Machine management

OpenShift Container Platform 4.15

Adding and maintaining cluster machines

Red Hat OpenShift Documentation Team

Abstract

This document provides instructions for managing the machines that make up an OpenShift Container Platform cluster. Some tasks make use of the enhanced automatic machine management functions of an OpenShift Container Platform cluster and some tasks are manual. Not all tasks that are described in this document are available in all installation types.

Chapter 1. Overview of machine management

You can use machine management to flexibly work with underlying infrastructure such as Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud Platform (GCP), Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP), and VMware vSphere to manage the OpenShift Container Platform cluster. You can control the cluster and perform auto-scaling, such as scaling up and down the cluster based on specific workload policies.

It is important to have a cluster that adapts to changing workloads. The OpenShift Container Platform cluster can horizontally scale up and down when the load increases or decreases.

Machine management is implemented as a custom resource definition (CRD). A CRD object defines a new unique object Kind in the cluster and enables the Kubernetes API server to handle the object’s entire lifecycle.

The Machine API Operator provisions the following resources:

  • MachineSet
  • Machine
  • ClusterAutoscaler
  • MachineAutoscaler
  • MachineHealthCheck

1.1. Machine API overview

The Machine API is a combination of primary resources that are based on the upstream Cluster API project and custom OpenShift Container Platform resources.

For OpenShift Container Platform 4.15 clusters, the Machine API performs all node host provisioning management actions after the cluster installation finishes. Because of this system, OpenShift Container Platform 4.15 offers an elastic, dynamic provisioning method on top of public or private cloud infrastructure.

The two primary resources are:

Machines
A fundamental unit that describes the host for a node. A machine has a providerSpec specification, which describes the types of compute nodes that are offered for different cloud platforms. For example, a machine type for a compute node might define a specific machine type and required metadata.
Machine sets

MachineSet resources are groups of compute machines. Compute machine sets are to compute machines as replica sets are to pods. If you need more compute machines or must scale them down, you change the replicas field on the MachineSet resource to meet your compute need.

Warning

Control plane machines cannot be managed by compute machine sets.

Control plane machine sets provide management capabilities for supported control plane machines that are similar to what compute machine sets provide for compute machines.

For more information, see “Managing control plane machines".

The following custom resources add more capabilities to your cluster:

Machine autoscaler

The MachineAutoscaler resource automatically scales compute machines in a cloud. You can set the minimum and maximum scaling boundaries for nodes in a specified compute machine set, and the machine autoscaler maintains that range of nodes.

The MachineAutoscaler object takes effect after a ClusterAutoscaler object exists. Both ClusterAutoscaler and MachineAutoscaler resources are made available by the ClusterAutoscalerOperator object.

Cluster autoscaler

This resource is based on the upstream cluster autoscaler project. In the OpenShift Container Platform implementation, it is integrated with the Machine API by extending the compute machine set API. You can use the cluster autoscaler to manage your cluster in the following ways:

  • Set cluster-wide scaling limits for resources such as cores, nodes, memory, and GPU
  • Set the priority so that the cluster prioritizes pods and new nodes are not brought online for less important pods
  • Set the scaling policy so that you can scale up nodes but not scale them down
Machine health check
The MachineHealthCheck resource detects when a machine is unhealthy, deletes it, and, on supported platforms, makes a new machine.

In OpenShift Container Platform version 3.11, you could not roll out a multi-zone architecture easily because the cluster did not manage machine provisioning. Beginning with OpenShift Container Platform version 4.1, this process is easier. Each compute machine set is scoped to a single zone, so the installation program sends out compute machine sets across availability zones on your behalf. And then because your compute is dynamic, and in the face of a zone failure, you always have a zone for when you must rebalance your machines. In global Azure regions that do not have multiple availability zones, you can use availability sets to ensure high availability. The autoscaler provides best-effort balancing over the life of a cluster.

Additional resources

1.2. Managing compute machines

As a cluster administrator, you can perform the following actions:

1.3. Managing control plane machines

As a cluster administrator, you can perform the following actions:

1.4. Applying autoscaling to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster

You can automatically scale your OpenShift Container Platform cluster to ensure flexibility for changing workloads. To autoscale your cluster, you must first deploy a cluster autoscaler, and then deploy a machine autoscaler for each compute machine set.

  • The cluster autoscaler increases and decreases the size of the cluster based on deployment needs.
  • The machine autoscaler adjusts the number of machines in the compute machine sets that you deploy in your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

1.5. Adding compute machines on user-provisioned infrastructure

User-provisioned infrastructure is an environment where you can deploy infrastructure such as compute, network, and storage resources that host the OpenShift Container Platform. You can add compute machines to a cluster on user-provisioned infrastructure during or after the installation process.

1.6. Adding RHEL compute machines to your cluster

As a cluster administrator, you can perform the following actions:

Chapter 2. Managing compute machines with the Machine API

2.1. Creating a compute machine set on Alibaba Cloud

You can create a different compute machine set to serve a specific purpose in your OpenShift Container Platform cluster on Alibaba Cloud. For example, you might create infrastructure machine sets and related machines so that you can move supporting workloads to the new machines.

Important

You can use the advanced machine management and scaling capabilities only in clusters where the Machine API is operational. Clusters with user-provisioned infrastructure require additional validation and configuration to use the Machine API.

Clusters with the infrastructure platform type none cannot use the Machine API. This limitation applies even if the compute machines that are attached to the cluster are installed on a platform that supports the feature. This parameter cannot be changed after installation.

To view the platform type for your cluster, run the following command:

$ oc get infrastructure cluster -o jsonpath='{.status.platform}'

2.1.1. Sample YAML for a compute machine set custom resource on Alibaba Cloud

This sample YAML defines a compute machine set that runs in a specified Alibaba Cloud zone in a region and creates nodes that are labeled with node-role.kubernetes.io/<role>: "".

In this sample, <infrastructure_id> is the infrastructure ID label that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster, and <role> is the node label to add.

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
kind: MachineSet
metadata:
  labels:
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role> 2
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role> 3
  name: <infrastructure_id>-<role>-<zone> 4
  namespace: openshift-machine-api
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 5
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>-<zone> 6
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 7
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role> 8
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role> 9
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>-<zone> 10
    spec:
      metadata:
        labels:
          node-role.kubernetes.io/<role>: ""
      providerSpec:
        value:
          apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1
          credentialsSecret:
            name: alibabacloud-credentials
          imageId: <image_id> 11
          instanceType: <instance_type> 12
          kind: AlibabaCloudMachineProviderConfig
          ramRoleName: <infrastructure_id>-role-worker 13
          regionId: <region> 14
          resourceGroup: 15
            id: <resource_group_id>
            type: ID
          securityGroups:
          - tags: 16
            - Key: Name
              Value: <infrastructure_id>-sg-<role>
            type: Tags
          systemDisk: 17
            category: cloud_essd
            size: <disk_size>
          tag: 18
          - Key: kubernetes.io/cluster/<infrastructure_id>
            Value: owned
          userDataSecret:
            name: <user_data_secret> 19
          vSwitch:
            tags: 20
            - Key: Name
              Value: <infrastructure_id>-vswitch-<zone>
            type: Tags
          vpcId: ""
          zoneId: <zone> 21
1 5 7
Specify the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster. If you have the OpenShift CLI (oc) installed, you can obtain the infrastructure ID by running the following command:
$ oc get -o jsonpath='{.status.infrastructureName}{"\n"}' infrastructure cluster
2 3 8 9
Specify the node label to add.
4 6 10
Specify the infrastructure ID, node label, and zone.
11
Specify the image to use. Use an image from an existing default compute machine set for the cluster.
12
Specify the instance type you want to use for the compute machine set.
13
Specify the name of the RAM role to use for the compute machine set. Use the value that the installer populates in the default compute machine set.
14
Specify the region to place machines on.
15
Specify the resource group and type for the cluster. You can use the value that the installer populates in the default compute machine set, or specify a different one.
16 18 20
Specify the tags to use for the compute machine set. Minimally, you must include the tags shown in this example, with appropriate values for your cluster. You can include additional tags, including the tags that the installer populates in the default compute machine set it creates, as needed.
17
Specify the type and size of the root disk. Use the category value that the installer populates in the default compute machine set it creates. If required, specify a different value in gigabytes for size.
19
Specify the name of the secret in the user data YAML file that is in the openshift-machine-api namespace. Use the value that the installer populates in the default compute machine set.
21
Specify the zone within your region to place machines on. Be sure that your region supports the zone that you specify.

2.1.1.1. Machine set parameters for Alibaba Cloud usage statistics

The default compute machine sets that the installer creates for Alibaba Cloud clusters include nonessential tag values that Alibaba Cloud uses internally to track usage statistics. These tags are populated in the securityGroups, tag, and vSwitch parameters of the spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value list.

When creating compute machine sets to deploy additional machines, you must include the required Kubernetes tags. The usage statistics tags are applied by default, even if they are not specified in the compute machine sets you create. You can also include additional tags as needed.

The following YAML snippets indicate which tags in the default compute machine sets are optional and which are required.

Tags in spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value.securityGroups

spec:
  template:
    spec:
      providerSpec:
        value:
          securityGroups:
          - tags:
            - Key: kubernetes.io/cluster/<infrastructure_id> 1
              Value: owned
            - Key: GISV
              Value: ocp
            - Key: sigs.k8s.io/cloud-provider-alibaba/origin 2
              Value: ocp
            - Key: Name
              Value: <infrastructure_id>-sg-<role> 3
            type: Tags

1 2
Optional: This tag is applied even when not specified in the compute machine set.
3
Required.

where:

  • <infrastructure_id> is the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster.
  • <role> is the node label to add.

Tags in spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value.tag

spec:
  template:
    spec:
      providerSpec:
        value:
          tag:
          - Key: kubernetes.io/cluster/<infrastructure_id> 1
            Value: owned
          - Key: GISV 2
            Value: ocp
          - Key: sigs.k8s.io/cloud-provider-alibaba/origin 3
            Value: ocp

2 3
Optional: This tag is applied even when not specified in the compute machine set.
1
Required.

where <infrastructure_id> is the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster.

Tags in spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value.vSwitch

spec:
  template:
    spec:
      providerSpec:
        value:
          vSwitch:
            tags:
            - Key: kubernetes.io/cluster/<infrastructure_id> 1
              Value: owned
            - Key: GISV 2
              Value: ocp
            - Key: sigs.k8s.io/cloud-provider-alibaba/origin 3
              Value: ocp
            - Key: Name
              Value: <infrastructure_id>-vswitch-<zone> 4
            type: Tags

1 2 3
Optional: This tag is applied even when not specified in the compute machine set.
4
Required.

where:

  • <infrastructure_id> is the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster.
  • <zone> is the zone within your region to place machines on.

2.1.2. Creating a compute machine set

In addition to the compute machine sets created by the installation program, you can create your own to dynamically manage the machine compute resources for specific workloads of your choice.

Prerequisites

  • Deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Log in to oc as a user with cluster-admin permission.

Procedure

  1. Create a new YAML file that contains the compute machine set custom resource (CR) sample and is named <file_name>.yaml.

    Ensure that you set the <clusterID> and <role> parameter values.

  2. Optional: If you are not sure which value to set for a specific field, you can check an existing compute machine set from your cluster.

    1. To list the compute machine sets in your cluster, run the following command:

      $ oc get machinesets -n openshift-machine-api

      Example output

      NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1b   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1c   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1d   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1e   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1f   0         0                             55m

    2. To view values of a specific compute machine set custom resource (CR), run the following command:

      $ oc get machineset <machineset_name> \
        -n openshift-machine-api -o yaml

      Example output

      apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
      kind: MachineSet
      metadata:
        labels:
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
        name: <infrastructure_id>-<role> 2
        namespace: openshift-machine-api
      spec:
        replicas: 1
        selector:
          matchLabels:
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>
        template:
          metadata:
            labels:
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>
          spec:
            providerSpec: 3
              ...

      1
      The cluster infrastructure ID.
      2
      A default node label.
      Note

      For clusters that have user-provisioned infrastructure, a compute machine set can only create worker and infra type machines.

      3
      The values in the <providerSpec> section of the compute machine set CR are platform-specific. For more information about <providerSpec> parameters in the CR, see the sample compute machine set CR configuration for your provider.
  3. Create a MachineSet CR by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <file_name>.yaml

Verification

  • View the list of compute machine sets by running the following command:

    $ oc get machineset -n openshift-machine-api

    Example output

    NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
    agl030519-vplxk-infra-us-east-1a    1         1         1       1           11m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1b   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1c   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1d   0         0                             55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1e   0         0                             55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1f   0         0                             55m

    When the new compute machine set is available, the DESIRED and CURRENT values match. If the compute machine set is not available, wait a few minutes and run the command again.

2.2. Creating a compute machine set on AWS

You can create a different compute machine set to serve a specific purpose in your OpenShift Container Platform cluster on Amazon Web Services (AWS). For example, you might create infrastructure machine sets and related machines so that you can move supporting workloads to the new machines.

Important

You can use the advanced machine management and scaling capabilities only in clusters where the Machine API is operational. Clusters with user-provisioned infrastructure require additional validation and configuration to use the Machine API.

Clusters with the infrastructure platform type none cannot use the Machine API. This limitation applies even if the compute machines that are attached to the cluster are installed on a platform that supports the feature. This parameter cannot be changed after installation.

To view the platform type for your cluster, run the following command:

$ oc get infrastructure cluster -o jsonpath='{.status.platform}'

2.2.1. Sample YAML for a compute machine set custom resource on AWS

The sample YAML defines a compute machine set that runs in the us-east-1a Amazon Web Services (AWS) Local Zone and creates nodes that are labeled with node-role.kubernetes.io/<role>: "".

In this sample, <infrastructure_id> is the infrastructure ID label that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster, and <role> is the node label to add.

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
kind: MachineSet
metadata:
  labels:
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
  name: <infrastructure_id>-<role>-<zone> 2
  namespace: openshift-machine-api
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 3
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>-<zone> 4
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 5
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role> 6
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role> 7
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>-<zone> 8
    spec:
      metadata:
        labels:
          node-role.kubernetes.io/<role>: "" 9
      providerSpec:
        value:
          ami:
            id: ami-046fe691f52a953f9 10
          apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
          blockDevices:
            - ebs:
                iops: 0
                volumeSize: 120
                volumeType: gp2
          credentialsSecret:
            name: aws-cloud-credentials
          deviceIndex: 0
          iamInstanceProfile:
            id: <infrastructure_id>-worker-profile 11
          instanceType: m6i.large
          kind: AWSMachineProviderConfig
          placement:
            availabilityZone: <zone> 12
            region: <region> 13
          securityGroups:
            - filters:
                - name: tag:Name
                  values:
                    - <infrastructure_id>-worker-sg 14
          subnet:
            filters:
              - name: tag:Name
                values:
                  - <infrastructure_id>-private-<zone> 15
          tags:
            - name: kubernetes.io/cluster/<infrastructure_id> 16
              value: owned
            - name: <custom_tag_name> 17
              value: <custom_tag_value> 18
          userDataSecret:
            name: worker-user-data
1 3 5 11 14 16
Specify the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster. If you have the OpenShift CLI installed, you can obtain the infrastructure ID by running the following command:
$ oc get -o jsonpath='{.status.infrastructureName}{"\n"}' infrastructure cluster
2 4 8
Specify the infrastructure ID, role node label, and zone.
6 7 9
Specify the role node label to add.
10
Specify a valid Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) Amazon Machine Image (AMI) for your AWS zone for your OpenShift Container Platform nodes. If you want to use an AWS Marketplace image, you must complete the OpenShift Container Platform subscription from the AWS Marketplace to obtain an AMI ID for your region.
$ oc -n openshift-machine-api \
    -o jsonpath='{.spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value.ami.id}{"\n"}' \
    get machineset/<infrastructure_id>-<role>-<zone>
17 18
Optional: Specify custom tag data for your cluster. For example, you might add an admin contact email address by specifying a name:value pair of Email:admin-email@example.com.
Note

Custom tags can also be specified during installation in the install-config.yml file. If the install-config.yml file and the machine set include a tag with the same name data, the value for the tag from the machine set takes priority over the value for the tag in the install-config.yml file.

12
Specify the zone, for example, us-east-1a.
13
Specify the region, for example, us-east-1.
15
Specify the infrastructure ID and zone.

2.2.2. Creating a compute machine set

In addition to the compute machine sets created by the installation program, you can create your own to dynamically manage the machine compute resources for specific workloads of your choice.

Prerequisites

  • Deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Log in to oc as a user with cluster-admin permission.

Procedure

  1. Create a new YAML file that contains the compute machine set custom resource (CR) sample and is named <file_name>.yaml.

    Ensure that you set the <clusterID> and <role> parameter values.

  2. Optional: If you are not sure which value to set for a specific field, you can check an existing compute machine set from your cluster.

    1. To list the compute machine sets in your cluster, run the following command:

      $ oc get machinesets -n openshift-machine-api

      Example output

      NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1b   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1c   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1d   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1e   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1f   0         0                             55m

    2. To view values of a specific compute machine set custom resource (CR), run the following command:

      $ oc get machineset <machineset_name> \
        -n openshift-machine-api -o yaml

      Example output

      apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
      kind: MachineSet
      metadata:
        labels:
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
        name: <infrastructure_id>-<role> 2
        namespace: openshift-machine-api
      spec:
        replicas: 1
        selector:
          matchLabels:
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>
        template:
          metadata:
            labels:
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>
          spec:
            providerSpec: 3
              ...

      1
      The cluster infrastructure ID.
      2
      A default node label.
      Note

      For clusters that have user-provisioned infrastructure, a compute machine set can only create worker and infra type machines.

      3
      The values in the <providerSpec> section of the compute machine set CR are platform-specific. For more information about <providerSpec> parameters in the CR, see the sample compute machine set CR configuration for your provider.
  3. Create a MachineSet CR by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <file_name>.yaml
  4. If you need compute machine sets in other availability zones, repeat this process to create more compute machine sets.

Verification

  • View the list of compute machine sets by running the following command:

    $ oc get machineset -n openshift-machine-api

    Example output

    NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
    agl030519-vplxk-infra-us-east-1a    1         1         1       1           11m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1b   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1c   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1d   0         0                             55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1e   0         0                             55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1f   0         0                             55m

    When the new compute machine set is available, the DESIRED and CURRENT values match. If the compute machine set is not available, wait a few minutes and run the command again.

2.2.3. Assigning machines to placement groups for Elastic Fabric Adapter instances by using machine sets

You can configure a machine set to deploy machines on Elastic Fabric Adapter (EFA) instances within an existing AWS placement group.

EFA instances do not require placement groups, and you can use placement groups for purposes other than configuring an EFA. This example uses both to demonstrate a configuration that can improve network performance for machines within the specified placement group.

Prerequisites

  • You created a placement group in the AWS console.

    Note

    Ensure that the rules and limitations for the type of placement group that you create are compatible with your intended use case.

Procedure

  1. In a text editor, open the YAML file for an existing machine set or create a new one.
  2. Edit the following lines under the providerSpec field:

    apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
    kind: MachineSet
    # ...
    spec:
      template:
        spec:
          providerSpec:
            value:
              instanceType: <supported_instance_type> 1
              networkInterfaceType: EFA 2
              placement:
                availabilityZone: <zone> 3
                region: <region> 4
              placementGroupName: <placement_group> 5
    # ...
    1
    Specify an instance type that supports EFAs.
    2
    Specify the EFA network interface type.
    3
    Specify the zone, for example, us-east-1a.
    4
    Specify the region, for example, us-east-1.
    5
    Specify the name of the existing AWS placement group to deploy machines in.

Verification

  • In the AWS console, find a machine that the machine set created and verify the following in the machine properties:

    • The placement group field has the value that you specified for the placementGroupName parameter in the machine set.
    • The interface type field indicates that it uses an EFA.

2.2.4. Machine set options for the Amazon EC2 Instance Metadata Service

You can use machine sets to create machines that use a specific version of the Amazon EC2 Instance Metadata Service (IMDS). Machine sets can create machines that allow the use of both IMDSv1 and IMDSv2 or machines that require the use of IMDSv2.

Note

Using IMDSv2 is only supported on AWS clusters that were created with OpenShift Container Platform version 4.7 or later.

To deploy new compute machines with your preferred IMDS configuration, create a compute machine set YAML file with the appropriate values. You can also edit an existing machine set to create new machines with your preferred IMDS configuration when the machine set is scaled up.

Important

Before configuring a machine set to create machines that require IMDSv2, ensure that any workloads that interact with the AWS metadata service support IMDSv2.

2.2.4.1. Configuring IMDS by using machine sets

You can specify whether to require the use of IMDSv2 by adding or editing the value of metadataServiceOptions.authentication in the machine set YAML file for your machines.

Prerequisites

  • To use IMDSv2, your AWS cluster must have been created with OpenShift Container Platform version 4.7 or later.

Procedure

  • Add or edit the following lines under the providerSpec field:

    providerSpec:
      value:
        metadataServiceOptions:
          authentication: Required 1
    1
    To require IMDSv2, set the parameter value to Required. To allow the use of both IMDSv1 and IMDSv2, set the parameter value to Optional. If no value is specified, both IMDSv1 and IMDSv2 are allowed.

2.2.5. Machine sets that deploy machines as Dedicated Instances

You can create a machine set running on AWS that deploys machines as Dedicated Instances. Dedicated Instances run in a virtual private cloud (VPC) on hardware that is dedicated to a single customer. These Amazon EC2 instances are physically isolated at the host hardware level. The isolation of Dedicated Instances occurs even if the instances belong to different AWS accounts that are linked to a single payer account. However, other instances that are not dedicated can share hardware with Dedicated Instances if they belong to the same AWS account.

Instances with either public or dedicated tenancy are supported by the Machine API. Instances with public tenancy run on shared hardware. Public tenancy is the default tenancy. Instances with dedicated tenancy run on single-tenant hardware.

2.2.5.1. Creating Dedicated Instances by using machine sets

You can run a machine that is backed by a Dedicated Instance by using Machine API integration. Set the tenancy field in your machine set YAML file to launch a Dedicated Instance on AWS.

Procedure

  • Specify a dedicated tenancy under the providerSpec field:

    providerSpec:
      placement:
        tenancy: dedicated

2.2.6. Machine sets that deploy machines as Spot Instances

You can save on costs by creating a compute machine set running on AWS that deploys machines as non-guaranteed Spot Instances. Spot Instances utilize unused AWS EC2 capacity and are less expensive than On-Demand Instances. You can use Spot Instances for workloads that can tolerate interruptions, such as batch or stateless, horizontally scalable workloads.

AWS EC2 can terminate a Spot Instance at any time. AWS gives a two-minute warning to the user when an interruption occurs. OpenShift Container Platform begins to remove the workloads from the affected instances when AWS issues the termination warning.

Interruptions can occur when using Spot Instances for the following reasons:

  • The instance price exceeds your maximum price
  • The demand for Spot Instances increases
  • The supply of Spot Instances decreases

When AWS terminates an instance, a termination handler running on the Spot Instance node deletes the machine resource. To satisfy the compute machine set replicas quantity, the compute machine set creates a machine that requests a Spot Instance.

2.2.6.1. Creating Spot Instances by using compute machine sets

You can launch a Spot Instance on AWS by adding spotMarketOptions to your compute machine set YAML file.

Procedure

  • Add the following line under the providerSpec field:

    providerSpec:
      value:
        spotMarketOptions: {}

    You can optionally set the spotMarketOptions.maxPrice field to limit the cost of the Spot Instance. For example you can set maxPrice: '2.50'.

    If the maxPrice is set, this value is used as the hourly maximum spot price. If it is not set, the maximum price defaults to charge up to the On-Demand Instance price.

    Note

    It is strongly recommended to use the default On-Demand price as the maxPrice value and to not set the maximum price for Spot Instances.

2.2.7. Adding a GPU node to an existing OpenShift Container Platform cluster

You can copy and modify a default compute machine set configuration to create a GPU-enabled machine set and machines for the AWS EC2 cloud provider.

For more information about the supported instance types, see the following NVIDIA documentation:

Procedure

  1. View the existing nodes, machines, and machine sets by running the following command. Note that each node is an instance of a machine definition with a specific AWS region and OpenShift Container Platform role.

    $ oc get nodes

    Example output

    NAME                                        STATUS   ROLES                  AGE     VERSION
    ip-10-0-52-50.us-east-2.compute.internal    Ready    worker                 3d17h   v1.28.5
    ip-10-0-58-24.us-east-2.compute.internal    Ready    control-plane,master   3d17h   v1.28.5
    ip-10-0-68-148.us-east-2.compute.internal   Ready    worker                 3d17h   v1.28.5
    ip-10-0-68-68.us-east-2.compute.internal    Ready    control-plane,master   3d17h   v1.28.5
    ip-10-0-72-170.us-east-2.compute.internal   Ready    control-plane,master   3d17h   v1.28.5
    ip-10-0-74-50.us-east-2.compute.internal    Ready    worker                 3d17h   v1.28.5

  2. View the machines and machine sets that exist in the openshift-machine-api namespace by running the following command. Each compute machine set is associated with a different availability zone within the AWS region. The installer automatically load balances compute machines across availability zones.

    $ oc get machinesets -n openshift-machine-api

    Example output

    NAME                                        DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
    preserve-dsoc12r4-ktjfc-worker-us-east-2a   1         1         1       1           3d11h
    preserve-dsoc12r4-ktjfc-worker-us-east-2b   2         2         2       2           3d11h

  3. View the machines that exist in the openshift-machine-api namespace by running the following command. At this time, there is only one compute machine per machine set, though a compute machine set could be scaled to add a node in a particular region and zone.

    $ oc get machines -n openshift-machine-api | grep worker

    Example output

    preserve-dsoc12r4-ktjfc-worker-us-east-2a-dts8r      Running   m5.xlarge   us-east-2   us-east-2a   3d11h
    preserve-dsoc12r4-ktjfc-worker-us-east-2b-dkv7w      Running   m5.xlarge   us-east-2   us-east-2b   3d11h
    preserve-dsoc12r4-ktjfc-worker-us-east-2b-k58cw      Running   m5.xlarge   us-east-2   us-east-2b   3d11h

  4. Make a copy of one of the existing compute MachineSet definitions and output the result to a JSON file by running the following command. This will be the basis for the GPU-enabled compute machine set definition.

    $ oc get machineset preserve-dsoc12r4-ktjfc-worker-us-east-2a -n openshift-machine-api -o json > <output_file.json>
  5. Edit the JSON file and make the following changes to the new MachineSet definition:

    • Replace worker with gpu. This will be the name of the new machine set.
    • Change the instance type of the new MachineSet definition to g4dn, which includes an NVIDIA Tesla T4 GPU. To learn more about AWS g4dn instance types, see Accelerated Computing.

      $ jq .spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value.instanceType preserve-dsoc12r4-ktjfc-worker-gpu-us-east-2a.json
      
      "g4dn.xlarge"

      The <output_file.json> file is saved as preserve-dsoc12r4-ktjfc-worker-gpu-us-east-2a.json.

  6. Update the following fields in preserve-dsoc12r4-ktjfc-worker-gpu-us-east-2a.json:

    • .metadata.name to a name containing gpu.
    • .spec.selector.matchLabels["machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset"] to match the new .metadata.name.
    • .spec.template.metadata.labels["machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset"] to match the new .metadata.name.
    • .spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value.instanceType to g4dn.xlarge.
  7. To verify your changes, perform a diff of the original compute definition and the new GPU-enabled node definition by running the following command:

    $ oc -n openshift-machine-api get preserve-dsoc12r4-ktjfc-worker-us-east-2a -o json | diff preserve-dsoc12r4-ktjfc-worker-gpu-us-east-2a.json -

    Example output

    10c10
    
    < "name": "preserve-dsoc12r4-ktjfc-worker-gpu-us-east-2a",
    ---
    > "name": "preserve-dsoc12r4-ktjfc-worker-us-east-2a",
    
    21c21
    
    < "machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset": "preserve-dsoc12r4-ktjfc-worker-gpu-us-east-2a"
    ---
    > "machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset": "preserve-dsoc12r4-ktjfc-worker-us-east-2a"
    
    31c31
    
    < "machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset": "preserve-dsoc12r4-ktjfc-worker-gpu-us-east-2a"
    ---
    > "machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset": "preserve-dsoc12r4-ktjfc-worker-us-east-2a"
    
    60c60
    
    < "instanceType": "g4dn.xlarge",
    ---
    > "instanceType": "m5.xlarge",

  8. Create the GPU-enabled compute machine set from the definition by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f preserve-dsoc12r4-ktjfc-worker-gpu-us-east-2a.json

    Example output

    machineset.machine.openshift.io/preserve-dsoc12r4-ktjfc-worker-gpu-us-east-2a created

Verification

  1. View the machine set you created by running the following command:

    $ oc -n openshift-machine-api get machinesets | grep gpu

    The MachineSet replica count is set to 1 so a new Machine object is created automatically.

    Example output

    preserve-dsoc12r4-ktjfc-worker-gpu-us-east-2a   1         1         1       1           4m21s

  2. View the Machine object that the machine set created by running the following command:

    $ oc -n openshift-machine-api get machines | grep gpu

    Example output

    preserve-dsoc12r4-ktjfc-worker-gpu-us-east-2a    running    g4dn.xlarge   us-east-2   us-east-2a  4m36s

Note that there is no need to specify a namespace for the node. The node definition is cluster scoped.

2.2.8. Deploying the Node Feature Discovery Operator

After the GPU-enabled node is created, you need to discover the GPU-enabled node so it can be scheduled. To do this, install the Node Feature Discovery (NFD) Operator. The NFD Operator identifies hardware device features in nodes. It solves the general problem of identifying and cataloging hardware resources in the infrastructure nodes so they can be made available to OpenShift Container Platform.

Procedure

  1. Install the Node Feature Discovery Operator from OperatorHub in the OpenShift Container Platform console.
  2. After installing the NFD Operator into OperatorHub, select Node Feature Discovery from the installed Operators list and select Create instance. This installs the nfd-master and nfd-worker pods, one nfd-worker pod for each compute node, in the openshift-nfd namespace.
  3. Verify that the Operator is installed and running by running the following command:

    $ oc get pods -n openshift-nfd

    Example output

    NAME                                       READY    STATUS     RESTARTS   AGE
    
    nfd-controller-manager-8646fcbb65-x5qgk    2/2      Running 7  (8h ago)   1d

  4. Browse to the installed Oerator in the console and select Create Node Feature Discovery.
  5. Select Create to build a NFD custom resource. This creates NFD pods in the openshift-nfd namespace that poll the OpenShift Container Platform nodes for hardware resources and catalogue them.

Verification

  1. After a successful build, verify that a NFD pod is running on each nodes by running the following command:

    $ oc get pods -n openshift-nfd

    Example output

    NAME                                       READY   STATUS      RESTARTS        AGE
    nfd-controller-manager-8646fcbb65-x5qgk    2/2     Running     7 (8h ago)      12d
    nfd-master-769656c4cb-w9vrv                1/1     Running     0               12d
    nfd-worker-qjxb2                           1/1     Running     3 (3d14h ago)   12d
    nfd-worker-xtz9b                           1/1     Running     5 (3d14h ago)   12d

    The NFD Operator uses vendor PCI IDs to identify hardware in a node. NVIDIA uses the PCI ID 10de.

  2. View the NVIDIA GPU discovered by the NFD Operator by running the following command:

    $ oc describe node ip-10-0-132-138.us-east-2.compute.internal | egrep 'Roles|pci'

    Example output

    Roles: worker
    
    feature.node.kubernetes.io/pci-1013.present=true
    
    feature.node.kubernetes.io/pci-10de.present=true
    
    feature.node.kubernetes.io/pci-1d0f.present=true

    10de appears in the node feature list for the GPU-enabled node. This mean the NFD Operator correctly identified the node from the GPU-enabled MachineSet.

2.3. Creating a compute machine set on Azure

You can create a different compute machine set to serve a specific purpose in your OpenShift Container Platform cluster on Microsoft Azure. For example, you might create infrastructure machine sets and related machines so that you can move supporting workloads to the new machines.

Important

You can use the advanced machine management and scaling capabilities only in clusters where the Machine API is operational. Clusters with user-provisioned infrastructure require additional validation and configuration to use the Machine API.

Clusters with the infrastructure platform type none cannot use the Machine API. This limitation applies even if the compute machines that are attached to the cluster are installed on a platform that supports the feature. This parameter cannot be changed after installation.

To view the platform type for your cluster, run the following command:

$ oc get infrastructure cluster -o jsonpath='{.status.platform}'

2.3.1. Sample YAML for a compute machine set custom resource on Azure

This sample YAML defines a compute machine set that runs in the 1 Microsoft Azure zone in a region and creates nodes that are labeled with node-role.kubernetes.io/<role>: "".

In this sample, <infrastructure_id> is the infrastructure ID label that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster, and <role> is the node label to add.

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
kind: MachineSet
metadata:
  labels:
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role> 2
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role>
  name: <infrastructure_id>-<role>-<region> 3
  namespace: openshift-machine-api
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>-<region>
  template:
    metadata:
      creationTimestamp: null
      labels:
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role>
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role>
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>-<region>
    spec:
      metadata:
        creationTimestamp: null
        labels:
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <machineset_name>
          node-role.kubernetes.io/<role>: ""
      providerSpec:
        value:
          apiVersion: azureproviderconfig.openshift.io/v1beta1
          credentialsSecret:
            name: azure-cloud-credentials
            namespace: openshift-machine-api
          image: 4
            offer: ""
            publisher: ""
            resourceID: /resourceGroups/<infrastructure_id>-rg/providers/Microsoft.Compute/galleries/gallery_<infrastructure_id>/images/<infrastructure_id>-gen2/versions/latest 5
            sku: ""
            version: ""
          internalLoadBalancer: ""
          kind: AzureMachineProviderSpec
          location: <region> 6
          managedIdentity: <infrastructure_id>-identity
          metadata:
            creationTimestamp: null
          natRule: null
          networkResourceGroup: ""
          osDisk:
            diskSizeGB: 128
            managedDisk:
              storageAccountType: Premium_LRS
            osType: Linux
          publicIP: false
          publicLoadBalancer: ""
          resourceGroup: <infrastructure_id>-rg
          sshPrivateKey: ""
          sshPublicKey: ""
          tags:
            - name: <custom_tag_name> 7
              value: <custom_tag_value>
          subnet: <infrastructure_id>-<role>-subnet
          userDataSecret:
            name: worker-user-data
          vmSize: Standard_D4s_v3
          vnet: <infrastructure_id>-vnet
          zone: "1" 8
1
Specify the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster. If you have the OpenShift CLI installed, you can obtain the infrastructure ID by running the following command:
$ oc get -o jsonpath='{.status.infrastructureName}{"\n"}' infrastructure cluster

You can obtain the subnet by running the following command:

$  oc -n openshift-machine-api \
    -o jsonpath='{.spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value.subnet}{"\n"}' \
    get machineset/<infrastructure_id>-worker-centralus1

You can obtain the vnet by running the following command:

$  oc -n openshift-machine-api \
    -o jsonpath='{.spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value.vnet}{"\n"}' \
    get machineset/<infrastructure_id>-worker-centralus1
2
Specify the node label to add.
3
Specify the infrastructure ID, node label, and region.
4
Specify the image details for your compute machine set. If you want to use an Azure Marketplace image, see "Selecting an Azure Marketplace image".
5
Specify an image that is compatible with your instance type. The Hyper-V generation V2 images created by the installation program have a -gen2 suffix, while V1 images have the same name without the suffix.
6
Specify the region to place machines on.
7
Optional: Specify custom tags in your machine set. Provide the tag name in <custom_tag_name> field and the corresponding tag value in <custom_tag_value> field.
8
Specify the zone within your region to place machines on. Be sure that your region supports the zone that you specify.

2.3.2. Creating a compute machine set

In addition to the compute machine sets created by the installation program, you can create your own to dynamically manage the machine compute resources for specific workloads of your choice.

Prerequisites

  • Deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Log in to oc as a user with cluster-admin permission.

Procedure

  1. Create a new YAML file that contains the compute machine set custom resource (CR) sample and is named <file_name>.yaml.

    Ensure that you set the <clusterID> and <role> parameter values.

  2. Optional: If you are not sure which value to set for a specific field, you can check an existing compute machine set from your cluster.

    1. To list the compute machine sets in your cluster, run the following command:

      $ oc get machinesets -n openshift-machine-api

      Example output

      NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1b   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1c   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1d   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1e   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1f   0         0                             55m

    2. To view values of a specific compute machine set custom resource (CR), run the following command:

      $ oc get machineset <machineset_name> \
        -n openshift-machine-api -o yaml

      Example output

      apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
      kind: MachineSet
      metadata:
        labels:
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
        name: <infrastructure_id>-<role> 2
        namespace: openshift-machine-api
      spec:
        replicas: 1
        selector:
          matchLabels:
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>
        template:
          metadata:
            labels:
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>
          spec:
            providerSpec: 3
              ...

      1
      The cluster infrastructure ID.
      2
      A default node label.
      Note

      For clusters that have user-provisioned infrastructure, a compute machine set can only create worker and infra type machines.

      3
      The values in the <providerSpec> section of the compute machine set CR are platform-specific. For more information about <providerSpec> parameters in the CR, see the sample compute machine set CR configuration for your provider.
  3. Create a MachineSet CR by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <file_name>.yaml

Verification

  • View the list of compute machine sets by running the following command:

    $ oc get machineset -n openshift-machine-api

    Example output

    NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
    agl030519-vplxk-infra-us-east-1a    1         1         1       1           11m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1b   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1c   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1d   0         0                             55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1e   0         0                             55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1f   0         0                             55m

    When the new compute machine set is available, the DESIRED and CURRENT values match. If the compute machine set is not available, wait a few minutes and run the command again.

2.3.3. Using the Azure Marketplace offering

You can create a machine set running on Azure that deploys machines that use the Azure Marketplace offering. To use this offering, you must first obtain the Azure Marketplace image. When obtaining your image, consider the following:

  • While the images are the same, the Azure Marketplace publisher is different depending on your region. If you are located in North America, specify redhat as the publisher. If you are located in EMEA, specify redhat-limited as the publisher.
  • The offer includes a rh-ocp-worker SKU and a rh-ocp-worker-gen1 SKU. The rh-ocp-worker SKU represents a Hyper-V generation version 2 VM image. The default instance types used in OpenShift Container Platform are version 2 compatible. If you plan to use an instance type that is only version 1 compatible, use the image associated with the rh-ocp-worker-gen1 SKU. The rh-ocp-worker-gen1 SKU represents a Hyper-V version 1 VM image.
Important

Installing images with the Azure marketplace is not supported on clusters with 64-bit ARM instances.

Prerequisites

  • You have installed the Azure CLI client (az).
  • Your Azure account is entitled for the offer and you have logged into this account with the Azure CLI client.

Procedure

  1. Display all of the available OpenShift Container Platform images by running one of the following commands:

    • North America:

      $  az vm image list --all --offer rh-ocp-worker --publisher redhat -o table

      Example output

      Offer          Publisher       Sku                 Urn                                                             Version
      -------------  --------------  ------------------  --------------------------------------------------------------  -----------------
      rh-ocp-worker  RedHat          rh-ocp-worker       RedHat:rh-ocp-worker:rh-ocp-worker:413.92.2023101700            413.92.2023101700
      rh-ocp-worker  RedHat          rh-ocp-worker-gen1  RedHat:rh-ocp-worker:rh-ocp-worker-gen1:413.92.2023101700       413.92.2023101700

    • EMEA:

      $  az vm image list --all --offer rh-ocp-worker --publisher redhat-limited -o table

      Example output

      Offer          Publisher       Sku                 Urn                                                                     Version
      -------------  --------------  ------------------  --------------------------------------------------------------          -----------------
      rh-ocp-worker  redhat-limited  rh-ocp-worker       redhat-limited:rh-ocp-worker:rh-ocp-worker:413.92.2023101700            413.92.2023101700
      rh-ocp-worker  redhat-limited  rh-ocp-worker-gen1  redhat-limited:rh-ocp-worker:rh-ocp-worker-gen1:413.92.2023101700       413.92.2023101700

    Note

    Regardless of the version of OpenShift Container Platform that you install, the correct version of the Azure Marketplace image to use is 4.13. If required, your VMs are automatically upgraded as part of the installation process.

  2. Inspect the image for your offer by running one of the following commands:

    • North America:

      $ az vm image show --urn redhat:rh-ocp-worker:rh-ocp-worker:<version>
    • EMEA:

      $ az vm image show --urn redhat-limited:rh-ocp-worker:rh-ocp-worker:<version>
  3. Review the terms of the offer by running one of the following commands:

    • North America:

      $ az vm image terms show --urn redhat:rh-ocp-worker:rh-ocp-worker:<version>
    • EMEA:

      $ az vm image terms show --urn redhat-limited:rh-ocp-worker:rh-ocp-worker:<version>
  4. Accept the terms of the offering by running one of the following commands:

    • North America:

      $ az vm image terms accept --urn redhat:rh-ocp-worker:rh-ocp-worker:<version>
    • EMEA:

      $ az vm image terms accept --urn redhat-limited:rh-ocp-worker:rh-ocp-worker:<version>
  5. Record the image details of your offer, specifically the values for publisher, offer, sku, and version.
  6. Add the following parameters to the providerSpec section of your machine set YAML file using the image details for your offer:

    Sample providerSpec image values for Azure Marketplace machines

    providerSpec:
      value:
        image:
          offer: rh-ocp-worker
          publisher: redhat
          resourceID: ""
          sku: rh-ocp-worker
          type: MarketplaceWithPlan
          version: 413.92.2023101700

2.3.4. Enabling Azure boot diagnostics

You can enable boot diagnostics on Azure machines that your machine set creates.

Prerequisites

  • Have an existing Microsoft Azure cluster.

Procedure

  • Add the diagnostics configuration that is applicable to your storage type to the providerSpec field in your machine set YAML file:

    • For an Azure Managed storage account:

      providerSpec:
        diagnostics:
          boot:
            storageAccountType: AzureManaged 1
      1
      Specifies an Azure Managed storage account.
    • For an Azure Unmanaged storage account:

      providerSpec:
        diagnostics:
          boot:
            storageAccountType: CustomerManaged 1
            customerManaged:
              storageAccountURI: https://<storage-account>.blob.core.windows.net 2
      1
      Specifies an Azure Unmanaged storage account.
      2
      Replace <storage-account> with the name of your storage account.
      Note

      Only the Azure Blob Storage data service is supported.

Verification

  • On the Microsoft Azure portal, review the Boot diagnostics page for a machine deployed by the machine set, and verify that you can see the serial logs for the machine.

2.3.5. Machine sets that deploy machines as Spot VMs

You can save on costs by creating a compute machine set running on Azure that deploys machines as non-guaranteed Spot VMs. Spot VMs utilize unused Azure capacity and are less expensive than standard VMs. You can use Spot VMs for workloads that can tolerate interruptions, such as batch or stateless, horizontally scalable workloads.

Azure can terminate a Spot VM at any time. Azure gives a 30-second warning to the user when an interruption occurs. OpenShift Container Platform begins to remove the workloads from the affected instances when Azure issues the termination warning.

Interruptions can occur when using Spot VMs for the following reasons:

  • The instance price exceeds your maximum price
  • The supply of Spot VMs decreases
  • Azure needs capacity back

When Azure terminates an instance, a termination handler running on the Spot VM node deletes the machine resource. To satisfy the compute machine set replicas quantity, the compute machine set creates a machine that requests a Spot VM.

2.3.5.1. Creating Spot VMs by using compute machine sets

You can launch a Spot VM on Azure by adding spotVMOptions to your compute machine set YAML file.

Procedure

  • Add the following line under the providerSpec field:

    providerSpec:
      value:
        spotVMOptions: {}

    You can optionally set the spotVMOptions.maxPrice field to limit the cost of the Spot VM. For example you can set maxPrice: '0.98765'. If the maxPrice is set, this value is used as the hourly maximum spot price. If it is not set, the maximum price defaults to -1 and charges up to the standard VM price.

    Azure caps Spot VM prices at the standard price. Azure will not evict an instance due to pricing if the instance is set with the default maxPrice. However, an instance can still be evicted due to capacity restrictions.

Note

It is strongly recommended to use the default standard VM price as the maxPrice value and to not set the maximum price for Spot VMs.

2.3.6. Machine sets that deploy machines on Ephemeral OS disks

You can create a compute machine set running on Azure that deploys machines on Ephemeral OS disks. Ephemeral OS disks use local VM capacity rather than remote Azure Storage. This configuration therefore incurs no additional cost and provides lower latency for reading, writing, and reimaging.

Additional resources

2.3.6.1. Creating machines on Ephemeral OS disks by using compute machine sets

You can launch machines on Ephemeral OS disks on Azure by editing your compute machine set YAML file.

Prerequisites

  • Have an existing Microsoft Azure cluster.

Procedure

  1. Edit the custom resource (CR) by running the following command:

    $ oc edit machineset <machine-set-name>

    where <machine-set-name> is the compute machine set that you want to provision machines on Ephemeral OS disks.

  2. Add the following to the providerSpec field:

    providerSpec:
      value:
        ...
        osDisk:
           ...
           diskSettings: 1
             ephemeralStorageLocation: Local 2
           cachingType: ReadOnly 3
           managedDisk:
             storageAccountType: Standard_LRS 4
           ...
    1 2 3
    These lines enable the use of Ephemeral OS disks.
    4
    Ephemeral OS disks are only supported for VMs or scale set instances that use the Standard LRS storage account type.
    Important

    The implementation of Ephemeral OS disk support in OpenShift Container Platform only supports the CacheDisk placement type. Do not change the placement configuration setting.

  3. Create a compute machine set using the updated configuration:

    $ oc create -f <machine-set-config>.yaml

Verification

  • On the Microsoft Azure portal, review the Overview page for a machine deployed by the compute machine set, and verify that the Ephemeral OS disk field is set to OS cache placement.

2.3.7. Machine sets that deploy machines with ultra disks as data disks

You can create a machine set running on Azure that deploys machines with ultra disks. Ultra disks are high-performance storage that are intended for use with the most demanding data workloads.

You can also create a persistent volume claim (PVC) that dynamically binds to a storage class backed by Azure ultra disks and mounts them to pods.

Note

Data disks do not support the ability to specify disk throughput or disk IOPS. You can configure these properties by using PVCs.

2.3.7.1. Creating machines with ultra disks by using machine sets

You can deploy machines with ultra disks on Azure by editing your machine set YAML file.

Prerequisites

  • Have an existing Microsoft Azure cluster.

Procedure

  1. Create a custom secret in the openshift-machine-api namespace using the worker data secret by running the following command:

    $ oc -n openshift-machine-api \
    get secret <role>-user-data \ 1
    --template='{{index .data.userData | base64decode}}' | jq > userData.txt 2
    1
    Replace <role> with worker.
    2
    Specify userData.txt as the name of the new custom secret.
  2. In a text editor, open the userData.txt file and locate the final } character in the file.

    1. On the immediately preceding line, add a ,.
    2. Create a new line after the , and add the following configuration details:

      "storage": {
        "disks": [ 1
          {
            "device": "/dev/disk/azure/scsi1/lun0", 2
            "partitions": [ 3
              {
                "label": "lun0p1", 4
                "sizeMiB": 1024, 5
                "startMiB": 0
              }
            ]
          }
        ],
        "filesystems": [ 6
          {
            "device": "/dev/disk/by-partlabel/lun0p1",
            "format": "xfs",
            "path": "/var/lib/lun0p1"
          }
        ]
      },
      "systemd": {
        "units": [ 7
          {
            "contents": "[Unit]\nBefore=local-fs.target\n[Mount]\nWhere=/var/lib/lun0p1\nWhat=/dev/disk/by-partlabel/lun0p1\nOptions=defaults,pquota\n[Install]\nWantedBy=local-fs.target\n", 8
            "enabled": true,
            "name": "var-lib-lun0p1.mount"
          }
        ]
      }
      1
      The configuration details for the disk that you want to attach to a node as an ultra disk.
      2
      Specify the lun value that is defined in the dataDisks stanza of the machine set you are using. For example, if the machine set contains lun: 0, specify lun0. You can initialize multiple data disks by specifying multiple "disks" entries in this configuration file. If you specify multiple "disks" entries, ensure that the lun value for each matches the value in the machine set.
      3
      The configuration details for a new partition on the disk.
      4
      Specify a label for the partition. You might find it helpful to use hierarchical names, such as lun0p1 for the first partition of lun0.
      5
      Specify the total size in MiB of the partition.
      6
      Specify the filesystem to use when formatting a partition. Use the partition label to specify the partition.
      7
      Specify a systemd unit to mount the partition at boot. Use the partition label to specify the partition. You can create multiple partitions by specifying multiple "partitions" entries in this configuration file. If you specify multiple "partitions" entries, you must specify a systemd unit for each.
      8
      For Where, specify the value of storage.filesystems.path. For What, specify the value of storage.filesystems.device.
  3. Extract the disabling template value to a file called disableTemplating.txt by running the following command:

    $ oc -n openshift-machine-api get secret <role>-user-data \ 1
    --template='{{index .data.disableTemplating | base64decode}}' | jq > disableTemplating.txt
    1
    Replace <role> with worker.
  4. Combine the userData.txt file and disableTemplating.txt file to create a data secret file by running the following command:

    $ oc -n openshift-machine-api create secret generic <role>-user-data-x5 \ 1
    --from-file=userData=userData.txt \
    --from-file=disableTemplating=disableTemplating.txt
    1
    For <role>-user-data-x5, specify the name of the secret. Replace <role> with worker.
  5. Copy an existing Azure MachineSet custom resource (CR) and edit it by running the following command:

    $ oc edit machineset <machine-set-name>

    where <machine-set-name> is the machine set that you want to provision machines with ultra disks.

  6. Add the following lines in the positions indicated:

    apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
    kind: MachineSet
    spec:
      template:
        spec:
          metadata:
            labels:
              disk: ultrassd 1
          providerSpec:
            value:
              ultraSSDCapability: Enabled 2
              dataDisks: 3
              - nameSuffix: ultrassd
                lun: 0
                diskSizeGB: 4
                deletionPolicy: Delete
                cachingType: None
                managedDisk:
                  storageAccountType: UltraSSD_LRS
              userDataSecret:
                name: <role>-user-data-x5 4
    1
    Specify a label to use to select a node that is created by this machine set. This procedure uses disk.ultrassd for this value.
    2 3
    These lines enable the use of ultra disks. For dataDisks, include the entire stanza.
    4
    Specify the user data secret created earlier. Replace <role> with worker.
  7. Create a machine set using the updated configuration by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <machine-set-name>.yaml

Verification

  1. Validate that the machines are created by running the following command:

    $ oc get machines

    The machines should be in the Running state.

  2. For a machine that is running and has a node attached, validate the partition by running the following command:

    $ oc debug node/<node-name> -- chroot /host lsblk

    In this command, oc debug node/<node-name> starts a debugging shell on the node <node-name> and passes a command with --. The passed command chroot /host provides access to the underlying host OS binaries, and lsblk shows the block devices that are attached to the host OS machine.

Next steps

  • To use an ultra disk from within a pod, create a workload that uses the mount point. Create a YAML file similar to the following example:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      name: ssd-benchmark1
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: ssd-benchmark1
        image: nginx
        ports:
          - containerPort: 80
            name: "http-server"
        volumeMounts:
        - name: lun0p1
          mountPath: "/tmp"
      volumes:
        - name: lun0p1
          hostPath:
            path: /var/lib/lun0p1
            type: DirectoryOrCreate
      nodeSelector:
        disktype: ultrassd

2.3.7.2. Troubleshooting resources for machine sets that enable ultra disks

Use the information in this section to understand and recover from issues you might encounter.

2.3.7.2.1. Incorrect ultra disk configuration

If an incorrect configuration of the ultraSSDCapability parameter is specified in the machine set, the machine provisioning fails.

For example, if the ultraSSDCapability parameter is set to Disabled, but an ultra disk is specified in the dataDisks parameter, the following error message appears:

StorageAccountType UltraSSD_LRS can be used only when additionalCapabilities.ultraSSDEnabled is set.
  • To resolve this issue, verify that your machine set configuration is correct.
2.3.7.2.2. Unsupported disk parameters

If a region, availability zone, or instance size that is not compatible with ultra disks is specified in the machine set, the machine provisioning fails. Check the logs for the following error message:

failed to create vm <machine_name>: failure sending request for machine <machine_name>: cannot create vm: compute.VirtualMachinesClient#CreateOrUpdate: Failure sending request: StatusCode=400 -- Original Error: Code="BadRequest" Message="Storage Account type 'UltraSSD_LRS' is not supported <more_information_about_why>."
  • To resolve this issue, verify that you are using this feature in a supported environment and that your machine set configuration is correct.
2.3.7.2.3. Unable to delete disks

If the deletion of ultra disks as data disks is not working as expected, the machines are deleted and the data disks are orphaned. You must delete the orphaned disks manually if desired.

2.3.8. Enabling customer-managed encryption keys for a machine set

You can supply an encryption key to Azure to encrypt data on managed disks at rest. You can enable server-side encryption with customer-managed keys by using the Machine API.

An Azure Key Vault, a disk encryption set, and an encryption key are required to use a customer-managed key. The disk encryption set must be in a resource group where the Cloud Credential Operator (CCO) has granted permissions. If not, an additional reader role is required to be granted on the disk encryption set.

Procedure

  • Configure the disk encryption set under the providerSpec field in your machine set YAML file. For example:

    providerSpec:
      value:
        osDisk:
          diskSizeGB: 128
          managedDisk:
            diskEncryptionSet:
              id: /subscriptions/<subscription_id>/resourceGroups/<resource_group_name>/providers/Microsoft.Compute/diskEncryptionSets/<disk_encryption_set_name>
            storageAccountType: Premium_LRS

2.3.9. Configuring trusted launch for Azure virtual machines by using machine sets

Important

Using trusted launch for Azure virtual machines is a Technology Preview feature only. Technology Preview features are not supported with Red Hat production service level agreements (SLAs) and might not be functionally complete. Red Hat does not recommend using them in production. These features provide early access to upcoming product features, enabling customers to test functionality and provide feedback during the development process.

For more information about the support scope of Red Hat Technology Preview features, see Technology Preview Features Support Scope.

OpenShift Container Platform 4.15 supports trusted launch for Azure virtual machines (VMs). By editing the machine set YAML file, you can configure the trusted launch options that a machine set uses for machines that it deploys. For example, you can configure these machines to use UEFI security features such as Secure Boot or a dedicated virtual Trusted Platform Module (vTPM) instance.

Note

Some feature combinations result in an invalid configuration.

Table 2.1. UEFI feature combination compatibility

Secure Boot[1]vTPM[2]Valid configuration

Enabled

Enabled

Yes

Enabled

Disabled

Yes

Enabled

Omitted

Yes

Disabled

Enabled

Yes

Omitted

Enabled

Yes

Disabled

Disabled

No

Omitted

Disabled

No

Omitted

Omitted

No

  1. Using the secureBoot field.
  2. Using the virtualizedTrustedPlatformModule field.

For more information about related features and functionality, see the Microsoft Azure documentation about Trusted launch for Azure virtual machines.

Procedure

  1. In a text editor, open the YAML file for an existing machine set or create a new one.
  2. Edit the following section under the providerSpec field to provide a valid configuration:

    Sample valid configuration with UEFI Secure Boot and vTPM enabled

    apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
    kind: MachineSet
    # ...
    spec:
      template:
        spec:
          providerSpec:
            value:
              securityProfile:
                settings:
                  securityType: TrustedLaunch 1
                  trustedLaunch:
                    uefiSettings: 2
                      secureBoot: Enabled 3
                      virtualizedTrustedPlatformModule: Enabled 4
    # ...

    1
    Enables the use of trusted launch for Azure virtual machines. This value is required for all valid configurations.
    2
    Specifies which UEFI security features to use. This section is required for all valid configurations.
    3
    Enables UEFI Secure Boot.
    4
    Enables the use of a vTPM.

Verification

  • On the Azure portal, review the details for a machine deployed by the machine set and verify that the trusted launch options match the values that you configured.

2.3.10. Configuring Azure confidential virtual machines by using machine sets

Important

Using Azure confidential virtual machines is a Technology Preview feature only. Technology Preview features are not supported with Red Hat production service level agreements (SLAs) and might not be functionally complete. Red Hat does not recommend using them in production. These features provide early access to upcoming product features, enabling customers to test functionality and provide feedback during the development process.

For more information about the support scope of Red Hat Technology Preview features, see Technology Preview Features Support Scope.

OpenShift Container Platform 4.15 supports Azure confidential virtual machines (VMs).

Note

Confidential VMs are currently not supported on 64-bit ARM architectures.

By editing the machine set YAML file, you can configure the confidential VM options that a machine set uses for machines that it deploys. For example, you can configure these machines to use UEFI security features such as Secure Boot or a dedicated virtual Trusted Platform Module (vTPM) instance.

For more information about related features and functionality, see the Microsoft Azure documentation about Confidential virtual machines.

Procedure

  1. In a text editor, open the YAML file for an existing machine set or create a new one.
  2. Edit the following section under the providerSpec field:

    Sample configuration

    apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
    kind: MachineSet
    # ...
    spec:
      template:
        spec:
          providerSpec:
            value:
              osDisk:
                # ...
                managedDisk:
                  securityProfile: 1
                    securityEncryptionType: VMGuestStateOnly 2
                # ...
              securityProfile: 3
                settings:
                    securityType: ConfidentialVM 4
                    confidentialVM:
                      uefiSettings: 5
                        secureBoot: Disabled 6
                        virtualizedTrustedPlatformModule: Enabled 7
              vmSize: Standard_DC16ads_v5 8
    # ...

    1
    Specifies security profile settings for the managed disk when using a confidential VM.
    2
    Enables encryption of the Azure VM Guest State (VMGS) blob. This setting requires the use of vTPM.
    3
    Specifies security profile settings for the confidential VM.
    4
    Enables the use of confidential VMs. This value is required for all valid configurations.
    5
    Specifies which UEFI security features to use. This section is required for all valid configurations.
    6
    Disables UEFI Secure Boot.
    7
    Enables the use of a vTPM.
    8
    Specifies an instance type that supports confidential VMs.

Verification

  • On the Azure portal, review the details for a machine deployed by the machine set and verify that the confidential VM options match the values that you configured.

2.3.11. Accelerated Networking for Microsoft Azure VMs

Accelerated Networking uses single root I/O virtualization (SR-IOV) to provide Microsoft Azure VMs with a more direct path to the switch. This enhances network performance. This feature can be enabled during or after installation.

2.3.11.1. Limitations

Consider the following limitations when deciding whether to use Accelerated Networking:

  • Accelerated Networking is only supported on clusters where the Machine API is operational.
  • Although the minimum requirement for an Azure worker node is two vCPUs, Accelerated Networking requires an Azure VM size that includes at least four vCPUs. To satisfy this requirement, you can change the value of vmSize in your machine set. For information about Azure VM sizes, see Microsoft Azure documentation.

  • When this feature is enabled on an existing Azure cluster, only newly provisioned nodes are affected. Currently running nodes are not reconciled. To enable the feature on all nodes, you must replace each existing machine. This can be done for each machine individually, or by scaling the replicas down to zero, and then scaling back up to your desired number of replicas.

2.3.12. Adding a GPU node to an existing OpenShift Container Platform cluster

You can copy and modify a default compute machine set configuration to create a GPU-enabled machine set and machines for the Azure cloud provider.

The following table lists the validated instance types:

vmSizeNVIDIA GPU acceleratorMaximum number of GPUsArchitecture

Standard_NC24s_v3

V100

4

x86

Standard_NC4as_T4_v3

T4

1

x86

ND A100 v4

A100

8

x86

Note

By default, Azure subscriptions do not have a quota for the Azure instance types with GPU. Customers have to request a quota increase for the Azure instance families listed above.

Procedure

  1. View the machines and machine sets that exist in the openshift-machine-api namespace by running the following command. Each compute machine set is associated with a different availability zone within the Azure region. The installer automatically load balances compute machines across availability zones.

    $ oc get machineset -n openshift-machine-api

    Example output

    NAME                              DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
    myclustername-worker-centralus1   1         1         1       1           6h9m
    myclustername-worker-centralus2   1         1         1       1           6h9m
    myclustername-worker-centralus3   1         1         1       1           6h9m

  2. Make a copy of one of the existing compute MachineSet definitions and output the result to a YAML file by running the following command. This will be the basis for the GPU-enabled compute machine set definition.

    $ oc get machineset -n openshift-machine-api myclustername-worker-centralus1 -o yaml > machineset-azure.yaml
  3. View the content of the machineset:

    $ cat machineset-azure.yaml

    Example machineset-azure.yaml file

    apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
    kind: MachineSet
    metadata:
      annotations:
        machine.openshift.io/GPU: "0"
        machine.openshift.io/memoryMb: "16384"
        machine.openshift.io/vCPU: "4"
      creationTimestamp: "2023-02-06T14:08:19Z"
      generation: 1
      labels:
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: myclustername
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: worker
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: worker
      name: myclustername-worker-centralus1
      namespace: openshift-machine-api
      resourceVersion: "23601"
      uid: acd56e0c-7612-473a-ae37-8704f34b80de
    spec:
      replicas: 1
      selector:
        matchLabels:
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: myclustername
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: myclustername-worker-centralus1
      template:
        metadata:
          labels:
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: myclustername
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: worker
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: worker
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: myclustername-worker-centralus1
        spec:
          lifecycleHooks: {}
          metadata: {}
          providerSpec:
            value:
              acceleratedNetworking: true
              apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
              credentialsSecret:
                name: azure-cloud-credentials
                namespace: openshift-machine-api
              diagnostics: {}
              image:
                offer: ""
                publisher: ""
                resourceID: /resourceGroups/myclustername-rg/providers/Microsoft.Compute/galleries/gallery_myclustername_n6n4r/images/myclustername-gen2/versions/latest
                sku: ""
                version: ""
              kind: AzureMachineProviderSpec
              location: centralus
              managedIdentity: myclustername-identity
              metadata:
                creationTimestamp: null
              networkResourceGroup: myclustername-rg
              osDisk:
                diskSettings: {}
                diskSizeGB: 128
                managedDisk:
                  storageAccountType: Premium_LRS
                osType: Linux
              publicIP: false
              publicLoadBalancer: myclustername
              resourceGroup: myclustername-rg
              spotVMOptions: {}
              subnet: myclustername-worker-subnet
              userDataSecret:
                name: worker-user-data
              vmSize: Standard_D4s_v3
              vnet: myclustername-vnet
              zone: "1"
    status:
      availableReplicas: 1
      fullyLabeledReplicas: 1
      observedGeneration: 1
      readyReplicas: 1
      replicas: 1

  4. Make a copy of the machineset-azure.yaml file by running the following command:

    $ cp machineset-azure.yaml machineset-azure-gpu.yaml
  5. Update the following fields in machineset-azure-gpu.yaml:

    • Change .metadata.name to a name containing gpu.
    • Change .spec.selector.matchLabels["machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset"] to match the new .metadata.name.
    • Change .spec.template.metadata.labels["machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset"] to match the new .metadata.name.
    • Change .spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value.vmSize to Standard_NC4as_T4_v3.

      Example machineset-azure-gpu.yaml file

      apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
      kind: MachineSet
      metadata:
        annotations:
          machine.openshift.io/GPU: "1"
          machine.openshift.io/memoryMb: "28672"
          machine.openshift.io/vCPU: "4"
        creationTimestamp: "2023-02-06T20:27:12Z"
        generation: 1
        labels:
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: myclustername
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: worker
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: worker
        name: myclustername-nc4ast4-gpu-worker-centralus1
        namespace: openshift-machine-api
        resourceVersion: "166285"
        uid: 4eedce7f-6a57-4abe-b529-031140f02ffa
      spec:
        replicas: 1
        selector:
          matchLabels:
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: myclustername
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: myclustername-nc4ast4-gpu-worker-centralus1
        template:
          metadata:
            labels:
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: myclustername
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: worker
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: worker
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: myclustername-nc4ast4-gpu-worker-centralus1
          spec:
            lifecycleHooks: {}
            metadata: {}
            providerSpec:
              value:
                acceleratedNetworking: true
                apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
                credentialsSecret:
                  name: azure-cloud-credentials
                  namespace: openshift-machine-api
                diagnostics: {}
                image:
                  offer: ""
                  publisher: ""
                  resourceID: /resourceGroups/myclustername-rg/providers/Microsoft.Compute/galleries/gallery_myclustername_n6n4r/images/myclustername-gen2/versions/latest
                  sku: ""
                  version: ""
                kind: AzureMachineProviderSpec
                location: centralus
                managedIdentity: myclustername-identity
                metadata:
                  creationTimestamp: null
                networkResourceGroup: myclustername-rg
                osDisk:
                  diskSettings: {}
                  diskSizeGB: 128
                  managedDisk:
                    storageAccountType: Premium_LRS
                  osType: Linux
                publicIP: false
                publicLoadBalancer: myclustername
                resourceGroup: myclustername-rg
                spotVMOptions: {}
                subnet: myclustername-worker-subnet
                userDataSecret:
                  name: worker-user-data
                vmSize: Standard_NC4as_T4_v3
                vnet: myclustername-vnet
                zone: "1"
      status:
        availableReplicas: 1
        fullyLabeledReplicas: 1
        observedGeneration: 1
        readyReplicas: 1
        replicas: 1

  6. To verify your changes, perform a diff of the original compute definition and the new GPU-enabled node definition by running the following command:

    $ diff machineset-azure.yaml machineset-azure-gpu.yaml

    Example output

    14c14
    <   name: myclustername-worker-centralus1
    ---
    >   name: myclustername-nc4ast4-gpu-worker-centralus1
    23c23
    <       machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: myclustername-worker-centralus1
    ---
    >       machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: myclustername-nc4ast4-gpu-worker-centralus1
    30c30
    <         machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: myclustername-worker-centralus1
    ---
    >         machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: myclustername-nc4ast4-gpu-worker-centralus1
    67c67
    <           vmSize: Standard_D4s_v3
    ---
    >           vmSize: Standard_NC4as_T4_v3

  7. Create the GPU-enabled compute machine set from the definition file by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f machineset-azure-gpu.yaml

    Example output

    machineset.machine.openshift.io/myclustername-nc4ast4-gpu-worker-centralus1 created

  8. View the machines and machine sets that exist in the openshift-machine-api namespace by running the following command. Each compute machine set is associated with a different availability zone within the Azure region. The installer automatically load balances compute machines across availability zones.

    $ oc get machineset -n openshift-machine-api

    Example output

    NAME                                               DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
    clustername-n6n4r-nc4ast4-gpu-worker-centralus1    1         1         1       1           122m
    clustername-n6n4r-worker-centralus1                1         1         1       1           8h
    clustername-n6n4r-worker-centralus2                1         1         1       1           8h
    clustername-n6n4r-worker-centralus3                1         1         1       1           8h

  9. View the machines that exist in the openshift-machine-api namespace by running the following command. You can only configure one compute machine per set, although you can scale a compute machine set to add a node in a particular region and zone.

    $ oc get machines -n openshift-machine-api

    Example output

    NAME                                                PHASE     TYPE                   REGION      ZONE   AGE
    myclustername-master-0                              Running   Standard_D8s_v3        centralus   2      6h40m
    myclustername-master-1                              Running   Standard_D8s_v3        centralus   1      6h40m
    myclustername-master-2                              Running   Standard_D8s_v3        centralus   3      6h40m
    myclustername-nc4ast4-gpu-worker-centralus1-w9bqn   Running      centralus   1      21m
    myclustername-worker-centralus1-rbh6b               Running   Standard_D4s_v3        centralus   1      6h38m
    myclustername-worker-centralus2-dbz7w               Running   Standard_D4s_v3        centralus   2      6h38m
    myclustername-worker-centralus3-p9b8c               Running   Standard_D4s_v3        centralus   3      6h38m

  10. View the existing nodes, machines, and machine sets by running the following command. Note that each node is an instance of a machine definition with a specific Azure region and OpenShift Container Platform role.

    $ oc get nodes

    Example output

    NAME                                                STATUS   ROLES                  AGE     VERSION
    myclustername-master-0                              Ready    control-plane,master   6h39m   v1.28.5
    myclustername-master-1                              Ready    control-plane,master   6h41m   v1.28.5
    myclustername-master-2                              Ready    control-plane,master   6h39m   v1.28.5
    myclustername-nc4ast4-gpu-worker-centralus1-w9bqn   Ready    worker                 14m     v1.28.5
    myclustername-worker-centralus1-rbh6b               Ready    worker                 6h29m   v1.28.5
    myclustername-worker-centralus2-dbz7w               Ready    worker                 6h29m   v1.28.5
    myclustername-worker-centralus3-p9b8c               Ready    worker                 6h31m   v1.28.5

  11. View the list of compute machine sets:

    $ oc get machineset -n openshift-machine-api

    Example output

    NAME                                   DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
    myclustername-worker-centralus1        1         1         1       1           8h
    myclustername-worker-centralus2        1         1         1       1           8h
    myclustername-worker-centralus3        1         1         1       1           8h

  12. Create the GPU-enabled compute machine set from the definition file by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f machineset-azure-gpu.yaml
  13. View the list of compute machine sets:

    oc get machineset -n openshift-machine-api

    Example output

    NAME                                          DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
    myclustername-nc4ast4-gpu-worker-centralus1   1         1         1       1           121m
    myclustername-worker-centralus1               1         1         1       1           8h
    myclustername-worker-centralus2               1         1         1       1           8h
    myclustername-worker-centralus3               1         1         1       1           8h

Verification

  1. View the machine set you created by running the following command:

    $ oc get machineset -n openshift-machine-api | grep gpu

    The MachineSet replica count is set to 1 so a new Machine object is created automatically.

    Example output

    myclustername-nc4ast4-gpu-worker-centralus1   1         1         1       1           121m

  2. View the Machine object that the machine set created by running the following command:

    $ oc -n openshift-machine-api get machines | grep gpu

    Example output

    myclustername-nc4ast4-gpu-worker-centralus1-w9bqn   Running   Standard_NC4as_T4_v3   centralus   1      21m

Note

There is no need to specify a namespace for the node. The node definition is cluster scoped.

2.3.13. Deploying the Node Feature Discovery Operator

After the GPU-enabled node is created, you need to discover the GPU-enabled node so it can be scheduled. To do this, install the Node Feature Discovery (NFD) Operator. The NFD Operator identifies hardware device features in nodes. It solves the general problem of identifying and cataloging hardware resources in the infrastructure nodes so they can be made available to OpenShift Container Platform.

Procedure

  1. Install the Node Feature Discovery Operator from OperatorHub in the OpenShift Container Platform console.
  2. After installing the NFD Operator into OperatorHub, select Node Feature Discovery from the installed Operators list and select Create instance. This installs the nfd-master and nfd-worker pods, one nfd-worker pod for each compute node, in the openshift-nfd namespace.
  3. Verify that the Operator is installed and running by running the following command:

    $ oc get pods -n openshift-nfd

    Example output

    NAME                                       READY    STATUS     RESTARTS   AGE
    
    nfd-controller-manager-8646fcbb65-x5qgk    2/2      Running 7  (8h ago)   1d

  4. Browse to the installed Oerator in the console and select Create Node Feature Discovery.
  5. Select Create to build a NFD custom resource. This creates NFD pods in the openshift-nfd namespace that poll the OpenShift Container Platform nodes for hardware resources and catalogue them.

Verification

  1. After a successful build, verify that a NFD pod is running on each nodes by running the following command:

    $ oc get pods -n openshift-nfd

    Example output

    NAME                                       READY   STATUS      RESTARTS        AGE
    nfd-controller-manager-8646fcbb65-x5qgk    2/2     Running     7 (8h ago)      12d
    nfd-master-769656c4cb-w9vrv                1/1     Running     0               12d
    nfd-worker-qjxb2                           1/1     Running     3 (3d14h ago)   12d
    nfd-worker-xtz9b                           1/1     Running     5 (3d14h ago)   12d

    The NFD Operator uses vendor PCI IDs to identify hardware in a node. NVIDIA uses the PCI ID 10de.

  2. View the NVIDIA GPU discovered by the NFD Operator by running the following command:

    $ oc describe node ip-10-0-132-138.us-east-2.compute.internal | egrep 'Roles|pci'

    Example output

    Roles: worker
    
    feature.node.kubernetes.io/pci-1013.present=true
    
    feature.node.kubernetes.io/pci-10de.present=true
    
    feature.node.kubernetes.io/pci-1d0f.present=true

    10de appears in the node feature list for the GPU-enabled node. This mean the NFD Operator correctly identified the node from the GPU-enabled MachineSet.

2.3.13.1. Enabling Accelerated Networking on an existing Microsoft Azure cluster

You can enable Accelerated Networking on Azure by adding acceleratedNetworking to your machine set YAML file.

Prerequisites

  • Have an existing Microsoft Azure cluster where the Machine API is operational.

Procedure

  • Add the following to the providerSpec field:

    providerSpec:
      value:
        acceleratedNetworking: true 1
        vmSize: <azure-vm-size> 2
    1
    This line enables Accelerated Networking.
    2
    Specify an Azure VM size that includes at least four vCPUs. For information about VM sizes, see Microsoft Azure documentation.

Next steps

  • To enable the feature on currently running nodes, you must replace each existing machine. This can be done for each machine individually, or by scaling the replicas down to zero, and then scaling back up to your desired number of replicas.

Verification

  • On the Microsoft Azure portal, review the Networking settings page for a machine provisioned by the machine set, and verify that the Accelerated networking field is set to Enabled.

2.4. Creating a compute machine set on Azure Stack Hub

You can create a different compute machine set to serve a specific purpose in your OpenShift Container Platform cluster on Microsoft Azure Stack Hub. For example, you might create infrastructure machine sets and related machines so that you can move supporting workloads to the new machines.

Important

You can use the advanced machine management and scaling capabilities only in clusters where the Machine API is operational. Clusters with user-provisioned infrastructure require additional validation and configuration to use the Machine API.

Clusters with the infrastructure platform type none cannot use the Machine API. This limitation applies even if the compute machines that are attached to the cluster are installed on a platform that supports the feature. This parameter cannot be changed after installation.

To view the platform type for your cluster, run the following command:

$ oc get infrastructure cluster -o jsonpath='{.status.platform}'

2.4.1. Sample YAML for a compute machine set custom resource on Azure Stack Hub

This sample YAML defines a compute machine set that runs in the 1 Microsoft Azure zone in a region and creates nodes that are labeled with node-role.kubernetes.io/<role>: "".

In this sample, <infrastructure_id> is the infrastructure ID label that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster, and <role> is the node label to add.

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
kind: MachineSet
metadata:
  labels:
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role> 2
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role> 3
  name: <infrastructure_id>-<role>-<region> 4
  namespace: openshift-machine-api
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 5
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>-<region> 6
  template:
    metadata:
      creationTimestamp: null
      labels:
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 7
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role> 8
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role> 9
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>-<region> 10
    spec:
      metadata:
        creationTimestamp: null
        labels:
          node-role.kubernetes.io/<role>: "" 11
      providerSpec:
        value:
          apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
          availabilitySet: <availability_set> 12
          credentialsSecret:
            name: azure-cloud-credentials
            namespace: openshift-machine-api
          image:
            offer: ""
            publisher: ""
            resourceID: /resourceGroups/<infrastructure_id>-rg/providers/Microsoft.Compute/images/<infrastructure_id> 13
            sku: ""
            version: ""
          internalLoadBalancer: ""
          kind: AzureMachineProviderSpec
          location: <region> 14
          managedIdentity: <infrastructure_id>-identity 15
          metadata:
            creationTimestamp: null
          natRule: null
          networkResourceGroup: ""
          osDisk:
            diskSizeGB: 128
            managedDisk:
              storageAccountType: Premium_LRS
            osType: Linux
          publicIP: false
          publicLoadBalancer: ""
          resourceGroup: <infrastructure_id>-rg 16
          sshPrivateKey: ""
          sshPublicKey: ""
          subnet: <infrastructure_id>-<role>-subnet 17 18
          userDataSecret:
            name: worker-user-data 19
          vmSize: Standard_DS4_v2
          vnet: <infrastructure_id>-vnet 20
          zone: "1" 21
1 5 7 13 15 16 17 20
Specify the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster. If you have the OpenShift CLI installed, you can obtain the infrastructure ID by running the following command:
$ oc get -o jsonpath='{.status.infrastructureName}{"\n"}' infrastructure cluster

You can obtain the subnet by running the following command:

$  oc -n openshift-machine-api \
    -o jsonpath='{.spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value.subnet}{"\n"}' \
    get machineset/<infrastructure_id>-worker-centralus1

You can obtain the vnet by running the following command:

$  oc -n openshift-machine-api \
    -o jsonpath='{.spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value.vnet}{"\n"}' \
    get machineset/<infrastructure_id>-worker-centralus1
2 3 8 9 11 18 19
Specify the node label to add.
4 6 10
Specify the infrastructure ID, node label, and region.
14
Specify the region to place machines on.
21
Specify the zone within your region to place machines on. Be sure that your region supports the zone that you specify.
12
Specify the availability set for the cluster.

2.4.2. Creating a compute machine set

In addition to the compute machine sets created by the installation program, you can create your own to dynamically manage the machine compute resources for specific workloads of your choice.

Prerequisites

  • Deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Log in to oc as a user with cluster-admin permission.
  • Create an availability set in which to deploy Azure Stack Hub compute machines.

Procedure

  1. Create a new YAML file that contains the compute machine set custom resource (CR) sample and is named <file_name>.yaml.

    Ensure that you set the <availabilitySet>, <clusterID>, and <role> parameter values.

  2. Optional: If you are not sure which value to set for a specific field, you can check an existing compute machine set from your cluster.

    1. To list the compute machine sets in your cluster, run the following command:

      $ oc get machinesets -n openshift-machine-api

      Example output

      NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1b   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1c   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1d   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1e   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1f   0         0                             55m

    2. To view values of a specific compute machine set custom resource (CR), run the following command:

      $ oc get machineset <machineset_name> \
        -n openshift-machine-api -o yaml

      Example output

      apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
      kind: MachineSet
      metadata:
        labels:
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
        name: <infrastructure_id>-<role> 2
        namespace: openshift-machine-api
      spec:
        replicas: 1
        selector:
          matchLabels:
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>
        template:
          metadata:
            labels:
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>
          spec:
            providerSpec: 3
              ...

      1
      The cluster infrastructure ID.
      2
      A default node label.
      Note

      For clusters that have user-provisioned infrastructure, a compute machine set can only create worker and infra type machines.

      3
      The values in the <providerSpec> section of the compute machine set CR are platform-specific. For more information about <providerSpec> parameters in the CR, see the sample compute machine set CR configuration for your provider.
  3. Create a MachineSet CR by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <file_name>.yaml

Verification

  • View the list of compute machine sets by running the following command:

    $ oc get machineset -n openshift-machine-api

    Example output

    NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
    agl030519-vplxk-infra-us-east-1a    1         1         1       1           11m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1b   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1c   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1d   0         0                             55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1e   0         0                             55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1f   0         0                             55m

    When the new compute machine set is available, the DESIRED and CURRENT values match. If the compute machine set is not available, wait a few minutes and run the command again.

2.4.3. Enabling Azure boot diagnostics

You can enable boot diagnostics on Azure machines that your machine set creates.

Prerequisites

  • Have an existing Microsoft Azure Stack Hub cluster.

Procedure

  • Add the diagnostics configuration that is applicable to your storage type to the providerSpec field in your machine set YAML file:

    • For an Azure Managed storage account:

      providerSpec:
        diagnostics:
          boot:
            storageAccountType: AzureManaged 1
      1
      Specifies an Azure Managed storage account.
    • For an Azure Unmanaged storage account:

      providerSpec:
        diagnostics:
          boot:
            storageAccountType: CustomerManaged 1
            customerManaged:
              storageAccountURI: https://<storage-account>.blob.core.windows.net 2
      1
      Specifies an Azure Unmanaged storage account.
      2
      Replace <storage-account> with the name of your storage account.
      Note

      Only the Azure Blob Storage data service is supported.

Verification

  • On the Microsoft Azure portal, review the Boot diagnostics page for a machine deployed by the machine set, and verify that you can see the serial logs for the machine.

2.4.4. Enabling customer-managed encryption keys for a machine set

You can supply an encryption key to Azure to encrypt data on managed disks at rest. You can enable server-side encryption with customer-managed keys by using the Machine API.

An Azure Key Vault, a disk encryption set, and an encryption key are required to use a customer-managed key. The disk encryption set must be in a resource group where the Cloud Credential Operator (CCO) has granted permissions. If not, an additional reader role is required to be granted on the disk encryption set.

Procedure

  • Configure the disk encryption set under the providerSpec field in your machine set YAML file. For example:

    providerSpec:
      value:
        osDisk:
          diskSizeGB: 128
          managedDisk:
            diskEncryptionSet:
              id: /subscriptions/<subscription_id>/resourceGroups/<resource_group_name>/providers/Microsoft.Compute/diskEncryptionSets/<disk_encryption_set_name>
            storageAccountType: Premium_LRS

2.5. Creating a compute machine set on GCP

You can create a different compute machine set to serve a specific purpose in your OpenShift Container Platform cluster on Google Cloud Platform (GCP). For example, you might create infrastructure machine sets and related machines so that you can move supporting workloads to the new machines.

Important

You can use the advanced machine management and scaling capabilities only in clusters where the Machine API is operational. Clusters with user-provisioned infrastructure require additional validation and configuration to use the Machine API.

Clusters with the infrastructure platform type none cannot use the Machine API. This limitation applies even if the compute machines that are attached to the cluster are installed on a platform that supports the feature. This parameter cannot be changed after installation.

To view the platform type for your cluster, run the following command:

$ oc get infrastructure cluster -o jsonpath='{.status.platform}'

2.5.1. Sample YAML for a compute machine set custom resource on GCP

This sample YAML defines a compute machine set that runs in Google Cloud Platform (GCP) and creates nodes that are labeled with node-role.kubernetes.io/<role>: "", where <role> is the node label to add.

Values obtained by using the OpenShift CLI

In the following example, you can obtain some of the values for your cluster by using the OpenShift CLI.

Infrastructure ID

The <infrastructure_id> string is the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster. If you have the OpenShift CLI installed, you can obtain the infrastructure ID by running the following command:

$ oc get -o jsonpath='{.status.infrastructureName}{"\n"}' infrastructure cluster
Image path

The <path_to_image> string is the path to the image that was used to create the disk. If you have the OpenShift CLI installed, you can obtain the path to the image by running the following command:

$ oc -n openshift-machine-api \
  -o jsonpath='{.spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value.disks[0].image}{"\n"}' \
  get machineset/<infrastructure_id>-worker-a

Sample GCP MachineSet values

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
kind: MachineSet
metadata:
  labels:
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
  name: <infrastructure_id>-w-a
  namespace: openshift-machine-api
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-w-a
  template:
    metadata:
      creationTimestamp: null
      labels:
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role> 2
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role>
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-w-a
    spec:
      metadata:
        labels:
          node-role.kubernetes.io/<role>: ""
      providerSpec:
        value:
          apiVersion: gcpprovider.openshift.io/v1beta1
          canIPForward: false
          credentialsSecret:
            name: gcp-cloud-credentials
          deletionProtection: false
          disks:
          - autoDelete: true
            boot: true
            image: <path_to_image> 3
            labels: null
            sizeGb: 128
            type: pd-ssd
          gcpMetadata: 4
          - key: <custom_metadata_key>
            value: <custom_metadata_value>
          kind: GCPMachineProviderSpec
          machineType: n1-standard-4
          metadata:
            creationTimestamp: null
          networkInterfaces:
          - network: <infrastructure_id>-network
            subnetwork: <infrastructure_id>-worker-subnet
          projectID: <project_name> 5
          region: us-central1
          serviceAccounts:
          - email: <infrastructure_id>-w@<project_name>.iam.gserviceaccount.com
            scopes:
            - https://www.googleapis.com/auth/cloud-platform
          tags:
            - <infrastructure_id>-worker
          userDataSecret:
            name: worker-user-data
          zone: us-central1-a

1
For <infrastructure_id>, specify the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster.
2
For <node>, specify the node label to add.
3
Specify the path to the image that is used in current compute machine sets.

To use a GCP Marketplace image, specify the offer to use:

  • OpenShift Container Platform: https://www.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/redhat-marketplace-public/global/images/redhat-coreos-ocp-413-x86-64-202305021736
  • OpenShift Platform Plus: https://www.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/redhat-marketplace-public/global/images/redhat-coreos-opp-413-x86-64-202305021736
  • OpenShift Kubernetes Engine: https://www.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/redhat-marketplace-public/global/images/redhat-coreos-oke-413-x86-64-202305021736
4
Optional: Specify custom metadata in the form of a key:value pair. For example use cases, see the GCP documentation for setting custom metadata.
5
For <project_name>, specify the name of the GCP project that you use for your cluster.

2.5.2. Creating a compute machine set

In addition to the compute machine sets created by the installation program, you can create your own to dynamically manage the machine compute resources for specific workloads of your choice.

Prerequisites

  • Deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Log in to oc as a user with cluster-admin permission.

Procedure

  1. Create a new YAML file that contains the compute machine set custom resource (CR) sample and is named <file_name>.yaml.

    Ensure that you set the <clusterID> and <role> parameter values.

  2. Optional: If you are not sure which value to set for a specific field, you can check an existing compute machine set from your cluster.

    1. To list the compute machine sets in your cluster, run the following command:

      $ oc get machinesets -n openshift-machine-api

      Example output

      NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1b   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1c   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1d   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1e   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1f   0         0                             55m

    2. To view values of a specific compute machine set custom resource (CR), run the following command:

      $ oc get machineset <machineset_name> \
        -n openshift-machine-api -o yaml

      Example output

      apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
      kind: MachineSet
      metadata:
        labels:
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
        name: <infrastructure_id>-<role> 2
        namespace: openshift-machine-api
      spec:
        replicas: 1
        selector:
          matchLabels:
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>
        template:
          metadata:
            labels:
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>
          spec:
            providerSpec: 3
              ...

      1
      The cluster infrastructure ID.
      2
      A default node label.
      Note

      For clusters that have user-provisioned infrastructure, a compute machine set can only create worker and infra type machines.

      3
      The values in the <providerSpec> section of the compute machine set CR are platform-specific. For more information about <providerSpec> parameters in the CR, see the sample compute machine set CR configuration for your provider.
  3. Create a MachineSet CR by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <file_name>.yaml

Verification

  • View the list of compute machine sets by running the following command:

    $ oc get machineset -n openshift-machine-api

    Example output

    NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
    agl030519-vplxk-infra-us-east-1a    1         1         1       1           11m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1b   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1c   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1d   0         0                             55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1e   0         0                             55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1f   0         0                             55m

    When the new compute machine set is available, the DESIRED and CURRENT values match. If the compute machine set is not available, wait a few minutes and run the command again.

2.5.3. Configuring persistent disk types by using machine sets

You can configure the type of persistent disk that a machine set deploys machines on by editing the machine set YAML file.

For more information about persistent disk types, compatibility, regional availability, and limitations, see the GCP Compute Engine documentation about persistent disks.

Procedure

  1. In a text editor, open the YAML file for an existing machine set or create a new one.
  2. Edit the following line under the providerSpec field:

    apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
    kind: MachineSet
    ...
    spec:
      template:
        spec:
          providerSpec:
            value:
              disks:
                type: <pd-disk-type> 1
    1
    Specify the persistent disk type. Valid values are pd-ssd, pd-standard, and pd-balanced. The default value is pd-standard.

Verification

  • Using the Google Cloud console, review the details for a machine deployed by the machine set and verify that the Type field matches the configured disk type.

2.5.4. Configuring Confidential VM by using machine sets

By editing the machine set YAML file, you can configure the Confidential VM options that a machine set uses for machines that it deploys.

For more information about Confidential VM features, functions, and compatibility, see the GCP Compute Engine documentation about Confidential VM.

Note

Confidential VMs are currently not supported on 64-bit ARM architectures.

Important

OpenShift Container Platform 4.15 does not support some Confidential Compute features, such as Confidential VMs with AMD Secure Encrypted Virtualization Secure Nested Paging (SEV-SNP).

Procedure

  1. In a text editor, open the YAML file for an existing machine set or create a new one.
  2. Edit the following section under the providerSpec field:

    apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
    kind: MachineSet
    ...
    spec:
      template:
        spec:
          providerSpec:
            value:
              confidentialCompute: Enabled 1
              onHostMaintenance: Terminate 2
              machineType: n2d-standard-8 3
    ...
    1
    Specify whether Confidential VM is enabled. Valid values are Disabled or Enabled.
    2
    Specify the behavior of the VM during a host maintenance event, such as a hardware or software update. For a machine that uses Confidential VM, this value must be set to Terminate, which stops the VM. Confidential VM does not support live VM migration.
    3
    Specify a machine type that supports Confidential VM. Confidential VM supports the N2D and C2D series of machine types.

Verification

  • On the Google Cloud console, review the details for a machine deployed by the machine set and verify that the Confidential VM options match the values that you configured.

2.5.5. Machine sets that deploy machines as preemptible VM instances

You can save on costs by creating a compute machine set running on GCP that deploys machines as non-guaranteed preemptible VM instances. Preemptible VM instances utilize excess Compute Engine capacity and are less expensive than normal instances. You can use preemptible VM instances for workloads that can tolerate interruptions, such as batch or stateless, horizontally scalable workloads.

GCP Compute Engine can terminate a preemptible VM instance at any time. Compute Engine sends a preemption notice to the user indicating that an interruption will occur in 30 seconds. OpenShift Container Platform begins to remove the workloads from the affected instances when Compute Engine issues the preemption notice. An ACPI G3 Mechanical Off signal is sent to the operating system after 30 seconds if the instance is not stopped. The preemptible VM instance is then transitioned to a TERMINATED state by Compute Engine.

Interruptions can occur when using preemptible VM instances for the following reasons:

  • There is a system or maintenance event
  • The supply of preemptible VM instances decreases
  • The instance reaches the end of the allotted 24-hour period for preemptible VM instances

When GCP terminates an instance, a termination handler running on the preemptible VM instance node deletes the machine resource. To satisfy the compute machine set replicas quantity, the compute machine set creates a machine that requests a preemptible VM instance.

2.5.5.1. Creating preemptible VM instances by using compute machine sets

You can launch a preemptible VM instance on GCP by adding preemptible to your compute machine set YAML file.

Procedure

  • Add the following line under the providerSpec field:

    providerSpec:
      value:
        preemptible: true

    If preemptible is set to true, the machine is labelled as an interruptable-instance after the instance is launched.

2.5.6. Configuring Shielded VM options by using machine sets

By editing the machine set YAML file, you can configure the Shielded VM options that a machine set uses for machines that it deploys.

For more information about Shielded VM features and functionality, see the GCP Compute Engine documentation about Shielded VM.

Procedure

  1. In a text editor, open the YAML file for an existing machine set or create a new one.
  2. Edit the following section under the providerSpec field:

    apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
    kind: MachineSet
    # ...
    spec:
      template:
        spec:
          providerSpec:
            value:
              shieldedInstanceConfig: 1
                integrityMonitoring: Enabled 2
                secureBoot: Disabled 3
                virtualizedTrustedPlatformModule: Enabled 4
    # ...
    1
    In this section, specify any Shielded VM options that you want.
    2
    Specify whether integrity monitoring is enabled. Valid values are Disabled or Enabled.
    Note

    When integrity monitoring is enabled, you must not disable virtual trusted platform module (vTPM).

    3
    Specify whether UEFI Secure Boot is enabled. Valid values are Disabled or Enabled.
    4
    Specify whether vTPM is enabled. Valid values are Disabled or Enabled.

Verification

  • Using the Google Cloud console, review the details for a machine deployed by the machine set and verify that the Shielded VM options match the values that you configured.

2.5.7. Enabling customer-managed encryption keys for a machine set

Google Cloud Platform (GCP) Compute Engine allows users to supply an encryption key to encrypt data on disks at rest. The key is used to encrypt the data encryption key, not to encrypt the customer’s data. By default, Compute Engine encrypts this data by using Compute Engine keys.

You can enable encryption with a customer-managed key in clusters that use the Machine API. You must first create a KMS key and assign the correct permissions to a service account. The KMS key name, key ring name, and location are required to allow a service account to use your key.

Note

If you do not want to use a dedicated service account for the KMS encryption, the Compute Engine default service account is used instead. You must grant the default service account permission to access the keys if you do not use a dedicated service account. The Compute Engine default service account name follows the service-<project_number>@compute-system.iam.gserviceaccount.com pattern.

Procedure

  1. To allow a specific service account to use your KMS key and to grant the service account the correct IAM role, run the following command with your KMS key name, key ring name, and location:

    $ gcloud kms keys add-iam-policy-binding <key_name> \
      --keyring <key_ring_name> \
      --location <key_ring_location> \
      --member "serviceAccount:service-<project_number>@compute-system.iam.gserviceaccount.com” \
      --role roles/cloudkms.cryptoKeyEncrypterDecrypter
  2. Configure the encryption key under the providerSpec field in your machine set YAML file. For example:

    apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
    kind: MachineSet
    ...
    spec:
      template:
        spec:
          providerSpec:
            value:
              disks:
              - type:
                encryptionKey:
                  kmsKey:
                    name: machine-encryption-key 1
                    keyRing: openshift-encrpytion-ring 2
                    location: global 3
                    projectID: openshift-gcp-project 4
                  kmsKeyServiceAccount: openshift-service-account@openshift-gcp-project.iam.gserviceaccount.com 5
    1
    The name of the customer-managed encryption key that is used for the disk encryption.
    2
    The name of the KMS key ring that the KMS key belongs to.
    3
    The GCP location in which the KMS key ring exists.
    4
    Optional: The ID of the project in which the KMS key ring exists. If a project ID is not set, the machine set projectID in which the machine set was created is used.
    5
    Optional: The service account that is used for the encryption request for the given KMS key. If a service account is not set, the Compute Engine default service account is used.

    When a new machine is created by using the updated providerSpec object configuration, the disk encryption key is encrypted with the KMS key.

2.5.8. Enabling GPU support for a compute machine set

Google Cloud Platform (GCP) Compute Engine enables users to add GPUs to VM instances. Workloads that benefit from access to GPU resources can perform better on compute machines with this feature enabled. OpenShift Container Platform on GCP supports NVIDIA GPU models in the A2 and N1 machine series.

Table 2.2. Supported GPU configurations

Model nameGPU typeMachine types [1]

NVIDIA A100

nvidia-tesla-a100

  • a2-highgpu-1g
  • a2-highgpu-2g
  • a2-highgpu-4g
  • a2-highgpu-8g
  • a2-megagpu-16g

NVIDIA K80

nvidia-tesla-k80

  • n1-standard-1
  • n1-standard-2
  • n1-standard-4
  • n1-standard-8
  • n1-standard-16
  • n1-standard-32
  • n1-standard-64
  • n1-standard-96
  • n1-highmem-2
  • n1-highmem-4
  • n1-highmem-8
  • n1-highmem-16
  • n1-highmem-32
  • n1-highmem-64
  • n1-highmem-96
  • n1-highcpu-2
  • n1-highcpu-4
  • n1-highcpu-8
  • n1-highcpu-16
  • n1-highcpu-32
  • n1-highcpu-64
  • n1-highcpu-96

NVIDIA P100

nvidia-tesla-p100

NVIDIA P4

nvidia-tesla-p4

NVIDIA T4

nvidia-tesla-t4

NVIDIA V100

nvidia-tesla-v100

  1. For more information about machine types, including specifications, compatibility, regional availability, and limitations, see the GCP Compute Engine documentation about N1 machine series, A2 machine series, and GPU regions and zones availability.

You can define which supported GPU to use for an instance by using the Machine API.

You can configure machines in the N1 machine series to deploy with one of the supported GPU types. Machines in the A2 machine series come with associated GPUs, and cannot use guest accelerators.

Note

GPUs for graphics workloads are not supported.

Procedure

  1. In a text editor, open the YAML file for an existing compute machine set or create a new one.
  2. Specify a GPU configuration under the providerSpec field in your compute machine set YAML file. See the following examples of valid configurations:

    Example configuration for the A2 machine series:

      providerSpec:
        value:
          machineType: a2-highgpu-1g 1
          onHostMaintenance: Terminate 2
          restartPolicy: Always 3

    1
    Specify the machine type. Ensure that the machine type is included in the A2 machine series.
    2
    When using GPU support, you must set onHostMaintenance to Terminate.
    3
    Specify the restart policy for machines deployed by the compute machine set. Allowed values are Always or Never.

    Example configuration for the N1 machine series:

    providerSpec:
      value:
        gpus:
        - count: 1 1
          type: nvidia-tesla-p100 2
        machineType: n1-standard-1 3
        onHostMaintenance: Terminate 4
        restartPolicy: Always 5

    1
    Specify the number of GPUs to attach to the machine.
    2
    Specify the type of GPUs to attach to the machine. Ensure that the machine type and GPU type are compatible.
    3
    Specify the machine type. Ensure that the machine type and GPU type are compatible.
    4
    When using GPU support, you must set onHostMaintenance to Terminate.
    5
    Specify the restart policy for machines deployed by the compute machine set. Allowed values are Always or Never.

2.5.9. Adding a GPU node to an existing OpenShift Container Platform cluster

You can copy and modify a default compute machine set configuration to create a GPU-enabled machine set and machines for the GCP cloud provider.

The following table lists the validated instance types:

Instance typeNVIDIA GPU acceleratorMaximum number of GPUsArchitecture

a2-highgpu-1g

A100

1

x86

n1-standard-4

T4

1

x86

Procedure

  1. Make a copy of an existing MachineSet.
  2. In the new copy, change the machine set name in metadata.name and in both instances of machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset.
  3. Change the instance type to add the following two lines to the newly copied MachineSet:

    machineType: a2-highgpu-1g
    onHostMaintenance: Terminate

    Example a2-highgpu-1g.json file

    {
        "apiVersion": "machine.openshift.io/v1beta1",
        "kind": "MachineSet",
        "metadata": {
            "annotations": {
                "machine.openshift.io/GPU": "0",
                "machine.openshift.io/memoryMb": "16384",
                "machine.openshift.io/vCPU": "4"
            },
            "creationTimestamp": "2023-01-13T17:11:02Z",
            "generation": 1,
            "labels": {
                "machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster": "myclustername-2pt9p"
            },
            "name": "myclustername-2pt9p-worker-gpu-a",
            "namespace": "openshift-machine-api",
            "resourceVersion": "20185",
            "uid": "2daf4712-733e-4399-b4b4-d43cb1ed32bd"
        },
        "spec": {
            "replicas": 1,
            "selector": {
                "matchLabels": {
                    "machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster": "myclustername-2pt9p",
                    "machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset": "myclustername-2pt9p-worker-gpu-a"
                }
            },
            "template": {
                "metadata": {
                    "labels": {
                        "machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster": "myclustername-2pt9p",
                        "machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role": "worker",
                        "machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type": "worker",
                        "machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset": "myclustername-2pt9p-worker-gpu-a"
                    }
                },
                "spec": {
                    "lifecycleHooks": {},
                    "metadata": {},
                    "providerSpec": {
                        "value": {
                            "apiVersion": "machine.openshift.io/v1beta1",
                            "canIPForward": false,
                            "credentialsSecret": {
                                "name": "gcp-cloud-credentials"
                            },
                            "deletionProtection": false,
                            "disks": [
                                {
                                    "autoDelete": true,
                                    "boot": true,
                                    "image": "projects/rhcos-cloud/global/images/rhcos-412-86-202212081411-0-gcp-x86-64",
                                    "labels": null,
                                    "sizeGb": 128,
                                    "type": "pd-ssd"
                                }
                            ],
                            "kind": "GCPMachineProviderSpec",
                            "machineType": "a2-highgpu-1g",
                            "onHostMaintenance": "Terminate",
                            "metadata": {
                                "creationTimestamp": null
                            },
                            "networkInterfaces": [
                                {
                                    "network": "myclustername-2pt9p-network",
                                    "subnetwork": "myclustername-2pt9p-worker-subnet"
                                }
                            ],
                            "preemptible": true,
                            "projectID": "myteam",
                            "region": "us-central1",
                            "serviceAccounts": [
                                {
                                    "email": "myclustername-2pt9p-w@myteam.iam.gserviceaccount.com",
                                    "scopes": [
                                        "https://www.googleapis.com/auth/cloud-platform"
                                    ]
                                }
                            ],
                            "tags": [
                                "myclustername-2pt9p-worker"
                            ],
                            "userDataSecret": {
                                "name": "worker-user-data"
                            },
                            "zone": "us-central1-a"
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
        },
        "status": {
            "availableReplicas": 1,
            "fullyLabeledReplicas": 1,
            "observedGeneration": 1,
            "readyReplicas": 1,
            "replicas": 1
        }
    }

  4. View the existing nodes, machines, and machine sets by running the following command. Note that each node is an instance of a machine definition with a specific GCP region and OpenShift Container Platform role.

    $ oc get nodes

    Example output

    NAME                                                             STATUS     ROLES                  AGE     VERSION
    myclustername-2pt9p-master-0.c.openshift-qe.internal             Ready      control-plane,master   8h      v1.28.5
    myclustername-2pt9p-master-1.c.openshift-qe.internal             Ready      control-plane,master   8h      v1.28.5
    myclustername-2pt9p-master-2.c.openshift-qe.internal             Ready      control-plane,master   8h      v1.28.5
    myclustername-2pt9p-worker-a-mxtnz.c.openshift-qe.internal       Ready      worker                 8h      v1.28.5
    myclustername-2pt9p-worker-b-9pzzn.c.openshift-qe.internal       Ready      worker                 8h      v1.28.5
    myclustername-2pt9p-worker-c-6pbg6.c.openshift-qe.internal       Ready      worker                 8h      v1.28.5
    myclustername-2pt9p-worker-gpu-a-wxcr6.c.openshift-qe.internal   Ready      worker                 4h35m   v1.28.5

  5. View the machines and machine sets that exist in the openshift-machine-api namespace by running the following command. Each compute machine set is associated with a different availability zone within the GCP region. The installer automatically load balances compute machines across availability zones.

    $ oc get machinesets -n openshift-machine-api

    Example output

    NAME                               DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
    myclustername-2pt9p-worker-a       1         1         1       1           8h
    myclustername-2pt9p-worker-b       1         1         1       1           8h
    myclustername-2pt9p-worker-c       1         1                             8h
    myclustername-2pt9p-worker-f       0         0                             8h

  6. View the machines that exist in the openshift-machine-api namespace by running the following command. You can only configure one compute machine per set, although you can scale a compute machine set to add a node in a particular region and zone.

    $ oc get machines -n openshift-machine-api | grep worker

    Example output

    myclustername-2pt9p-worker-a-mxtnz       Running   n2-standard-4   us-central1   us-central1-a   8h
    myclustername-2pt9p-worker-b-9pzzn       Running   n2-standard-4   us-central1   us-central1-b   8h
    myclustername-2pt9p-worker-c-6pbg6       Running   n2-standard-4   us-central1   us-central1-c   8h

  7. Make a copy of one of the existing compute MachineSet definitions and output the result to a JSON file by running the following command. This will be the basis for the GPU-enabled compute machine set definition.

    $ oc get machineset myclustername-2pt9p-worker-a -n openshift-machine-api -o json  > <output_file.json>
  8. Edit the JSON file to make the following changes to the new MachineSet definition:

    • Rename the machine set name by inserting the substring gpu in metadata.name and in both instances of machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset.
    • Change the machineType of the new MachineSet definition to a2-highgpu-1g, which includes an NVIDIA A100 GPU.

      jq .spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value.machineType ocp_4.15_machineset-a2-highgpu-1g.json
      
      "a2-highgpu-1g"

      The <output_file.json> file is saved as ocp_4.15_machineset-a2-highgpu-1g.json.

  9. Update the following fields in ocp_4.15_machineset-a2-highgpu-1g.json:

    • Change .metadata.name to a name containing gpu.
    • Change .spec.selector.matchLabels["machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset"] to match the new .metadata.name.
    • Change .spec.template.metadata.labels["machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset"] to match the new .metadata.name.
    • Change .spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value.MachineType to a2-highgpu-1g.
    • Add the following line under machineType: `"onHostMaintenance": "Terminate". For example:

      "machineType": "a2-highgpu-1g",
      "onHostMaintenance": "Terminate",
  10. To verify your changes, perform a diff of the original compute definition and the new GPU-enabled node definition by running the following command:

    $ oc get machineset/myclustername-2pt9p-worker-a -n openshift-machine-api -o json | diff ocp_4.15_machineset-a2-highgpu-1g.json -

    Example output

    15c15
    <         "name": "myclustername-2pt9p-worker-gpu-a",
    ---
    >         "name": "myclustername-2pt9p-worker-a",
    25c25
    <                 "machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset": "myclustername-2pt9p-worker-gpu-a"
    ---
    >                 "machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset": "myclustername-2pt9p-worker-a"
    34c34
    <                     "machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset": "myclustername-2pt9p-worker-gpu-a"
    ---
    >                     "machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset": "myclustername-2pt9p-worker-a"
    59,60c59
    <                         "machineType": "a2-highgpu-1g",
    <                         "onHostMaintenance": "Terminate",
    ---
    >                         "machineType": "n2-standard-4",

  11. Create the GPU-enabled compute machine set from the definition file by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f ocp_4.15_machineset-a2-highgpu-1g.json

    Example output

    machineset.machine.openshift.io/myclustername-2pt9p-worker-gpu-a created

Verification

  1. View the machine set you created by running the following command:

    $ oc -n openshift-machine-api get machinesets | grep gpu

    The MachineSet replica count is set to 1 so a new Machine object is created automatically.

    Example output

    myclustername-2pt9p-worker-gpu-a   1         1         1       1           5h24m

  2. View the Machine object that the machine set created by running the following command:

    $ oc -n openshift-machine-api get machines | grep gpu

    Example output

    myclustername-2pt9p-worker-gpu-a-wxcr6   Running   a2-highgpu-1g   us-central1   us-central1-a   5h25m

Note

Note that there is no need to specify a namespace for the node. The node definition is cluster scoped.

2.5.10. Deploying the Node Feature Discovery Operator

After the GPU-enabled node is created, you need to discover the GPU-enabled node so it can be scheduled. To do this, install the Node Feature Discovery (NFD) Operator. The NFD Operator identifies hardware device features in nodes. It solves the general problem of identifying and cataloging hardware resources in the infrastructure nodes so they can be made available to OpenShift Container Platform.

Procedure

  1. Install the Node Feature Discovery Operator from OperatorHub in the OpenShift Container Platform console.
  2. After installing the NFD Operator into OperatorHub, select Node Feature Discovery from the installed Operators list and select Create instance. This installs the nfd-master and nfd-worker pods, one nfd-worker pod for each compute node, in the openshift-nfd namespace.
  3. Verify that the Operator is installed and running by running the following command:

    $ oc get pods -n openshift-nfd

    Example output

    NAME                                       READY    STATUS     RESTARTS   AGE
    
    nfd-controller-manager-8646fcbb65-x5qgk    2/2      Running 7  (8h ago)   1d

  4. Browse to the installed Oerator in the console and select Create Node Feature Discovery.
  5. Select Create to build a NFD custom resource. This creates NFD pods in the openshift-nfd namespace that poll the OpenShift Container Platform nodes for hardware resources and catalogue them.

Verification

  1. After a successful build, verify that a NFD pod is running on each nodes by running the following command:

    $ oc get pods -n openshift-nfd

    Example output

    NAME                                       READY   STATUS      RESTARTS        AGE
    nfd-controller-manager-8646fcbb65-x5qgk    2/2     Running     7 (8h ago)      12d
    nfd-master-769656c4cb-w9vrv                1/1     Running     0               12d
    nfd-worker-qjxb2                           1/1     Running     3 (3d14h ago)   12d
    nfd-worker-xtz9b                           1/1     Running     5 (3d14h ago)   12d

    The NFD Operator uses vendor PCI IDs to identify hardware in a node. NVIDIA uses the PCI ID 10de.

  2. View the NVIDIA GPU discovered by the NFD Operator by running the following command:

    $ oc describe node ip-10-0-132-138.us-east-2.compute.internal | egrep 'Roles|pci'

    Example output

    Roles: worker
    
    feature.node.kubernetes.io/pci-1013.present=true
    
    feature.node.kubernetes.io/pci-10de.present=true
    
    feature.node.kubernetes.io/pci-1d0f.present=true

    10de appears in the node feature list for the GPU-enabled node. This mean the NFD Operator correctly identified the node from the GPU-enabled MachineSet.

2.6. Creating a compute machine set on IBM Cloud

You can create a different compute machine set to serve a specific purpose in your OpenShift Container Platform cluster on IBM Cloud®. For example, you might create infrastructure machine sets and related machines so that you can move supporting workloads to the new machines.

Important

You can use the advanced machine management and scaling capabilities only in clusters where the Machine API is operational. Clusters with user-provisioned infrastructure require additional validation and configuration to use the Machine API.

Clusters with the infrastructure platform type none cannot use the Machine API. This limitation applies even if the compute machines that are attached to the cluster are installed on a platform that supports the feature. This parameter cannot be changed after installation.

To view the platform type for your cluster, run the following command:

$ oc get infrastructure cluster -o jsonpath='{.status.platform}'

2.6.1. Sample YAML for a compute machine set custom resource on IBM Cloud

This sample YAML defines a compute machine set that runs in a specified IBM Cloud® zone in a region and creates nodes that are labeled with node-role.kubernetes.io/<role>: "".

In this sample, <infrastructure_id> is the infrastructure ID label that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster, and <role> is the node label to add.

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
kind: MachineSet
metadata:
  labels:
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role> 2
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role> 3
  name: <infrastructure_id>-<role>-<region> 4
  namespace: openshift-machine-api
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 5
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>-<region> 6
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 7
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role> 8
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role> 9
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>-<region> 10
    spec:
      metadata:
        labels:
          node-role.kubernetes.io/<role>: ""
      providerSpec:
        value:
          apiVersion: ibmcloudproviderconfig.openshift.io/v1beta1
          credentialsSecret:
            name: ibmcloud-credentials
          image: <infrastructure_id>-rhcos 11
          kind: IBMCloudMachineProviderSpec
          primaryNetworkInterface:
              securityGroups:
              - <infrastructure_id>-sg-cluster-wide
              - <infrastructure_id>-sg-openshift-net
              subnet: <infrastructure_id>-subnet-compute-<zone> 12
          profile: <instance_profile> 13
          region: <region> 14
          resourceGroup: <resource_group> 15
          userDataSecret:
              name: <role>-user-data 16
          vpc: <vpc_name> 17
          zone: <zone> 18
1 5 7
The infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster. If you have the OpenShift CLI installed, you can obtain the infrastructure ID by running the following command:
$ oc get -o jsonpath='{.status.infrastructureName}{"\n"}' infrastructure cluster
2 3 8 9 16
The node label to add.
4 6 10
The infrastructure ID, node label, and region.
11
The custom Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) image that was used for cluster installation.
12
The infrastructure ID and zone within your region to place machines on. Be sure that your region supports the zone that you specify.
13
14
Specify the region to place machines on.
15
The resource group that machine resources are placed in. This is either an existing resource group specified at installation time, or an installer-created resource group named based on the infrastructure ID.
17
The VPC name.
18
Specify the zone within your region to place machines on. Be sure that your region supports the zone that you specify.

2.6.2. Creating a compute machine set

In addition to the compute machine sets created by the installation program, you can create your own to dynamically manage the machine compute resources for specific workloads of your choice.

Prerequisites

  • Deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Log in to oc as a user with cluster-admin permission.

Procedure

  1. Create a new YAML file that contains the compute machine set custom resource (CR) sample and is named <file_name>.yaml.

    Ensure that you set the <clusterID> and <role> parameter values.

  2. Optional: If you are not sure which value to set for a specific field, you can check an existing compute machine set from your cluster.

    1. To list the compute machine sets in your cluster, run the following command:

      $ oc get machinesets -n openshift-machine-api

      Example output

      NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1b   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1c   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1d   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1e   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1f   0         0                             55m

    2. To view values of a specific compute machine set custom resource (CR), run the following command:

      $ oc get machineset <machineset_name> \
        -n openshift-machine-api -o yaml

      Example output

      apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
      kind: MachineSet
      metadata:
        labels:
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
        name: <infrastructure_id>-<role> 2
        namespace: openshift-machine-api
      spec:
        replicas: 1
        selector:
          matchLabels:
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>
        template:
          metadata:
            labels:
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>
          spec:
            providerSpec: 3
              ...

      1
      The cluster infrastructure ID.
      2
      A default node label.
      Note

      For clusters that have user-provisioned infrastructure, a compute machine set can only create worker and infra type machines.

      3
      The values in the <providerSpec> section of the compute machine set CR are platform-specific. For more information about <providerSpec> parameters in the CR, see the sample compute machine set CR configuration for your provider.
  3. Create a MachineSet CR by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <file_name>.yaml

Verification

  • View the list of compute machine sets by running the following command:

    $ oc get machineset -n openshift-machine-api

    Example output

    NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
    agl030519-vplxk-infra-us-east-1a    1         1         1       1           11m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1b   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1c   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1d   0         0                             55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1e   0         0                             55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1f   0         0                             55m

    When the new compute machine set is available, the DESIRED and CURRENT values match. If the compute machine set is not available, wait a few minutes and run the command again.

2.7. Creating a compute machine set on IBM Power Virtual Server

You can create a different compute machine set to serve a specific purpose in your OpenShift Container Platform cluster on IBM Power® Virtual Server. For example, you might create infrastructure machine sets and related machines so that you can move supporting workloads to the new machines.

Important

You can use the advanced machine management and scaling capabilities only in clusters where the Machine API is operational. Clusters with user-provisioned infrastructure require additional validation and configuration to use the Machine API.

Clusters with the infrastructure platform type none cannot use the Machine API. This limitation applies even if the compute machines that are attached to the cluster are installed on a platform that supports the feature. This parameter cannot be changed after installation.

To view the platform type for your cluster, run the following command:

$ oc get infrastructure cluster -o jsonpath='{.status.platform}'

2.7.1. Sample YAML for a compute machine set custom resource on IBM Power Virtual Server

This sample YAML file defines a compute machine set that runs in a specified IBM Power® Virtual Server zone in a region and creates nodes that are labeled with node-role.kubernetes.io/<role>: "".

In this sample, <infrastructure_id> is the infrastructure ID label that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster, and <role> is the node label to add.

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
kind: MachineSet
metadata:
  labels:
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role> 2
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role> 3
  name: <infrastructure_id>-<role>-<region> 4
  namespace: openshift-machine-api
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 5
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>-<region> 6
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 7
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role> 8
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role> 9
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>-<region> 10
    spec:
      metadata:
        labels:
          node-role.kubernetes.io/<role>: ""
      providerSpec:
        value:
          apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1
          credentialsSecret:
            name: powervs-credentials
          image:
            name: rhcos-<infrastructure_id> 11
            type: Name
          keyPairName: <infrastructure_id>-key
          kind: PowerVSMachineProviderConfig
          memoryGiB: 32
          network:
            regex: ^DHCPSERVER[0-9a-z]{32}_Private$
            type: RegEx
          processorType: Shared
          processors: "0.5"
          serviceInstance:
            id: <ibm_power_vs_service_instance_id>
            type: ID 12
          systemType: s922
          userDataSecret:
            name: <role>-user-data
1 5 7
The infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster. If you have the OpenShift CLI installed, you can obtain the infrastructure ID by running the following command:
$ oc get -o jsonpath='{.status.infrastructureName}{"\n"}' infrastructure cluster
2 3 8 9
The node label to add.
4 6 10
The infrastructure ID, node label, and region.
11
The custom Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) image that was used for cluster installation.
12
The infrastructure ID within your region to place machines on.

2.7.2. Creating a compute machine set

In addition to the compute machine sets created by the installation program, you can create your own to dynamically manage the machine compute resources for specific workloads of your choice.

Prerequisites

  • Deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Log in to oc as a user with cluster-admin permission.

Procedure

  1. Create a new YAML file that contains the compute machine set custom resource (CR) sample and is named <file_name>.yaml.

    Ensure that you set the <clusterID> and <role> parameter values.

  2. Optional: If you are not sure which value to set for a specific field, you can check an existing compute machine set from your cluster.

    1. To list the compute machine sets in your cluster, run the following command:

      $ oc get machinesets -n openshift-machine-api

      Example output

      NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1b   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1c   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1d   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1e   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1f   0         0                             55m

    2. To view values of a specific compute machine set custom resource (CR), run the following command:

      $ oc get machineset <machineset_name> \
        -n openshift-machine-api -o yaml

      Example output

      apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
      kind: MachineSet
      metadata:
        labels:
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
        name: <infrastructure_id>-<role> 2
        namespace: openshift-machine-api
      spec:
        replicas: 1
        selector:
          matchLabels:
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>
        template:
          metadata:
            labels:
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>
          spec:
            providerSpec: 3
              ...

      1
      The cluster infrastructure ID.
      2
      A default node label.
      Note

      For clusters that have user-provisioned infrastructure, a compute machine set can only create worker and infra type machines.

      3
      The values in the <providerSpec> section of the compute machine set CR are platform-specific. For more information about <providerSpec> parameters in the CR, see the sample compute machine set CR configuration for your provider.
  3. Create a MachineSet CR by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <file_name>.yaml

Verification

  • View the list of compute machine sets by running the following command:

    $ oc get machineset -n openshift-machine-api

    Example output

    NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
    agl030519-vplxk-infra-us-east-1a    1         1         1       1           11m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1b   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1c   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1d   0         0                             55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1e   0         0                             55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1f   0         0                             55m

    When the new compute machine set is available, the DESIRED and CURRENT values match. If the compute machine set is not available, wait a few minutes and run the command again.

2.8. Creating a compute machine set on Nutanix

You can create a different compute machine set to serve a specific purpose in your OpenShift Container Platform cluster on Nutanix. For example, you might create infrastructure machine sets and related machines so that you can move supporting workloads to the new machines.

Important

You can use the advanced machine management and scaling capabilities only in clusters where the Machine API is operational. Clusters with user-provisioned infrastructure require additional validation and configuration to use the Machine API.

Clusters with the infrastructure platform type none cannot use the Machine API. This limitation applies even if the compute machines that are attached to the cluster are installed on a platform that supports the feature. This parameter cannot be changed after installation.

To view the platform type for your cluster, run the following command:

$ oc get infrastructure cluster -o jsonpath='{.status.platform}'

2.8.1. Sample YAML for a compute machine set custom resource on Nutanix

This sample YAML defines a Nutanix compute machine set that creates nodes that are labeled with node-role.kubernetes.io/<role>: "".

In this sample, <infrastructure_id> is the infrastructure ID label that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster, and <role> is the node label to add.

Values obtained by using the OpenShift CLI

In the following example, you can obtain some of the values for your cluster by using the OpenShift CLI (oc).

Infrastructure ID

The <infrastructure_id> string is the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster. If you have the OpenShift CLI installed, you can obtain the infrastructure ID by running the following command:

$ oc get -o jsonpath='{.status.infrastructureName}{"\n"}' infrastructure cluster
apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
kind: MachineSet
metadata:
  labels:
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role> 2
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role>
  name: <infrastructure_id>-<role>-<zone> 3
  namespace: openshift-machine-api
  annotations: 4
    machine.openshift.io/memoryMb: "16384"
    machine.openshift.io/vCPU: "4"
spec:
  replicas: 3
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>-<zone>
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role>
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role>
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>-<zone>
    spec:
      metadata:
        labels:
          node-role.kubernetes.io/<role>: ""
      providerSpec:
        value:
          apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1
          bootType: "" 5
          categories: 6
          - key: <category_name>
            value: <category_value>
          cluster: 7
            type: uuid
            uuid: <cluster_uuid>
          credentialsSecret:
            name: nutanix-credentials
          image:
            name: <infrastructure_id>-rhcos 8
            type: name
          kind: NutanixMachineProviderConfig
          memorySize: 16Gi 9
          project: 10
            type: name
            name: <project_name>
          subnets:
          - type: uuid
            uuid: <subnet_uuid>
          systemDiskSize: 120Gi 11
          userDataSecret:
            name: <user_data_secret> 12
          vcpuSockets: 4 13
          vcpusPerSocket: 1 14
1
For <infrastructure_id>, specify the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster.
2
Specify the node label to add.
3
Specify the infrastructure ID, node label, and zone.
4
Annotations for the cluster autoscaler.
5
Specifies the boot type that the compute machines use. For more information about boot types, see Understanding UEFI, Secure Boot, and TPM in the Virtualized Environment. Valid values are Legacy, SecureBoot, or UEFI. The default is Legacy.
Note

You must use the Legacy boot type in OpenShift Container Platform 4.15.

6
Specify one or more Nutanix Prism categories to apply to compute machines. This stanza requires key and value parameters for a category key-value pair that exists in Prism Central. For more information about categories, see Category management.
7
Specify a Nutanix Prism Element cluster configuration. In this example, the cluster type is uuid, so there is a uuid stanza.
8
Specify the image to use. Use an image from an existing default compute machine set for the cluster.
9
Specify the amount of memory for the cluster in Gi.
10
Specify the Nutanix project that you use for your cluster. In this example, the project type is name, so there is a name stanza.
11
Specify the size of the system disk in Gi.
12
Specify the name of the secret in the user data YAML file that is in the openshift-machine-api namespace. Use the value that installation program populates in the default compute machine set.
13
Specify the number of vCPU sockets.
14
Specify the number of vCPUs per socket.

2.8.2. Creating a compute machine set

In addition to the compute machine sets created by the installation program, you can create your own to dynamically manage the machine compute resources for specific workloads of your choice.

Prerequisites

  • Deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Log in to oc as a user with cluster-admin permission.

Procedure

  1. Create a new YAML file that contains the compute machine set custom resource (CR) sample and is named <file_name>.yaml.

    Ensure that you set the <clusterID> and <role> parameter values.

  2. Optional: If you are not sure which value to set for a specific field, you can check an existing compute machine set from your cluster.

    1. To list the compute machine sets in your cluster, run the following command:

      $ oc get machinesets -n openshift-machine-api

      Example output

      NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1b   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1c   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1d   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1e   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1f   0         0                             55m

    2. To view values of a specific compute machine set custom resource (CR), run the following command:

      $ oc get machineset <machineset_name> \
        -n openshift-machine-api -o yaml

      Example output

      apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
      kind: MachineSet
      metadata:
        labels:
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
        name: <infrastructure_id>-<role> 2
        namespace: openshift-machine-api
      spec:
        replicas: 1
        selector:
          matchLabels:
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>
        template:
          metadata:
            labels:
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>
          spec:
            providerSpec: 3
              ...

      1
      The cluster infrastructure ID.
      2
      A default node label.
      Note

      For clusters that have user-provisioned infrastructure, a compute machine set can only create worker and infra type machines.

      3
      The values in the <providerSpec> section of the compute machine set CR are platform-specific. For more information about <providerSpec> parameters in the CR, see the sample compute machine set CR configuration for your provider.
  3. Create a MachineSet CR by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <file_name>.yaml

Verification

  • View the list of compute machine sets by running the following command:

    $ oc get machineset -n openshift-machine-api

    Example output

    NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
    agl030519-vplxk-infra-us-east-1a    1         1         1       1           11m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1b   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1c   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1d   0         0                             55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1e   0         0                             55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1f   0         0                             55m

    When the new compute machine set is available, the DESIRED and CURRENT values match. If the compute machine set is not available, wait a few minutes and run the command again.

2.8.3. Failure domains for Nutanix clusters

To add or update the failure domain configuration on a Nutanix cluster, you must make coordinated changes to several resources. The following actions are required:

  1. Modify the cluster infrastructure custom resource (CR).
  2. Modify the cluster control plane machine set CR.
  3. Modify or replace the compute machine set CRs.

For more information, see "Adding failure domains to an existing Nutanix cluster" in the Post-installation configuration content.

2.9. Creating a compute machine set on OpenStack

You can create a different compute machine set to serve a specific purpose in your OpenShift Container Platform cluster on Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP). For example, you might create infrastructure machine sets and related machines so that you can move supporting workloads to the new machines.

Important

You can use the advanced machine management and scaling capabilities only in clusters where the Machine API is operational. Clusters with user-provisioned infrastructure require additional validation and configuration to use the Machine API.

Clusters with the infrastructure platform type none cannot use the Machine API. This limitation applies even if the compute machines that are attached to the cluster are installed on a platform that supports the feature. This parameter cannot be changed after installation.

To view the platform type for your cluster, run the following command:

$ oc get infrastructure cluster -o jsonpath='{.status.platform}'

2.9.1. Sample YAML for a compute machine set custom resource on RHOSP

This sample YAML defines a compute machine set that runs on Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) and creates nodes that are labeled with node-role.kubernetes.io/<role>: "".

In this sample, <infrastructure_id> is the infrastructure ID label that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster, and <role> is the node label to add.

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
kind: MachineSet
metadata:
  labels:
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role> 2
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role> 3
  name: <infrastructure_id>-<role> 4
  namespace: openshift-machine-api
spec:
  replicas: <number_of_replicas>
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 5
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role> 6
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 7
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role> 8
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role> 9
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role> 10
    spec:
      providerSpec:
        value:
          apiVersion: openstackproviderconfig.openshift.io/v1alpha1
          cloudName: openstack
          cloudsSecret:
            name: openstack-cloud-credentials
            namespace: openshift-machine-api
          flavor: <nova_flavor>
          image: <glance_image_name_or_location>
          serverGroupID: <optional_UUID_of_server_group> 11
          kind: OpenstackProviderSpec
          networks: 12
          - filter: {}
            subnets:
            - filter:
                name: <subnet_name>
                tags: openshiftClusterID=<infrastructure_id> 13
          primarySubnet: <rhosp_subnet_UUID> 14
          securityGroups:
          - filter: {}
            name: <infrastructure_id>-worker 15
          serverMetadata:
            Name: <infrastructure_id>-worker 16
            openshiftClusterID: <infrastructure_id> 17
          tags:
          - openshiftClusterID=<infrastructure_id> 18
          trunk: true
          userDataSecret:
            name: worker-user-data 19
          availabilityZone: <optional_openstack_availability_zone>
1 5 7 13 15 16 17 18
Specify the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster. If you have the OpenShift CLI installed, you can obtain the infrastructure ID by running the following command:
$ oc get -o jsonpath='{.status.infrastructureName}{"\n"}' infrastructure cluster
2 3 8 9 19
Specify the node label to add.
4 6 10
Specify the infrastructure ID and node label.
11
To set a server group policy for the MachineSet, enter the value that is returned from creating a server group. For most deployments, anti-affinity or soft-anti-affinity policies are recommended.
12
Required for deployments to multiple networks. To specify multiple networks, add another entry in the networks array. Also, you must include the network that is used as the primarySubnet value.
14
Specify the RHOSP subnet that you want the endpoints of nodes to be published on. Usually, this is the same subnet that is used as the value of machinesSubnet in the install-config.yaml file.

2.9.2. Sample YAML for a compute machine set custom resource that uses SR-IOV on RHOSP

If you configured your cluster for single-root I/O virtualization (SR-IOV), you can create compute machine sets that use that technology.

This sample YAML defines a compute machine set that uses SR-IOV networks. The nodes that it creates are labeled with node-role.openshift.io/<node_role>: ""

In this sample, infrastructure_id is the infrastructure ID label that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster, and node_role is the node label to add.

The sample assumes two SR-IOV networks that are named "radio" and "uplink". The networks are used in port definitions in the spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value.ports list.

Note

Only parameters that are specific to SR-IOV deployments are described in this sample. To review a more general sample, see "Sample YAML for a compute machine set custom resource on RHOSP".

An example compute machine set that uses SR-IOV networks

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
kind: MachineSet
metadata:
  labels:
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <node_role>
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <node_role>
  name: <infrastructure_id>-<node_role>
  namespace: openshift-machine-api
spec:
  replicas: <number_of_replicas>
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<node_role>
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <node_role>
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <node_role>
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<node_role>
    spec:
      metadata:
      providerSpec:
        value:
          apiVersion: openstackproviderconfig.openshift.io/v1alpha1
          cloudName: openstack
          cloudsSecret:
            name: openstack-cloud-credentials
            namespace: openshift-machine-api
          flavor: <nova_flavor>
          image: <glance_image_name_or_location>
          serverGroupID: <optional_UUID_of_server_group>
          kind: OpenstackProviderSpec
          networks:
            - subnets:
              - UUID: <machines_subnet_UUID>
          ports:
            - networkID: <radio_network_UUID> 1
              nameSuffix: radio
              fixedIPs:
                - subnetID: <radio_subnet_UUID> 2
              tags:
                - sriov
                - radio
              vnicType: direct 3
              portSecurity: false 4
            - networkID: <uplink_network_UUID> 5
              nameSuffix: uplink
              fixedIPs:
                - subnetID: <uplink_subnet_UUID> 6
              tags:
                - sriov
                - uplink
              vnicType: direct 7
              portSecurity: false 8
          primarySubnet: <machines_subnet_UUID>
          securityGroups:
          - filter: {}
            name: <infrastructure_id>-<node_role>
          serverMetadata:
            Name: <infrastructure_id>-<node_role>
            openshiftClusterID: <infrastructure_id>
          tags:
          - openshiftClusterID=<infrastructure_id>
          trunk: true
          userDataSecret:
            name: <node_role>-user-data
          availabilityZone: <optional_openstack_availability_zone>

1 5
Enter a network UUID for each port.
2 6
Enter a subnet UUID for each port.
3 7
The value of the vnicType parameter must be direct for each port.
4 8
The value of the portSecurity parameter must be false for each port.

You cannot set security groups and allowed address pairs for ports when port security is disabled. Setting security groups on the instance applies the groups to all ports that are attached to it.

Important

After you deploy compute machines that are SR-IOV-capable, you must label them as such. For example, from a command line, enter:

$ oc label node <NODE_NAME> feature.node.kubernetes.io/network-sriov.capable="true"
Note

Trunking is enabled for ports that are created by entries in the networks and subnets lists. The names of ports that are created from these lists follow the pattern <machine_name>-<nameSuffix>. The nameSuffix field is required in port definitions.

You can enable trunking for each port.

Optionally, you can add tags to ports as part of their tags lists.

2.9.3. Sample YAML for SR-IOV deployments where port security is disabled

To create single-root I/O virtualization (SR-IOV) ports on a network that has port security disabled, define a compute machine set that includes the ports as items in the spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value.ports list. This difference from the standard SR-IOV compute machine set is due to the automatic security group and allowed address pair configuration that occurs for ports that are created by using the network and subnet interfaces.

Ports that you define for machines subnets require:

  • Allowed address pairs for the API and ingress virtual IP ports
  • The compute security group
  • Attachment to the machines network and subnet
Note

Only parameters that are specific to SR-IOV deployments where port security is disabled are described in this sample. To review a more general sample, see Sample YAML for a compute machine set custom resource that uses SR-IOV on RHOSP".

An example compute machine set that uses SR-IOV networks and has port security disabled

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
kind: MachineSet
metadata:
  labels:
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <node_role>
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <node_role>
  name: <infrastructure_id>-<node_role>
  namespace: openshift-machine-api
spec:
  replicas: <number_of_replicas>
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<node_role>
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <node_role>
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <node_role>
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<node_role>
    spec:
      metadata: {}
      providerSpec:
        value:
          apiVersion: openstackproviderconfig.openshift.io/v1alpha1
          cloudName: openstack
          cloudsSecret:
            name: openstack-cloud-credentials
            namespace: openshift-machine-api
          flavor: <nova_flavor>
          image: <glance_image_name_or_location>
          kind: OpenstackProviderSpec
          ports:
            - allowedAddressPairs: 1
              - ipAddress: <API_VIP_port_IP>
              - ipAddress: <ingress_VIP_port_IP>
              fixedIPs:
                - subnetID: <machines_subnet_UUID> 2
              nameSuffix: nodes
              networkID: <machines_network_UUID> 3
              securityGroups:
                  - <compute_security_group_UUID> 4
            - networkID: <SRIOV_network_UUID>
              nameSuffix: sriov
              fixedIPs:
                - subnetID: <SRIOV_subnet_UUID>
              tags:
                - sriov
              vnicType: direct
              portSecurity: False
          primarySubnet: <machines_subnet_UUID>
          serverMetadata:
            Name: <infrastructure_ID>-<node_role>
            openshiftClusterID: <infrastructure_id>
          tags:
          - openshiftClusterID=<infrastructure_id>
          trunk: false
          userDataSecret:
            name: worker-user-data

1
Specify allowed address pairs for the API and ingress ports.
2 3
Specify the machines network and subnet.
4
Specify the compute machines security group.
Note

Trunking is enabled for ports that are created by entries in the networks and subnets lists. The names of ports that are created from these lists follow the pattern <machine_name>-<nameSuffix>. The nameSuffix field is required in port definitions.

You can enable trunking for each port.

Optionally, you can add tags to ports as part of their tags lists.

2.9.4. Creating a compute machine set

In addition to the compute machine sets created by the installation program, you can create your own to dynamically manage the machine compute resources for specific workloads of your choice.

Prerequisites

  • Deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Log in to oc as a user with cluster-admin permission.

Procedure

  1. Create a new YAML file that contains the compute machine set custom resource (CR) sample and is named <file_name>.yaml.

    Ensure that you set the <clusterID> and <role> parameter values.

  2. Optional: If you are not sure which value to set for a specific field, you can check an existing compute machine set from your cluster.

    1. To list the compute machine sets in your cluster, run the following command:

      $ oc get machinesets -n openshift-machine-api

      Example output

      NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1b   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1c   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1d   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1e   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1f   0         0                             55m

    2. To view values of a specific compute machine set custom resource (CR), run the following command:

      $ oc get machineset <machineset_name> \
        -n openshift-machine-api -o yaml

      Example output

      apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
      kind: MachineSet
      metadata:
        labels:
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
        name: <infrastructure_id>-<role> 2
        namespace: openshift-machine-api
      spec:
        replicas: 1
        selector:
          matchLabels:
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>
        template:
          metadata:
            labels:
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>
          spec:
            providerSpec: 3
              ...

      1
      The cluster infrastructure ID.
      2
      A default node label.
      Note

      For clusters that have user-provisioned infrastructure, a compute machine set can only create worker and infra type machines.

      3
      The values in the <providerSpec> section of the compute machine set CR are platform-specific. For more information about <providerSpec> parameters in the CR, see the sample compute machine set CR configuration for your provider.
  3. Create a MachineSet CR by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <file_name>.yaml

Verification

  • View the list of compute machine sets by running the following command:

    $ oc get machineset -n openshift-machine-api

    Example output

    NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
    agl030519-vplxk-infra-us-east-1a    1         1         1       1           11m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1b   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1c   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1d   0         0                             55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1e   0         0                             55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1f   0         0                             55m

    When the new compute machine set is available, the DESIRED and CURRENT values match. If the compute machine set is not available, wait a few minutes and run the command again.

2.10. Creating a compute machine set on vSphere

You can create a different compute machine set to serve a specific purpose in your OpenShift Container Platform cluster on VMware vSphere. For example, you might create infrastructure machine sets and related machines so that you can move supporting workloads to the new machines.

Important

You can use the advanced machine management and scaling capabilities only in clusters where the Machine API is operational. Clusters with user-provisioned infrastructure require additional validation and configuration to use the Machine API.

Clusters with the infrastructure platform type none cannot use the Machine API. This limitation applies even if the compute machines that are attached to the cluster are installed on a platform that supports the feature. This parameter cannot be changed after installation.

To view the platform type for your cluster, run the following command:

$ oc get infrastructure cluster -o jsonpath='{.status.platform}'

2.10.1. Sample YAML for a compute machine set custom resource on vSphere

This sample YAML defines a compute machine set that runs on VMware vSphere and creates nodes that are labeled with node-role.kubernetes.io/<role>: "".

In this sample, <infrastructure_id> is the infrastructure ID label that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster, and <role> is the node label to add.

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
kind: MachineSet
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: null
  labels:
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
  name: <infrastructure_id>-<role> 2
  namespace: openshift-machine-api
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 3
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role> 4
  template:
    metadata:
      creationTimestamp: null
      labels:
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 5
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role> 6
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role> 7
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role> 8
    spec:
      metadata:
        creationTimestamp: null
        labels:
          node-role.kubernetes.io/<role>: "" 9
      providerSpec:
        value:
          apiVersion: vsphereprovider.openshift.io/v1beta1
          credentialsSecret:
            name: vsphere-cloud-credentials
          diskGiB: 120
          kind: VSphereMachineProviderSpec
          memoryMiB: 8192
          metadata:
            creationTimestamp: null
          network:
            devices:
            - networkName: "<vm_network_name>" 10
          numCPUs: 4
          numCoresPerSocket: 1
          snapshot: ""
          template: <vm_template_name> 11
          userDataSecret:
            name: worker-user-data
          workspace:
            datacenter: <vcenter_datacenter_name> 12
            datastore: <vcenter_datastore_name> 13
            folder: <vcenter_vm_folder_path> 14
            resourcepool: <vsphere_resource_pool> 15
            server: <vcenter_server_ip> 16
1 3 5
Specify the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster. If you have the OpenShift CLI (oc) installed, you can obtain the infrastructure ID by running the following command:
$ oc get -o jsonpath='{.status.infrastructureName}{"\n"}' infrastructure cluster
2 4 8
Specify the infrastructure ID and node label.
6 7 9
Specify the node label to add.
10
Specify the vSphere VM network to deploy the compute machine set to. This VM network must be where other compute machines reside in the cluster.
11
Specify the vSphere VM template to use, such as user-5ddjd-rhcos.
12
Specify the vCenter Datacenter to deploy the compute machine set on.
13
Specify the vCenter Datastore to deploy the compute machine set on.
14
Specify the path to the vSphere VM folder in vCenter, such as /dc1/vm/user-inst-5ddjd.
15
Specify the vSphere resource pool for your VMs.
16
Specify the vCenter server IP or fully qualified domain name.

2.10.2. Minimum required vCenter privileges for compute machine set management

To manage compute machine sets in an OpenShift Container Platform cluster on vCenter, you must use an account with privileges to read, create, and delete the required resources. Using an account that has global administrative privileges is the simplest way to access all of the necessary permissions.

If you cannot use an account with global administrative privileges, you must create roles to grant the minimum required privileges. The following table lists the minimum vCenter roles and privileges that are required to create, scale, and delete compute machine sets and to delete machines in your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

Example 2.1. Minimum vCenter roles and privileges required for compute machine set management

vSphere object for roleWhen requiredRequired privileges

vSphere vCenter

Always

InventoryService.Tagging.AttachTag
InventoryService.Tagging.CreateCategory
InventoryService.Tagging.CreateTag
InventoryService.Tagging.DeleteCategory
InventoryService.Tagging.DeleteTag
InventoryService.Tagging.EditCategory
InventoryService.Tagging.EditTag
Sessions.ValidateSession
StorageProfile.Update1
StorageProfile.View1

vSphere vCenter Cluster

Always

Resource.AssignVMToPool

vSphere Datastore

Always

Datastore.AllocateSpace
Datastore.Browse

vSphere Port Group

Always

Network.Assign

Virtual Machine Folder

Always

VirtualMachine.Config.AddRemoveDevice
VirtualMachine.Config.AdvancedConfig
VirtualMachine.Config.Annotation
VirtualMachine.Config.CPUCount
VirtualMachine.Config.DiskExtend
VirtualMachine.Config.Memory
VirtualMachine.Config.Settings
VirtualMachine.Interact.PowerOff
VirtualMachine.Interact.PowerOn
VirtualMachine.Inventory.CreateFromExisting
VirtualMachine.Inventory.Delete
VirtualMachine.Provisioning.Clone

vSphere vCenter Datacenter

If the installation program creates the virtual machine folder

Resource.AssignVMToPool
VirtualMachine.Provisioning.DeployTemplate

1 The StorageProfile.Update and StorageProfile.View permissions are required only for storage backends that use the Container Storage Interface (CSI).

The following table details the permissions and propagation settings that are required for compute machine set management.

Example 2.2. Required permissions and propagation settings

vSphere objectFolder typePropagate to childrenPermissions required

vSphere vCenter

Always

Not required

Listed required privileges

vSphere vCenter Datacenter

Existing folder

Not required

ReadOnly permission

Installation program creates the folder

Required

Listed required privileges

vSphere vCenter Cluster

Always

Required

Listed required privileges

vSphere vCenter Datastore

Always

Not required

Listed required privileges

vSphere Switch

Always

Not required

ReadOnly permission

vSphere Port Group

Always

Not required

Listed required privileges

vSphere vCenter Virtual Machine Folder

Existing folder

Required

Listed required privileges

For more information about creating an account with only the required privileges, see vSphere Permissions and User Management Tasks in the vSphere documentation.

2.10.3. Requirements for clusters with user-provisioned infrastructure to use compute machine sets

To use compute machine sets on clusters that have user-provisioned infrastructure, you must ensure that you cluster configuration supports using the Machine API.

Obtaining the infrastructure ID

To create compute machine sets, you must be able to supply the infrastructure ID for your cluster.

Procedure

  • To obtain the infrastructure ID for your cluster, run the following command:

    $ oc get infrastructure cluster -o jsonpath='{.status.infrastructureName}'
Satisfying vSphere credentials requirements

To use compute machine sets, the Machine API must be able to interact with vCenter. Credentials that authorize the Machine API components to interact with vCenter must exist in a secret in the openshift-machine-api namespace.

Procedure

  1. To determine whether the required credentials exist, run the following command:

    $ oc get secret \
      -n openshift-machine-api vsphere-cloud-credentials \
      -o go-template='{{range $k,$v := .data}}{{printf "%s: " $k}}{{if not $v}}{{$v}}{{else}}{{$v | base64decode}}{{end}}{{"\n"}}{{end}}'

    Sample output

    <vcenter-server>.password=<openshift-user-password>
    <vcenter-server>.username=<openshift-user>

    where <vcenter-server> is the IP address or fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the vCenter server and <openshift-user> and <openshift-user-password> are the OpenShift Container Platform administrator credentials to use.

  2. If the secret does not exist, create it by running the following command:

    $ oc create secret generic vsphere-cloud-credentials \
      -n openshift-machine-api \
      --from-literal=<vcenter-server>.username=<openshift-user> --from-literal=<vcenter-server>.password=<openshift-user-password>
Satisfying Ignition configuration requirements

Provisioning virtual machines (VMs) requires a valid Ignition configuration. The Ignition configuration contains the machine-config-server address and a system trust bundle for obtaining further Ignition configurations from the Machine Config Operator.

By default, this configuration is stored in the worker-user-data secret in the machine-api-operator namespace. Compute machine sets reference the secret during the machine creation process.

Procedure

  1. To determine whether the required secret exists, run the following command:

    $ oc get secret \
      -n openshift-machine-api worker-user-data \
      -o go-template='{{range $k,$v := .data}}{{printf "%s: " $k}}{{if not $v}}{{$v}}{{else}}{{$v | base64decode}}{{end}}{{"\n"}}{{end}}'

    Sample output

    disableTemplating: false
    userData: 1
      {
        "ignition": {
          ...
          },
        ...
      }

    1
    The full output is omitted here, but should have this format.
  2. If the secret does not exist, create it by running the following command:

    $ oc create secret generic worker-user-data \
      -n openshift-machine-api \
      --from-file=<installation_directory>/worker.ign

    where <installation_directory> is the directory that was used to store your installation assets during cluster installation.

2.10.4. Creating a compute machine set

In addition to the compute machine sets created by the installation program, you can create your own to dynamically manage the machine compute resources for specific workloads of your choice.

Note

Clusters that are installed with user-provisioned infrastructure have a different networking stack than clusters with infrastructure that is provisioned by the installation program. As a result of this difference, automatic load balancer management is unsupported on clusters that have user-provisioned infrastructure. For these clusters, a compute machine set can only create worker and infra type machines.

Prerequisites

  • Deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Log in to oc as a user with cluster-admin permission.
  • Have the necessary permissions to deploy VMs in your vCenter instance and have the required access to the datastore specified.
  • If your cluster uses user-provisioned infrastructure, you have satisfied the specific Machine API requirements for that configuration.

Procedure

  1. Create a new YAML file that contains the compute machine set custom resource (CR) sample and is named <file_name>.yaml.

    Ensure that you set the <clusterID> and <role> parameter values.

  2. Optional: If you are not sure which value to set for a specific field, you can check an existing compute machine set from your cluster.

    1. To list the compute machine sets in your cluster, run the following command:

      $ oc get machinesets -n openshift-machine-api

      Example output

      NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1b   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1c   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1d   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1e   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1f   0         0                             55m

    2. To view values of a specific compute machine set custom resource (CR), run the following command:

      $ oc get machineset <machineset_name> \
        -n openshift-machine-api -o yaml

      Example output

      apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
      kind: MachineSet
      metadata:
        labels:
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
        name: <infrastructure_id>-<role> 2
        namespace: openshift-machine-api
      spec:
        replicas: 1
        selector:
          matchLabels:
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>
        template:
          metadata:
            labels:
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>
          spec:
            providerSpec: 3
              ...

      1
      The cluster infrastructure ID.
      2
      A default node label.
      Note

      For clusters that have user-provisioned infrastructure, a compute machine set can only create worker and infra type machines.

      3
      The values in the <providerSpec> section of the compute machine set CR are platform-specific. For more information about <providerSpec> parameters in the CR, see the sample compute machine set CR configuration for your provider.
    3. If you are creating a compute machine set for a cluster that has user-provisioned infrastructure, note the following important values:

      Example vSphere providerSpec values

      apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
      kind: MachineSet
      ...
      template:
        ...
        spec:
          providerSpec:
            value:
              apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
              credentialsSecret:
                name: vsphere-cloud-credentials 1
              diskGiB: 120
              kind: VSphereMachineProviderSpec
              memoryMiB: 16384
              network:
                devices:
                  - networkName: "<vm_network_name>"
              numCPUs: 4
              numCoresPerSocket: 4
              snapshot: ""
              template: <vm_template_name> 2
              userDataSecret:
                name: worker-user-data 3
              workspace:
                datacenter: <vcenter_datacenter_name>
                datastore: <vcenter_datastore_name>
                folder: <vcenter_vm_folder_path>
                resourcepool: <vsphere_resource_pool>
                server: <vcenter_server_address> 4

      1
      The name of the secret in the openshift-machine-api namespace that contains the required vCenter credentials.
      2
      The name of the RHCOS VM template for your cluster that was created during installation.
      3
      The name of the secret in the openshift-machine-api namespace that contains the required Ignition configuration credentials.
      4
      The IP address or fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the vCenter server.
  3. Create a MachineSet CR by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <file_name>.yaml

Verification

  • View the list of compute machine sets by running the following command:

    $ oc get machineset -n openshift-machine-api

    Example output

    NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
    agl030519-vplxk-infra-us-east-1a    1         1         1       1           11m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1b   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1c   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1d   0         0                             55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1e   0         0                             55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1f   0         0                             55m

    When the new compute machine set is available, the DESIRED and CURRENT values match. If the compute machine set is not available, wait a few minutes and run the command again.

2.11. Creating a compute machine set on bare metal

You can create a different compute machine set to serve a specific purpose in your OpenShift Container Platform cluster on bare metal. For example, you might create infrastructure machine sets and related machines so that you can move supporting workloads to the new machines.

Important

You can use the advanced machine management and scaling capabilities only in clusters where the Machine API is operational. Clusters with user-provisioned infrastructure require additional validation and configuration to use the Machine API.

Clusters with the infrastructure platform type none cannot use the Machine API. This limitation applies even if the compute machines that are attached to the cluster are installed on a platform that supports the feature. This parameter cannot be changed after installation.

To view the platform type for your cluster, run the following command:

$ oc get infrastructure cluster -o jsonpath='{.status.platform}'

2.11.1. Sample YAML for a compute machine set custom resource on bare metal

This sample YAML defines a compute machine set that runs on bare metal and creates nodes that are labeled with node-role.kubernetes.io/<role>: "".

In this sample, <infrastructure_id> is the infrastructure ID label that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster, and <role> is the node label to add.

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
kind: MachineSet
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: null
  labels:
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
  name: <infrastructure_id>-<role> 2
  namespace: openshift-machine-api
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 3
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role> 4
  template:
    metadata:
      creationTimestamp: null
      labels:
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 5
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role> 6
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role> 7
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role> 8
    spec:
      metadata:
        creationTimestamp: null
        labels:
          node-role.kubernetes.io/<role>: "" 9
      providerSpec:
        value:
          apiVersion: baremetal.cluster.k8s.io/v1alpha1
          hostSelector: {}
          image:
            checksum: http:/172.22.0.3:6181/images/rhcos-<version>.<architecture>.qcow2.<md5sum> 10
            url: http://172.22.0.3:6181/images/rhcos-<version>.<architecture>.qcow2 11
          kind: BareMetalMachineProviderSpec
          metadata:
            creationTimestamp: null
          userData:
            name: worker-user-data
1 3 5
Specify the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster. If you have the OpenShift CLI (oc) installed, you can obtain the infrastructure ID by running the following command:
$ oc get -o jsonpath='{.status.infrastructureName}{"\n"}' infrastructure cluster
2 4 8
Specify the infrastructure ID and node label.
6 7 9
Specify the node label to add.
10
Edit the checksum URL to use the API VIP address.
11
Edit the url URL to use the API VIP address.

2.11.2. Creating a compute machine set

In addition to the compute machine sets created by the installation program, you can create your own to dynamically manage the machine compute resources for specific workloads of your choice.

Prerequisites

  • Deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Log in to oc as a user with cluster-admin permission.

Procedure

  1. Create a new YAML file that contains the compute machine set custom resource (CR) sample and is named <file_name>.yaml.

    Ensure that you set the <clusterID> and <role> parameter values.

  2. Optional: If you are not sure which value to set for a specific field, you can check an existing compute machine set from your cluster.

    1. To list the compute machine sets in your cluster, run the following command:

      $ oc get machinesets -n openshift-machine-api

      Example output

      NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1b   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1c   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1d   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1e   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1f   0         0                             55m

    2. To view values of a specific compute machine set custom resource (CR), run the following command:

      $ oc get machineset <machineset_name> \
        -n openshift-machine-api -o yaml

      Example output

      apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
      kind: MachineSet
      metadata:
        labels:
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
        name: <infrastructure_id>-<role> 2
        namespace: openshift-machine-api
      spec:
        replicas: 1
        selector:
          matchLabels:
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>
        template:
          metadata:
            labels:
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>
          spec:
            providerSpec: 3
              ...

      1
      The cluster infrastructure ID.
      2
      A default node label.
      Note

      For clusters that have user-provisioned infrastructure, a compute machine set can only create worker and infra type machines.

      3
      The values in the <providerSpec> section of the compute machine set CR are platform-specific. For more information about <providerSpec> parameters in the CR, see the sample compute machine set CR configuration for your provider.
  3. Create a MachineSet CR by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <file_name>.yaml

Verification

  • View the list of compute machine sets by running the following command:

    $ oc get machineset -n openshift-machine-api

    Example output

    NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
    agl030519-vplxk-infra-us-east-1a    1         1         1       1           11m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1b   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1c   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1d   0         0                             55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1e   0         0                             55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1f   0         0                             55m

    When the new compute machine set is available, the DESIRED and CURRENT values match. If the compute machine set is not available, wait a few minutes and run the command again.

Chapter 3. Manually scaling a compute machine set

You can add or remove an instance of a machine in a compute machine set.

Note

If you need to modify aspects of a compute machine set outside of scaling, see Modifying a compute machine set.

3.1. Prerequisites

Important

You can use the advanced machine management and scaling capabilities only in clusters where the Machine API is operational. Clusters with user-provisioned infrastructure require additional validation and configuration to use the Machine API.

Clusters with the infrastructure platform type none cannot use the Machine API. This limitation applies even if the compute machines that are attached to the cluster are installed on a platform that supports the feature. This parameter cannot be changed after installation.

To view the platform type for your cluster, run the following command:

$ oc get infrastructure cluster -o jsonpath='{.status.platform}'

3.2. Scaling a compute machine set manually

To add or remove an instance of a machine in a compute machine set, you can manually scale the compute machine set.

This guidance is relevant to fully automated, installer-provisioned infrastructure installations. Customized, user-provisioned infrastructure installations do not have compute machine sets.

Prerequisites

  • Install an OpenShift Container Platform cluster and the oc command line.
  • Log in to oc as a user with cluster-admin permission.

Procedure

  1. View the compute machine sets that are in the cluster by running the following command:

    $ oc get machinesets -n openshift-machine-api

    The compute machine sets are listed in the form of <clusterid>-worker-<aws-region-az>.

  2. View the compute machines that are in the cluster by running the following command:

    $ oc get machine -n openshift-machine-api
  3. Set the annotation on the compute machine that you want to delete by running the following command:

    $ oc annotate machine/<machine_name> -n openshift-machine-api machine.openshift.io/delete-machine="true"
  4. Scale the compute machine set by running one of the following commands:

    $ oc scale --replicas=2 machineset <machineset> -n openshift-machine-api

    Or:

    $ oc edit machineset <machineset> -n openshift-machine-api
    Tip

    You can alternatively apply the following YAML to scale the compute machine set:

    apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
    kind: MachineSet
    metadata:
      name: <machineset>
      namespace: openshift-machine-api
    spec:
      replicas: 2

    You can scale the compute machine set up or down. It takes several minutes for the new machines to be available.

    Important

    By default, the machine controller tries to drain the node that is backed by the machine until it succeeds. In some situations, such as with a misconfigured pod disruption budget, the drain operation might not be able to succeed. If the drain operation fails, the machine controller cannot proceed removing the machine.

    You can skip draining the node by annotating machine.openshift.io/exclude-node-draining in a specific machine.

Verification

  • Verify the deletion of the intended machine by running the following command:

    $ oc get machines

3.3. The compute machine set deletion policy

Random, Newest, and Oldest are the three supported deletion options. The default is Random, meaning that random machines are chosen and deleted when scaling compute machine sets down. The deletion policy can be set according to the use case by modifying the particular compute machine set:

spec:
  deletePolicy: <delete_policy>
  replicas: <desired_replica_count>

Specific machines can also be prioritized for deletion by adding the annotation machine.openshift.io/delete-machine=true to the machine of interest, regardless of the deletion policy.

Important

By default, the OpenShift Container Platform router pods are deployed on workers. Because the router is required to access some cluster resources, including the web console, do not scale the worker compute machine set to 0 unless you first relocate the router pods.

Note

Custom compute machine sets can be used for use cases requiring that services run on specific nodes and that those services are ignored by the controller when the worker compute machine sets are scaling down. This prevents service disruption.

3.4. Additional resources

Chapter 4. Modifying a compute machine set

You can modify a compute machine set, such as adding labels, changing the instance type, or changing block storage.

Note

If you need to scale a compute machine set without making other changes, see Manually scaling a compute machine set.

4.1. Modifying a compute machine set by using the CLI

When you modify a compute machine set, your changes only apply to compute machines that are created after you save the updated MachineSet custom resource (CR). The changes do not affect existing machines. You can replace the existing machines with new ones that reflect the updated configuration by scaling the compute machine set.

If you need to scale a compute machine set without making other changes, you do not need to delete the machines.

Note

By default, the OpenShift Container Platform router pods are deployed on compute machines. Because the router is required to access some cluster resources, including the web console, do not scale the compute machine set to 0 unless you first relocate the router pods.

The output examples in this procedure use the values for an AWS cluster.

Prerequisites

  • Your OpenShift Container Platform cluster uses the Machine API.
  • You are logged in to the cluster as an administrator by using the OpenShift CLI (oc).

Procedure

  1. Edit the compute machine set by running the following command:

    $ oc edit machineset <machine_set_name> -n openshift-machine-api
  2. Note the value of the spec.replicas field, because you need it when scaling the machine set to apply the changes.

    apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
    kind: MachineSet
    metadata:
      name: <machine_set_name>
      namespace: openshift-machine-api
    spec:
      replicas: 2 1
    # ...
    1
    The examples in this procedure show a compute machine set that has a replicas value of 2.
  3. Update the compute machine set CR with the configuration options that you want and save your changes.
  4. List the machines that are managed by the updated compute machine set by running the following command:

    $ oc get -n openshift-machine-api machines -l machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset=<machine_set_name>

    Example output for an AWS cluster

    NAME                        PHASE     TYPE         REGION      ZONE         AGE
    <machine_name_original_1>   Running   m6i.xlarge   us-west-1   us-west-1a   4h
    <machine_name_original_2>   Running   m6i.xlarge   us-west-1   us-west-1a   4h

  5. For each machine that is managed by the updated compute machine set, set the delete annotation by running the following command:

    $ oc annotate machine/<machine_name_original_1> \
      -n openshift-machine-api \
      machine.openshift.io/delete-machine="true"
  6. To create replacement machines with the new configuration, scale the compute machine set to twice the number of replicas by running the following command:

    $ oc scale --replicas=4 \1
      machineset <machine_set_name> \
      -n openshift-machine-api
    1
    The original example value of 2 is doubled to 4.
  7. List the machines that are managed by the updated compute machine set by running the following command:

    $ oc get -n openshift-machine-api machines -l machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset=<machine_set_name>

    Example output for an AWS cluster

    NAME                        PHASE          TYPE         REGION      ZONE         AGE
    <machine_name_original_1>   Running        m6i.xlarge   us-west-1   us-west-1a   4h
    <machine_name_original_2>   Running        m6i.xlarge   us-west-1   us-west-1a   4h
    <machine_name_updated_1>    Provisioned    m6i.xlarge   us-west-1   us-west-1a   55s
    <machine_name_updated_2>    Provisioning   m6i.xlarge   us-west-1   us-west-1a   55s

    When the new machines are in the Running phase, you can scale the compute machine set to the original number of replicas.

  8. To remove the machines that were created with the old configuration, scale the compute machine set to the original number of replicas by running the following command:

    $ oc scale --replicas=2 \1
      machineset <machine_set_name> \
      -n openshift-machine-api
    1
    The original example value of 2.

Verification

  • To verify that a machine created by the updated machine set has the correct configuration, examine the relevant fields in the CR for one of the new machines by running the following command:

    $ oc describe machine <machine_name_updated_1> -n openshift-machine-api
  • To verify that the compute machines without the updated configuration are deleted, list the machines that are managed by the updated compute machine set by running the following command:

    $ oc get -n openshift-machine-api machines -l machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset=<machine_set_name>

    Example output while deletion is in progress for an AWS cluster

    NAME                        PHASE           TYPE         REGION      ZONE         AGE
    <machine_name_original_1>   Deleting        m6i.xlarge   us-west-1   us-west-1a   4h
    <machine_name_original_2>   Deleting        m6i.xlarge   us-west-1   us-west-1a   4h
    <machine_name_updated_1>    Running         m6i.xlarge   us-west-1   us-west-1a   5m41s
    <machine_name_updated_2>    Running         m6i.xlarge   us-west-1   us-west-1a   5m41s

    Example output when deletion is complete for an AWS cluster

    NAME                        PHASE           TYPE         REGION      ZONE         AGE
    <machine_name_updated_1>    Running         m6i.xlarge   us-west-1   us-west-1a   6m30s
    <machine_name_updated_2>    Running         m6i.xlarge   us-west-1   us-west-1a   6m30s

Chapter 5. Machine phases and lifecycle

Machines move through a lifecycle that has several defined phases. Understanding the machine lifecycle and its phases can help you verify whether a procedure is complete or troubleshoot undesired behavior. In OpenShift Container Platform, the machine lifecycle is consistent across all supported cloud providers.

5.1. Machine phases

As a machine moves through its lifecycle, it passes through different phases. Each phase is a basic representation of the state of the machine.

Provisioning
There is a request to provision a new machine. The machine does not yet exist and does not have an instance, a provider ID, or an address.
Provisioned
The machine exists and has a provider ID or an address. The cloud provider has created an instance for the machine. The machine has not yet become a node and the status.nodeRef section of the machine object is not yet populated.
Running
The machine exists and has a provider ID or address. Ignition has run successfully and the cluster machine approver has approved a certificate signing request (CSR). The machine has become a node and the status.nodeRef section of the machine object contains node details.
Deleting
There is a request to delete the machine. The machine object has a DeletionTimestamp field that indicates the time of the deletion request.
Failed
There is an unrecoverable problem with the machine. This can happen, for example, if the cloud provider deletes the instance for the machine.

5.2. The machine lifecycle

The lifecycle begins with the request to provision a machine and continues until the machine no longer exists.

The machine lifecycle proceeds in the following order. Interruptions due to errors or lifecycle hooks are not included in this overview.

  1. There is a request to provision a new machine for one of the following reasons:

    • A cluster administrator scales a machine set such that it requires additional machines.
    • An autoscaling policy scales machine set such that it requires additional machines.
    • A machine that is managed by a machine set fails or is deleted and the machine set creates a replacement to maintain the required number of machines.
  2. The machine enters the Provisioning phase.
  3. The infrastructure provider creates an instance for the machine.
  4. The machine has a provider ID or address and enters the Provisioned phase.
  5. The Ignition configuration file is processed.
  6. The kubelet issues a certificate signing request (CSR).
  7. The cluster machine approver approves the CSR.
  8. The machine becomes a node and enters the Running phase.
  9. An existing machine is slated for deletion for one of the following reasons:

    • A user with cluster-admin permissions uses the oc delete machine command.
    • The machine gets a machine.openshift.io/delete-machine annotation.
    • The machine set that manages the machine marks it for deletion to reduce the replica count as part of reconciliation.
    • The cluster autoscaler identifies a node that is unnecessary to meet the deployment needs of the cluster.
    • A machine health check is configured to replace an unhealthy machine.
  10. The machine enters the Deleting phase, in which it is marked for deletion but is still present in the API.
  11. The machine controller removes the instance from the infrastructure provider.
  12. The machine controller deletes the Node object.

5.3. Determining the phase of a machine

You can find the phase of a machine by using the OpenShift CLI (oc) or by using the web console. You can use this information to verify whether a procedure is complete or to troubleshoot undesired behavior.

5.3.1. Determining the phase of a machine by using the CLI

You can find the phase of a machine by using the OpenShift CLI (oc).

Prerequisites

  • You have access to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster using an account with cluster-admin permissions.
  • You have installed the oc CLI.

Procedure

  • List the machines on the cluster by running the following command:

    $ oc get machine -n openshift-machine-api

    Example output

    NAME                                      PHASE     TYPE         REGION      ZONE         AGE
    mycluster-5kbsp-master-0                  Running   m6i.xlarge   us-west-1   us-west-1a   4h55m
    mycluster-5kbsp-master-1                  Running   m6i.xlarge   us-west-1   us-west-1b   4h55m
    mycluster-5kbsp-master-2                  Running   m6i.xlarge   us-west-1   us-west-1a   4h55m
    mycluster-5kbsp-worker-us-west-1a-fmx8t   Running   m6i.xlarge   us-west-1   us-west-1a   4h51m
    mycluster-5kbsp-worker-us-west-1a-m889l   Running   m6i.xlarge   us-west-1   us-west-1a   4h51m
    mycluster-5kbsp-worker-us-west-1b-c8qzm   Running   m6i.xlarge   us-west-1   us-west-1b   4h51m

    The PHASE column of the output contains the phase of each machine.

5.3.2. Determining the phase of a machine by using the web console

You can find the phase of a machine by using the OpenShift Container Platform web console.

Prerequisites

  • You have access to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster using an account with cluster-admin permissions.

Procedure

  1. Log in to the web console as a user with the cluster-admin role.
  2. Navigate to ComputeMachines.
  3. On the Machines page, select the name of the machine that you want to find the phase of.
  4. On the Machine details page, select the YAML tab.
  5. In the YAML block, find the value of the status.phase field.

    Example YAML snippet

    apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
    kind: Machine
    metadata:
      name: mycluster-5kbsp-worker-us-west-1a-fmx8t
    # ...
    status:
      phase: Running 1

    1
    In this example, the phase is Running.

5.4. Additional resources

Chapter 6. Deleting a machine

You can delete a specific machine.

6.1. Deleting a specific machine

You can delete a specific machine.

Important

Do not delete a control plane machine unless your cluster uses a control plane machine set.

Prerequisites

  • Install an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Log in to oc as a user with cluster-admin permission.

Procedure

  1. View the machines that are in the cluster by running the following command:

    $ oc get machine -n openshift-machine-api

    The command output contains a list of machines in the <clusterid>-<role>-<cloud_region> format.

  2. Identify the machine that you want to delete.
  3. Delete the machine by running the following command:

    $ oc delete machine <machine> -n openshift-machine-api
    Important

    By default, the machine controller tries to drain the node that is backed by the machine until it succeeds. In some situations, such as with a misconfigured pod disruption budget, the drain operation might not be able to succeed. If the drain operation fails, the machine controller cannot proceed removing the machine.

    You can skip draining the node by annotating machine.openshift.io/exclude-node-draining in a specific machine.

    If the machine that you delete belongs to a machine set, a new machine is immediately created to satisfy the specified number of replicas.

6.2. Lifecycle hooks for the machine deletion phase

Machine lifecycle hooks are points in the reconciliation lifecycle of a machine where the normal lifecycle process can be interrupted. In the machine Deleting phase, these interruptions provide the opportunity for components to modify the machine deletion process.

6.2.1. Terminology and definitions

To understand the behavior of lifecycle hooks for the machine deletion phase, you must understand the following concepts:

Reconciliation
Reconciliation is the process by which a controller attempts to make the real state of the cluster and the objects that it comprises match the requirements in an object specification.
Machine controller

The machine controller manages the reconciliation lifecycle for a machine. For machines on cloud platforms, the machine controller is the combination of an OpenShift Container Platform controller and a platform-specific actuator from the cloud provider.

In the context of machine deletion, the machine controller performs the following actions:

  • Drain the node that is backed by the machine.
  • Delete the machine instance from the cloud provider.
  • Delete the Node object.
Lifecycle hook

A lifecycle hook is a defined point in the reconciliation lifecycle of an object where the normal lifecycle process can be interrupted. Components can use a lifecycle hook to inject changes into the process to accomplish a desired outcome.

There are two lifecycle hooks in the machine Deleting phase:

  • preDrain lifecycle hooks must be resolved before the node that is backed by the machine can be drained.
  • preTerminate lifecycle hooks must be resolved before the instance can be removed from the infrastructure provider.
Hook-implementing controller

A hook-implementing controller is a controller, other than the machine controller, that can interact with a lifecycle hook. A hook-implementing controller can do one or more of the following actions:

  • Add a lifecycle hook.
  • Respond to a lifecycle hook.
  • Remove a lifecycle hook.

Each lifecycle hook has a single hook-implementing controller, but a hook-implementing controller can manage one or more hooks.

6.2.2. Machine deletion processing order

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.15, there are two lifecycle hooks for the machine deletion phase: preDrain and preTerminate. When all hooks for a given lifecycle point are removed, reconciliation continues as normal.

Figure 6.1. Machine deletion flow

The sequence of events in the machine `Deleting` phase.

The machine Deleting phase proceeds in the following order:

  1. An existing machine is slated for deletion for one of the following reasons:

    • A user with cluster-admin permissions uses the oc delete machine command.
    • The machine gets a machine.openshift.io/delete-machine annotation.
    • The machine set that manages the machine marks it for deletion to reduce the replica count as part of reconciliation.
    • The cluster autoscaler identifies a node that is unnecessary to meet the deployment needs of the cluster.
    • A machine health check is configured to replace an unhealthy machine.
  2. The machine enters the Deleting phase, in which it is marked for deletion but is still present in the API.
  3. If a preDrain lifecycle hook exists, the hook-implementing controller that manages it does a specified action.

    Until all preDrain lifecycle hooks are satisfied, the machine status condition Drainable is set to False.

  4. There are no unresolved preDrain lifecycle hooks and the machine status condition Drainable is set to True.
  5. The machine controller attempts to drain the node that is backed by the machine.

    • If draining fails, Drained is set to False and the machine controller attempts to drain the node again.
    • If draining succeeds, Drained is set to True.
  6. The machine status condition Drained is set to True.
  7. If a preTerminate lifecycle hook exists, the hook-implementing controller that manages it does a specified action.

    Until all preTerminate lifecycle hooks are satisfied, the machine status condition Terminable is set to False.

  8. There are no unresolved preTerminate lifecycle hooks and the machine status condition Terminable is set to True.
  9. The machine controller removes the instance from the infrastructure provider.
  10. The machine controller deletes the Node object.

6.2.3. Deletion lifecycle hook configuration

The following YAML snippets demonstrate the format and placement of deletion lifecycle hook configurations within a machine set:

YAML snippet demonstrating a preDrain lifecycle hook

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
kind: Machine
metadata:
  ...
spec:
  lifecycleHooks:
    preDrain:
    - name: <hook_name> 1
      owner: <hook_owner> 2
  ...

1
The name of the preDrain lifecycle hook.
2
The hook-implementing controller that manages the preDrain lifecycle hook.

YAML snippet demonstrating a preTerminate lifecycle hook

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
kind: Machine
metadata:
  ...
spec:
  lifecycleHooks:
    preTerminate:
    - name: <hook_name> 1
      owner: <hook_owner> 2
  ...

1
The name of the preTerminate lifecycle hook.
2
The hook-implementing controller that manages the preTerminate lifecycle hook.
Example lifecycle hook configuration

The following example demonstrates the implementation of multiple fictional lifecycle hooks that interrupt the machine deletion process:

Example configuration for lifecycle hooks

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
kind: Machine
metadata:
  ...
spec:
  lifecycleHooks:
    preDrain: 1
    - name: MigrateImportantApp
      owner: my-app-migration-controller
    preTerminate: 2
    - name: BackupFileSystem
      owner: my-backup-controller
    - name: CloudProviderSpecialCase
      owner: my-custom-storage-detach-controller 3
    - name: WaitForStorageDetach
      owner: my-custom-storage-detach-controller
  ...

1
A preDrain lifecycle hook stanza that contains a single lifecycle hook.
2
A preTerminate lifecycle hook stanza that contains three lifecycle hooks.
3
A hook-implementing controller that manages two preTerminate lifecycle hooks: CloudProviderSpecialCase and WaitForStorageDetach.

6.2.4. Machine deletion lifecycle hook examples for Operator developers

Operators can use lifecycle hooks for the machine deletion phase to modify the machine deletion process. The following examples demonstrate possible ways that an Operator can use this functionality.

Example use cases for preDrain lifecycle hooks
Proactively replacing machines
An Operator can use a preDrain lifecycle hook to ensure that a replacement machine is successfully created and joined to the cluster before removing the instance of a deleted machine. This can mitigate the impact of disruptions during machine replacement or of replacement instances that do not initialize promptly.
Implementing custom draining logic

An Operator can use a preDrain lifecycle hook to replace the machine controller draining logic with a different draining controller. By replacing the draining logic, the Operator would have more flexibility and control over the lifecycle of the workloads on each node.

For example, the machine controller drain libraries do not support ordering, but a custom drain provider could provide this functionality. By using a custom drain provider, an Operator could prioritize moving mission-critical applications before draining the node to ensure that service interruptions are minimized in cases where cluster capacity is limited.

Example use cases for preTerminate lifecycle hooks
Verifying storage detachment
An Operator can use a preTerminate lifecycle hook to ensure that storage that is attached to a machine is detached before the machine is removed from the infrastructure provider.
Improving log reliability

After a node is drained, the log exporter daemon requires some time to synchronize logs to the centralized logging system.

A logging Operator can use a preTerminate lifecycle hook to add a delay between when the node drains and when the machine is removed from the infrastructure provider. This delay would provide time for the Operator to ensure that the main workloads are removed and no longer adding to the log backlog. When no new data is being added to the log backlog, the log exporter can catch up on the synchronization process, thus ensuring that all application logs are captured.

6.2.5. Quorum protection with machine lifecycle hooks

For OpenShift Container Platform clusters that use the Machine API Operator, the etcd Operator uses lifecycle hooks for the machine deletion phase to implement a quorum protection mechanism.

By using a preDrain lifecycle hook, the etcd Operator can control when the pods on a control plane machine are drained and removed. To protect etcd quorum, the etcd Operator prevents the removal of an etcd member until it migrates that member onto a new node within the cluster.

This mechanism allows the etcd Operator precise control over the members of the etcd quorum and allows the Machine API Operator to safely create and remove control plane machines without specific operational knowledge of the etcd cluster.

6.2.5.1. Control plane deletion with quorum protection processing order

When a control plane machine is replaced on a cluster that uses a control plane machine set, the cluster temporarily has four control plane machines. When the fourth control plane node joins the cluster, the etcd Operator starts a new etcd member on the replacement node. When the etcd Operator observes that the old control plane machine is marked for deletion, it stops the etcd member on the old node and promotes the replacement etcd member to join the quorum of the cluster.

The control plane machine Deleting phase proceeds in the following order:

  1. A control plane machine is slated for deletion.
  2. The control plane machine enters the Deleting phase.
  3. To satisfy the preDrain lifecycle hook, the etcd Operator takes the following actions:

    1. The etcd Operator waits until a fourth control plane machine is added to the cluster as an etcd member. This new etcd member has a state of Running but not ready until it receives the full database update from the etcd leader.
    2. When the new etcd member receives the full database update, the etcd Operator promotes the new etcd member to a voting member and removes the old etcd member from the cluster.

    After this transition is complete, it is safe for the old etcd pod and its data to be removed, so the preDrain lifecycle hook is removed.

  4. The control plane machine status condition Drainable is set to True.
  5. The machine controller attempts to drain the node that is backed by the control plane machine.

    • If draining fails, Drained is set to False and the machine controller attempts to drain the node again.
    • If draining succeeds, Drained is set to True.
  6. The control plane machine status condition Drained is set to True.
  7. If no other Operators have added a preTerminate lifecycle hook, the control plane machine status condition Terminable is set to True.
  8. The machine controller removes the instance from the infrastructure provider.
  9. The machine controller deletes the Node object.

YAML snippet demonstrating the etcd quorum protection preDrain lifecycle hook

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
kind: Machine
metadata:
  ...
spec:
  lifecycleHooks:
    preDrain:
    - name: EtcdQuorumOperator 1
      owner: clusteroperator/etcd 2
  ...

1
The name of the preDrain lifecycle hook.
2
The hook-implementing controller that manages the preDrain lifecycle hook.

6.3. Additional resources

Chapter 7. Applying autoscaling to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster

Applying autoscaling to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster involves deploying a cluster autoscaler and then deploying machine autoscalers for each machine type in your cluster.

Important

You can configure the cluster autoscaler only in clusters where the Machine API Operator is operational.

7.1. About the cluster autoscaler

The cluster autoscaler adjusts the size of an OpenShift Container Platform cluster to meet its current deployment needs. It uses declarative, Kubernetes-style arguments to provide infrastructure management that does not rely on objects of a specific cloud provider. The cluster autoscaler has a cluster scope, and is not associated with a particular namespace.

The cluster autoscaler increases the size of the cluster when there are pods that fail to schedule on any of the current worker nodes due to insufficient resources or when another node is necessary to meet deployment needs. The cluster autoscaler does not increase the cluster resources beyond the limits that you specify.

The cluster autoscaler computes the total memory, CPU, and GPU on all nodes the cluster, even though it does not manage the control plane nodes. These values are not single-machine oriented. They are an aggregation of all the resources in the entire cluster. For example, if you set the maximum memory resource limit, the cluster autoscaler includes all the nodes in the cluster when calculating the current memory usage. That calculation is then used to determine if the cluster autoscaler has the capacity to add more worker resources.

Important

Ensure that the maxNodesTotal value in the ClusterAutoscaler resource definition that you create is large enough to account for the total possible number of machines in your cluster. This value must encompass the number of control plane machines and the possible number of compute machines that you might scale to.

Every 10 seconds, the cluster autoscaler checks which nodes are unnecessary in the cluster and removes them. The cluster autoscaler considers a node for removal if the following conditions apply:

  • The node utilization is less than the node utilization level threshold for the cluster. The node utilization level is the sum of the requested resources divided by the allocated resources for the node. If you do not specify a value in the ClusterAutoscaler custom resource, the cluster autoscaler uses a default value of 0.5, which corresponds to 50% utilization.
  • The cluster autoscaler can move all pods running on the node to the other nodes. The Kubernetes scheduler is responsible for scheduling pods on the nodes.
  • The cluster autoscaler does not have scale down disabled annotation.

If the following types of pods are present on a node, the cluster autoscaler will not remove the node:

  • Pods with restrictive pod disruption budgets (PDBs).
  • Kube-system pods that do not run on the node by default.
  • Kube-system pods that do not have a PDB or have a PDB that is too restrictive.
  • Pods that are not backed by a controller object such as a deployment, replica set, or stateful set.
  • Pods with local storage.
  • Pods that cannot be moved elsewhere because of a lack of resources, incompatible node selectors or affinity, matching anti-affinity, and so on.
  • Unless they also have a "cluster-autoscaler.kubernetes.io/safe-to-evict": "true" annotation, pods that have a "cluster-autoscaler.kubernetes.io/safe-to-evict": "false" annotation.

For example, you set the maximum CPU limit to 64 cores and configure the cluster autoscaler to only create machines that have 8 cores each. If your cluster starts with 30 cores, the cluster autoscaler can add up to 4 more nodes with 32 cores, for a total of 62.

If you configure the cluster autoscaler, additional usage restrictions apply:

  • Do not modify the nodes that are in autoscaled node groups directly. All nodes within the same node group have the same capacity and labels and run the same system pods.
  • Specify requests for your pods.
  • If you have to prevent pods from being deleted too quickly, configure appropriate PDBs.
  • Confirm that your cloud provider quota is large enough to support the maximum node pools that you configure.
  • Do not run additional node group autoscalers, especially the ones offered by your cloud provider.

The horizontal pod autoscaler (HPA) and the cluster autoscaler modify cluster resources in different ways. The HPA changes the deployment’s or replica set’s number of replicas based on the current CPU load. If the load increases, the HPA creates new replicas, regardless of the amount of resources available to the cluster. If there are not enough resources, the cluster autoscaler adds resources so that the HPA-created pods can run. If the load decreases, the HPA stops some replicas. If this action causes some nodes to be underutilized or completely empty, the cluster autoscaler deletes the unnecessary nodes.

The cluster autoscaler takes pod priorities into account. The Pod Priority and Preemption feature enables scheduling pods based on priorities if the cluster does not have enough resources, but the cluster autoscaler ensures that the cluster has resources to run all pods. To honor the intention of both features, the cluster autoscaler includes a priority cutoff function. You can use this cutoff to schedule "best-effort" pods, which do not cause the cluster autoscaler to increase resources but instead run only when spare resources are available.

Pods with priority lower than the cutoff value do not cause the cluster to scale up or prevent the cluster from scaling down. No new nodes are added to run the pods, and nodes running these pods might be deleted to free resources.

Cluster autoscaling is supported for the platforms that have machine API available on it.

7.2. Configuring the cluster autoscaler

First, deploy the cluster autoscaler to manage automatic resource scaling in your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

Note

Because the cluster autoscaler is scoped to the entire cluster, you can make only one cluster autoscaler for the cluster.

7.2.1. Cluster autoscaler resource definition

This ClusterAutoscaler resource definition shows the parameters and sample values for the cluster autoscaler.

apiVersion: "autoscaling.openshift.io/v1"
kind: "ClusterAutoscaler"
metadata:
  name: "default"
spec:
  podPriorityThreshold: -10 1
  resourceLimits:
    maxNodesTotal: 24 2
    cores:
      min: 8 3
      max: 128 4
    memory:
      min: 4 5
      max: 256 6
    gpus:
      - type: nvidia.com/gpu 7
        min: 0 8
        max: 16 9
      - type: amd.com/gpu
        min: 0
        max: 4
  logVerbosity: 4 10
  scaleDown: 11
    enabled: true 12
    delayAfterAdd: 10m 13
    delayAfterDelete: 5m 14
    delayAfterFailure: 30s 15
    unneededTime: 5m 16
    utilizationThreshold: "0.4" 17
1
Specify the priority that a pod must exceed to cause the cluster autoscaler to deploy additional nodes. Enter a 32-bit integer value. The podPriorityThreshold value is compared to the value of the PriorityClass that you assign to each pod.
2
Specify the maximum number of nodes to deploy. This value is the total number of machines that are deployed in your cluster, not just the ones that the autoscaler controls. Ensure that this value is large enough to account for all of your control plane and compute machines and the total number of replicas that you specify in your MachineAutoscaler resources.
3
Specify the minimum number of cores to deploy in the cluster.
4
Specify the maximum number of cores to deploy in the cluster.
5
Specify the minimum amount of memory, in GiB, in the cluster.
6
Specify the maximum amount of memory, in GiB, in the cluster.
7
Optional: Specify the type of GPU node to deploy. Only nvidia.com/gpu and amd.com/gpu are valid types.
8
Specify the minimum number of GPUs to deploy in the cluster.
9
Specify the maximum number of GPUs to deploy in the cluster.
10
Specify the logging verbosity level between 0 and 10. The following log level thresholds are provided for guidance:
  • 1: (Default) Basic information about changes.
  • 4: Debug-level verbosity for troubleshooting typical issues.
  • 9: Extensive, protocol-level debugging information.

If you do not specify a value, the default value of 1 is used.

11
In this section, you can specify the period to wait for each action by using any valid ParseDuration interval, including ns, us, ms, s, m, and h.
12
Specify whether the cluster autoscaler can remove unnecessary nodes.
13
Optional: Specify the period to wait before deleting a node after a node has recently been added. If you do not specify a value, the default value of 10m is used.
14
Optional: Specify the period to wait before deleting a node after a node has recently been deleted. If you do not specify a value, the default value of 0s is used.
15
Optional: Specify the period to wait before deleting a node after a scale down failure occurred. If you do not specify a value, the default value of 3m is used.
16
Optional: Specify a period of time before an unnecessary node is eligible for deletion. If you do not specify a value, the default value of 10m is used.
17
Optional: Specify the node utilization level. Nodes below this utilization level are eligible for deletion. If you do not specify a value, the default value of 10m is used.. The node utilization level is the sum of the requested resources divided by the allocated resources for the node, and must be a value greater than "0" but less than "1". If you do not specify a value, the cluster autoscaler uses a default value of "0.5", which corresponds to 50% utilization. This value must be expressed as a string.
Note

When performing a scaling operation, the cluster autoscaler remains within the ranges set in the ClusterAutoscaler resource definition, such as the minimum and maximum number of cores to deploy or the amount of memory in the cluster. However, the cluster autoscaler does not correct the current values in your cluster to be within those ranges.

The minimum and maximum CPUs, memory, and GPU values are determined by calculating those resources on all nodes in the cluster, even if the cluster autoscaler does not manage the nodes. For example, the control plane nodes are considered in the total memory in the cluster, even though the cluster autoscaler does not manage the control plane nodes.

7.2.2. Deploying a cluster autoscaler

To deploy a cluster autoscaler, you create an instance of the ClusterAutoscaler resource.

Procedure

  1. Create a YAML file for a ClusterAutoscaler resource that contains the custom resource definition.
  2. Create the custom resource in the cluster by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <filename>.yaml 1
    1
    <filename> is the name of the custom resource file.

Next steps

7.3. About the machine autoscaler

The machine autoscaler adjusts the number of Machines in the compute machine sets that you deploy in an OpenShift Container Platform cluster. You can scale both the default worker compute machine set and any other compute machine sets that you create. The machine autoscaler makes more Machines when the cluster runs out of resources to support more deployments. Any changes to the values in MachineAutoscaler resources, such as the minimum or maximum number of instances, are immediately applied to the compute machine set they target.

Important

You must deploy a machine autoscaler for the cluster autoscaler to scale your machines. The cluster autoscaler uses the annotations on compute machine sets that the machine autoscaler sets to determine the resources that it can scale. If you define a cluster autoscaler without also defining machine autoscalers, the cluster autoscaler will never scale your cluster.

7.4. Configuring machine autoscalers

After you deploy the cluster autoscaler, deploy MachineAutoscaler resources that reference the compute machine sets that are used to scale the cluster.

Important

You must deploy at least one MachineAutoscaler resource after you deploy the ClusterAutoscaler resource.

Note

You must configure separate resources for each compute machine set. Remember that compute machine sets are different in each region, so consider whether you want to enable machine scaling in multiple regions. The compute machine set that you scale must have at least one machine in it.

7.4.1. Machine autoscaler resource definition

This MachineAutoscaler resource definition shows the parameters and sample values for the machine autoscaler.

apiVersion: "autoscaling.openshift.io/v1beta1"
kind: "MachineAutoscaler"
metadata:
  name: "worker-us-east-1a" 1
  namespace: "openshift-machine-api"
spec:
  minReplicas: 1 2
  maxReplicas: 12 3
  scaleTargetRef: 4
    apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
    kind: MachineSet 5
    name: worker-us-east-1a 6
1
Specify the machine autoscaler name. To make it easier to identify which compute machine set this machine autoscaler scales, specify or include the name of the compute machine set to scale. The compute machine set name takes the following form: <clusterid>-<machineset>-<region>.
2
Specify the minimum number machines of the specified type that must remain in the specified zone after the cluster autoscaler initiates cluster scaling. If running in AWS, GCP, Azure, RHOSP, or vSphere, this value can be set to 0. For other providers, do not set this value to 0.

You can save on costs by setting this value to 0 for use cases such as running expensive or limited-usage hardware that is used for specialized workloads, or by scaling a compute machine set with extra large machines. The cluster autoscaler scales the compute machine set down to zero if the machines are not in use.

Important

Do not set the spec.minReplicas value to 0 for the three compute machine sets that are created during the OpenShift Container Platform installation process for an installer provisioned infrastructure.

3
Specify the maximum number machines of the specified type that the cluster autoscaler can deploy in the specified zone after it initiates cluster scaling. Ensure that the maxNodesTotal value in the ClusterAutoscaler resource definition is large enough to allow the machine autoscaler to deploy this number of machines.
4
In this section, provide values that describe the existing compute machine set to scale.
5
The kind parameter value is always MachineSet.
6
The name value must match the name of an existing compute machine set, as shown in the metadata.name parameter value.

7.4.2. Deploying a machine autoscaler

To deploy a machine autoscaler, you create an instance of the MachineAutoscaler resource.

Procedure

  1. Create a YAML file for a MachineAutoscaler resource that contains the custom resource definition.
  2. Create the custom resource in the cluster by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <filename>.yaml 1
    1
    <filename> is the name of the custom resource file.

7.5. Disabling autoscaling

You can disable an individual machine autoscaler in your cluster or disable autoscaling on the cluster entirely.

7.5.1. Disabling a machine autoscaler

To disable a machine autoscaler, you delete the corresponding MachineAutoscaler custom resource (CR).

Note

Disabling a machine autoscaler does not disable the cluster autoscaler. To disable the cluster autoscaler, follow the instructions in "Disabling the cluster autoscaler".

Procedure

  1. List the MachineAutoscaler CRs for the cluster by running the following command:

    $ oc get MachineAutoscaler -n openshift-machine-api

    Example output

    NAME                 REF KIND     REF NAME             MIN   MAX   AGE
    compute-us-east-1a   MachineSet   compute-us-east-1a   1     12    39m
    compute-us-west-1a   MachineSet   compute-us-west-1a   2     4     37m

  2. Optional: Create a YAML file backup of the MachineAutoscaler CR by running the following command:

    $ oc get MachineAutoscaler/<machine_autoscaler_name> \1
      -n openshift-machine-api \
      -o yaml> <machine_autoscaler_name_backup>.yaml 2
    1
    <machine_autoscaler_name> is the name of the CR that you want to delete.
    2
    <machine_autoscaler_name_backup> is the name for the backup of the CR.
  3. Delete the MachineAutoscaler CR by running the following command:

    $ oc delete MachineAutoscaler/<machine_autoscaler_name> -n openshift-machine-api

    Example output

    machineautoscaler.autoscaling.openshift.io "compute-us-east-1a" deleted

Verification

  • To verify that the machine autoscaler is disabled, run the following command:

    $ oc get MachineAutoscaler -n openshift-machine-api

    The disabled machine autoscaler does not appear in the list of machine autoscalers.

Next steps

  • If you need to re-enable the machine autoscaler, use the <machine_autoscaler_name_backup>.yaml backup file and follow the instructions in "Deploying a machine autoscaler".

7.5.2. Disabling the cluster autoscaler

To disable the cluster autoscaler, you delete the corresponding ClusterAutoscaler resource.

Note

Disabling the cluster autoscaler disables autoscaling on the cluster, even if the cluster has existing machine autoscalers.

Procedure

  1. List the ClusterAutoscaler resource for the cluster by running the following command:

    $ oc get ClusterAutoscaler

    Example output

    NAME      AGE
    default   42m

  2. Optional: Create a YAML file backup of the ClusterAutoscaler CR by running the following command:

    $ oc get ClusterAutoscaler/default \1
      -o yaml> <cluster_autoscaler_backup_name>.yaml 2
    1
    default is the name of the ClusterAutoscaler CR.
    2
    <cluster_autoscaler_backup_name> is the name for the backup of the CR.
  3. Delete the ClusterAutoscaler CR by running the following command:

    $ oc delete ClusterAutoscaler/default

    Example output

    clusterautoscaler.autoscaling.openshift.io "default" deleted

Verification

  • To verify that the cluster autoscaler is disabled, run the following command:

    $ oc get ClusterAutoscaler

    Expected output

    No resources found

Next steps

  • Disabling the cluster autoscaler by deleting the ClusterAutoscaler CR prevents the cluster from autoscaling but does not delete any existing machine autoscalers on the cluster. To clean up unneeded machine autoscalers, see "Disabling a machine autoscaler".
  • If you need to re-enable the cluster autoscaler, use the <cluster_autoscaler_name_backup>.yaml backup file and follow the instructions in "Deploying a cluster autoscaler".

7.6. Additional resources

Chapter 8. Creating infrastructure machine sets

Important

You can use the advanced machine management and scaling capabilities only in clusters where the Machine API is operational. Clusters with user-provisioned infrastructure require additional validation and configuration to use the Machine API.

Clusters with the infrastructure platform type none cannot use the Machine API. This limitation applies even if the compute machines that are attached to the cluster are installed on a platform that supports the feature. This parameter cannot be changed after installation.

To view the platform type for your cluster, run the following command:

$ oc get infrastructure cluster -o jsonpath='{.status.platform}'

You can use infrastructure machine sets to create machines that host only infrastructure components, such as the default router, the integrated container image registry, and the components for cluster metrics and monitoring. These infrastructure machines are not counted toward the total number of subscriptions that are required to run the environment.

In a production deployment, it is recommended that you deploy at least three machine sets to hold infrastructure components. Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh deploys Elasticsearch, which requires three instances to be installed on different nodes. Each of these nodes can be deployed to different availability zones for high availability. This configuration requires three different machine sets, one for each availability zone. In global Azure regions that do not have multiple availability zones, you can use availability sets to ensure high availability.

8.1. OpenShift Container Platform infrastructure components

Each self-managed Red Hat OpenShift subscription includes entitlements for OpenShift Container Platform and other OpenShift-related components. These entitlements are included for running OpenShift Container Platform control plane and infrastructure workloads and do not need to be accounted for during sizing.

To qualify as an infrastructure node and use the included entitlement, only components that are supporting the cluster, and not part of an end-user application, can run on those instances. Examples include the following components:

  • Kubernetes and OpenShift Container Platform control plane services
  • The default router
  • The integrated container image registry
  • The HAProxy-based Ingress Controller
  • The cluster metrics collection, or monitoring service, including components for monitoring user-defined projects
  • Cluster aggregated logging
  • Red Hat Quay
  • Red Hat OpenShift Data Foundation
  • Red Hat Advanced Cluster Manager
  • Red Hat Advanced Cluster Security for Kubernetes
  • Red Hat OpenShift GitOps
  • Red Hat OpenShift Pipelines
  • Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh

Any node that runs any other container, pod, or component is a worker node that your subscription must cover.

For information about infrastructure nodes and which components can run on infrastructure nodes, see the "Red Hat OpenShift control plane and infrastructure nodes" section in the OpenShift sizing and subscription guide for enterprise Kubernetes document.

To create an infrastructure node, you can use a machine set, label the node, or use a machine config pool.

8.2. Creating infrastructure machine sets for production environments

In a production deployment, it is recommended that you deploy at least three compute machine sets to hold infrastructure components. Red Hat OpenShift Service Mesh deploys Elasticsearch, which requires three instances to be installed on different nodes. Each of these nodes can be deployed to different availability zones for high availability. A configuration like this requires three different compute machine sets, one for each availability zone. In global Azure regions that do not have multiple availability zones, you can use availability sets to ensure high availability.

8.2.1. Creating infrastructure machine sets for different clouds

Use the sample compute machine set for your cloud.

8.2.1.1. Sample YAML for a compute machine set custom resource on Alibaba Cloud

This sample YAML defines a compute machine set that runs in a specified Alibaba Cloud zone in a region and creates nodes that are labeled with node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: "".

In this sample, <infrastructure_id> is the infrastructure ID label that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster, and <infra> is the node label to add.

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
kind: MachineSet
metadata:
  labels:
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <infra> 2
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <infra> 3
  name: <infrastructure_id>-<infra>-<zone> 4
  namespace: openshift-machine-api
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 5
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<infra>-<zone> 6
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 7
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <infra> 8
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <infra> 9
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<infra>-<zone> 10
    spec:
      metadata:
        labels:
          node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
      providerSpec:
        value:
          apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1
          credentialsSecret:
            name: alibabacloud-credentials
          imageId: <image_id> 11
          instanceType: <instance_type> 12
          kind: AlibabaCloudMachineProviderConfig
          ramRoleName: <infrastructure_id>-role-worker 13
          regionId: <region> 14
          resourceGroup: 15
            id: <resource_group_id>
            type: ID
          securityGroups:
          - tags: 16
            - Key: Name
              Value: <infrastructure_id>-sg-<role>
            type: Tags
          systemDisk: 17
            category: cloud_essd
            size: <disk_size>
          tag: 18
          - Key: kubernetes.io/cluster/<infrastructure_id>
            Value: owned
          userDataSecret:
            name: <user_data_secret> 19
          vSwitch:
            tags: 20
            - Key: Name
              Value: <infrastructure_id>-vswitch-<zone>
            type: Tags
          vpcId: ""
          zoneId: <zone> 21
      taints: 22
      - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
        effect: NoSchedule
1 5 7
Specify the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster. If you have the OpenShift CLI (oc) installed, you can obtain the infrastructure ID by running the following command:
$ oc get -o jsonpath='{.status.infrastructureName}{"\n"}' infrastructure cluster
2 3 8 9
Specify the <infra> node label.
4 6 10
Specify the infrastructure ID, <infra> node label, and zone.
11
Specify the image to use. Use an image from an existing default compute machine set for the cluster.
12
Specify the instance type you want to use for the compute machine set.
13
Specify the name of the RAM role to use for the compute machine set. Use the value that the installer populates in the default compute machine set.
14
Specify the region to place machines on.
15
Specify the resource group and type for the cluster. You can use the value that the installer populates in the default compute machine set, or specify a different one.
16 18 20
Specify the tags to use for the compute machine set. Minimally, you must include the tags shown in this example, with appropriate values for your cluster. You can include additional tags, including the tags that the installer populates in the default compute machine set it creates, as needed.
17
Specify the type and size of the root disk. Use the category value that the installer populates in the default compute machine set it creates. If required, specify a different value in gigabytes for size.
19
Specify the name of the secret in the user data YAML file that is in the openshift-machine-api namespace. Use the value that the installer populates in the default compute machine set.
21
Specify the zone within your region to place machines on. Be sure that your region supports the zone that you specify.
22
Specify a taint to prevent user workloads from being scheduled on infra nodes.
Note

After adding the NoSchedule taint on the infrastructure node, existing DNS pods running on that node are marked as misscheduled. You must either delete or add toleration on misscheduled DNS pods.

Machine set parameters for Alibaba Cloud usage statistics

The default compute machine sets that the installer creates for Alibaba Cloud clusters include nonessential tag values that Alibaba Cloud uses internally to track usage statistics. These tags are populated in the securityGroups, tag, and vSwitch parameters of the spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value list.

When creating compute machine sets to deploy additional machines, you must include the required Kubernetes tags. The usage statistics tags are applied by default, even if they are not specified in the compute machine sets you create. You can also include additional tags as needed.

The following YAML snippets indicate which tags in the default compute machine sets are optional and which are required.

Tags in spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value.securityGroups

spec:
  template:
    spec:
      providerSpec:
        value:
          securityGroups:
          - tags:
            - Key: kubernetes.io/cluster/<infrastructure_id> 1
              Value: owned
            - Key: GISV
              Value: ocp
            - Key: sigs.k8s.io/cloud-provider-alibaba/origin 2
              Value: ocp
            - Key: Name
              Value: <infrastructure_id>-sg-<role> 3
            type: Tags

1 2
Optional: This tag is applied even when not specified in the compute machine set.
3
Required.

where:

  • <infrastructure_id> is the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster.
  • <role> is the node label to add.

Tags in spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value.tag

spec:
  template:
    spec:
      providerSpec:
        value:
          tag:
          - Key: kubernetes.io/cluster/<infrastructure_id> 1
            Value: owned
          - Key: GISV 2
            Value: ocp
          - Key: sigs.k8s.io/cloud-provider-alibaba/origin 3
            Value: ocp

2 3
Optional: This tag is applied even when not specified in the compute machine set.
1
Required.

where <infrastructure_id> is the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster.

Tags in spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value.vSwitch

spec:
  template:
    spec:
      providerSpec:
        value:
          vSwitch:
            tags:
            - Key: kubernetes.io/cluster/<infrastructure_id> 1
              Value: owned
            - Key: GISV 2
              Value: ocp
            - Key: sigs.k8s.io/cloud-provider-alibaba/origin 3
              Value: ocp
            - Key: Name
              Value: <infrastructure_id>-vswitch-<zone> 4
            type: Tags

1 2 3
Optional: This tag is applied even when not specified in the compute machine set.
4
Required.

where:

  • <infrastructure_id> is the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster.
  • <zone> is the zone within your region to place machines on.

8.2.1.2. Sample YAML for a compute machine set custom resource on AWS

The sample YAML defines a compute machine set that runs in the us-east-1a Amazon Web Services (AWS) Local Zone and creates nodes that are labeled with node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: "".

In this sample, <infrastructure_id> is the infrastructure ID label that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster, and <infra> is the node label to add.

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
kind: MachineSet
metadata:
  labels:
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
  name: <infrastructure_id>-infra-<zone> 2
  namespace: openshift-machine-api
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 3
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-infra-<zone> 4
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 5
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: infra 6
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: infra 7
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-infra-<zone> 8
    spec:
      metadata:
        labels:
          node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: "" 9
      providerSpec:
        value:
          ami:
            id: ami-046fe691f52a953f9 10
          apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
          blockDevices:
            - ebs:
                iops: 0
                volumeSize: 120
                volumeType: gp2
          credentialsSecret:
            name: aws-cloud-credentials
          deviceIndex: 0
          iamInstanceProfile:
            id: <infrastructure_id>-worker-profile 11
          instanceType: m6i.large
          kind: AWSMachineProviderConfig
          placement:
            availabilityZone: <zone> 12
            region: <region> 13
          securityGroups:
            - filters:
                - name: tag:Name
                  values:
                    - <infrastructure_id>-worker-sg 14
          subnet:
            filters:
              - name: tag:Name
                values:
                  - <infrastructure_id>-private-<zone> 15
          tags:
            - name: kubernetes.io/cluster/<infrastructure_id> 16
              value: owned
            - name: <custom_tag_name> 17
              value: <custom_tag_value> 18
          userDataSecret:
            name: worker-user-data
      taints: 19
        - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
          effect: NoSchedule
1 3 5 11 14 16
Specify the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster. If you have the OpenShift CLI installed, you can obtain the infrastructure ID by running the following command:
$ oc get -o jsonpath='{.status.infrastructureName}{"\n"}' infrastructure cluster
2 4 8
Specify the infrastructure ID, infra role node label, and zone.
6 7 9
Specify the infra role node label.
10
Specify a valid Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) Amazon Machine Image (AMI) for your AWS zone for your OpenShift Container Platform nodes. If you want to use an AWS Marketplace image, you must complete the OpenShift Container Platform subscription from the AWS Marketplace to obtain an AMI ID for your region.
$ oc -n openshift-machine-api \
    -o jsonpath='{.spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value.ami.id}{"\n"}' \
    get machineset/<infrastructure_id>-<role>-<zone>
17 18
Optional: Specify custom tag data for your cluster. For example, you might add an admin contact email address by specifying a name:value pair of Email:admin-email@example.com.
Note

Custom tags can also be specified during installation in the install-config.yml file. If the install-config.yml file and the machine set include a tag with the same name data, the value for the tag from the machine set takes priority over the value for the tag in the install-config.yml file.

12
Specify the zone, for example, us-east-1a.
13
Specify the region, for example, us-east-1.
15
Specify the infrastructure ID and zone.
19
Specify a taint to prevent user workloads from being scheduled on infra nodes.
Note

After adding the NoSchedule taint on the infrastructure node, existing DNS pods running on that node are marked as misscheduled. You must either delete or add toleration on misscheduled DNS pods.

Machine sets running on AWS support non-guaranteed Spot Instances. You can save on costs by using Spot Instances at a lower price compared to On-Demand Instances on AWS. Configure Spot Instances by adding spotMarketOptions to the MachineSet YAML file.

8.2.1.3. Sample YAML for a compute machine set custom resource on Azure

This sample YAML defines a compute machine set that runs in the 1 Microsoft Azure zone in a region and creates nodes that are labeled with node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: "".

In this sample, <infrastructure_id> is the infrastructure ID label that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster, and infra is the node label to add.

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
kind: MachineSet
metadata:
  labels:
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: infra 2
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: infra
  name: <infrastructure_id>-infra-<region> 3
  namespace: openshift-machine-api
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-infra-<region>
  template:
    metadata:
      creationTimestamp: null
      labels:
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: infra
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: infra
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-infra-<region>
    spec:
      metadata:
        creationTimestamp: null
        labels:
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <machineset_name>
          node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
      providerSpec:
        value:
          apiVersion: azureproviderconfig.openshift.io/v1beta1
          credentialsSecret:
            name: azure-cloud-credentials
            namespace: openshift-machine-api
          image: 4
            offer: ""
            publisher: ""
            resourceID: /resourceGroups/<infrastructure_id>-rg/providers/Microsoft.Compute/galleries/gallery_<infrastructure_id>/images/<infrastructure_id>-gen2/versions/latest 5
            sku: ""
            version: ""
          internalLoadBalancer: ""
          kind: AzureMachineProviderSpec
          location: <region> 6
          managedIdentity: <infrastructure_id>-identity
          metadata:
            creationTimestamp: null
          natRule: null
          networkResourceGroup: ""
          osDisk:
            diskSizeGB: 128
            managedDisk:
              storageAccountType: Premium_LRS
            osType: Linux
          publicIP: false
          publicLoadBalancer: ""
          resourceGroup: <infrastructure_id>-rg
          sshPrivateKey: ""
          sshPublicKey: ""
          tags:
            - name: <custom_tag_name> 7
              value: <custom_tag_value>
          subnet: <infrastructure_id>-<role>-subnet
          userDataSecret:
            name: worker-user-data
          vmSize: Standard_D4s_v3
          vnet: <infrastructure_id>-vnet
          zone: "1" 8
      taints: 9
      - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
        effect: NoSchedule
1
Specify the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster. If you have the OpenShift CLI installed, you can obtain the infrastructure ID by running the following command:
$ oc get -o jsonpath='{.status.infrastructureName}{"\n"}' infrastructure cluster

You can obtain the subnet by running the following command:

$  oc -n openshift-machine-api \
    -o jsonpath='{.spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value.subnet}{"\n"}' \
    get machineset/<infrastructure_id>-worker-centralus1

You can obtain the vnet by running the following command:

$  oc -n openshift-machine-api \
    -o jsonpath='{.spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value.vnet}{"\n"}' \
    get machineset/<infrastructure_id>-worker-centralus1
2
Specify the infra node label.
3
Specify the infrastructure ID, infra node label, and region.
4
Specify the image details for your compute machine set. If you want to use an Azure Marketplace image, see "Selecting an Azure Marketplace image".
5
Specify an image that is compatible with your instance type. The Hyper-V generation V2 images created by the installation program have a -gen2 suffix, while V1 images have the same name without the suffix.
6
Specify the region to place machines on.
7
Optional: Specify custom tags in your machine set. Provide the tag name in <custom_tag_name> field and the corresponding tag value in <custom_tag_value> field.
8
Specify the zone within your region to place machines on. Be sure that your region supports the zone that you specify.
9
Specify a taint to prevent user workloads from being scheduled on infra nodes.
Note

After adding the NoSchedule taint on the infrastructure node, existing DNS pods running on that node are marked as misscheduled. You must either delete or add toleration on misscheduled DNS pods.

Machine sets running on Azure support non-guaranteed Spot VMs. You can save on costs by using Spot VMs at a lower price compared to standard VMs on Azure. You can configure Spot VMs by adding spotVMOptions to the MachineSet YAML file.

8.2.1.4. Sample YAML for a compute machine set custom resource on Azure Stack Hub

This sample YAML defines a compute machine set that runs in the 1 Microsoft Azure zone in a region and creates nodes that are labeled with node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: "".

In this sample, <infrastructure_id> is the infrastructure ID label that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster, and <infra> is the node label to add.

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
kind: MachineSet
metadata:
  labels:
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <infra> 2
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <infra> 3
  name: <infrastructure_id>-infra-<region> 4
  namespace: openshift-machine-api
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 5
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-infra-<region> 6
  template:
    metadata:
      creationTimestamp: null
      labels:
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 7
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <infra> 8
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <infra> 9
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-infra-<region> 10
    spec:
      metadata:
        creationTimestamp: null
        labels:
          node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: "" 11
      taints: 12
      - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
        effect: NoSchedule
      providerSpec:
        value:
          apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
          availabilitySet: <availability_set> 13
          credentialsSecret:
            name: azure-cloud-credentials
            namespace: openshift-machine-api
          image:
            offer: ""
            publisher: ""
            resourceID: /resourceGroups/<infrastructure_id>-rg/providers/Microsoft.Compute/images/<infrastructure_id> 14
            sku: ""
            version: ""
          internalLoadBalancer: ""
          kind: AzureMachineProviderSpec
          location: <region> 15
          managedIdentity: <infrastructure_id>-identity 16
          metadata:
            creationTimestamp: null
          natRule: null
          networkResourceGroup: ""
          osDisk:
            diskSizeGB: 128
            managedDisk:
              storageAccountType: Premium_LRS
            osType: Linux
          publicIP: false
          publicLoadBalancer: ""
          resourceGroup: <infrastructure_id>-rg 17
          sshPrivateKey: ""
          sshPublicKey: ""
          subnet: <infrastructure_id>-<role>-subnet 18 19
          userDataSecret:
            name: worker-user-data 20
          vmSize: Standard_DS4_v2
          vnet: <infrastructure_id>-vnet 21
          zone: "1" 22
1 5 7 14 16 17 18 21
Specify the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster. If you have the OpenShift CLI installed, you can obtain the infrastructure ID by running the following command:
$ oc get -o jsonpath='{.status.infrastructureName}{"\n"}' infrastructure cluster

You can obtain the subnet by running the following command:

$  oc -n openshift-machine-api \
    -o jsonpath='{.spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value.subnet}{"\n"}' \
    get machineset/<infrastructure_id>-worker-centralus1

You can obtain the vnet by running the following command:

$  oc -n openshift-machine-api \
    -o jsonpath='{.spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value.vnet}{"\n"}' \
    get machineset/<infrastructure_id>-worker-centralus1
2 3 8 9 11 19 20
Specify the <infra> node label.
4 6 10
Specify the infrastructure ID, <infra> node label, and region.
12
Specify a taint to prevent user workloads from being scheduled on infra nodes.
Note

After adding the NoSchedule taint on the infrastructure node, existing DNS pods running on that node are marked as misscheduled. You must either delete or add toleration on misscheduled DNS pods.

15
Specify the region to place machines on.
13
Specify the availability set for the cluster.
22
Specify the zone within your region to place machines on. Be sure that your region supports the zone that you specify.
Note

Machine sets running on Azure Stack Hub do not support non-guaranteed Spot VMs.

8.2.1.5. Sample YAML for a compute machine set custom resource on IBM Cloud

This sample YAML defines a compute machine set that runs in a specified IBM Cloud® zone in a region and creates nodes that are labeled with node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: "".

In this sample, <infrastructure_id> is the infrastructure ID label that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster, and <infra> is the node label to add.

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
kind: MachineSet
metadata:
  labels:
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <infra> 2
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <infra> 3
  name: <infrastructure_id>-<infra>-<region> 4
  namespace: openshift-machine-api
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 5
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<infra>-<region> 6
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 7
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <infra> 8
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <infra> 9
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<infra>-<region> 10
    spec:
      metadata:
        labels:
          node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
      providerSpec:
        value:
          apiVersion: ibmcloudproviderconfig.openshift.io/v1beta1
          credentialsSecret:
            name: ibmcloud-credentials
          image: <infrastructure_id>-rhcos 11
          kind: IBMCloudMachineProviderSpec
          primaryNetworkInterface:
              securityGroups:
              - <infrastructure_id>-sg-cluster-wide
              - <infrastructure_id>-sg-openshift-net
              subnet: <infrastructure_id>-subnet-compute-<zone> 12
          profile: <instance_profile> 13
          region: <region> 14
          resourceGroup: <resource_group> 15
          userDataSecret:
              name: <role>-user-data 16
          vpc: <vpc_name> 17
          zone: <zone> 18
        taints: 19
        - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
          effect: NoSchedule
1 5 7
The infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster. If you have the OpenShift CLI installed, you can obtain the infrastructure ID by running the following command:
$ oc get -o jsonpath='{.status.infrastructureName}{"\n"}' infrastructure cluster
2 3 8 9 16
The <infra> node label.
4 6 10
The infrastructure ID, <infra> node label, and region.
11
The custom Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) image that was used for cluster installation.
12
The infrastructure ID and zone within your region to place machines on. Be sure that your region supports the zone that you specify.
13
14
Specify the region to place machines on.
15
The resource group that machine resources are placed in. This is either an existing resource group specified at installation time, or an installer-created resource group named based on the infrastructure ID.
17
The VPC name.
18
Specify the zone within your region to place machines on. Be sure that your region supports the zone that you specify.
19
The taint to prevent user workloads from being scheduled on infra nodes.
Note

After adding the NoSchedule taint on the infrastructure node, existing DNS pods running on that node are marked as misscheduled. You must either delete or add toleration on misscheduled DNS pods.

8.2.1.6. Sample YAML for a compute machine set custom resource on GCP

This sample YAML defines a compute machine set that runs in Google Cloud Platform (GCP) and creates nodes that are labeled with node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: "", where infra is the node label to add.

Values obtained by using the OpenShift CLI

In the following example, you can obtain some of the values for your cluster by using the OpenShift CLI.

Infrastructure ID

The <infrastructure_id> string is the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster. If you have the OpenShift CLI installed, you can obtain the infrastructure ID by running the following command:

$ oc get -o jsonpath='{.status.infrastructureName}{"\n"}' infrastructure cluster
Image path

The <path_to_image> string is the path to the image that was used to create the disk. If you have the OpenShift CLI installed, you can obtain the path to the image by running the following command:

$ oc -n openshift-machine-api \
  -o jsonpath='{.spec.template.spec.providerSpec.value.disks[0].image}{"\n"}' \
  get machineset/<infrastructure_id>-worker-a

Sample GCP MachineSet values

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
kind: MachineSet
metadata:
  labels:
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
  name: <infrastructure_id>-w-a
  namespace: openshift-machine-api
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-w-a
  template:
    metadata:
      creationTimestamp: null
      labels:
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <infra> 2
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <infra>
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-w-a
    spec:
      metadata:
        labels:
          node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
      providerSpec:
        value:
          apiVersion: gcpprovider.openshift.io/v1beta1
          canIPForward: false
          credentialsSecret:
            name: gcp-cloud-credentials
          deletionProtection: false
          disks:
          - autoDelete: true
            boot: true
            image: <path_to_image> 3
            labels: null
            sizeGb: 128
            type: pd-ssd
          gcpMetadata: 4
          - key: <custom_metadata_key>
            value: <custom_metadata_value>
          kind: GCPMachineProviderSpec
          machineType: n1-standard-4
          metadata:
            creationTimestamp: null
          networkInterfaces:
          - network: <infrastructure_id>-network
            subnetwork: <infrastructure_id>-worker-subnet
          projectID: <project_name> 5
          region: us-central1
          serviceAccounts:
          - email: <infrastructure_id>-w@<project_name>.iam.gserviceaccount.com
            scopes:
            - https://www.googleapis.com/auth/cloud-platform
          tags:
            - <infrastructure_id>-worker
          userDataSecret:
            name: worker-user-data
          zone: us-central1-a
      taints: 6
      - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
        effect: NoSchedule

1
For <infrastructure_id>, specify the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster.
2
For <infra>, specify the <infra> node label.
3
Specify the path to the image that is used in current compute machine sets.

To use a GCP Marketplace image, specify the offer to use:

  • OpenShift Container Platform: https://www.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/redhat-marketplace-public/global/images/redhat-coreos-ocp-413-x86-64-202305021736
  • OpenShift Platform Plus: https://www.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/redhat-marketplace-public/global/images/redhat-coreos-opp-413-x86-64-202305021736
  • OpenShift Kubernetes Engine: https://www.googleapis.com/compute/v1/projects/redhat-marketplace-public/global/images/redhat-coreos-oke-413-x86-64-202305021736
4
Optional: Specify custom metadata in the form of a key:value pair. For example use cases, see the GCP documentation for setting custom metadata.
5
For <project_name>, specify the name of the GCP project that you use for your cluster.
6
Specify a taint to prevent user workloads from being scheduled on infra nodes.
Note

After adding the NoSchedule taint on the infrastructure node, existing DNS pods running on that node are marked as misscheduled. You must either delete or add toleration on misscheduled DNS pods.

Machine sets running on GCP support non-guaranteed preemptible VM instances. You can save on costs by using preemptible VM instances at a lower price compared to normal instances on GCP. You can configure preemptible VM instances by adding preemptible to the MachineSet YAML file.

8.2.1.7. Sample YAML for a compute machine set custom resource on Nutanix

This sample YAML defines a Nutanix compute machine set that creates nodes that are labeled with node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: "".

In this sample, <infrastructure_id> is the infrastructure ID label that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster, and <infra> is the node label to add.

Values obtained by using the OpenShift CLI

In the following example, you can obtain some of the values for your cluster by using the OpenShift CLI (oc).

Infrastructure ID

The <infrastructure_id> string is the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster. If you have the OpenShift CLI installed, you can obtain the infrastructure ID by running the following command:

$ oc get -o jsonpath='{.status.infrastructureName}{"\n"}' infrastructure cluster
apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
kind: MachineSet
metadata:
  labels:
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <infra> 2
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <infra>
  name: <infrastructure_id>-<infra>-<zone> 3
  namespace: openshift-machine-api
  annotations: 4
    machine.openshift.io/memoryMb: "16384"
    machine.openshift.io/vCPU: "4"
spec:
  replicas: 3
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<infra>-<zone>
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <infra>
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <infra>
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<infra>-<zone>
    spec:
      metadata:
        labels:
          node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
      providerSpec:
        value:
          apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1
          bootType: "" 5
          categories: 6
          - key: <category_name>
            value: <category_value>
          cluster: 7
            type: uuid
            uuid: <cluster_uuid>
          credentialsSecret:
            name: nutanix-credentials
          image:
            name: <infrastructure_id>-rhcos 8
            type: name
          kind: NutanixMachineProviderConfig
          memorySize: 16Gi 9
          project: 10
            type: name
            name: <project_name>
          subnets:
          - type: uuid
            uuid: <subnet_uuid>
          systemDiskSize: 120Gi 11
          userDataSecret:
            name: <user_data_secret> 12
          vcpuSockets: 4 13
          vcpusPerSocket: 1 14
      taints: 15
      - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
        effect: NoSchedule
1
For <infrastructure_id>, specify the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster.
2
Specify the <infra> node label.
3
Specify the infrastructure ID, <infra> node label, and zone.
4
Annotations for the cluster autoscaler.
5
Specifies the boot type that the compute machines use. For more information about boot types, see Understanding UEFI, Secure Boot, and TPM in the Virtualized Environment. Valid values are Legacy, SecureBoot, or UEFI. The default is Legacy.
Note

You must use the Legacy boot type in OpenShift Container Platform 4.15.

6
Specify one or more Nutanix Prism categories to apply to compute machines. This stanza requires key and value parameters for a category key-value pair that exists in Prism Central. For more information about categories, see Category management.
7
Specify a Nutanix Prism Element cluster configuration. In this example, the cluster type is uuid, so there is a uuid stanza.
8
Specify the image to use. Use an image from an existing default compute machine set for the cluster.
9
Specify the amount of memory for the cluster in Gi.
10
Specify the Nutanix project that you use for your cluster. In this example, the project type is name, so there is a name stanza.
11
Specify the size of the system disk in Gi.
12
Specify the name of the secret in the user data YAML file that is in the openshift-machine-api namespace. Use the value that installation program populates in the default compute machine set.
13
Specify the number of vCPU sockets.
14
Specify the number of vCPUs per socket.
15
Specify a taint to prevent user workloads from being scheduled on infra nodes.
Note

After adding the NoSchedule taint on the infrastructure node, existing DNS pods running on that node are marked as misscheduled. You must either delete or add toleration on misscheduled DNS pods.

8.2.1.8. Sample YAML for a compute machine set custom resource on RHOSP

This sample YAML defines a compute machine set that runs on Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) and creates nodes that are labeled with node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: "".

In this sample, <infrastructure_id> is the infrastructure ID label that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster, and <infra> is the node label to add.

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
kind: MachineSet
metadata:
  labels:
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <infra> 2
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <infra> 3
  name: <infrastructure_id>-infra 4
  namespace: openshift-machine-api
spec:
  replicas: <number_of_replicas>
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 5
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-infra 6
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 7
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <infra> 8
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <infra> 9
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-infra 10
    spec:
      metadata:
        creationTimestamp: null
        labels:
          node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
      taints: 11
      - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
        effect: NoSchedule
      providerSpec:
        value:
          apiVersion: openstackproviderconfig.openshift.io/v1alpha1
          cloudName: openstack
          cloudsSecret:
            name: openstack-cloud-credentials
            namespace: openshift-machine-api
          flavor: <nova_flavor>
          image: <glance_image_name_or_location>
          serverGroupID: <optional_UUID_of_server_group> 12
          kind: OpenstackProviderSpec
          networks: 13
          - filter: {}
            subnets:
            - filter:
                name: <subnet_name>
                tags: openshiftClusterID=<infrastructure_id> 14
          primarySubnet: <rhosp_subnet_UUID> 15
          securityGroups:
          - filter: {}
            name: <infrastructure_id>-worker 16
          serverMetadata:
            Name: <infrastructure_id>-worker 17
            openshiftClusterID: <infrastructure_id> 18
          tags:
          - openshiftClusterID=<infrastructure_id> 19
          trunk: true
          userDataSecret:
            name: worker-user-data 20
          availabilityZone: <optional_openstack_availability_zone>
1 5 7 14 16 17 18 19
Specify the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster. If you have the OpenShift CLI installed, you can obtain the infrastructure ID by running the following command:
$ oc get -o jsonpath='{.status.infrastructureName}{"\n"}' infrastructure cluster
2 3 8 9 20
Specify the <infra> node label.
4 6 10
Specify the infrastructure ID and <infra> node label.
11
Specify a taint to prevent user workloads from being scheduled on infra nodes.
Note

After adding the NoSchedule taint on the infrastructure node, existing DNS pods running on that node are marked as misscheduled. You must either delete or add toleration on misscheduled DNS pods.

12
To set a server group policy for the MachineSet, enter the value that is returned from creating a server group. For most deployments, anti-affinity or soft-anti-affinity policies are recommended.
13
Required for deployments to multiple networks. If deploying to multiple networks, this list must include the network that is used as the primarySubnet value.
15
Specify the RHOSP subnet that you want the endpoints of nodes to be published on. Usually, this is the same subnet that is used as the value of machinesSubnet in the install-config.yaml file.

8.2.1.9. Sample YAML for a compute machine set custom resource on vSphere

This sample YAML defines a compute machine set that runs on VMware vSphere and creates nodes that are labeled with node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: "".

In this sample, <infrastructure_id> is the infrastructure ID label that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster, and <infra> is the node label to add.

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
kind: MachineSet
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: null
  labels:
    machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
  name: <infrastructure_id>-infra 2
  namespace: openshift-machine-api
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 3
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-infra 4
  template:
    metadata:
      creationTimestamp: null
      labels:
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 5
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <infra> 6
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <infra> 7
        machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-infra 8
    spec:
      metadata:
        creationTimestamp: null
        labels:
          node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: "" 9
      taints: 10
      - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
        effect: NoSchedule
      providerSpec:
        value:
          apiVersion: vsphereprovider.openshift.io/v1beta1
          credentialsSecret:
            name: vsphere-cloud-credentials
          diskGiB: 120
          kind: VSphereMachineProviderSpec
          memoryMiB: 8192
          metadata:
            creationTimestamp: null
          network:
            devices:
            - networkName: "<vm_network_name>" 11
          numCPUs: 4
          numCoresPerSocket: 1
          snapshot: ""
          template: <vm_template_name> 12
          userDataSecret:
            name: worker-user-data
          workspace:
            datacenter: <vcenter_datacenter_name> 13
            datastore: <vcenter_datastore_name> 14
            folder: <vcenter_vm_folder_path> 15
            resourcepool: <vsphere_resource_pool> 16
            server: <vcenter_server_ip> 17
1 3 5
Specify the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster. If you have the OpenShift CLI (oc) installed, you can obtain the infrastructure ID by running the following command:
$ oc get -o jsonpath='{.status.infrastructureName}{"\n"}' infrastructure cluster
2 4 8
Specify the infrastructure ID and <infra> node label.
6 7 9
Specify the <infra> node label.
10
Specify a taint to prevent user workloads from being scheduled on infra nodes.
Note

After adding the NoSchedule taint on the infrastructure node, existing DNS pods running on that node are marked as misscheduled. You must either delete or add toleration on misscheduled DNS pods.

11
Specify the vSphere VM network to deploy the compute machine set to. This VM network must be where other compute machines reside in the cluster.
12
Specify the vSphere VM template to use, such as user-5ddjd-rhcos.
13
Specify the vCenter Datacenter to deploy the compute machine set on.
14
Specify the vCenter Datastore to deploy the compute machine set on.
15
Specify the path to the vSphere VM folder in vCenter, such as /dc1/vm/user-inst-5ddjd.
16
Specify the vSphere resource pool for your VMs.
17
Specify the vCenter server IP or fully qualified domain name.

8.2.2. Creating a compute machine set

In addition to the compute machine sets created by the installation program, you can create your own to dynamically manage the machine compute resources for specific workloads of your choice.

Prerequisites

  • Deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Log in to oc as a user with cluster-admin permission.

Procedure

  1. Create a new YAML file that contains the compute machine set custom resource (CR) sample and is named <file_name>.yaml.

    Ensure that you set the <clusterID> and <role> parameter values.

  2. Optional: If you are not sure which value to set for a specific field, you can check an existing compute machine set from your cluster.

    1. To list the compute machine sets in your cluster, run the following command:

      $ oc get machinesets -n openshift-machine-api

      Example output

      NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1b   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1c   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1d   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1e   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1f   0         0                             55m

    2. To view values of a specific compute machine set custom resource (CR), run the following command:

      $ oc get machineset <machineset_name> \
        -n openshift-machine-api -o yaml

      Example output

      apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
      kind: MachineSet
      metadata:
        labels:
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id> 1
        name: <infrastructure_id>-<role> 2
        namespace: openshift-machine-api
      spec:
        replicas: 1
        selector:
          matchLabels:
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
            machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>
        template:
          metadata:
            labels:
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <infrastructure_id>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: <role>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: <role>
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: <infrastructure_id>-<role>
          spec:
            providerSpec: 3
              ...

      1
      The cluster infrastructure ID.
      2
      A default node label.
      Note

      For clusters that have user-provisioned infrastructure, a compute machine set can only create worker and infra type machines.

      3
      The values in the <providerSpec> section of the compute machine set CR are platform-specific. For more information about <providerSpec> parameters in the CR, see the sample compute machine set CR configuration for your provider.
  3. Create a MachineSet CR by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <file_name>.yaml

Verification

  • View the list of compute machine sets by running the following command:

    $ oc get machineset -n openshift-machine-api

    Example output

    NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
    agl030519-vplxk-infra-us-east-1a    1         1         1       1           11m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1b   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1c   1         1         1       1           55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1d   0         0                             55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1e   0         0                             55m
    agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1f   0         0                             55m

    When the new compute machine set is available, the DESIRED and CURRENT values match. If the compute machine set is not available, wait a few minutes and run the command again.

8.2.3. Creating an infrastructure node

Important

See Creating infrastructure machine sets for installer-provisioned infrastructure environments or for any cluster where the control plane nodes are managed by the machine API.

Requirements of the cluster dictate that infrastructure, also called infra nodes, be provisioned. The installer only provides provisions for control plane and worker nodes. Worker nodes can be designated as infrastructure nodes or application, also called app, nodes through labeling.

Procedure

  1. Add a label to the worker node that you want to act as application node:

    $ oc label node <node-name> node-role.kubernetes.io/app=""
  2. Add a label to the worker nodes that you want to act as infrastructure nodes:

    $ oc label node <node-name> node-role.kubernetes.io/infra=""
  3. Check to see if applicable nodes now have the infra role and app roles:

    $ oc get nodes
  4. Create a default cluster-wide node selector. The default node selector is applied to pods created in all namespaces. This creates an intersection with any existing node selectors on a pod, which additionally constrains the pod’s selector.

    Important

    If the default node selector key conflicts with the key of a pod’s label, then the default node selector is not applied.

    However, do not set a default node selector that might cause a pod to become unschedulable. For example, setting the default node selector to a specific node role, such as node-role.kubernetes.io/infra="", when a pod’s label is set to a different node role, such as node-role.kubernetes.io/master="", can cause the pod to become unschedulable. For this reason, use caution when setting the default node selector to specific node roles.

    You can alternatively use a project node selector to avoid cluster-wide node selector key conflicts.

    1. Edit the Scheduler object:

      $ oc edit scheduler cluster
    2. Add the defaultNodeSelector field with the appropriate node selector:

      apiVersion: config.openshift.io/v1
      kind: Scheduler
      metadata:
        name: cluster
      spec:
        defaultNodeSelector: topology.kubernetes.io/region=us-east-1 1
      # ...
      1
      This example node selector deploys pods on nodes in the us-east-1 region by default.
    3. Save the file to apply the changes.

You can now move infrastructure resources to the newly labeled infra nodes.

8.2.4. Creating a machine config pool for infrastructure machines

If you need infrastructure machines to have dedicated configurations, you must create an infra pool.

Important

Creating a custom machine configuration pool overrides default worker pool configurations if they refer to the same file or unit.

Procedure

  1. Add a label to the node you want to assign as the infra node with a specific label:

    $ oc label node <node_name> <label>
    $ oc label node ci-ln-n8mqwr2-f76d1-xscn2-worker-c-6fmtx node-role.kubernetes.io/infra=
  2. Create a machine config pool that contains both the worker role and your custom role as machine config selector:

    $ cat infra.mcp.yaml

    Example output

    apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
    kind: MachineConfigPool
    metadata:
      name: infra
    spec:
      machineConfigSelector:
        matchExpressions:
          - {key: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role, operator: In, values: [worker,infra]} 1
      nodeSelector:
        matchLabels:
          node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: "" 2

    1
    Add the worker role and your custom role.
    2
    Add the label you added to the node as a nodeSelector.
    Note

    Custom machine config pools inherit machine configs from the worker pool. Custom pools use any machine config targeted for the worker pool, but add the ability to also deploy changes that are targeted at only the custom pool. Because a custom pool inherits resources from the worker pool, any change to the worker pool also affects the custom pool.

  3. After you have the YAML file, you can create the machine config pool:

    $ oc create -f infra.mcp.yaml
  4. Check the machine configs to ensure that the infrastructure configuration rendered successfully:

    $ oc get machineconfig

    Example output

    NAME                                                        GENERATEDBYCONTROLLER                      IGNITIONVERSION   CREATED
    00-master                                                   365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             31d
    00-worker                                                   365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             31d
    01-master-container-runtime                                 365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             31d
    01-master-kubelet                                           365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             31d
    01-worker-container-runtime                                 365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             31d
    01-worker-kubelet                                           365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             31d
    99-master-1ae2a1e0-a115-11e9-8f14-005056899d54-registries   365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             31d
    99-master-ssh                                                                                          3.2.0             31d
    99-worker-1ae64748-a115-11e9-8f14-005056899d54-registries   365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             31d
    99-worker-ssh                                                                                          3.2.0             31d
    rendered-infra-4e48906dca84ee702959c71a53ee80e7             365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             23m
    rendered-master-072d4b2da7f88162636902b074e9e28e            5b6fb8349a29735e48446d435962dec4547d3090   3.2.0             31d
    rendered-master-3e88ec72aed3886dec061df60d16d1af            02c07496ba0417b3e12b78fb32baf6293d314f79   3.2.0             31d
    rendered-master-419bee7de96134963a15fdf9dd473b25            365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             17d
    rendered-master-53f5c91c7661708adce18739cc0f40fb            365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             13d
    rendered-master-a6a357ec18e5bce7f5ac426fc7c5ffcd            365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             7d3h
    rendered-master-dc7f874ec77fc4b969674204332da037            5b6fb8349a29735e48446d435962dec4547d3090   3.2.0             31d
    rendered-worker-1a75960c52ad18ff5dfa6674eb7e533d            5b6fb8349a29735e48446d435962dec4547d3090   3.2.0             31d
    rendered-worker-2640531be11ba43c61d72e82dc634ce6            5b6fb8349a29735e48446d435962dec4547d3090   3.2.0             31d
    rendered-worker-4e48906dca84ee702959c71a53ee80e7            365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             7d3h
    rendered-worker-4f110718fe88e5f349987854a1147755            365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             17d
    rendered-worker-afc758e194d6188677eb837842d3b379            02c07496ba0417b3e12b78fb32baf6293d314f79   3.2.0             31d
    rendered-worker-daa08cc1e8f5fcdeba24de60cd955cc3            365c1cfd14de5b0e3b85e0fc815b0060f36ab955   3.2.0             13d

    You should see a new machine config, with the rendered-infra-* prefix.

  5. Optional: To deploy changes to a custom pool, create a machine config that uses the custom pool name as the label, such as infra. Note that this is not required and only shown for instructional purposes. In this manner, you can apply any custom configurations specific to only your infra nodes.

    Note

    After you create the new machine config pool, the MCO generates a new rendered config for that pool, and associated nodes of that pool reboot to apply the new configuration.

    1. Create a machine config:

      $ cat infra.mc.yaml

      Example output

      apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
      kind: MachineConfig
      metadata:
        name: 51-infra
        labels:
          machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role: infra 1
      spec:
        config:
          ignition:
            version: 3.2.0
          storage:
            files:
            - path: /etc/infratest
              mode: 0644
              contents:
                source: data:,infra

      1
      Add the label you added to the node as a nodeSelector.
    2. Apply the machine config to the infra-labeled nodes:

      $ oc create -f infra.mc.yaml
  6. Confirm that your new machine config pool is available:

    $ oc get mcp

    Example output

    NAME     CONFIG                                             UPDATED   UPDATING   DEGRADED   MACHINECOUNT   READYMACHINECOUNT   UPDATEDMACHINECOUNT   DEGRADEDMACHINECOUNT   AGE
    infra    rendered-infra-60e35c2e99f42d976e084fa94da4d0fc    True      False      False      1              1                   1                     0                      4m20s
    master   rendered-master-9360fdb895d4c131c7c4bebbae099c90   True      False      False      3              3                   3                     0                      91m
    worker   rendered-worker-60e35c2e99f42d976e084fa94da4d0fc   True      False      False      2              2                   2                     0                      91m

    In this example, a worker node was changed to an infra node.

Additional resources

8.3. Assigning machine set resources to infrastructure nodes

After creating an infrastructure machine set, the worker and infra roles are applied to new infra nodes. Nodes with the infra role applied are not counted toward the total number of subscriptions that are required to run the environment, even when the worker role is also applied.

However, with an infra node being assigned as a worker, there is a chance user workloads could get inadvertently assigned to an infra node. To avoid this, you can apply a taint to the infra node and tolerations for the pods you want to control.

8.3.1. Binding infrastructure node workloads using taints and tolerations

If you have an infra node that has the infra and worker roles assigned, you must configure the node so that user workloads are not assigned to it.

Important

It is recommended that you preserve the dual infra,worker label that is created for infra nodes and use taints and tolerations to manage nodes that user workloads are scheduled on. If you remove the worker label from the node, you must create a custom pool to manage it. A node with a label other than master or worker is not recognized by the MCO without a custom pool. Maintaining the worker label allows the node to be managed by the default worker machine config pool, if no custom pools that select the custom label exists. The infra label communicates to the cluster that it does not count toward the total number of subscriptions.

Prerequisites

  • Configure additional MachineSet objects in your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

Procedure

  1. Add a taint to the infra node to prevent scheduling user workloads on it:

    1. Determine if the node has the taint:

      $ oc describe nodes <node_name>

      Sample output

      oc describe node ci-ln-iyhx092-f76d1-nvdfm-worker-b-wln2l
      Name:               ci-ln-iyhx092-f76d1-nvdfm-worker-b-wln2l
      Roles:              worker
       ...
      Taints:             node-role.kubernetes.io/infra:NoSchedule
       ...

      This example shows that the node has a taint. You can proceed with adding a toleration to your pod in the next step.

    2. If you have not configured a taint to prevent scheduling user workloads on it:

      $ oc adm taint nodes <node_name> <key>=<value>:<effect>

      For example:

      $ oc adm taint nodes node1 node-role.kubernetes.io/infra=reserved:NoExecute
      Tip

      You can alternatively apply the following YAML to add the taint:

      kind: Node
      apiVersion: v1
      metadata:
        name: <node_name>
        labels:
          ...
      spec:
        taints:
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            effect: NoExecute
            value: reserved
        ...

      This example places a taint on node1 that has key node-role.kubernetes.io/infra and taint effect NoSchedule. Nodes with the NoSchedule effect schedule only pods that tolerate the taint, but allow existing pods to remain scheduled on the node.

      Note

      If a descheduler is used, pods violating node taints could be evicted from the cluster.

  2. Add tolerations for the pod configurations you want to schedule on the infra node, like router, registry, and monitoring workloads. Add the following code to the Pod object specification:

    tolerations:
      - effect: NoExecute 1
        key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra 2
        operator: Exists 3
        value: reserved 4
    1
    Specify the effect that you added to the node.
    2
    Specify the key that you added to the node.
    3
    Specify the Exists Operator to require a taint with the key node-role.kubernetes.io/infra to be present on the node.
    4
    Specify the value of the key-value pair taint that you added to the node.

    This toleration matches the taint created by the oc adm taint command. A pod with this toleration can be scheduled onto the infra node.

    Note

    Moving pods for an Operator installed via OLM to an infra node is not always possible. The capability to move Operator pods depends on the configuration of each Operator.

  3. Schedule the pod to the infra node using a scheduler. See the documentation for Controlling pod placement onto nodes for details.

Additional resources

8.4. Moving resources to infrastructure machine sets

Some of the infrastructure resources are deployed in your cluster by default. You can move them to the infrastructure machine sets that you created by adding the infrastructure node selector, as shown:

spec:
  nodePlacement: 1
    nodeSelector:
      matchLabels:
        node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
    tolerations:
    - effect: NoSchedule
      key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
      value: reserved
    - effect: NoExecute
      key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
      value: reserved
1
Add a nodeSelector parameter with the appropriate value to the component you want to move. You can use a nodeSelector in the format shown or use <key>: <value> pairs, based on the value specified for the node. If you added a taint to the infrasructure node, also add a matching toleration.

Applying a specific node selector to all infrastructure components causes OpenShift Container Platform to schedule those workloads on nodes with that label.

8.4.1. Moving the router

You can deploy the router pod to a different compute machine set. By default, the pod is deployed to a worker node.

Prerequisites

  • Configure additional compute machine sets in your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

Procedure

  1. View the IngressController custom resource for the router Operator:

    $ oc get ingresscontroller default -n openshift-ingress-operator -o yaml

    The command output resembles the following text:

    apiVersion: operator.openshift.io/v1
    kind: IngressController
    metadata:
      creationTimestamp: 2019-04-18T12:35:39Z
      finalizers:
      - ingresscontroller.operator.openshift.io/finalizer-ingresscontroller
      generation: 1
      name: default
      namespace: openshift-ingress-operator
      resourceVersion: "11341"
      selfLink: /apis/operator.openshift.io/v1/namespaces/openshift-ingress-operator/ingresscontrollers/default
      uid: 79509e05-61d6-11e9-bc55-02ce4781844a
    spec: {}
    status:
      availableReplicas: 2
      conditions:
      - lastTransitionTime: 2019-04-18T12:36:15Z
        status: "True"
        type: Available
      domain: apps.<cluster>.example.com
      endpointPublishingStrategy:
        type: LoadBalancerService
      selector: ingresscontroller.operator.openshift.io/deployment-ingresscontroller=default
  2. Edit the ingresscontroller resource and change the nodeSelector to use the infra label:

    $ oc edit ingresscontroller default -n openshift-ingress-operator
      spec:
        nodePlacement:
          nodeSelector: 1
            matchLabels:
              node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
          tolerations:
          - effect: NoSchedule
            key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
          - effect: NoExecute
            key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
    1
    Add a nodeSelector parameter with the appropriate value to the component you want to move. You can use a nodeSelector in the format shown or use <key>: <value> pairs, based on the value specified for the node. If you added a taint to the infrastructure node, also add a matching toleration.
  3. Confirm that the router pod is running on the infra node.

    1. View the list of router pods and note the node name of the running pod:

      $ oc get pod -n openshift-ingress -o wide

      Example output

      NAME                              READY     STATUS        RESTARTS   AGE       IP           NODE                           NOMINATED NODE   READINESS GATES
      router-default-86798b4b5d-bdlvd   1/1      Running       0          28s       10.130.2.4   ip-10-0-217-226.ec2.internal   <none>           <none>
      router-default-955d875f4-255g8    0/1      Terminating   0          19h       10.129.2.4   ip-10-0-148-172.ec2.internal   <none>           <none>

      In this example, the running pod is on the ip-10-0-217-226.ec2.internal node.

    2. View the node status of the running pod:

      $ oc get node <node_name> 1
      1
      Specify the <node_name> that you obtained from the pod list.

      Example output

      NAME                          STATUS  ROLES         AGE   VERSION
      ip-10-0-217-226.ec2.internal  Ready   infra,worker  17h   v1.28.5

      Because the role list includes infra, the pod is running on the correct node.

8.4.2. Moving the default registry

You configure the registry Operator to deploy its pods to different nodes.

Prerequisites

  • Configure additional compute machine sets in your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

Procedure

  1. View the config/instance object:

    $ oc get configs.imageregistry.operator.openshift.io/cluster -o yaml

    Example output

    apiVersion: imageregistry.operator.openshift.io/v1
    kind: Config
    metadata:
      creationTimestamp: 2019-02-05T13:52:05Z
      finalizers:
      - imageregistry.operator.openshift.io/finalizer
      generation: 1
      name: cluster
      resourceVersion: "56174"
      selfLink: /apis/imageregistry.operator.openshift.io/v1/configs/cluster
      uid: 36fd3724-294d-11e9-a524-12ffeee2931b
    spec:
      httpSecret: d9a012ccd117b1e6616ceccb2c3bb66a5fed1b5e481623
      logging: 2
      managementState: Managed
      proxy: {}
      replicas: 1
      requests:
        read: {}
        write: {}
      storage:
        s3:
          bucket: image-registry-us-east-1-c92e88cad85b48ec8b312344dff03c82-392c
          region: us-east-1
    status:
    ...

  2. Edit the config/instance object:

    $ oc edit configs.imageregistry.operator.openshift.io/cluster
    spec:
      affinity:
        podAntiAffinity:
          preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
          - podAffinityTerm:
              namespaces:
              - openshift-image-registry
              topologyKey: kubernetes.io/hostname
            weight: 100
      logLevel: Normal
      managementState: Managed
      nodeSelector: 1
        node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
      tolerations:
      - effect: NoSchedule
        key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
        value: reserved
      - effect: NoExecute
        key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
        value: reserved
    1
    Add a nodeSelector parameter with the appropriate value to the component you want to move. You can use a nodeSelector in the format shown or use <key>: <value> pairs, based on the value specified for the node. If you added a taint to the infrasructure node, also add a matching toleration.
  3. Verify the registry pod has been moved to the infrastructure node.

    1. Run the following command to identify the node where the registry pod is located:

      $ oc get pods -o wide -n openshift-image-registry
    2. Confirm the node has the label you specified:

      $ oc describe node <node_name>

      Review the command output and confirm that node-role.kubernetes.io/infra is in the LABELS list.

8.4.3. Moving the monitoring solution

The monitoring stack includes multiple components, including Prometheus, Thanos Querier, and Alertmanager. The Cluster Monitoring Operator manages this stack. To redeploy the monitoring stack to infrastructure nodes, you can create and apply a custom config map.

Procedure

  1. Edit the cluster-monitoring-config config map and change the nodeSelector to use the infra label:

    $ oc edit configmap cluster-monitoring-config -n openshift-monitoring
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: ConfigMap
    metadata:
      name: cluster-monitoring-config
      namespace: openshift-monitoring
    data:
      config.yaml: |+
        alertmanagerMain:
          nodeSelector: 1
            node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
          tolerations:
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoSchedule
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoExecute
        prometheusK8s:
          nodeSelector:
            node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
          tolerations:
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoSchedule
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoExecute
        prometheusOperator:
          nodeSelector:
            node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
          tolerations:
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoSchedule
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoExecute
        k8sPrometheusAdapter:
          nodeSelector:
            node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
          tolerations:
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoSchedule
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoExecute
        kubeStateMetrics:
          nodeSelector:
            node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
          tolerations:
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoSchedule
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoExecute
        telemeterClient:
          nodeSelector:
            node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
          tolerations:
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoSchedule
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoExecute
        openshiftStateMetrics:
          nodeSelector:
            node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
          tolerations:
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoSchedule
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoExecute
        thanosQuerier:
          nodeSelector:
            node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
          tolerations:
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoSchedule
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoExecute
        monitoringPlugin:
          nodeSelector:
            node-role.kubernetes.io/infra: ""
          tolerations:
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoSchedule
          - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/infra
            value: reserved
            effect: NoExecute
    1
    Add a nodeSelector parameter with the appropriate value to the component you want to move. You can use a nodeSelector in the format shown or use <key>: <value> pairs, based on the value specified for the node. If you added a taint to the infrastructure node, also add a matching toleration.
  2. Watch the monitoring pods move to the new machines:

    $ watch 'oc get pod -n openshift-monitoring -o wide'
  3. If a component has not moved to the infra node, delete the pod with this component:

    $ oc delete pod -n openshift-monitoring <pod>

    The component from the deleted pod is re-created on the infra node.

Chapter 9. Adding RHEL compute machines to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster

In OpenShift Container Platform, you can add Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) compute machines to a user-provisioned infrastructure cluster or an installation-provisioned infrastructure cluster on the x86_64 architecture. You can use RHEL as the operating system only on compute machines.

9.1. About adding RHEL compute nodes to a cluster

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.15, you have the option of using Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) machines as compute machines in your cluster if you use a user-provisioned or installer-provisioned infrastructure installation on the x86_64 architecture. You must use Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) machines for the control plane machines in your cluster.

If you choose to use RHEL compute machines in your cluster, you are responsible for all operating system life cycle management and maintenance. You must perform system updates, apply patches, and complete all other required tasks.

For installer-provisioned infrastructure clusters, you must manually add RHEL compute machines because automatic scaling in installer-provisioned infrastructure clusters adds Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) compute machines by default.

Important
  • Because removing OpenShift Container Platform from a machine in the cluster requires destroying the operating system, you must use dedicated hardware for any RHEL machines that you add to the cluster.
  • Swap memory is disabled on all RHEL machines that you add to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster. You cannot enable swap memory on these machines.

You must add any RHEL compute machines to the cluster after you initialize the control plane.

9.2. System requirements for RHEL compute nodes

The Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) compute machine hosts in your OpenShift Container Platform environment must meet the following minimum hardware specifications and system-level requirements:

  • You must have an active OpenShift Container Platform subscription on your Red Hat account. If you do not, contact your sales representative for more information.
  • Production environments must provide compute machines to support your expected workloads. As a cluster administrator, you must calculate the expected workload and add about 10% for overhead. For production environments, allocate enough resources so that a node host failure does not affect your maximum capacity.
  • Each system must meet the following hardware requirements:

    • Physical or virtual system, or an instance running on a public or private IaaS.
    • Base OS: RHEL 8.6 and later with "Minimal" installation option.

      Important

      Adding RHEL 7 compute machines to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster is not supported.

      If you have RHEL 7 compute machines that were previously supported in a past OpenShift Container Platform version, you cannot upgrade them to RHEL 8. You must deploy new RHEL 8 hosts, and the old RHEL 7 hosts should be removed. See the "Deleting nodes" section for more information.

      For the most recent list of major functionality that has been deprecated or removed within OpenShift Container Platform, refer to the Deprecated and removed features section of the OpenShift Container Platform release notes.

    • If you deployed OpenShift Container Platform in FIPS mode, you must enable FIPS on the RHEL machine before you boot it. See Installing a RHEL 8 system with FIPS mode enabled in the RHEL 8 documentation.
Important

To enable FIPS mode for your cluster, you must run the installation program from a Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) computer configured to operate in FIPS mode. For more information about configuring FIPS mode on RHEL, see Installing the system in FIPS mode. When running Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) or Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) booted in FIPS mode, OpenShift Container Platform core components use the RHEL cryptographic libraries that have been submitted to NIST for FIPS 140-2/140-3 Validation on only the x86_64, ppc64le, and s390x architectures.

  • NetworkManager 1.0 or later.
  • 1 vCPU.
  • Minimum 8 GB RAM.
  • Minimum 15 GB hard disk space for the file system containing /var/.
  • Minimum 1 GB hard disk space for the file system containing /usr/local/bin/.
  • Minimum 1 GB hard disk space for the file system containing its temporary directory. The temporary system directory is determined according to the rules defined in the tempfile module in the Python standard library.

    • Each system must meet any additional requirements for your system provider. For example, if you installed your cluster on VMware vSphere, your disks must be configured according to its storage guidelines and the disk.enableUUID=true attribute must be set.
    • Each system must be able to access the cluster’s API endpoints by using DNS-resolvable hostnames. Any network security access control that is in place must allow system access to the cluster’s API service endpoints.

Additional resources

9.2.1. Certificate signing requests management

Because your cluster has limited access to automatic machine management when you use infrastructure that you provision, you must provide a mechanism for approving cluster certificate signing requests (CSRs) after installation. The kube-controller-manager only approves the kubelet client CSRs. The machine-approver cannot guarantee the validity of a serving certificate that is requested by using kubelet credentials because it cannot confirm that the correct machine issued the request. You must determine and implement a method of verifying the validity of the kubelet serving certificate requests and approving them.

9.3. Preparing an image for your cloud

Amazon Machine Images (AMI) are required because various image formats cannot be used directly by AWS. You may use the AMIs that Red Hat has provided, or you can manually import your own images. The AMI must exist before the EC2 instance can be provisioned. You will need a valid AMI ID so that the correct RHEL version needed for the compute machines is selected.

9.3.1. Listing latest available RHEL images on AWS

AMI IDs correspond to native boot images for AWS. Because an AMI must exist before the EC2 instance is provisioned, you will need to know the AMI ID before configuration. The AWS Command Line Interface (CLI) is used to list the available Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) image IDs.

Prerequisites

  • You have installed the AWS CLI.

Procedure

  • Use this command to list RHEL 8.4 Amazon Machine Images (AMI):

    $ aws ec2 describe-images --owners 309956199498 \ 1
    --query 'sort_by(Images, &CreationDate)[*].[CreationDate,Name,ImageId]' \ 2
    --filters "Name=name,Values=RHEL-8.4*" \ 3
    --region us-east-1 \ 4
    --output table 5
    1
    The --owners command option shows Red Hat images based on the account ID 309956199498.
    Important

    This account ID is required to display AMI IDs for images that are provided by Red Hat.

    2
    The --query command option sets how the images are sorted with the parameters 'sort_by(Images, &CreationDate)[*].[CreationDate,Name,ImageId]'. In this case, the images are sorted by the creation date, and the table is structured to show the creation date, the name of the image, and the AMI IDs.
    3
    The --filter command option sets which version of RHEL is shown. In this example, since the filter is set by "Name=name,Values=RHEL-8.4*", then RHEL 8.4 AMIs are shown.
    4
    The --region command option sets where the region where an AMI is stored.
    5
    The --output command option sets how the results are displayed.
Note

When creating a RHEL compute machine for AWS, ensure that the AMI is RHEL 8.4 or 8.5.

Example output

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                              DescribeImages                                              |
+---------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+------------------------+
|  2021-03-18T14:23:11.000Z |  RHEL-8.4.0_HVM_BETA-20210309-x86_64-1-Hourly2-GP2  |  ami-07eeb4db5f7e5a8fb |
|  2021-03-18T14:38:28.000Z |  RHEL-8.4.0_HVM_BETA-20210309-arm64-1-Hourly2-GP2   |  ami-069d22ec49577d4bf |
|  2021-05-18T19:06:34.000Z |  RHEL-8.4.0_HVM-20210504-arm64-2-Hourly2-GP2        |  ami-01fc429821bf1f4b4 |
|  2021-05-18T20:09:47.000Z |  RHEL-8.4.0_HVM-20210504-x86_64-2-Hourly2-GP2       |  ami-0b0af3577fe5e3532 |
+---------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+------------------------+

Additional resources

9.4. Preparing the machine to run the playbook

Before you can add compute machines that use Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) as the operating system to an OpenShift Container Platform 4.15 cluster, you must prepare a RHEL 8 machine to run an Ansible playbook that adds the new node to the cluster. This machine is not part of the cluster but must be able to access it.

Prerequisites

  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc) on the machine that you run the playbook on.
  • Log in as a user with cluster-admin permission.

Procedure

  1. Ensure that the kubeconfig file for the cluster and the installation program that you used to install the cluster are on the RHEL 8 machine. One way to accomplish this is to use the same machine that you used to install the cluster.
  2. Configure the machine to access all of the RHEL hosts that you plan to use as compute machines. You can use any method that your company allows, including a bastion with an SSH proxy or a VPN.
  3. Configure a user on the machine that you run the playbook on that has SSH access to all of the RHEL hosts.

    Important

    If you use SSH key-based authentication, you must manage the key with an SSH agent.

  4. If you have not already done so, register the machine with RHSM and attach a pool with an OpenShift subscription to it:

    1. Register the machine with RHSM:

      # subscription-manager register --username=<user_name> --password=<password>
    2. Pull the latest subscription data from RHSM:

      # subscription-manager refresh
    3. List the available subscriptions:

      # subscription-manager list --available --matches '*OpenShift*'
    4. In the output for the previous command, find the pool ID for an OpenShift Container Platform subscription and attach it:

      # subscription-manager attach --pool=<pool_id>
  5. Enable the repositories required by OpenShift Container Platform 4.15:

    # subscription-manager repos \
        --enable="rhel-8-for-x86_64-baseos-rpms" \
        --enable="rhel-8-for-x86_64-appstream-rpms" \
        --enable="rhocp-4.15-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms"
  6. Install the required packages, including openshift-ansible:

    # yum install openshift-ansible openshift-clients jq

    The openshift-ansible package provides installation program utilities and pulls in other packages that you require to add a RHEL compute node to your cluster, such as Ansible, playbooks, and related configuration files. The openshift-clients provides the oc CLI, and the jq package improves the display of JSON output on your command line.

9.5. Preparing a RHEL compute node

Before you add a Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) machine to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster, you must register each host with Red Hat Subscription Manager (RHSM), attach an active OpenShift Container Platform subscription, and enable the required repositories.

  1. On each host, register with RHSM:

    # subscription-manager register --username=<user_name> --password=<password>
  2. Pull the latest subscription data from RHSM:

    # subscription-manager refresh
  3. List the available subscriptions:

    # subscription-manager list --available --matches '*OpenShift*'
  4. In the output for the previous command, find the pool ID for an OpenShift Container Platform subscription and attach it:

    # subscription-manager attach --pool=<pool_id>
  5. Disable all yum repositories:

    1. Disable all the enabled RHSM repositories:

      # subscription-manager repos --disable="*"
    2. List the remaining yum repositories and note their names under repo id, if any:

      # yum repolist
    3. Use yum-config-manager to disable the remaining yum repositories:

      # yum-config-manager --disable <repo_id>

      Alternatively, disable all repositories:

      # yum-config-manager --disable \*

      Note that this might take a few minutes if you have a large number of available repositories

  6. Enable only the repositories required by OpenShift Container Platform 4.15:

    # subscription-manager repos \
        --enable="rhel-8-for-x86_64-baseos-rpms" \
        --enable="rhel-8-for-x86_64-appstream-rpms" \
        --enable="rhocp-4.15-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms" \
        --enable="fast-datapath-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms"
  7. Stop and disable firewalld on the host:

    # systemctl disable --now firewalld.service
    Note

    You must not enable firewalld later. If you do, you cannot access OpenShift Container Platform logs on the worker.

9.6. Attaching the role permissions to RHEL instance in AWS

Using the Amazon IAM console in your browser, you may select the needed roles and assign them to a worker node.

Procedure

  1. From the AWS IAM console, create your desired IAM role.
  2. Attach the IAM role to the desired worker node.

Additional resources

9.7. Tagging a RHEL worker node as owned or shared

A cluster uses the value of the kubernetes.io/cluster/<clusterid>,Value=(owned|shared) tag to determine the lifetime of the resources related to the AWS cluster.

  • The owned tag value should be added if the resource should be destroyed as part of destroying the cluster.
  • The shared tag value should be added if the resource continues to exist after the cluster has been destroyed. This tagging denotes that the cluster uses this resource, but there is a separate owner for the resource.

Procedure

  • With RHEL compute machines, the RHEL worker instance must be tagged with kubernetes.io/cluster/<clusterid>=owned or kubernetes.io/cluster/<cluster-id>=shared.
Note

Do not tag all existing security groups with the kubernetes.io/cluster/<name>,Value=<clusterid> tag, or the Elastic Load Balancing (ELB) will not be able to create a load balancer.

9.8. Adding a RHEL compute machine to your cluster

You can add compute machines that use Red Hat Enterprise Linux as the operating system to an OpenShift Container Platform 4.15 cluster.

Prerequisites

  • You installed the required packages and performed the necessary configuration on the machine that you run the playbook on.
  • You prepared the RHEL hosts for installation.

Procedure

Perform the following steps on the machine that you prepared to run the playbook:

  1. Create an Ansible inventory file that is named /<path>/inventory/hosts that defines your compute machine hosts and required variables:

    [all:vars]
    ansible_user=root 1
    #ansible_become=True 2
    
    openshift_kubeconfig_path="~/.kube/config" 3
    
    [new_workers] 4
    mycluster-rhel8-0.example.com
    mycluster-rhel8-1.example.com
    1
    Specify the user name that runs the Ansible tasks on the remote compute machines.
    2
    If you do not specify root for the ansible_user, you must set ansible_become to True and assign the user sudo permissions.
    3
    Specify the path and file name of the kubeconfig file for your cluster.
    4
    List each RHEL machine to add to your cluster. You must provide the fully-qualified domain name for each host. This name is the hostname that the cluster uses to access the machine, so set the correct public or private name to access the machine.
  2. Navigate to the Ansible playbook directory:

    $ cd /usr/share/ansible/openshift-ansible
  3. Run the playbook:

    $ ansible-playbook -i /<path>/inventory/hosts playbooks/scaleup.yml 1
    1
    For <path>, specify the path to the Ansible inventory file that you created.

9.9. Approving the certificate signing requests for your machines

When you add machines to a cluster, two pending certificate signing requests (CSRs) are generated for each machine that you added. You must confirm that these CSRs are approved or, if necessary, approve them yourself. The client requests must be approved first, followed by the server requests.

Prerequisites

  • You added machines to your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Confirm that the cluster recognizes the machines:

    $ oc get nodes

    Example output

    NAME      STATUS    ROLES   AGE  VERSION
    master-0  Ready     master  63m  v1.28.5
    master-1  Ready     master  63m  v1.28.5
    master-2  Ready     master  64m  v1.28.5

    The output lists all of the machines that you created.

    Note

    The preceding output might not include the compute nodes, also known as worker nodes, until some CSRs are approved.

  2. Review the pending CSRs and ensure that you see the client requests with the Pending or Approved status for each machine that you added to the cluster:

    $ oc get csr

    Example output

    NAME        AGE     REQUESTOR                                                                   CONDITION
    csr-8b2br   15m     system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending
    csr-8vnps   15m     system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending
    ...

    In this example, two machines are joining the cluster. You might see more approved CSRs in the list.

  3. If the CSRs were not approved, after all of the pending CSRs for the machines you added are in Pending status, approve the CSRs for your cluster machines:

    Note

    Because the CSRs rotate automatically, approve your CSRs within an hour of adding the machines to the cluster. If you do not approve them within an hour, the certificates will rotate, and more than two certificates will be present for each node. You must approve all of these certificates. After the client CSR is approved, the Kubelet creates a secondary CSR for the serving certificate, which requires manual approval. Then, subsequent serving certificate renewal requests are automatically approved by the machine-approver if the Kubelet requests a new certificate with identical parameters.

    Note

    For clusters running on platforms that are not machine API enabled, such as bare metal and other user-provisioned infrastructure, you must implement a method of automatically approving the kubelet serving certificate requests (CSRs). If a request is not approved, then the oc exec, oc rsh, and oc logs commands cannot succeed, because a serving certificate is required when the API server connects to the kubelet. Any operation that contacts the Kubelet endpoint requires this certificate approval to be in place. The method must watch for new CSRs, confirm that the CSR was submitted by the node-bootstrapper service account in the system:node or system:admin groups, and confirm the identity of the node.

    • To approve them individually, run the following command for each valid CSR:

      $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name> 1
      1
      <csr_name> is the name of a CSR from the list of current CSRs.
    • To approve all pending CSRs, run the following command:

      $ oc get csr -o go-template='{{range .items}}{{if not .status}}{{.metadata.name}}{{"\n"}}{{end}}{{end}}' | xargs --no-run-if-empty oc adm certificate approve
      Note

      Some Operators might not become available until some CSRs are approved.

  4. Now that your client requests are approved, you must review the server requests for each machine that you added to the cluster:

    $ oc get csr

    Example output

    NAME        AGE     REQUESTOR                                                                   CONDITION
    csr-bfd72   5m26s   system:node:ip-10-0-50-126.us-east-2.compute.internal                       Pending
    csr-c57lv   5m26s   system:node:ip-10-0-95-157.us-east-2.compute.internal                       Pending
    ...

  5. If the remaining CSRs are not approved, and are in the Pending status, approve the CSRs for your cluster machines:

    • To approve them individually, run the following command for each valid CSR:

      $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name> 1
      1
      <csr_name> is the name of a CSR from the list of current CSRs.
    • To approve all pending CSRs, run the following command:

      $ oc get csr -o go-template='{{range .items}}{{if not .status}}{{.metadata.name}}{{"\n"}}{{end}}{{end}}' | xargs oc adm certificate approve
  6. After all client and server CSRs have been approved, the machines have the Ready status. Verify this by running the following command:

    $ oc get nodes

    Example output

    NAME      STATUS    ROLES   AGE  VERSION
    master-0  Ready     master  73m  v1.28.5
    master-1  Ready     master  73m  v1.28.5
    master-2  Ready     master  74m  v1.28.5
    worker-0  Ready     worker  11m  v1.28.5
    worker-1  Ready     worker  11m  v1.28.5

    Note

    It can take a few minutes after approval of the server CSRs for the machines to transition to the Ready status.

Additional information

9.10. Required parameters for the Ansible hosts file

You must define the following parameters in the Ansible hosts file before you add Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) compute machines to your cluster.

ParameterDescriptionValues

ansible_user

The SSH user that allows SSH-based authentication without requiring a password. If you use SSH key-based authentication, then you must manage the key with an SSH agent.

A user name on the system. The default value is root.

ansible_become

If the values of ansible_user is not root, you must set ansible_become to True, and the user that you specify as the ansible_user must be configured for passwordless sudo access.

True. If the value is not True, do not specify and define this parameter.

openshift_kubeconfig_path

Specifies a path and file name to a local directory that contains the kubeconfig file for your cluster.

The path and name of the configuration file.

9.10.1. Optional: Removing RHCOS compute machines from a cluster

After you add the Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) compute machines to your cluster, you can optionally remove the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) compute machines to free up resources.

Prerequisites

  • You have added RHEL compute machines to your cluster.

Procedure

  1. View the list of machines and record the node names of the RHCOS compute machines:

    $ oc get nodes -o wide
  2. For each RHCOS compute machine, delete the node:

    1. Mark the node as unschedulable by running the oc adm cordon command:

      $ oc adm cordon <node_name> 1
      1
      Specify the node name of one of the RHCOS compute machines.
    2. Drain all the pods from the node:

      $ oc adm drain <node_name> --force --delete-emptydir-data --ignore-daemonsets 1
      1
      Specify the node name of the RHCOS compute machine that you isolated.
    3. Delete the node:

      $ oc delete nodes <node_name> 1
      1
      Specify the node name of the RHCOS compute machine that you drained.
  3. Review the list of compute machines to ensure that only the RHEL nodes remain:

    $ oc get nodes -o wide
  4. Remove the RHCOS machines from the load balancer for your cluster’s compute machines. You can delete the virtual machines or reimage the physical hardware for the RHCOS compute machines.

Chapter 10. Adding more RHEL compute machines to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster

If your OpenShift Container Platform cluster already includes Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) compute machines, which are also known as worker machines, you can add more RHEL compute machines to it.

10.1. About adding RHEL compute nodes to a cluster

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.15, you have the option of using Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) machines as compute machines in your cluster if you use a user-provisioned or installer-provisioned infrastructure installation on the x86_64 architecture. You must use Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) machines for the control plane machines in your cluster.

If you choose to use RHEL compute machines in your cluster, you are responsible for all operating system life cycle management and maintenance. You must perform system updates, apply patches, and complete all other required tasks.

For installer-provisioned infrastructure clusters, you must manually add RHEL compute machines because automatic scaling in installer-provisioned infrastructure clusters adds Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) compute machines by default.

Important
  • Because removing OpenShift Container Platform from a machine in the cluster requires destroying the operating system, you must use dedicated hardware for any RHEL machines that you add to the cluster.
  • Swap memory is disabled on all RHEL machines that you add to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster. You cannot enable swap memory on these machines.

You must add any RHEL compute machines to the cluster after you initialize the control plane.

10.2. System requirements for RHEL compute nodes

The Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) compute machine hosts in your OpenShift Container Platform environment must meet the following minimum hardware specifications and system-level requirements:

  • You must have an active OpenShift Container Platform subscription on your Red Hat account. If you do not, contact your sales representative for more information.
  • Production environments must provide compute machines to support your expected workloads. As a cluster administrator, you must calculate the expected workload and add about 10% for overhead. For production environments, allocate enough resources so that a node host failure does not affect your maximum capacity.
  • Each system must meet the following hardware requirements:

    • Physical or virtual system, or an instance running on a public or private IaaS.
    • Base OS: RHEL 8.6 and later with "Minimal" installation option.

      Important

      Adding RHEL 7 compute machines to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster is not supported.

      If you have RHEL 7 compute machines that were previously supported in a past OpenShift Container Platform version, you cannot upgrade them to RHEL 8. You must deploy new RHEL 8 hosts, and the old RHEL 7 hosts should be removed. See the "Deleting nodes" section for more information.

      For the most recent list of major functionality that has been deprecated or removed within OpenShift Container Platform, refer to the Deprecated and removed features section of the OpenShift Container Platform release notes.

    • If you deployed OpenShift Container Platform in FIPS mode, you must enable FIPS on the RHEL machine before you boot it. See Installing a RHEL 8 system with FIPS mode enabled in the RHEL 8 documentation.
Important

To enable FIPS mode for your cluster, you must run the installation program from a Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) computer configured to operate in FIPS mode. For more information about configuring FIPS mode on RHEL, see Installing the system in FIPS mode. When running Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) or Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) booted in FIPS mode, OpenShift Container Platform core components use the RHEL cryptographic libraries that have been submitted to NIST for FIPS 140-2/140-3 Validation on only the x86_64, ppc64le, and s390x architectures.

  • NetworkManager 1.0 or later.
  • 1 vCPU.
  • Minimum 8 GB RAM.
  • Minimum 15 GB hard disk space for the file system containing /var/.
  • Minimum 1 GB hard disk space for the file system containing /usr/local/bin/.
  • Minimum 1 GB hard disk space for the file system containing its temporary directory. The temporary system directory is determined according to the rules defined in the tempfile module in the Python standard library.

    • Each system must meet any additional requirements for your system provider. For example, if you installed your cluster on VMware vSphere, your disks must be configured according to its storage guidelines and the disk.enableUUID=true attribute must be set.
    • Each system must be able to access the cluster’s API endpoints by using DNS-resolvable hostnames. Any network security access control that is in place must allow system access to the cluster’s API service endpoints.

Additional resources

10.2.1. Certificate signing requests management

Because your cluster has limited access to automatic machine management when you use infrastructure that you provision, you must provide a mechanism for approving cluster certificate signing requests (CSRs) after installation. The kube-controller-manager only approves the kubelet client CSRs. The machine-approver cannot guarantee the validity of a serving certificate that is requested by using kubelet credentials because it cannot confirm that the correct machine issued the request. You must determine and implement a method of verifying the validity of the kubelet serving certificate requests and approving them.

10.3. Preparing an image for your cloud

Amazon Machine Images (AMI) are required since various image formats cannot be used directly by AWS. You may use the AMIs that Red Hat has provided, or you can manually import your own images. The AMI must exist before the EC2 instance can be provisioned. You must list the AMI IDs so that the correct RHEL version needed for the compute machines is selected.

10.3.1. Listing latest available RHEL images on AWS

AMI IDs correspond to native boot images for AWS. Because an AMI must exist before the EC2 instance is provisioned, you will need to know the AMI ID before configuration. The AWS Command Line Interface (CLI) is used to list the available Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) image IDs.

Prerequisites

  • You have installed the AWS CLI.

Procedure

  • Use this command to list RHEL 8.4 Amazon Machine Images (AMI):

    $ aws ec2 describe-images --owners 309956199498 \ 1
    --query 'sort_by(Images, &CreationDate)[*].[CreationDate,Name,ImageId]' \ 2
    --filters "Name=name,Values=RHEL-8.4*" \ 3
    --region us-east-1 \ 4
    --output table 5
    1
    The --owners command option shows Red Hat images based on the account ID 309956199498.
    Important

    This account ID is required to display AMI IDs for images that are provided by Red Hat.

    2
    The --query command option sets how the images are sorted with the parameters 'sort_by(Images, &CreationDate)[*].[CreationDate,Name,ImageId]'. In this case, the images are sorted by the creation date, and the table is structured to show the creation date, the name of the image, and the AMI IDs.
    3
    The --filter command option sets which version of RHEL is shown. In this example, since the filter is set by "Name=name,Values=RHEL-8.4*", then RHEL 8.4 AMIs are shown.
    4
    The --region command option sets where the region where an AMI is stored.
    5
    The --output command option sets how the results are displayed.
Note

When creating a RHEL compute machine for AWS, ensure that the AMI is RHEL 8.4 or 8.5.

Example output

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
|                                              DescribeImages                                              |
+---------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+------------------------+
|  2021-03-18T14:23:11.000Z |  RHEL-8.4.0_HVM_BETA-20210309-x86_64-1-Hourly2-GP2  |  ami-07eeb4db5f7e5a8fb |
|  2021-03-18T14:38:28.000Z |  RHEL-8.4.0_HVM_BETA-20210309-arm64-1-Hourly2-GP2   |  ami-069d22ec49577d4bf |
|  2021-05-18T19:06:34.000Z |  RHEL-8.4.0_HVM-20210504-arm64-2-Hourly2-GP2        |  ami-01fc429821bf1f4b4 |
|  2021-05-18T20:09:47.000Z |  RHEL-8.4.0_HVM-20210504-x86_64-2-Hourly2-GP2       |  ami-0b0af3577fe5e3532 |
+---------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------+------------------------+

Additional resources

10.4. Preparing a RHEL compute node

Before you add a Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) machine to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster, you must register each host with Red Hat Subscription Manager (RHSM), attach an active OpenShift Container Platform subscription, and enable the required repositories.

  1. On each host, register with RHSM:

    # subscription-manager register --username=<user_name> --password=<password>
  2. Pull the latest subscription data from RHSM:

    # subscription-manager refresh
  3. List the available subscriptions:

    # subscription-manager list --available --matches '*OpenShift*'
  4. In the output for the previous command, find the pool ID for an OpenShift Container Platform subscription and attach it:

    # subscription-manager attach --pool=<pool_id>
  5. Disable all yum repositories:

    1. Disable all the enabled RHSM repositories:

      # subscription-manager repos --disable="*"
    2. List the remaining yum repositories and note their names under repo id, if any:

      # yum repolist
    3. Use yum-config-manager to disable the remaining yum repositories:

      # yum-config-manager --disable <repo_id>

      Alternatively, disable all repositories:

      # yum-config-manager --disable \*

      Note that this might take a few minutes if you have a large number of available repositories

  6. Enable only the repositories required by OpenShift Container Platform 4.15:

    # subscription-manager repos \
        --enable="rhel-8-for-x86_64-baseos-rpms" \
        --enable="rhel-8-for-x86_64-appstream-rpms" \
        --enable="rhocp-4.15-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms" \
        --enable="fast-datapath-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms"
  7. Stop and disable firewalld on the host:

    # systemctl disable --now firewalld.service
    Note

    You must not enable firewalld later. If you do, you cannot access OpenShift Container Platform logs on the worker.

10.5. Attaching the role permissions to RHEL instance in AWS

Using the Amazon IAM console in your browser, you may select the needed roles and assign them to a worker node.

Procedure

  1. From the AWS IAM console, create your desired IAM role.
  2. Attach the IAM role to the desired worker node.

Additional resources

10.6. Tagging a RHEL worker node as owned or shared

A cluster uses the value of the kubernetes.io/cluster/<clusterid>,Value=(owned|shared) tag to determine the lifetime of the resources related to the AWS cluster.

  • The owned tag value should be added if the resource should be destroyed as part of destroying the cluster.
  • The shared tag value should be added if the resource continues to exist after the cluster has been destroyed. This tagging denotes that the cluster uses this resource, but there is a separate owner for the resource.

Procedure

  • With RHEL compute machines, the RHEL worker instance must be tagged with kubernetes.io/cluster/<clusterid>=owned or kubernetes.io/cluster/<cluster-id>=shared.
Note

Do not tag all existing security groups with the kubernetes.io/cluster/<name>,Value=<clusterid> tag, or the Elastic Load Balancing (ELB) will not be able to create a load balancer.

10.7. Adding more RHEL compute machines to your cluster

You can add more compute machines that use Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) as the operating system to an OpenShift Container Platform 4.15 cluster.

Prerequisites

  • Your OpenShift Container Platform cluster already contains RHEL compute nodes.
  • The hosts file that you used to add the first RHEL compute machines to your cluster is on the machine that you use the run the playbook.
  • The machine that you run the playbook on must be able to access all of the RHEL hosts. You can use any method that your company allows, including a bastion with an SSH proxy or a VPN.
  • The kubeconfig file for the cluster and the installation program that you used to install the cluster are on the machine that you use the run the playbook.
  • You must prepare the RHEL hosts for installation.
  • Configure a user on the machine that you run the playbook on that has SSH access to all of the RHEL hosts.
  • If you use SSH key-based authentication, you must manage the key with an SSH agent.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc) on the machine that you run the playbook on.

Procedure

  1. Open the Ansible inventory file at /<path>/inventory/hosts that defines your compute machine hosts and required variables.
  2. Rename the [new_workers] section of the file to [workers].
  3. Add a [new_workers] section to the file and define the fully-qualified domain names for each new host. The file resembles the following example:

    [all:vars]
    ansible_user=root
    #ansible_become=True
    
    openshift_kubeconfig_path="~/.kube/config"
    
    [workers]
    mycluster-rhel8-0.example.com
    mycluster-rhel8-1.example.com
    
    [new_workers]
    mycluster-rhel8-2.example.com
    mycluster-rhel8-3.example.com

    In this example, the mycluster-rhel8-0.example.com and mycluster-rhel8-1.example.com machines are in the cluster and you add the mycluster-rhel8-2.example.com and mycluster-rhel8-3.example.com machines.

  4. Navigate to the Ansible playbook directory:

    $ cd /usr/share/ansible/openshift-ansible
  5. Run the scaleup playbook:

    $ ansible-playbook -i /<path>/inventory/hosts playbooks/scaleup.yml 1
    1
    For <path>, specify the path to the Ansible inventory file that you created.

10.8. Approving the certificate signing requests for your machines

When you add machines to a cluster, two pending certificate signing requests (CSRs) are generated for each machine that you added. You must confirm that these CSRs are approved or, if necessary, approve them yourself. The client requests must be approved first, followed by the server requests.

Prerequisites

  • You added machines to your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Confirm that the cluster recognizes the machines:

    $ oc get nodes

    Example output

    NAME      STATUS    ROLES   AGE  VERSION
    master-0  Ready     master  63m  v1.28.5
    master-1  Ready     master  63m  v1.28.5
    master-2  Ready     master  64m  v1.28.5

    The output lists all of the machines that you created.

    Note

    The preceding output might not include the compute nodes, also known as worker nodes, until some CSRs are approved.

  2. Review the pending CSRs and ensure that you see the client requests with the Pending or Approved status for each machine that you added to the cluster:

    $ oc get csr

    Example output

    NAME        AGE     REQUESTOR                                                                   CONDITION
    csr-8b2br   15m     system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending
    csr-8vnps   15m     system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending
    ...

    In this example, two machines are joining the cluster. You might see more approved CSRs in the list.

  3. If the CSRs were not approved, after all of the pending CSRs for the machines you added are in Pending status, approve the CSRs for your cluster machines:

    Note

    Because the CSRs rotate automatically, approve your CSRs within an hour of adding the machines to the cluster. If you do not approve them within an hour, the certificates will rotate, and more than two certificates will be present for each node. You must approve all of these certificates. After the client CSR is approved, the Kubelet creates a secondary CSR for the serving certificate, which requires manual approval. Then, subsequent serving certificate renewal requests are automatically approved by the machine-approver if the Kubelet requests a new certificate with identical parameters.

    Note

    For clusters running on platforms that are not machine API enabled, such as bare metal and other user-provisioned infrastructure, you must implement a method of automatically approving the kubelet serving certificate requests (CSRs). If a request is not approved, then the oc exec, oc rsh, and oc logs commands cannot succeed, because a serving certificate is required when the API server connects to the kubelet. Any operation that contacts the Kubelet endpoint requires this certificate approval to be in place. The method must watch for new CSRs, confirm that the CSR was submitted by the node-bootstrapper service account in the system:node or system:admin groups, and confirm the identity of the node.

    • To approve them individually, run the following command for each valid CSR:

      $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name> 1
      1
      <csr_name> is the name of a CSR from the list of current CSRs.
    • To approve all pending CSRs, run the following command:

      $ oc get csr -o go-template='{{range .items}}{{if not .status}}{{.metadata.name}}{{"\n"}}{{end}}{{end}}' | xargs --no-run-if-empty oc adm certificate approve
      Note

      Some Operators might not become available until some CSRs are approved.

  4. Now that your client requests are approved, you must review the server requests for each machine that you added to the cluster:

    $ oc get csr

    Example output

    NAME        AGE     REQUESTOR                                                                   CONDITION
    csr-bfd72   5m26s   system:node:ip-10-0-50-126.us-east-2.compute.internal                       Pending
    csr-c57lv   5m26s   system:node:ip-10-0-95-157.us-east-2.compute.internal                       Pending
    ...

  5. If the remaining CSRs are not approved, and are in the Pending status, approve the CSRs for your cluster machines:

    • To approve them individually, run the following command for each valid CSR:

      $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name> 1
      1
      <csr_name> is the name of a CSR from the list of current CSRs.
    • To approve all pending CSRs, run the following command:

      $ oc get csr -o go-template='{{range .items}}{{if not .status}}{{.metadata.name}}{{"\n"}}{{end}}{{end}}' | xargs oc adm certificate approve
  6. After all client and server CSRs have been approved, the machines have the Ready status. Verify this by running the following command:

    $ oc get nodes

    Example output

    NAME      STATUS    ROLES   AGE  VERSION
    master-0  Ready     master  73m  v1.28.5
    master-1  Ready     master  73m  v1.28.5
    master-2  Ready     master  74m  v1.28.5
    worker-0  Ready     worker  11m  v1.28.5
    worker-1  Ready     worker  11m  v1.28.5

    Note

    It can take a few minutes after approval of the server CSRs for the machines to transition to the Ready status.

Additional information

10.9. Required parameters for the Ansible hosts file

You must define the following parameters in the Ansible hosts file before you add Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) compute machines to your cluster.

ParameterDescriptionValues

ansible_user

The SSH user that allows SSH-based authentication without requiring a password. If you use SSH key-based authentication, then you must manage the key with an SSH agent.

A user name on the system. The default value is root.

ansible_become

If the values of ansible_user is not root, you must set ansible_become to True, and the user that you specify as the ansible_user must be configured for passwordless sudo access.

True. If the value is not True, do not specify and define this parameter.

openshift_kubeconfig_path

Specifies a path and file name to a local directory that contains the kubeconfig file for your cluster.

The path and name of the configuration file.

Chapter 11. Managing user-provisioned infrastructure manually

11.1. Adding compute machines to clusters with user-provisioned infrastructure manually

You can add compute machines to a cluster on user-provisioned infrastructure either as part of the installation process or after installation. The postinstallation process requires some of the same configuration files and parameters that were used during installation.

11.1.1. Adding compute machines to Amazon Web Services

To add more compute machines to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster on Amazon Web Services (AWS), see Adding compute machines to AWS by using CloudFormation templates.

11.1.2. Adding compute machines to Microsoft Azure

To add more compute machines to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster on Microsoft Azure, see Creating additional worker machines in Azure.

11.1.3. Adding compute machines to Azure Stack Hub

To add more compute machines to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster on Azure Stack Hub, see Creating additional worker machines in Azure Stack Hub.

11.1.4. Adding compute machines to Google Cloud Platform

To add more compute machines to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster on Google Cloud Platform (GCP), see Creating additional worker machines in GCP.

11.1.5. Adding compute machines to vSphere

You can use compute machine sets to automate the creation of additional compute machines for your OpenShift Container Platform cluster on vSphere.

To manually add more compute machines to your cluster, see Adding compute machines to vSphere manually.

11.1.6. Adding compute machines to bare metal

To add more compute machines to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster on bare metal, see Adding compute machines to bare metal.

11.2. Adding compute machines to AWS by using CloudFormation templates

You can add more compute machines to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster on Amazon Web Services (AWS) that you created by using the sample CloudFormation templates.

11.2.1. Prerequisites

  • You installed your cluster on AWS by using the provided AWS CloudFormation templates.
  • You have the JSON file and CloudFormation template that you used to create the compute machines during cluster installation. If you do not have these files, you must recreate them by following the instructions in the installation procedure.

11.2.2. Adding more compute machines to your AWS cluster by using CloudFormation templates

You can add more compute machines to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster on Amazon Web Services (AWS) that you created by using the sample CloudFormation templates.

Important

The CloudFormation template creates a stack that represents one compute machine. You must create a stack for each compute machine.

Note

If you do not use the provided CloudFormation template to create your compute nodes, you must review the provided information and manually create the infrastructure. If your cluster does not initialize correctly, you might have to contact Red Hat support with your installation logs.

Prerequisites

  • You installed an OpenShift Container Platform cluster by using CloudFormation templates and have access to the JSON file and CloudFormation template that you used to create the compute machines during cluster installation.
  • You installed the AWS CLI.

Procedure

  1. Create another compute stack.

    1. Launch the template:

      $ aws cloudformation create-stack --stack-name <name> \ 1
           --template-body file://<template>.yaml \ 2
           --parameters file://<parameters>.json 3
      1
      <name> is the name for the CloudFormation stack, such as cluster-workers. You must provide the name of this stack if you remove the cluster.
      2
      <template> is the relative path to and name of the CloudFormation template YAML file that you saved.
      3
      <parameters> is the relative path to and name of the CloudFormation parameters JSON file.
    2. Confirm that the template components exist:

      $ aws cloudformation describe-stacks --stack-name <name>
  2. Continue to create compute stacks until you have created enough compute machines for your cluster.

11.2.3. Approving the certificate signing requests for your machines

When you add machines to a cluster, two pending certificate signing requests (CSRs) are generated for each machine that you added. You must confirm that these CSRs are approved or, if necessary, approve them yourself. The client requests must be approved first, followed by the server requests.

Prerequisites

  • You added machines to your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Confirm that the cluster recognizes the machines:

    $ oc get nodes

    Example output

    NAME      STATUS    ROLES   AGE  VERSION
    master-0  Ready     master  63m  v1.28.5
    master-1  Ready     master  63m  v1.28.5
    master-2  Ready     master  64m  v1.28.5

    The output lists all of the machines that you created.

    Note

    The preceding output might not include the compute nodes, also known as worker nodes, until some CSRs are approved.

  2. Review the pending CSRs and ensure that you see the client requests with the Pending or Approved status for each machine that you added to the cluster:

    $ oc get csr

    Example output

    NAME        AGE     REQUESTOR                                                                   CONDITION
    csr-8b2br   15m     system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending
    csr-8vnps   15m     system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending
    ...

    In this example, two machines are joining the cluster. You might see more approved CSRs in the list.

  3. If the CSRs were not approved, after all of the pending CSRs for the machines you added are in Pending status, approve the CSRs for your cluster machines:

    Note

    Because the CSRs rotate automatically, approve your CSRs within an hour of adding the machines to the cluster. If you do not approve them within an hour, the certificates will rotate, and more than two certificates will be present for each node. You must approve all of these certificates. After the client CSR is approved, the Kubelet creates a secondary CSR for the serving certificate, which requires manual approval. Then, subsequent serving certificate renewal requests are automatically approved by the machine-approver if the Kubelet requests a new certificate with identical parameters.

    Note

    For clusters running on platforms that are not machine API enabled, such as bare metal and other user-provisioned infrastructure, you must implement a method of automatically approving the kubelet serving certificate requests (CSRs). If a request is not approved, then the oc exec, oc rsh, and oc logs commands cannot succeed, because a serving certificate is required when the API server connects to the kubelet. Any operation that contacts the Kubelet endpoint requires this certificate approval to be in place. The method must watch for new CSRs, confirm that the CSR was submitted by the node-bootstrapper service account in the system:node or system:admin groups, and confirm the identity of the node.

    • To approve them individually, run the following command for each valid CSR:

      $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name> 1
      1
      <csr_name> is the name of a CSR from the list of current CSRs.
    • To approve all pending CSRs, run the following command:

      $ oc get csr -o go-template='{{range .items}}{{if not .status}}{{.metadata.name}}{{"\n"}}{{end}}{{end}}' | xargs --no-run-if-empty oc adm certificate approve
      Note

      Some Operators might not become available until some CSRs are approved.

  4. Now that your client requests are approved, you must review the server requests for each machine that you added to the cluster:

    $ oc get csr

    Example output

    NAME        AGE     REQUESTOR                                                                   CONDITION
    csr-bfd72   5m26s   system:node:ip-10-0-50-126.us-east-2.compute.internal                       Pending
    csr-c57lv   5m26s   system:node:ip-10-0-95-157.us-east-2.compute.internal                       Pending
    ...

  5. If the remaining CSRs are not approved, and are in the Pending status, approve the CSRs for your cluster machines:

    • To approve them individually, run the following command for each valid CSR:

      $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name> 1
      1
      <csr_name> is the name of a CSR from the list of current CSRs.
    • To approve all pending CSRs, run the following command:

      $ oc get csr -o go-template='{{range .items}}{{if not .status}}{{.metadata.name}}{{"\n"}}{{end}}{{end}}' | xargs oc adm certificate approve
  6. After all client and server CSRs have been approved, the machines have the Ready status. Verify this by running the following command:

    $ oc get nodes

    Example output

    NAME      STATUS    ROLES   AGE  VERSION
    master-0  Ready     master  73m  v1.28.5
    master-1  Ready     master  73m  v1.28.5
    master-2  Ready     master  74m  v1.28.5
    worker-0  Ready     worker  11m  v1.28.5
    worker-1  Ready     worker  11m  v1.28.5

    Note

    It can take a few minutes after approval of the server CSRs for the machines to transition to the Ready status.

Additional information

11.3. Adding compute machines to vSphere manually

You can add more compute machines to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster on VMware vSphere manually.

Note

You can also use compute machine sets to automate the creation of additional VMware vSphere compute machines for your cluster.

11.3.1. Prerequisites

  • You installed a cluster on vSphere.
  • You have installation media and Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) images that you used to create your cluster. If you do not have these files, you must obtain them by following the instructions in the installation procedure.
Important

If you do not have access to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) images that were used to create your cluster, you can add more compute machines to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster with newer versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) images. For instructions, see Adding new nodes to UPI cluster fails after upgrading to OpenShift 4.6+.

11.3.2. Adding more compute machines to a cluster in vSphere

You can add more compute machines to a user-provisioned OpenShift Container Platform cluster on VMware vSphere.

After your vSphere template deploys in your OpenShift Container Platform cluster, you can deploy a virtual machine (VM) for a machine in that cluster.

Prerequisites

  • Obtain the base64-encoded Ignition file for your compute machines.
  • You have access to the vSphere template that you created for your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Right-click the template’s name and click CloneClone to Virtual Machine.
  2. On the Select a name and folder tab, specify a name for the VM. You might include the machine type in the name, such as compute-1.

    Note

    Ensure that all virtual machine names across a vSphere installation are unique.

  3. On the Select a name and folder tab, select the name of the folder that you created for the cluster.
  4. On the Select a compute resource tab, select the name of a host in your datacenter.
  5. On the Select storage tab, select storage for your configuration and disk files.
  6. On the Select clone options tab, select Customize this virtual machine’s hardware.
  7. On the Customize hardware tab, click Advanced Parameters.

    • Add the following configuration parameter names and values by specifying data in the Attribute and Values fields. Ensure that you select the Add button for each parameter that you create.

      • guestinfo.ignition.config.data: Paste the contents of the base64-encoded compute Ignition config file for this machine type.
      • guestinfo.ignition.config.data.encoding: Specify base64.
      • disk.EnableUUID: Specify TRUE.
  8. In the Virtual Hardware panel of the Customize hardware tab, modify the specified values as required. Ensure that the amount of RAM, CPU, and disk storage meets the minimum requirements for the machine type. If many networks exist, select Add New Device > Network Adapter, and then enter your network information in the fields provided by the New Network menu item.
  9. Complete the remaining configuration steps. On clicking the Finish button, you have completed the cloning operation.
  10. From the Virtual Machines tab, right-click on your VM and then select PowerPower On.

Next steps

  • Continue to create more compute machines for your cluster.

11.3.3. Approving the certificate signing requests for your machines

When you add machines to a cluster, two pending certificate signing requests (CSRs) are generated for each machine that you added. You must confirm that these CSRs are approved or, if necessary, approve them yourself. The client requests must be approved first, followed by the server requests.

Prerequisites

  • You added machines to your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Confirm that the cluster recognizes the machines:

    $ oc get nodes

    Example output

    NAME      STATUS    ROLES   AGE  VERSION
    master-0  Ready     master  63m  v1.28.5
    master-1  Ready     master  63m  v1.28.5
    master-2  Ready     master  64m  v1.28.5

    The output lists all of the machines that you created.

    Note

    The preceding output might not include the compute nodes, also known as worker nodes, until some CSRs are approved.

  2. Review the pending CSRs and ensure that you see the client requests with the Pending or Approved status for each machine that you added to the cluster:

    $ oc get csr

    Example output

    NAME        AGE     REQUESTOR                                                                   CONDITION
    csr-8b2br   15m     system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending
    csr-8vnps   15m     system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending
    ...

    In this example, two machines are joining the cluster. You might see more approved CSRs in the list.

  3. If the CSRs were not approved, after all of the pending CSRs for the machines you added are in Pending status, approve the CSRs for your cluster machines:

    Note

    Because the CSRs rotate automatically, approve your CSRs within an hour of adding the machines to the cluster. If you do not approve them within an hour, the certificates will rotate, and more than two certificates will be present for each node. You must approve all of these certificates. After the client CSR is approved, the Kubelet creates a secondary CSR for the serving certificate, which requires manual approval. Then, subsequent serving certificate renewal requests are automatically approved by the machine-approver if the Kubelet requests a new certificate with identical parameters.

    Note

    For clusters running on platforms that are not machine API enabled, such as bare metal and other user-provisioned infrastructure, you must implement a method of automatically approving the kubelet serving certificate requests (CSRs). If a request is not approved, then the oc exec, oc rsh, and oc logs commands cannot succeed, because a serving certificate is required when the API server connects to the kubelet. Any operation that contacts the Kubelet endpoint requires this certificate approval to be in place. The method must watch for new CSRs, confirm that the CSR was submitted by the node-bootstrapper service account in the system:node or system:admin groups, and confirm the identity of the node.

    • To approve them individually, run the following command for each valid CSR:

      $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name> 1
      1
      <csr_name> is the name of a CSR from the list of current CSRs.
    • To approve all pending CSRs, run the following command:

      $ oc get csr -o go-template='{{range .items}}{{if not .status}}{{.metadata.name}}{{"\n"}}{{end}}{{end}}' | xargs --no-run-if-empty oc adm certificate approve
      Note

      Some Operators might not become available until some CSRs are approved.

  4. Now that your client requests are approved, you must review the server requests for each machine that you added to the cluster:

    $ oc get csr

    Example output

    NAME        AGE     REQUESTOR                                                                   CONDITION
    csr-bfd72   5m26s   system:node:ip-10-0-50-126.us-east-2.compute.internal                       Pending
    csr-c57lv   5m26s   system:node:ip-10-0-95-157.us-east-2.compute.internal                       Pending
    ...

  5. If the remaining CSRs are not approved, and are in the Pending status, approve the CSRs for your cluster machines:

    • To approve them individually, run the following command for each valid CSR:

      $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name> 1
      1
      <csr_name> is the name of a CSR from the list of current CSRs.
    • To approve all pending CSRs, run the following command:

      $ oc get csr -o go-template='{{range .items}}{{if not .status}}{{.metadata.name}}{{"\n"}}{{end}}{{end}}' | xargs oc adm certificate approve
  6. After all client and server CSRs have been approved, the machines have the Ready status. Verify this by running the following command:

    $ oc get nodes

    Example output

    NAME      STATUS    ROLES   AGE  VERSION
    master-0  Ready     master  73m  v1.28.5
    master-1  Ready     master  73m  v1.28.5
    master-2  Ready     master  74m  v1.28.5
    worker-0  Ready     worker  11m  v1.28.5
    worker-1  Ready     worker  11m  v1.28.5

    Note

    It can take a few minutes after approval of the server CSRs for the machines to transition to the Ready status.

Additional information

11.4. Adding compute machines to bare metal

You can add more compute machines to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster on bare metal.

11.4.1. Prerequisites

  • You installed a cluster on bare metal.
  • You have installation media and Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) images that you used to create your cluster. If you do not have these files, you must obtain them by following the instructions in the installation procedure.
  • If a DHCP server is available for your user-provisioned infrastructure, you have added the details for the additional compute machines to your DHCP server configuration. This includes a persistent IP address, DNS server information, and a hostname for each machine.
  • You have updated your DNS configuration to include the record name and IP address of each compute machine that you are adding. You have validated that DNS lookup and reverse DNS lookup resolve correctly.
Important

If you do not have access to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) images that were used to create your cluster, you can add more compute machines to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster with newer versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) images. For instructions, see Adding new nodes to UPI cluster fails after upgrading to OpenShift 4.6+.

11.4.2. Creating Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) machines

Before you add more compute machines to a cluster that you installed on bare metal infrastructure, you must create RHCOS machines for it to use. You can either use an ISO image or network PXE booting to create the machines.

Note

You must use the same ISO image that you used to install a cluster to deploy all new nodes in a cluster. It is recommended to use the same Ignition config file. The nodes automatically upgrade themselves on the first boot before running the workloads. You can add the nodes before or after the upgrade.

11.4.2.1. Creating RHCOS machines using an ISO image

You can create more Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) compute machines for your bare metal cluster by using an ISO image to create the machines.

Prerequisites

  • Obtain the URL of the Ignition config file for the compute machines for your cluster. You uploaded this file to your HTTP server during installation.
  • You must have the OpenShift CLI (oc) installed.

Procedure

  1. Extract the Ignition config file from the cluster by running the following command:

    $ oc extract -n openshift-machine-api secret/worker-user-data-managed --keys=userData --to=- > worker.ign
  2. Upload the worker.ign Ignition config file you exported from your cluster to your HTTP server. Note the URLs of these files.
  3. You can validate that the ignition files are available on the URLs. The following example gets the Ignition config files for the compute node:

    $ curl -k http://<HTTP_server>/worker.ign
  4. You can access the ISO image for booting your new machine by running to following command:

    RHCOS_VHD_ORIGIN_URL=$(oc -n openshift-machine-config-operator get configmap/coreos-bootimages -o jsonpath='{.data.stream}' | jq -r '.architectures.<architecture>.artifacts.metal.formats.iso.disk.location')
  5. Use the ISO file to install RHCOS on more compute machines. Use the same method that you used when you created machines before you installed the cluster:

    • Burn the ISO image to a disk and boot it directly.
    • Use ISO redirection with a LOM interface.
  6. Boot the RHCOS ISO image without specifying any options, or interrupting the live boot sequence. Wait for the installer to boot into a shell prompt in the RHCOS live environment.

    Note

    You can interrupt the RHCOS installation boot process to add kernel arguments. However, for this ISO procedure you must use the coreos-installer command as outlined in the following steps, instead of adding kernel arguments.

  7. Run the coreos-installer command and specify the options that meet your installation requirements. At a minimum, you must specify the URL that points to the Ignition config file for the node type, and the device that you are installing to:

    $ sudo coreos-installer install --ignition-url=http://<HTTP_server>/<node_type>.ign <device> --ignition-hash=sha512-<digest> 12
    1
    You must run the coreos-installer command by using sudo, because the core user does not have the required root privileges to perform the installation.
    2
    The --ignition-hash option is required when the Ignition config file is obtained through an HTTP URL to validate the authenticity of the Ignition config file on the cluster node. <digest> is the Ignition config file SHA512 digest obtained in a preceding step.
    Note

    If you want to provide your Ignition config files through an HTTPS server that uses TLS, you can add the internal certificate authority (CA) to the system trust store before running coreos-installer.

    The following example initializes a bootstrap node installation to the /dev/sda device. The Ignition config file for the bootstrap node is obtained from an HTTP web server with the IP address 192.168.1.2:

    $ sudo coreos-installer install --ignition-url=http://192.168.1.2:80/installation_directory/bootstrap.ign /dev/sda --ignition-hash=sha512-a5a2d43879223273c9b60af66b44202a1d1248fc01cf156c46d4a79f552b6bad47bc8cc78ddf0116e80c59d2ea9e32ba53bc807afbca581aa059311def2c3e3b
  8. Monitor the progress of the RHCOS installation on the console of the machine.

    Important

    Ensure that the installation is successful on each node before commencing with the OpenShift Container Platform installation. Observing the installation process can also help to determine the cause of RHCOS installation issues that might arise.

  9. Continue to create more compute machines for your cluster.

11.4.2.2. Creating RHCOS machines by PXE or iPXE booting

You can create more Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) compute machines for your bare metal cluster by using PXE or iPXE booting.

Prerequisites

  • Obtain the URL of the Ignition config file for the compute machines for your cluster. You uploaded this file to your HTTP server during installation.
  • Obtain the URLs of the RHCOS ISO image, compressed metal BIOS, kernel, and initramfs files that you uploaded to your HTTP server during cluster installation.
  • You have access to the PXE booting infrastructure that you used to create the machines for your OpenShift Container Platform cluster during installation. The machines must boot from their local disks after RHCOS is installed on them.
  • If you use UEFI, you have access to the grub.conf file that you modified during OpenShift Container Platform installation.

Procedure

  1. Confirm that your PXE or iPXE installation for the RHCOS images is correct.

    • For PXE:

      DEFAULT pxeboot
      TIMEOUT 20
      PROMPT 0
      LABEL pxeboot
          KERNEL http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-kernel-<architecture> 1
          APPEND initrd=http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-initramfs.<architecture>.img coreos.inst.install_dev=/dev/sda coreos.inst.ignition_url=http://<HTTP_server>/worker.ign coreos.live.rootfs_url=http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-rootfs.<architecture>.img 2
      1
      Specify the location of the live kernel file that you uploaded to your HTTP server.
      2
      Specify locations of the RHCOS files that you uploaded to your HTTP server. The initrd parameter value is the location of the live initramfs file, the coreos.inst.ignition_url parameter value is the location of the worker Ignition config file, and the coreos.live.rootfs_url parameter value is the location of the live rootfs file. The coreos.inst.ignition_url and coreos.live.rootfs_url parameters only support HTTP and HTTPS.
      Note

      This configuration does not enable serial console access on machines with a graphical console. To configure a different console, add one or more console= arguments to the APPEND line. For example, add console=tty0 console=ttyS0 to set the first PC serial port as the primary console and the graphical console as a secondary console. For more information, see How does one set up a serial terminal and/or console in Red Hat Enterprise Linux?.

    • For iPXE (x86_64 + aarch64):

      kernel http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-kernel-<architecture> initrd=main coreos.live.rootfs_url=http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-rootfs.<architecture>.img coreos.inst.install_dev=/dev/sda coreos.inst.ignition_url=http://<HTTP_server>/worker.ign 1 2
      initrd --name main http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-initramfs.<architecture>.img 3
      boot
      1
      Specify the locations of the RHCOS files that you uploaded to your HTTP server. The kernel parameter value is the location of the kernel file, the initrd=main argument is needed for booting on UEFI systems, the coreos.live.rootfs_url parameter value is the location of the rootfs file, and the coreos.inst.ignition_url parameter value is the location of the worker Ignition config file.
      2
      If you use multiple NICs, specify a single interface in the ip option. For example, to use DHCP on a NIC that is named eno1, set ip=eno1:dhcp.
      3
      Specify the location of the initramfs file that you uploaded to your HTTP server.
      Note

      This configuration does not enable serial console access on machines with a graphical console To configure a different console, add one or more console= arguments to the kernel line. For example, add console=tty0 console=ttyS0 to set the first PC serial port as the primary console and the graphical console as a secondary console. For more information, see How does one set up a serial terminal and/or console in Red Hat Enterprise Linux? and "Enabling the serial console for PXE and ISO installation" in the "Advanced RHCOS installation configuration" section.

      Note

      To network boot the CoreOS kernel on aarch64 architecture, you need to use a version of iPXE build with the IMAGE_GZIP option enabled. See IMAGE_GZIP option in iPXE.

    • For PXE (with UEFI and GRUB as second stage) on aarch64:

      menuentry 'Install CoreOS' {
          linux rhcos-<version>-live-kernel-<architecture>  coreos.live.rootfs_url=http://<HTTP_server>/rhcos-<version>-live-rootfs.<architecture>.img coreos.inst.install_dev=/dev/sda coreos.inst.ignition_url=http://<HTTP_server>/worker.ign 1 2
          initrd rhcos-<version>-live-initramfs.<architecture>.img 3
      }
      1
      Specify the locations of the RHCOS files that you uploaded to your HTTP/TFTP server. The kernel parameter value is the location of the kernel file on your TFTP server. The coreos.live.rootfs_url parameter value is the location of the rootfs file, and the coreos.inst.ignition_url parameter value is the location of the worker Ignition config file on your HTTP Server.
      2
      If you use multiple NICs, specify a single interface in the ip option. For example, to use DHCP on a NIC that is named eno1, set ip=eno1:dhcp.
      3
      Specify the location of the initramfs file that you uploaded to your TFTP server.
  2. Use the PXE or iPXE infrastructure to create the required compute machines for your cluster.

11.4.3. Approving the certificate signing requests for your machines

When you add machines to a cluster, two pending certificate signing requests (CSRs) are generated for each machine that you added. You must confirm that these CSRs are approved or, if necessary, approve them yourself. The client requests must be approved first, followed by the server requests.

Prerequisites

  • You added machines to your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Confirm that the cluster recognizes the machines:

    $ oc get nodes

    Example output

    NAME      STATUS    ROLES   AGE  VERSION
    master-0  Ready     master  63m  v1.28.5
    master-1  Ready     master  63m  v1.28.5
    master-2  Ready     master  64m  v1.28.5

    The output lists all of the machines that you created.

    Note

    The preceding output might not include the compute nodes, also known as worker nodes, until some CSRs are approved.

  2. Review the pending CSRs and ensure that you see the client requests with the Pending or Approved status for each machine that you added to the cluster:

    $ oc get csr

    Example output

    NAME        AGE     REQUESTOR                                                                   CONDITION
    csr-8b2br   15m     system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending
    csr-8vnps   15m     system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending
    ...

    In this example, two machines are joining the cluster. You might see more approved CSRs in the list.

  3. If the CSRs were not approved, after all of the pending CSRs for the machines you added are in Pending status, approve the CSRs for your cluster machines:

    Note

    Because the CSRs rotate automatically, approve your CSRs within an hour of adding the machines to the cluster. If you do not approve them within an hour, the certificates will rotate, and more than two certificates will be present for each node. You must approve all of these certificates. After the client CSR is approved, the Kubelet creates a secondary CSR for the serving certificate, which requires manual approval. Then, subsequent serving certificate renewal requests are automatically approved by the machine-approver if the Kubelet requests a new certificate with identical parameters.

    Note

    For clusters running on platforms that are not machine API enabled, such as bare metal and other user-provisioned infrastructure, you must implement a method of automatically approving the kubelet serving certificate requests (CSRs). If a request is not approved, then the oc exec, oc rsh, and oc logs commands cannot succeed, because a serving certificate is required when the API server connects to the kubelet. Any operation that contacts the Kubelet endpoint requires this certificate approval to be in place. The method must watch for new CSRs, confirm that the CSR was submitted by the node-bootstrapper service account in the system:node or system:admin groups, and confirm the identity of the node.

    • To approve them individually, run the following command for each valid CSR:

      $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name> 1
      1
      <csr_name> is the name of a CSR from the list of current CSRs.
    • To approve all pending CSRs, run the following command:

      $ oc get csr -o go-template='{{range .items}}{{if not .status}}{{.metadata.name}}{{"\n"}}{{end}}{{end}}' | xargs --no-run-if-empty oc adm certificate approve
      Note

      Some Operators might not become available until some CSRs are approved.

  4. Now that your client requests are approved, you must review the server requests for each machine that you added to the cluster:

    $ oc get csr

    Example output

    NAME        AGE     REQUESTOR                                                                   CONDITION
    csr-bfd72   5m26s   system:node:ip-10-0-50-126.us-east-2.compute.internal                       Pending
    csr-c57lv   5m26s   system:node:ip-10-0-95-157.us-east-2.compute.internal                       Pending
    ...

  5. If the remaining CSRs are not approved, and are in the Pending status, approve the CSRs for your cluster machines:

    • To approve them individually, run the following command for each valid CSR:

      $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name> 1
      1
      <csr_name> is the name of a CSR from the list of current CSRs.
    • To approve all pending CSRs, run the following command:

      $ oc get csr -o go-template='{{range .items}}{{if not .status}}{{.metadata.name}}{{"\n"}}{{end}}{{end}}' | xargs oc adm certificate approve
  6. After all client and server CSRs have been approved, the machines have the Ready status. Verify this by running the following command:

    $ oc get nodes

    Example output

    NAME      STATUS    ROLES   AGE  VERSION
    master-0  Ready     master  73m  v1.28.5
    master-1  Ready     master  73m  v1.28.5
    master-2  Ready     master  74m  v1.28.5
    worker-0  Ready     worker  11m  v1.28.5
    worker-1  Ready     worker  11m  v1.28.5

    Note

    It can take a few minutes after approval of the server CSRs for the machines to transition to the Ready status.

Additional information

Chapter 12. Managing machines with the Cluster API

Important

Managing machines with the Cluster API is a Technology Preview feature only. Technology Preview features are not supported with Red Hat production service level agreements (SLAs) and might not be functionally complete. Red Hat does not recommend using them in production. These features provide early access to upcoming product features, enabling customers to test functionality and provide feedback during the development process.

For more information about the support scope of Red Hat Technology Preview features, see Technology Preview Features Support Scope.

The Cluster API is an upstream project that is integrated into OpenShift Container Platform as a Technology Preview for Amazon Web Services (AWS) and Google Cloud Platform (GCP). You can use the Cluster API to create and manage compute machine sets and compute machines in your OpenShift Container Platform cluster. This capability is in addition or an alternative to managing machines with the Machine API.

For OpenShift Container Platform 4.15 clusters, you can use the Cluster API to perform node host provisioning management actions after the cluster installation finishes. This system enables an elastic, dynamic provisioning method on top of public or private cloud infrastructure.

With the Cluster API Technology Preview, you can create compute machines and compute machine sets on OpenShift Container Platform clusters for supported providers. You can also explore the features that are enabled by this implementation that might not be available with the Machine API.

Benefits

By using the Cluster API, OpenShift Container Platform users and developers are able to realize the following advantages:

  • The option to use upstream community Cluster API infrastructure providers which might not be supported by the Machine API.
  • The opportunity to collaborate with third parties who maintain machine controllers for infrastructure providers.
  • The ability to use the same set of Kubernetes tools for infrastructure management in OpenShift Container Platform.
  • The ability to create compute machine sets by using the Cluster API that support features that are not available with the Machine API.

Limitations

Using the Cluster API to manage machines is a Technology Preview feature and has the following limitations:

  • Only AWS and GCP clusters are supported.
  • To use this feature, you must enable the TechPreviewNoUpgrade feature set. Enabling this feature set cannot be undone and prevents minor version updates.
  • You must create the primary resources that the Cluster API requires manually.
  • You cannot manage control plane machines by using the Cluster API.
  • Migration of existing compute machine sets created by the Machine API to Cluster API compute machine sets is not supported.
  • Full feature parity with the Machine API is not available.

12.1. Cluster API architecture

The OpenShift Container Platform integration of the upstream Cluster API is implemented and managed by the Cluster CAPI Operator. The Cluster CAPI Operator and its operands are provisioned in the openshift-cluster-api namespace, in contrast to the Machine API, which uses the openshift-machine-api namespace.

12.1.1. The Cluster CAPI Operator

The Cluster CAPI Operator is an OpenShift Container Platform Operator that maintains the lifecycle of Cluster API resources. This Operator is responsible for all administrative tasks related to deploying the Cluster API project within an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

If a cluster is configured correctly to allow the use of the Cluster API, the Cluster CAPI Operator installs the Cluster API components on the cluster.

For more information, see the "Cluster CAPI Operator" entry in the Cluster Operators reference content.

Additional resources

12.1.2. Cluster API primary resources

The Cluster API consists of the following primary resources. For the Technology Preview of this feature, you must create these resources manually in the openshift-cluster-api namespace.

Cluster
A fundamental unit that represents a cluster that is managed by the Cluster API.
Infrastructure
A provider-specific resource that defines properties that are shared by all the compute machine sets in the cluster, such as the region and subnets.
Machine template
A provider-specific template that defines the properties of the machines that a compute machine set creates.
Machine set

A group of machines.

Compute machine sets are to machines as replica sets are to pods. If you need more machines or must scale them down, you change the replicas field on the compute machine set to meet your compute needs.

With the Cluster API, a compute machine set references a Cluster object and a provider-specific machine template.

Machine

A fundamental unit that describes the host for a node.

The Cluster API creates machines based on the configuration in the machine template.

12.2. Sample YAML files

For the Cluster API Technology Preview, you must create the primary resources that the Cluster API requires manually. The following example YAML files show how to make these resources work together and configure settings for the machines that they create that are appropriate for your environment.

12.2.1. Sample YAML for a Cluster API cluster resource

The cluster resource defines the name and infrastructure provider for the cluster and is managed by the Cluster API. This resource has the same structure for all providers.

apiVersion: cluster.x-k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: Cluster
metadata:
  name: <cluster_name> 1
  namespace: openshift-cluster-api
spec:
  infrastructureRef:
    apiVersion: infrastructure.cluster.x-k8s.io/v1beta1
    kind: <infrastructure_kind> 2
    name: <cluster_name> 3
    namespace: openshift-cluster-api
1 3
Specify the name of the cluster.
2
Specify the infrastructure kind for the cluster. Valid values are:
  • AWSCluster: The cluster is running on Amazon Web Services (AWS).
  • GCPCluster: The cluster is running on Google Cloud Platform (GCP).

The remaining Cluster API resources are provider-specific. Refer to the example YAML files for your cluster:

12.2.2. Sample YAML files for configuring Amazon Web Services clusters

Some Cluster API resources are provider-specific. The following example YAML files show configurations for an Amazon Web Services (AWS) cluster.

12.2.2.1. Sample YAML for a Cluster API infrastructure resource on Amazon Web Services

The infrastructure resource is provider-specific and defines properties that are shared by all the compute machine sets in the cluster, such as the region and subnets. The compute machine set references this resource when creating machines.

apiVersion: infrastructure.cluster.x-k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: AWSCluster 1
metadata:
  name: <cluster_name> 2
  namespace: openshift-cluster-api
spec:
  region: <region> 3
1
Specify the infrastructure kind for the cluster. This value must match the value for your platform.
2
Specify the name of the cluster.
3
Specify the AWS region.

12.2.2.2. Sample YAML for a Cluster API machine template resource on Amazon Web Services

The machine template resource is provider-specific and defines the basic properties of the machines that a compute machine set creates. The compute machine set references this template when creating machines.

apiVersion: infrastructure.cluster.x-k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: AWSMachineTemplate 1
metadata:
  name: <template_name> 2
  namespace: openshift-cluster-api
spec:
  template:
    spec: 3
      uncompressedUserData: true
      iamInstanceProfile: ....
      instanceType: m5.large
      cloudInit:
        insecureSkipSecretsManager: true
      ami:
        id: ....
      subnet:
        filters:
        - name: tag:Name
          values:
          - ...
      additionalSecurityGroups:
      - filters:
        - name: tag:Name
          values:
          - ...
1
Specify the machine template kind. This value must match the value for your platform.
2
Specify a name for the machine template.
3
Specify the details for your environment. The values here are examples.

12.2.2.3. Sample YAML for a Cluster API compute machine set resource on Amazon Web Services

The compute machine set resource defines additional properties of the machines that it creates. The compute machine set also references the infrastructure resource and machine template when creating machines.

apiVersion: cluster.x-k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: MachineSet
metadata:
  name: <machine_set_name> 1
  namespace: openshift-cluster-api
spec:
  clusterName: <cluster_name> 2
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      test: example
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        test: example
    spec:
      bootstrap:
         dataSecretName: worker-user-data 3
      clusterName: <cluster_name> 4
      infrastructureRef:
        apiVersion: infrastructure.cluster.x-k8s.io/v1beta1
        kind: AWSMachineTemplate 5
        name: <cluster_name> 6
1
Specify a name for the compute machine set.
2 4 6
Specify the name of the cluster.
3
For the Cluster API Technology Preview, the Operator can use the worker user data secret from openshift-machine-api namespace.
5
Specify the machine template kind. This value must match the value for your platform.

12.2.3. Sample YAML files for configuring Google Cloud Platform clusters

Some Cluster API resources are provider-specific. The following example YAML files show configurations for a Google Cloud Platform (GCP) cluster.

12.2.3.1. Sample YAML for a Cluster API infrastructure resource on Google Cloud Platform

The infrastructure resource is provider-specific and defines properties that are shared by all the compute machine sets in the cluster, such as the region and subnets. The compute machine set references this resource when creating machines.

apiVersion: infrastructure.cluster.x-k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: GCPCluster 1
metadata:
  name: <cluster_name> 2
spec:
  network:
    name: <cluster_name>-network 3
  project: <project> 4
  region: <region> 5
1
Specify the infrastructure kind for the cluster. This value must match the value for your platform.
2 3
Specify the name of the cluster.
4
Specify the GCP project name.
5
Specify the GCP region.

12.2.3.2. Sample YAML for a Cluster API machine template resource on Google Cloud Platform

The machine template resource is provider-specific and defines the basic properties of the machines that a compute machine set creates. The compute machine set references this template when creating machines.

apiVersion: infrastructure.cluster.x-k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: GCPMachineTemplate 1
metadata:
  name: <template_name> 2
  namespace: openshift-cluster-api
spec:
  template:
    spec: 3
      rootDeviceType: pd-ssd
      rootDeviceSize: 128
      instanceType: n1-standard-4
      image: projects/rhcos-cloud/global/images/rhcos-411-85-202203181601-0-gcp-x86-64
      subnet: <cluster_name>-worker-subnet
      serviceAccounts:
        email: <service_account_email_address>
        scopes:
          - https://www.googleapis.com/auth/cloud-platform
      additionalLabels:
        kubernetes-io-cluster-<cluster_name>: owned
      additionalNetworkTags:
        - <cluster_name>-worker
      ipForwarding: Disabled
1
Specify the machine template kind. This value must match the value for your platform.
2
Specify a name for the machine template.
3
Specify the details for your environment. The values here are examples.

12.2.3.3. Sample YAML for a Cluster API compute machine set resource on Google Cloud Platform

The compute machine set resource defines additional properties of the machines that it creates. The compute machine set also references the infrastructure resource and machine template when creating machines.

apiVersion: cluster.x-k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: MachineSet
metadata:
  name: <machine_set_name> 1
  namespace: openshift-cluster-api
spec:
  clusterName: <cluster_name> 2
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      test: test
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        test: test
    spec:
      bootstrap:
         dataSecretName: worker-user-data 3
      clusterName: <cluster_name> 4
      infrastructureRef:
        apiVersion: infrastructure.cluster.x-k8s.io/v1beta1
        kind: GCPMachineTemplate 5
        name: <machine_set_name> 6
      failureDomain: <failure_domain> 7
1 6
Specify a name for the compute machine set.
2 4
Specify the name of the cluster.
3
For the Cluster API Technology Preview, the Operator can use the worker user data secret from openshift-machine-api namespace.
5
Specify the machine template kind. This value must match the value for your platform.
7
Specify the failure domain within the GCP region.

12.3. Creating a Cluster API compute machine set

You can create compute machine sets that use the Cluster API to dynamically manage the machine compute resources for specific workloads of your choice.

Prerequisites

  • Deploy an OpenShift Container Platform cluster.
  • Enable the use of the Cluster API.
  • Install the OpenShift CLI (oc).
  • Log in to oc as a user with cluster-admin permission.

Procedure

  1. Create a YAML file that contains the cluster custom resource (CR) and is named <cluster_resource_file>.yaml.

    If you are not sure which value to set for the <cluster_name> parameter, you can check the value for an existing Machine API compute machine set in your cluster.

    1. To list the Machine API compute machine sets, run the following command:

      $ oc get machinesets -n openshift-machine-api 1
      1
      Specify the openshift-machine-api namespace.

      Example output

      NAME                                DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AVAILABLE   AGE
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1b   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1c   1         1         1       1           55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1d   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1e   0         0                             55m
      agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1f   0         0                             55m

    2. To display the contents of a specific compute machine set CR, run the following command:

      $ oc get machineset <machineset_name> \
      -n openshift-machine-api \
      -o yaml

      Example output

      ...
      template:
          metadata:
            labels:
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: agl030519-vplxk 1
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: worker
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: worker
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machineset: agl030519-vplxk-worker-us-east-1a
      ...

      1
      The cluster ID, which you use for the <cluster_name> parameter.
  2. Create the cluster CR by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <cluster_resource_file>.yaml

    Verification

    To confirm that the cluster CR is created, run the following command:

    $ oc get cluster

    Example output

    NAME           PHASE        AGE  VERSION
    <cluster_name> Provisioning 4h6m

  3. Create a YAML file that contains the infrastructure CR and is named <infrastructure_resource_file>.yaml.
  4. Create the infrastructure CR by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <infrastructure_resource_file>.yaml

    Verification

    To confirm that the infrastructure CR is created, run the following command:

    $ oc get <infrastructure_kind>

    where <infrastructure_kind> is the value that corresponds to your platform.

    Example output

    NAME           CLUSTER        READY VPC BASTION IP
    <cluster_name> <cluster_name> true

  5. Create a YAML file that contains the machine template CR and is named <machine_template_resource_file>.yaml.
  6. Create the machine template CR by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <machine_template_resource_file>.yaml

    Verification

    To confirm that the machine template CR is created, run the following command:

    $ oc get <machine_template_kind>

    where <machine_template_kind> is the value that corresponds to your platform.

    Example output

    NAME            AGE
    <template_name> 77m

  7. Create a YAML file that contains the compute machine set CR and is named <machine_set_resource_file>.yaml.
  8. Create the compute machine set CR by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <machine_set_resource_file>.yaml

    Verification

    To confirm that the compute machine set CR is created, run the following command:

    $ oc get machineset -n openshift-cluster-api 1
    1
    Specify the openshift-cluster-api namespace.

    Example output

    NAME               CLUSTER        REPLICAS READY AVAILABLE AGE VERSION
    <machine_set_name> <cluster_name> 1        1     1         17m

    When the new compute machine set is available, the REPLICAS and AVAILABLE values match. If the compute machine set is not available, wait a few minutes and run the command again.

Verification

  • To verify that the compute machine set is creating machines according to your required configuration, review the lists of machines and nodes in the cluster by using the following steps:

    • To view the list of Cluster API machines, run the following command:

      $ oc get machine -n openshift-cluster-api 1
      1
      Specify the openshift-cluster-api namespace.

      Example output

      NAME                           CLUSTER        NODENAME                               PROVIDERID    PHASE   AGE   VERSION
      <machine_set_name>-<string_id> <cluster_name> <ip_address>.<region>.compute.internal <provider_id> Running 8m23s

    • To view the list of nodes, run the following command:

      $ oc get node

      Example output

      NAME                                     STATUS ROLES  AGE   VERSION
      <ip_address_1>.<region>.compute.internal Ready  worker 5h14m v1.28.5
      <ip_address_2>.<region>.compute.internal Ready  master 5h19m v1.28.5
      <ip_address_3>.<region>.compute.internal Ready  worker 7m    v1.28.5

12.4. Troubleshooting clusters that use the Cluster API

Use the information in this section to understand and recover from issues you might encounter. Generally, troubleshooting steps for problems with the Cluster API are similar to those steps for problems with the Machine API.

The Cluster CAPI Operator and its operands are provisioned in the openshift-cluster-api namespace, whereas the Machine API uses the openshift-machine-api namespace. When using oc commands that reference a namespace, be sure to reference the correct one.

12.4.1. CLI commands return Cluster API machines

For clusters that use the Cluster API, oc commands such as oc get machine return results for Cluster API machines. Because the letter c precedes the letter m alphabetically, Cluster API machines appear in the return before Machine API machines do.

  • To list only Machine API machines, use the fully qualified name machines.machine.openshift.io when running the oc get machine command:

    $ oc get machines.machine.openshift.io
  • To list only Cluster API machines, use the fully qualified name machines.cluster.x-k8s.io when running the oc get machine command:

    $ oc get machines.cluster.x-k8s.io

Chapter 13. Managing control plane machines

13.1. About control plane machine sets

With control plane machine sets, you can automate management of the control plane machine resources within your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

Important

Control plane machine sets cannot manage compute machines, and compute machine sets cannot manage control plane machines.

Control plane machine sets provide for control plane machines similar management capabilities as compute machine sets provide for compute machines. However, these two types of machine sets are separate custom resources defined within the Machine API and have several fundamental differences in their architecture and functionality.

13.1.1. Control Plane Machine Set Operator overview

The Control Plane Machine Set Operator uses the ControlPlaneMachineSet custom resource (CR) to automate management of the control plane machine resources within your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

When the state of the cluster control plane machine set is set to Active, the Operator ensures that the cluster has the correct number of control plane machines with the specified configuration. This allows the automated replacement of degraded control plane machines and rollout of changes to the control plane.

A cluster has only one control plane machine set, and the Operator only manages objects in the openshift-machine-api namespace.

13.1.2. Control Plane Machine Set Operator limitations

The Control Plane Machine Set Operator has the following limitations:

  • Only Amazon Web Services (AWS), Google Cloud Platform (GCP), IBM Power® Virtual Server, Microsoft Azure, Nutanix, VMware vSphere, and Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP) clusters are supported.
  • Clusters that do not have preexisting machines that represent the control plane nodes cannot use a control plane machine set or enable the use of a control plane machine set after installation. Generally, preexisting control plane machines are only present if a cluster was installed using infrastructure provisioned by the installation program.

    To determine if a cluster has the required preexisting control plane machines, run the following command as a user with administrator privileges:

    $ oc get machine \
      -n openshift-machine-api \
      -l machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role=master

    Example output showing preexisting control plane machines

    NAME                    PHASE     TYPE         REGION      ZONE         AGE
    <infrastructure_id>-master-0   Running   m6i.xlarge   us-west-1   us-west-1a   5h19m
    <infrastructure_id>-master-1   Running   m6i.xlarge   us-west-1   us-west-1b   5h19m
    <infrastructure_id>-master-2   Running   m6i.xlarge   us-west-1   us-west-1a   5h19m

    Example output missing preexisting control plane machines

    No resources found in openshift-machine-api namespace.

  • The Operator requires the Machine API Operator to be operational and is therefore not supported on clusters with manually provisioned machines. When installing a OpenShift Container Platform cluster with manually provisioned machines for a platform that creates an active generated ControlPlaneMachineSet custom resource (CR), you must remove the Kubernetes manifest files that define the control plane machine set as instructed in the installation process.
  • Only clusters with three control plane machines are supported.
  • Horizontal scaling of the control plane is not supported.
  • Deploying Azure control plane machines on Ephemeral OS disks increases risk for data loss and is not supported.
  • Deploying control plane machines as AWS Spot Instances, GCP preemptible VMs, or Azure Spot VMs is not supported.

    Important

    Attempting to deploy control plane machines as AWS Spot Instances, GCP preemptible VMs, or Azure Spot VMs might cause the cluster to lose etcd quorum. A cluster that loses all control plane machines simultaneously is unrecoverable.

  • Making changes to the control plane machine set during or prior to installation is not supported. You must make any changes to the control plane machine set only after installation.

13.1.3. Additional resources

13.2. Getting started with control plane machine sets

The process for getting started with control plane machine sets depends on the state of the ControlPlaneMachineSet custom resource (CR) in your cluster.

Clusters with an active generated CR
Clusters that have a generated CR with an active state use the control plane machine set by default. No administrator action is required.
Clusters with an inactive generated CR
For clusters that include an inactive generated CR, you must review the CR configuration and activate the CR.
Clusters without a generated CR
For clusters that do not include a generated CR, you must create and activate a CR with the appropriate configuration for your cluster.

If you are uncertain about the state of the ControlPlaneMachineSet CR in your cluster, you can verify the CR status.

13.2.1. Supported cloud providers

In OpenShift Container Platform 4.15, the control plane machine set is supported for Amazon Web Services (AWS), Google Cloud Platform (GCP), Microsoft Azure, Nutanix, and VMware vSphere clusters.

The status of the control plane machine set after installation depends on your cloud provider and the version of OpenShift Container Platform that you installed on your cluster.

Table 13.1. Control plane machine set implementation for OpenShift Container Platform 4.15

Cloud providerActive by defaultGenerated CRManual CR required

Amazon Web Services (AWS)

X [1]

X

 

Google Cloud Platform (GCP)

X [2]

X

 

Microsoft Azure

X [2]

X

 

Nutanix

X [3]

X

 

VMware vSphere

X [4]

X [4]

X

Red Hat OpenStack Platform (RHOSP)

X [3]

X

 
  1. AWS clusters that are upgraded from version 4.11 or earlier require CR activation.
  2. GCP and Azure clusters that are upgraded from version 4.12 or earlier require CR activation.
  3. Nutanix and RHOSP clusters that are upgraded from version 4.13 or earlier require CR activation.
  4. In OpenShift Container Platform 4.15, installing a cluster with an active generated CR on VWware vSphere is available as a Technology Preview feature. To enable the feature, set the featureSet parameter to TechPreviewNoUpgrade in the install-config.yaml file.

13.2.2. Checking the control plane machine set custom resource state

You can verify the existence and state of the ControlPlaneMachineSet custom resource (CR).

Procedure

  • Determine the state of the CR by running the following command:

    $ oc get controlplanemachineset.machine.openshift.io cluster \
      --namespace openshift-machine-api
    • A result of Active indicates that the ControlPlaneMachineSet CR exists and is activated. No administrator action is required.
    • A result of Inactive indicates that a ControlPlaneMachineSet CR exists but is not activated.
    • A result of NotFound indicates that there is no existing ControlPlaneMachineSet CR.

Next steps

To use the control plane machine set, you must ensure that a ControlPlaneMachineSet CR with the correct settings for your cluster exists.

  • If your cluster has an existing CR, you must verify that the configuration in the CR is correct for your cluster.
  • If your cluster does not have an existing CR, you must create one with the correct configuration for your cluster.

13.2.3. Activating the control plane machine set custom resource

To use the control plane machine set, you must ensure that a ControlPlaneMachineSet custom resource (CR) with the correct settings for your cluster exists. On a cluster with a generated CR, you must verify that the configuration in the CR is correct for your cluster and activate it.

Note

For more information about the parameters in the CR, see "Control plane machine set configuration".

Procedure

  1. View the configuration of the CR by running the following command:

    $ oc --namespace openshift-machine-api edit controlplanemachineset.machine.openshift.io cluster
  2. Change the values of any fields that are incorrect for your cluster configuration.
  3. When the configuration is correct, activate the CR by setting the .spec.state field to Active and saving your changes.

    Important

    To activate the CR, you must change the .spec.state field to Active in the same oc edit session that you use to update the CR configuration. If the CR is saved with the state left as Inactive, the control plane machine set generator resets the CR to its original settings.

13.2.4. Creating a control plane machine set custom resource

To use the control plane machine set, you must ensure that a ControlPlaneMachineSet custom resource (CR) with the correct settings for your cluster exists. On a cluster without a generated CR, you must create the CR manually and activate it.

Note

For more information about the structure and parameters of the CR, see "Control plane machine set configuration".

Procedure

  1. Create a YAML file using the following template:

    Control plane machine set CR YAML file template

    apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1
    kind: ControlPlaneMachineSet
    metadata:
      name: cluster
      namespace: openshift-machine-api
    spec:
      replicas: 3
      selector:
        matchLabels:
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <cluster_id> 1
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: master
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: master
      state: Active 2
      strategy:
        type: RollingUpdate 3
      template:
        machineType: machines_v1beta1_machine_openshift_io
        machines_v1beta1_machine_openshift_io:
          failureDomains:
            platform: <platform> 4
            <platform_failure_domains> 5
          metadata:
            labels:
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <cluster_id> 6
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: master
              machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: master
          spec:
            providerSpec:
              value:
                <platform_provider_spec> 7

    1
    Specify the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster. You must specify this value when you create a ControlPlaneMachineSet CR. If you have the OpenShift CLI (oc) installed, you can obtain the infrastructure ID by running the following command:
    $ oc get -o jsonpath='{.status.infrastructureName}{"\n"}' infrastructure cluster
    2
    Specify the state of the Operator. When the state is Inactive, the Operator is not operational. You can activate the Operator by setting the value to Active.
    Important

    Before you activate the CR, you must ensure that its configuration is correct for your cluster requirements.

    3
    Specify the update strategy for the cluster. Valid values are OnDelete and RollingUpdate. The default value is RollingUpdate. For more information about update strategies, see "Updating the control plane configuration".
    4
    Specify your cloud provider platform name. Valid values are AWS, Azure, GCP, Nutanix, VSphere, and OpenStack.
    5
    Add the <platform_failure_domains> configuration for the cluster. The format and values of this section are provider-specific. For more information, see the sample failure domain configuration for your cloud provider.
    6
    Specify the infrastructure ID.
    7
    Add the <platform_provider_spec> configuration for the cluster. The format and values of this section are provider-specific. For more information, see the sample provider specification for your cloud provider.
  2. Refer to the sample YAML for a control plane machine set CR and populate your file with values that are appropriate for your cluster configuration.
  3. Refer to the sample failure domain configuration and sample provider specification for your cloud provider and update those sections of your file with the appropriate values.
  4. When the configuration is correct, activate the CR by setting the .spec.state field to Active and saving your changes.
  5. Create the CR from your YAML file by running the following command:

    $ oc create -f <control_plane_machine_set>.yaml

    where <control_plane_machine_set> is the name of the YAML file that contains the CR configuration.

13.3. Control plane machine set configuration

These example YAML snippets show the base structure for a control plane machine set custom resource (CR) and platform-specific samples for provider specification and failure domain configurations.

13.3.1. Sample YAML for a control plane machine set custom resource

The base of the ControlPlaneMachineSet CR is structured the same way for all platforms.

Sample ControlPlaneMachineSet CR YAML file

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1
kind: ControlPlaneMachineSet
metadata:
  name: cluster 1
  namespace: openshift-machine-api
spec:
  replicas: 3 2
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <cluster_id> 3
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: master
      machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: master
  state: Active 4
  strategy:
    type: RollingUpdate 5
  template:
    machineType: machines_v1beta1_machine_openshift_io
    machines_v1beta1_machine_openshift_io:
      failureDomains:
        platform: <platform> 6
        <platform_failure_domains> 7
      metadata:
        labels:
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-cluster: <cluster_id>
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-role: master
          machine.openshift.io/cluster-api-machine-type: master
      spec:
        providerSpec:
          value:
            <platform_provider_spec> 8

1
Specifies the name of the ControlPlaneMachineSet CR, which is cluster. Do not change this value.
2
Specifies the number of control plane machines. Only clusters with three control plane machines are supported, so the replicas value is 3. Horizontal scaling is not supported. Do not change this value.
3
Specifies the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster. You must specify this value when you create a ControlPlaneMachineSet CR. If you have the OpenShift CLI (oc) installed, you can obtain the infrastructure ID by running the following command:
$ oc get -o jsonpath='{.status.infrastructureName}{"\n"}' infrastructure cluster
4
Specifies the state of the Operator. When the state is Inactive, the Operator is not operational. You can activate the Operator by setting the value to Active.
Important

Before you activate the Operator, you must ensure that the ControlPlaneMachineSet CR configuration is correct for your cluster requirements. For more information about activating the Control Plane Machine Set Operator, see "Getting started with control plane machine sets".

5
Specifies the update strategy for the cluster. The allowed values are OnDelete and RollingUpdate. The default value is RollingUpdate. For more information about update strategies, see "Updating the control plane configuration".
6
Specifies the cloud provider platform name. Do not change this value.
7
Specifies the <platform_failure_domains> configuration for the cluster. The format and values of this section are provider-specific. For more information, see the sample failure domain configuration for your cloud provider.
8
Specifies the <platform_provider_spec> configuration for the cluster. The format and values of this section are provider-specific. For more information, see the sample provider specification for your cloud provider.
Provider-specific configuration

The <platform_provider_spec> and <platform_failure_domains> sections of the control plane machine set resources are provider-specific. Refer to the example YAML for your cluster:

13.3.2. Sample YAML for configuring Amazon Web Services clusters

Some sections of the control plane machine set CR are provider-specific. The following example YAML snippets show provider specification and failure domain configurations for an Amazon Web Services (AWS) cluster.

13.3.2.1. Sample AWS provider specification

When you create a control plane machine set for an existing cluster, the provider specification must match the providerSpec configuration in the control plane machine custom resource (CR) that is created by the installation program. You can omit any field that is set in the failure domain section of the CR.

In the following example, <cluster_id> is the infrastructure ID that is based on the cluster ID that you set when you provisioned the cluster. If you have the OpenShift CLI installed, you can obtain the infrastructure ID by running the following command:

$ oc get -o jsonpath='{.status.infrastructureName}{"\n"}' infrastructure cluster

Sample AWS providerSpec values

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1
kind: ControlPlaneMachineSet
metadata:
  name: cluster
  namespace: openshift-machine-api
spec:
# ...
  template:
# ...
      spec:
        providerSpec:
          value:
            ami:
              id: ami-<ami_id_string> 1
            apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
            blockDevices:
            - ebs: 2
                encrypted: true
                iops: 0
                kmsKey:
                  arn: ""
                volumeSize: 120
                volumeType: gp3
            credentialsSecret:
              name: aws-cloud-credentials 3
            deviceIndex: 0
            iamInstanceProfile:
              id: <cluster_id>-master-profile 4
            instanceType: m6i.xlarge 5
            kind: AWSMachineProviderConfig 6
            loadBalancers: 7
            - name: <cluster_id>-int
              type: network
            - name: <cluster_id>-ext
              type: network
            metadata:
              creationTimestamp: null
            metadataServiceOptions: {}
            placement: 8
              region: <region> 9
              availabilityZone: "" 10
              tenancy: 11
            securityGroups:
            - filters:
              - name: tag:Name
                values:
                - <cluster_id>-master-sg 12
            subnet: {} 13
            userDataSecret:
              name: master-user-data 14

1
Specifies the Red Hat Enterprise Linux CoreOS (RHCOS) Amazon Machine Images (AMI) ID for the cluster. The AMI must belong to the same region as the cluster. If you want to use an AWS Marketplace image, you must complete the OpenShift Container Platform subscription from the AWS Marketplace to obtain an AMI ID for your region.
2
Specifies the configuration of an encrypted EBS volume.
3
Specifies the secret name for the cluster. Do not change this value.
4
Specifies the AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) instance profile. Do not change this value.
5
Specifies the AWS instance type for the control plane.
6
Specifies the cloud provider platform type. Do not change this value.
7
Specifies the internal (int) and external (ext) load balancers for the cluster.
8
Specifies where to create the control plane instance in AWS.
9
Specifies the AWS region for the cluster.
10
This parameter is configured in the failure domain and is shown with an empty value here. If a value specified for this parameter differs from the value in the failure domain, the Control Plane Machine Set Operator overwrites it with the value in the failure domain.
11
Specifies the AWS Dedicated Instance configuration for the control plane. For more information, see AWS documentation about Dedicated Instances. The following values are valid:
  • default: The Dedicated Instance runs on shared hardware.
  • dedicated: The Dedicated Instance runs on single-tenant hardware.
  • host: The Dedicated Instance runs on a Dedicated Host, which is an isolated server with configurations that you can control.
12
Specifies the control plane machines security group.
13
This parameter is configured in the failure domain and is shown with an empty value here. If a value specified for this parameter differs from the value in the failure domain, the Control Plane Machine Set Operator overwrites it with the value in the failure domain.
Note

If the failure domain configuration does not specify a value, the value in the provider specification is used. Configuring a subnet in the failure domain overwrites the subnet value in the provider specification.

14
Specifies the control plane user data secret. Do not change this value.

13.3.2.2. Sample AWS failure domain configuration

The control plane machine set concept of a failure domain is analogous to existing AWS concept of an Availability Zone (AZ). The ControlPlaneMachineSet CR spreads control plane machines across multiple failure domains when possible.

When configuring AWS failure domains in the control plane machine set, you must specify the availability zone name and the subnet to use.

Sample AWS failure domain values

apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1
kind: ControlPlaneMachineSet
metadata:
  name: cluster
  namespace: openshift-machine-api
spec:
# ...
  template:
# ...
    machines_v1beta1_machine_openshift_io:
      failureDomains:
        aws:
        - placement:
            availabilityZone: <aws_zone_a> 1
          subnet: 2
            filters:
            - name: tag:Name
              values:
              - <cluster_id>-private-<aws_zone_a> 3
            type: Filters 4
        - placement:
            availabilityZone: <aws_zone_b> 5
          subnet:
            filters:
            - name: tag:Name
              values:
              - <cluster_id>-private-<aws_zone_b> 6
            type: Filters
        platform: AWS 7
# ...

1
Specifies an AWS availability zone for the first failure domain.
2
Specifies a subnet configuration. In this example, the subnet type is Filters, so there is a filters stanza.
3
Specifies the subnet name for the first failure domain, using the infrastructure ID and the AWS availability zone.
4
Specifies the subnet type. The allowed values are: ARN, Filters and ID. The default value is Filters.
5
Specifies the subnet name for an additional failure domain,