The kube-controller-manager only approves the kubelet client CSRs. The machine-approver cannot guarantee the validity of a serving certificate that is requested by using kubelet credentials because it cannot confirm that the correct machine issued the request. You must determine and implement a method of verifying the validity of the kubelet serving certificate requests and approving them.

9.1.3. Preparing the machine to run the playbook

Before you can add compute machines that use Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) as the operating system to an OpenShift Container Platform 4.15 cluster, you must prepare a RHEL 8 machine to run an Ansible playbook that adds the new node to the cluster. This machine is not part of the cluster but must be able to access it.

Prerequisites

  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc) on the machine that you run the playbook on.
  • Log in as a user with cluster-admin permission.

Procedure

  1. Ensure that the kubeconfig file for the cluster and the installation program that you used to install the cluster are on the RHEL 8 machine. One way to accomplish this is to use the same machine that you used to install the cluster.
  2. Configure the machine to access all of the RHEL hosts that you plan to use as compute machines. You can use any method that your company allows, including a bastion with an SSH proxy or a VPN.
  3. Configure a user on the machine that you run the playbook on that has SSH access to all of the RHEL hosts.

    Important

    If you use SSH key-based authentication, you must manage the key with an SSH agent.

  4. If you have not already done so, register the machine with RHSM and attach a pool with an OpenShift subscription to it:

    1. Register the machine with RHSM:

      # subscription-manager register --username=<user_name> --password=<password>
    2. Pull the latest subscription data from RHSM:

      # subscription-manager refresh
    3. List the available subscriptions:

      # subscription-manager list --available --matches '*OpenShift*'
    4. In the output for the previous command, find the pool ID for an OpenShift Container Platform subscription and attach it:

      # subscription-manager attach --pool=<pool_id>
  5. Enable the repositories required by OpenShift Container Platform 4.15:

    # subscription-manager repos \
        --enable="rhel-8-for-x86_64-baseos-rpms" \
        --enable="rhel-8-for-x86_64-appstream-rpms" \
        --enable="rhocp-4.15-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms"
  6. Install the required packages, including openshift-ansible:

    # yum install openshift-ansible openshift-clients jq

    The openshift-ansible package provides installation program utilities and pulls in other packages that you require to add a RHEL compute node to your cluster, such as Ansible, playbooks, and related configuration files. The openshift-clients provides the oc CLI, and the jq package improves the display of JSON output on your command line.

9.1.4. Preparing a RHEL compute node

Before you add a Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) machine to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster, you must register each host with Red Hat Subscription Manager (RHSM), attach an active OpenShift Container Platform subscription, and enable the required repositories.

  1. On each host, register with RHSM:

    # subscription-manager register --username=<user_name> --password=<password>
  2. Pull the latest subscription data from RHSM:

    # subscription-manager refresh
  3. List the available subscriptions:

    # subscription-manager list --available --matches '*OpenShift*'
  4. In the output for the previous command, find the pool ID for an OpenShift Container Platform subscription and attach it:

    # subscription-manager attach --pool=<pool_id>
  5. Disable all yum repositories:

    1. Disable all the enabled RHSM repositories:

      # subscription-manager repos --disable="*"
    2. List the remaining yum repositories and note their names under repo id, if any:

      # yum repolist
    3. Use yum-config-manager to disable the remaining yum repositories:

      # yum-config-manager --disable <repo_id>

      Alternatively, disable all repositories:

      # yum-config-manager --disable \*

      Note that this might take a few minutes if you have a large number of available repositories

  6. Enable only the repositories required by OpenShift Container Platform 4.15:

    # subscription-manager repos \
        --enable="rhel-8-for-x86_64-baseos-rpms" \
        --enable="rhel-8-for-x86_64-appstream-rpms" \
        --enable="rhocp-4.15-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms" \
        --enable="fast-datapath-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms"
  7. Stop and disable firewalld on the host:

    # systemctl disable --now firewalld.service
    Note

    You must not enable firewalld later. If you do, you cannot access OpenShift Container Platform logs on the worker.

9.1.5. Adding a RHEL compute machine to your cluster

You can add compute machines that use Red Hat Enterprise Linux as the operating system to an OpenShift Container Platform 4.15 cluster.

Prerequisites

  • You installed the required packages and performed the necessary configuration on the machine that you run the playbook on.
  • You prepared the RHEL hosts for installation.

Procedure

Perform the following steps on the machine that you prepared to run the playbook:

  1. Create an Ansible inventory file that is named /<path>/inventory/hosts that defines your compute machine hosts and required variables:

    [all:vars]
    ansible_user=root 1
    #ansible_become=True 2
    
    openshift_kubeconfig_path="~/.kube/config" 3
    
    [new_workers] 4
    mycluster-rhel8-0.example.com
    mycluster-rhel8-1.example.com
    1
    Specify the user name that runs the Ansible tasks on the remote compute machines.
    2
    If you do not specify root for the ansible_user, you must set ansible_become to True and assign the user sudo permissions.
    3
    Specify the path and file name of the kubeconfig file for your cluster.
    4
    List each RHEL machine to add to your cluster. You must provide the fully-qualified domain name for each host. This name is the hostname that the cluster uses to access the machine, so set the correct public or private name to access the machine.
  2. Navigate to the Ansible playbook directory:

    $ cd /usr/share/ansible/openshift-ansible
  3. Run the playbook:

    $ ansible-playbook -i /<path>/inventory/hosts playbooks/scaleup.yml 1
    1
    For <path>, specify the path to the Ansible inventory file that you created.

9.1.6. Required parameters for the Ansible hosts file

You must define the following parameters in the Ansible hosts file before you add Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) compute machines to your cluster.

ParameterDescriptionValues

ansible_user

The SSH user that allows SSH-based authentication without requiring a password. If you use SSH key-based authentication, then you must manage the key with an SSH agent.

A user name on the system. The default value is root.

ansible_become

If the values of ansible_user is not root, you must set ansible_become to True, and the user that you specify as the ansible_user must be configured for passwordless sudo access.

True. If the value is not True, do not specify and define this parameter.

openshift_kubeconfig_path

Specifies a path and file name to a local directory that contains the kubeconfig file for your cluster.

The path and name of the configuration file.

9.1.7. Optional: Removing RHCOS compute machines from a cluster

After you add the Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) compute machines to your cluster, you can optionally remove the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) compute machines to free up resources.

Prerequisites

  • You have added RHEL compute machines to your cluster.

Procedure

  1. View the list of machines and record the node names of the RHCOS compute machines:

    $ oc get nodes -o wide
  2. For each RHCOS compute machine, delete the node:

    1. Mark the node as unschedulable by running the oc adm cordon command:

      $ oc adm cordon <node_name> 1
      1
      Specify the node name of one of the RHCOS compute machines.
    2. Drain all the pods from the node:

      $ oc adm drain <node_name> --force --delete-emptydir-data --ignore-daemonsets 1
      1
      Specify the node name of the RHCOS compute machine that you isolated.
    3. Delete the node:

      $ oc delete nodes <node_name> 1
      1
      Specify the node name of the RHCOS compute machine that you drained.
  3. Review the list of compute machines to ensure that only the RHEL nodes remain:

    $ oc get nodes -o wide
  4. Remove the RHCOS machines from the load balancer for your cluster’s compute machines. You can delete the virtual machines or reimage the physical hardware for the RHCOS compute machines.

9.2. Adding RHCOS compute machines to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster

You can add more Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) compute machines to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster on bare metal.

Before you add more compute machines to a cluster that you installed on bare metal infrastructure, you must create RHCOS machines for it to use. You can either use an ISO image or network PXE booting to create the machines.

9.2.1. Prerequisites

  • You installed a cluster on bare metal.
  • You have installation media and Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) images that you used to create your cluster. If you do not have these files, you must obtain them by following the instructions in the installation procedure.

9.2.2. Creating RHCOS machines using an ISO image

You can create more Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) compute machines for your bare metal cluster by using an ISO image to create the machines.

Prerequisites

  • Obtain the URL of the Ignition config file for the compute machines for your cluster. You uploaded this file to your HTTP server during installation.
  • You must have the OpenShift CLI (oc) installed.

Procedure

  1. Extract the Ignition config file from the cluster by running the following command:

    $ oc extract -n openshift-machine-api secret/worker-user-data-managed --keys=userData --to=- > worker.ign
  2. Upload the worker.ign Ignition config file you exported from your cluster to your HTTP server. Note the URLs of these files.
  3. You can validate that the ignition files are available on the URLs. The following example gets the Ignition config files for the compute node:

    $ curl -k http://<HTTP_server>/worker.ign
  4. You can access the ISO image for booting your new machine by running to following command:

    RHCOS_VHD_ORIGIN_URL=$(oc -n openshift-machine-config-operator get configmap/coreos-bootimages -o jsonpath='{.data.stream}' | jq -r '.architectures.<architecture>.artifacts.metal.formats.iso.disk.location')
  5. Use the ISO file to install RHCOS on more compute machines. Use the same method that you used when you created machines before you installed the cluster:

    • Burn the ISO image to a disk and boot it directly.
    • Use ISO redirection with a LOM interface.
  6. Boot the RHCOS ISO image without specifying any options, or interrupting the live boot sequence. Wait for the installer to boot into a shell prompt in the RHCOS live environment.

    Note

    You can interrupt the RHCOS installation boot process to add kernel arguments. However, for this ISO procedure you must use the coreos-installer command as outlined in the following steps, instead of adding kernel arguments.

  7. Run the coreos-installer command and specify the options that meet your installation requirements. At a minimum, you must specify the URL that points to the Ignition config file for the node type, and the device that you are installing to:

    $ sudo coreos-installer install --ignition-url=http://<HTTP_server>/<node_type>.ign <device> --ignition-hash=sha512-<digest> 12
    1
    You must run the coreos-installer command by using sudo, because the core user does not have the required root privileges to perform the installation.
    2
    The --ignition-hash option is required when the Ignition config file is obtained through an HTTP URL to validate the authenticity of the Ignition config file on the cluster node. <digest> is the Ignition config file SHA512 digest obtained in a preceding step.
    Note

    If you want to provide your Ignition config files through an HTTPS server that uses TLS, you can add the internal certificate authority (CA) to the system trust store before running coreos-installer.

    The following example initializes a bootstrap node installation to the /dev/sda device. The Ignition config file for the bootstrap node is obtained from an HTTP web server with the IP address 192.168.1.2:

    $ sudo coreos-installer install --ignition-url=http://192.168.1.2:80/installation_directory/bootstrap.ign /dev/sda --ignition-hash=sha512-a5a2d43879223273c9b60af66b44202a1d1248fc01cf156c46d4a79f552b6bad47bc8cc78ddf0116e80c59d2ea9e32ba53bc807afbca581aa059311def2c3e3b
  8. Monitor the progress of the RHCOS installation on the console of the machine.

    Important

    Ensure that the installation is successful on each node before commencing with the OpenShift Container Platform installation. Observing the installation process can also help to determine the cause of RHCOS installation issues that might arise.

  9. Continue to create more compute machines for your cluster.

9.2.3. Creating RHCOS machines by PXE or iPXE booting

You can create more Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) compute machines for your bare metal cluster by using PXE or iPXE booting.

Prerequisites

  • Obtain the URL of the Ignition config file for the compute machines for your cluster. You uploaded this file to your HTTP server during installation.
  • Obtain the URLs of the RHCOS ISO image, compressed metal BIOS, kernel, and initramfs files that you uploaded to your HTTP server during cluster installation.
  • You have access to the PXE booting infrastructure that you used to create the machines for your OpenShift Container Platform cluster during installation. The machines must boot from their local disks after RHCOS is installed on them.
  • If you use UEFI, you have access to the grub.conf file that you modified during OpenShift Container Platform installation.

Procedure

  1. Confirm that your PXE or iPXE installation for the RHCOS images is correct.

    • For PXE:

      DEFAULT pxeboot
      TIMEOUT 20
      PROMPT 0
      LABEL pxeboot
          KERNEL http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-kernel-<architecture> 1
          APPEND initrd=http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-initramfs.<architecture>.img coreos.inst.install_dev=/dev/sda coreos.inst.ignition_url=http://<HTTP_server>/worker.ign coreos.live.rootfs_url=http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-rootfs.<architecture>.img 2
      1
      Specify the location of the live kernel file that you uploaded to your HTTP server.
      2
      Specify locations of the RHCOS files that you uploaded to your HTTP server. The initrd parameter value is the location of the live initramfs file, the coreos.inst.ignition_url parameter value is the location of the worker Ignition config file, and the coreos.live.rootfs_url parameter value is the location of the live rootfs file. The coreos.inst.ignition_url and coreos.live.rootfs_url parameters only support HTTP and HTTPS.
      Note

      This configuration does not enable serial console access on machines with a graphical console. To configure a different console, add one or more console= arguments to the APPEND line. For example, add console=tty0 console=ttyS0 to set the first PC serial port as the primary console and the graphical console as a secondary console. For more information, see How does one set up a serial terminal and/or console in Red Hat Enterprise Linux?.

    • For iPXE (x86_64 + aarch64):

      kernel http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-kernel-<architecture> initrd=main coreos.live.rootfs_url=http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-rootfs.<architecture>.img coreos.inst.install_dev=/dev/sda coreos.inst.ignition_url=http://<HTTP_server>/worker.ign 1 2
      initrd --name main http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-initramfs.<architecture>.img 3
      boot
      1
      Specify the locations of the RHCOS files that you uploaded to your HTTP server. The kernel parameter value is the location of the kernel file, the initrd=main argument is needed for booting on UEFI systems, the coreos.live.rootfs_url parameter value is the location of the rootfs file, and the coreos.inst.ignition_url parameter value is the location of the worker Ignition config file.
      2
      If you use multiple NICs, specify a single interface in the ip option. For example, to use DHCP on a NIC that is named eno1, set ip=eno1:dhcp.
      3
      Specify the location of the initramfs file that you uploaded to your HTTP server.
      Note

      This configuration does not enable serial console access on machines with a graphical console To configure a different console, add one or more console= arguments to the kernel line. For example, add console=tty0 console=ttyS0 to set the first PC serial port as the primary console and the graphical console as a secondary console. For more information, see How does one set up a serial terminal and/or console in Red Hat Enterprise Linux? and "Enabling the serial console for PXE and ISO installation" in the "Advanced RHCOS installation configuration" section.

      Note

      To network boot the CoreOS kernel on aarch64 architecture, you need to use a version of iPXE build with the IMAGE_GZIP option enabled. See IMAGE_GZIP option in iPXE.

    • For PXE (with UEFI and GRUB as second stage) on aarch64:

      menuentry 'Install CoreOS' {
          linux rhcos-<version>-live-kernel-<architecture>  coreos.live.rootfs_url=http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-rootfs.<architecture>.img coreos.inst.install_dev=/dev/sda coreos.inst.ignition_url=http://<HTTP_server>/worker.ign 1 2
          initrd rhcos-<version>-live-initramfs.<architecture>.img 3
      }
      1
      Specify the locations of the RHCOS files that you uploaded to your HTTP/TFTP server. The kernel parameter value is the location of the kernel file on your TFTP server. The coreos.live.rootfs_url parameter value is the location of the rootfs file, and the coreos.inst.ignition_url parameter value is the location of the worker Ignition config file on your HTTP Server.
      2
      If you use multiple NICs, specify a single interface in the ip option. For example, to use DHCP on a NIC that is named eno1, set ip=eno1:dhcp.
      3
      Specify the location of the initramfs file that you uploaded to your TFTP server.
  2. Use the PXE or iPXE infrastructure to create the required compute machines for your cluster.

9.2.4. Approving the certificate signing requests for your machines

When you add machines to a cluster, two pending certificate signing requests (CSRs) are generated for each machine that you added. You must confirm that these CSRs are approved or, if necessary, approve them yourself. The client requests must be approved first, followed by the server requests.

Prerequisites

  • You added machines to your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Confirm that the cluster recognizes the machines:

    $ oc get nodes

    Example output

    NAME      STATUS    ROLES   AGE  VERSION
    master-0  Ready     master  63m  v1.28.5
    master-1  Ready     master  63m  v1.28.5
    master-2  Ready     master  64m  v1.28.5

    The output lists all of the machines that you created.

    Note

    The preceding output might not include the compute nodes, also known as worker nodes, until some CSRs are approved.