Backup and restore

OpenShift Container Platform 4.12

Backing up and restoring your OpenShift Container Platform cluster

Red Hat OpenShift Documentation Team

Abstract

This document provides instructions for backing up your cluster's data and for recovering from various disaster scenarios.

Chapter 1. Backup and restore

1.1. Control plane backup and restore operations

As a cluster administrator, you might need to stop an OpenShift Container Platform cluster for a period and restart it later. Some reasons for restarting a cluster are that you need to perform maintenance on a cluster or want to reduce resource costs. In OpenShift Container Platform, you can perform a graceful shutdown of a cluster so that you can easily restart the cluster later.

You must back up etcd data before shutting down a cluster; etcd is the key-value store for OpenShift Container Platform, which persists the state of all resource objects. An etcd backup plays a crucial role in disaster recovery. In OpenShift Container Platform, you can also replace an unhealthy etcd member.

When you want to get your cluster running again, restart the cluster gracefully.

Note

A cluster’s certificates expire one year after the installation date. You can shut down a cluster and expect it to restart gracefully while the certificates are still valid. Although the cluster automatically retrieves the expired control plane certificates, you must still approve the certificate signing requests (CSRs).

You might run into several situations where OpenShift Container Platform does not work as expected, such as:

  • You have a cluster that is not functional after the restart because of unexpected conditions, such as node failure or network connectivity issues.
  • You have deleted something critical in the cluster by mistake.
  • You have lost the majority of your control plane hosts, leading to etcd quorum loss.

You can always recover from a disaster situation by restoring your cluster to its previous state using the saved etcd snapshots.

1.2. Application backup and restore operations

As a cluster administrator, you can back up and restore applications running on OpenShift Container Platform by using the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP).

OADP backs up and restores Kubernetes resources and internal images, at the granularity of a namespace, by using the version of Velero that is appropriate for the version of OADP you install, according to the table in Downloading the Velero CLI tool. OADP backs up and restores persistent volumes (PVs) by using snapshots or Restic. For details, see OADP features.

1.2.1. OADP requirements

OADP has the following requirements:

  • You must be logged in as a user with a cluster-admin role.
  • You must have object storage for storing backups, such as one of the following storage types:

    • OpenShift Data Foundation
    • Amazon Web Services
    • Microsoft Azure
    • Google Cloud Platform
    • S3-compatible object storage
Note

If you want to use CSI backup on OCP 4.11 and later, install OADP 1.1.x.

OADP 1.0.x does not support CSI backup on OCP 4.11 and later. OADP 1.0.x includes Velero 1.7.x and expects the API group snapshot.storage.k8s.io/v1beta1, which is not present on OCP 4.11 and later.

Important

The CloudStorage API for S3 storage is a Technology Preview feature only. Technology Preview features are not supported with Red Hat production service level agreements (SLAs) and might not be functionally complete. Red Hat does not recommend using them in production. These features provide early access to upcoming product features, enabling customers to test functionality and provide feedback during the development process.

For more information about the support scope of Red Hat Technology Preview features, see Technology Preview Features Support Scope.

  • To back up PVs with snapshots, you must have cloud storage that has a native snapshot API or supports Container Storage Interface (CSI) snapshots, such as the following providers:

    • Amazon Web Services
    • Microsoft Azure
    • Google Cloud Platform
    • CSI snapshot-enabled cloud storage, such as Ceph RBD or Ceph FS
Note

If you do not want to back up PVs by using snapshots, you can use Restic, which is installed by the OADP Operator by default.

1.2.2. Backing up and restoring applications

You back up applications by creating a Backup custom resource (CR). See Creating a Backup CR. You can configure the following backup options:

Chapter 2. Shutting down the cluster gracefully

This document describes the process to gracefully shut down your cluster. You might need to temporarily shut down your cluster for maintenance reasons, or to save on resource costs.

2.1. Prerequisites

  • Take an etcd backup prior to shutting down the cluster.

    Important

    It is important to take an etcd backup before performing this procedure so that your cluster can be restored if you encounter any issues when restarting the cluster.

    For example, the following conditions can cause the restarted cluster to malfunction:

    • etcd data corruption during shutdown
    • Node failure due to hardware
    • Network connectivity issues

    If your cluster fails to recover, follow the steps to restore to a previous cluster state.

2.2. Shutting down the cluster

You can shut down your cluster in a graceful manner so that it can be restarted at a later date.

Note

You can shut down a cluster until a year from the installation date and expect it to restart gracefully. After a year from the installation date, the cluster certificates expire.

Prerequisites

  • You have access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.
  • You have taken an etcd backup.

Procedure

  1. If you plan to shut down the cluster for an extended period of time, determine the date that cluster certificates expire.

    You must restart the cluster prior to the date that certificates expire. As the cluster restarts, the process might require you to manually approve the pending certificate signing requests (CSRs) to recover kubelet certificates.

    1. Check the expiration date for the kube-apiserver-to-kubelet-signer CA certificate:

      $ oc -n openshift-kube-apiserver-operator get secret kube-apiserver-to-kubelet-signer -o jsonpath='{.metadata.annotations.auth\.openshift\.io/certificate-not-after}{"\n"}'

      Example output

      2023-08-05T14:37:50Z

    2. Check the expiration date for the kubelet certificates:

      1. Start a debug session for a control plane node by running the following command:

        $ oc debug node/<node_name>
      2. Change your root directory to /host by running the following command:

        sh-4.4# chroot /host
      3. Check the kubelet client certificate expiration date by running the following command:

        sh-5.1# openssl x509 -in /var/lib/kubelet/pki/kubelet-client-current.pem -noout -enddate

        Example output

        notAfter=Jun  6 10:50:07 2023 GMT

      4. Check the kubelet server certificate expiration date by running the following command:

        sh-5.1# openssl x509 -in /var/lib/kubelet/pki/kubelet-server-current.pem -noout -enddate

        Example output

        notAfter=Jun  6 10:50:07 2023 GMT

      5. Exit the debug session.
      6. Repeat these steps to check certificate expiration dates on all control plane nodes. To ensure that the cluster can restart gracefully, plan to restart it before the earliest certificate expiration date.
  2. Shut down all of the nodes in the cluster. You can do this from your cloud provider’s web console, or run the following loop:

    $ for node in $(oc get nodes -o jsonpath='{.items[*].metadata.name}'); do oc debug node/${node} -- chroot /host shutdown -h 1; done 1
    1
    -h 1 indicates how long, in minutes, this process lasts before the control-plane nodes are shut down. For large-scale clusters with 10 nodes or more, set to 10 minutes or longer to make sure all the compute nodes have time to shut down first.

    Example output

    Starting pod/ip-10-0-130-169us-east-2computeinternal-debug ...
    To use host binaries, run `chroot /host`
    Shutdown scheduled for Mon 2021-09-13 09:36:17 UTC, use 'shutdown -c' to cancel.
    
    Removing debug pod ...
    Starting pod/ip-10-0-150-116us-east-2computeinternal-debug ...
    To use host binaries, run `chroot /host`
    Shutdown scheduled for Mon 2021-09-13 09:36:29 UTC, use 'shutdown -c' to cancel.

    Shutting down the nodes using one of these methods allows pods to terminate gracefully, which reduces the chance for data corruption.

    Note

    Adjust the shut down time to be longer for large-scale clusters:

    $ for node in $(oc get nodes -o jsonpath='{.items[*].metadata.name}'); do oc debug node/${node} -- chroot /host shutdown -h 10; done
    Note

    It is not necessary to drain control plane nodes of the standard pods that ship with OpenShift Container Platform prior to shutdown.

    Cluster administrators are responsible for ensuring a clean restart of their own workloads after the cluster is restarted. If you drained control plane nodes prior to shutdown because of custom workloads, you must mark the control plane nodes as schedulable before the cluster will be functional again after restart.

  3. Shut off any cluster dependencies that are no longer needed, such as external storage or an LDAP server. Be sure to consult your vendor’s documentation before doing so.

    Important

    If you deployed your cluster on a cloud-provider platform, do not shut down, suspend, or delete the associated cloud resources. If you delete the cloud resources of a suspended virtual machine, OpenShift Container Platform might not restore successfully.

2.3. Additional resources

Chapter 3. Restarting the cluster gracefully

This document describes the process to restart your cluster after a graceful shutdown.

Even though the cluster is expected to be functional after the restart, the cluster might not recover due to unexpected conditions, for example:

  • etcd data corruption during shutdown
  • Node failure due to hardware
  • Network connectivity issues

If your cluster fails to recover, follow the steps to restore to a previous cluster state.

3.1. Prerequisites

3.2. Restarting the cluster

You can restart your cluster after it has been shut down gracefully.

Prerequisites

  • You have access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.
  • This procedure assumes that you gracefully shut down the cluster.

Procedure

  1. Power on any cluster dependencies, such as external storage or an LDAP server.
  2. Start all cluster machines.

    Use the appropriate method for your cloud environment to start the machines, for example, from your cloud provider’s web console.

    Wait approximately 10 minutes before continuing to check the status of control plane nodes.

  3. Verify that all control plane nodes are ready.

    $ oc get nodes -l node-role.kubernetes.io/master

    The control plane nodes are ready if the status is Ready, as shown in the following output:

    NAME                           STATUS   ROLES    AGE   VERSION
    ip-10-0-168-251.ec2.internal   Ready    master   75m   v1.25.0
    ip-10-0-170-223.ec2.internal   Ready    master   75m   v1.25.0
    ip-10-0-211-16.ec2.internal    Ready    master   75m   v1.25.0
  4. If the control plane nodes are not ready, then check whether there are any pending certificate signing requests (CSRs) that must be approved.

    1. Get the list of current CSRs:

      $ oc get csr
    2. Review the details of a CSR to verify that it is valid:

      $ oc describe csr <csr_name> 1
      1
      <csr_name> is the name of a CSR from the list of current CSRs.
    3. Approve each valid CSR:

      $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name>
  5. After the control plane nodes are ready, verify that all worker nodes are ready.

    $ oc get nodes -l node-role.kubernetes.io/worker

    The worker nodes are ready if the status is Ready, as shown in the following output:

    NAME                           STATUS   ROLES    AGE   VERSION
    ip-10-0-179-95.ec2.internal    Ready    worker   64m   v1.25.0
    ip-10-0-182-134.ec2.internal   Ready    worker   64m   v1.25.0
    ip-10-0-250-100.ec2.internal   Ready    worker   64m   v1.25.0
  6. If the worker nodes are not ready, then check whether there are any pending certificate signing requests (CSRs) that must be approved.

    1. Get the list of current CSRs:

      $ oc get csr
    2. Review the details of a CSR to verify that it is valid:

      $ oc describe csr <csr_name> 1
      1
      <csr_name> is the name of a CSR from the list of current CSRs.
    3. Approve each valid CSR:

      $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name>
  7. Verify that the cluster started properly.

    1. Check that there are no degraded cluster Operators.

      $ oc get clusteroperators

      Check that there are no cluster Operators with the DEGRADED condition set to True.

      NAME                                       VERSION   AVAILABLE   PROGRESSING   DEGRADED   SINCE
      authentication                             4.12.0    True        False         False      59m
      cloud-credential                           4.12.0    True        False         False      85m
      cluster-autoscaler                         4.12.0    True        False         False      73m
      config-operator                            4.12.0    True        False         False      73m
      console                                    4.12.0    True        False         False      62m
      csi-snapshot-controller                    4.12.0    True        False         False      66m
      dns                                        4.12.0    True        False         False      76m
      etcd                                       4.12.0    True        False         False      76m
      ...
    2. Check that all nodes are in the Ready state:

      $ oc get nodes

      Check that the status for all nodes is Ready.

      NAME                           STATUS   ROLES    AGE   VERSION
      ip-10-0-168-251.ec2.internal   Ready    master   82m   v1.25.0
      ip-10-0-170-223.ec2.internal   Ready    master   82m   v1.25.0
      ip-10-0-179-95.ec2.internal    Ready    worker   70m   v1.25.0
      ip-10-0-182-134.ec2.internal   Ready    worker   70m   v1.25.0
      ip-10-0-211-16.ec2.internal    Ready    master   82m   v1.25.0
      ip-10-0-250-100.ec2.internal   Ready    worker   69m   v1.25.0

If the cluster did not start properly, you might need to restore your cluster using an etcd backup.

Additional resources

Chapter 4. OADP Application backup and restore

4.1. Introduction to OpenShift API for Data Protection

The OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) product safeguards customer applications on OpenShift Container Platform. It offers comprehensive disaster recovery protection, covering OpenShift Container Platform applications, application-related cluster resources, persistent volumes, and internal images. OADP is also capable of backing up both containerized applications and virtual machines (VMs).

However, OADP does not serve as a disaster recovery solution for etcd or OpenShift Operators.

4.1.1. OpenShift API for Data Protection APIs

OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) provides APIs that enable multiple approaches to customizing backups and preventing the inclusion of unnecessary or inappropriate resources.

OADP provides the following APIs:

Additional resources

4.2. OADP release notes

4.2.1. OADP 1.3 release notes

The release notes for OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) describe new features and enhancements, deprecated features, product recommendations, known issues, and resolved issues.

4.2.1.1. OADP 1.3.1 release notes

The OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) 1.3.1 release notes lists new features and resolved issues.

4.2.1.1.1. New features

OADP 1.3.0 Data Mover is now fully supported

The OADP built-in Data Mover, introduced in OADP 1.3.0 as a Technology Preview, is now fully supported for both containerized and virtual machine workloads.

4.2.1.1.2. Resolved issues

{ibm-cloud-name} Object Storage is now supported as a backup storage provider

{ibm-cloud-name} Object Storage is one of the AWS S3 compatible backup storage providers, which was unsupported previously. With this update, {ibm-cloud-name} Object Storage is now supported as an AWS S3 compatible backup storage provider.

OADP-3788

OADP operator now correctly reports the missing region error

Previously, when you specified profile:default without specifying the region in the AWS Backup Storage Location (BSL) configuration, the OADP operator failed to report the missing region error on the Data Protection Application (DPA) custom resource (CR). This update corrects validation of DPA BSL specification for AWS. As a result, the OADP Operator reports the missing region error.

OADP-3044

Custom labels are not removed from the openshift-adp namespace

Previously, the openshift-adp-controller-manager pod would reset the labels attached to the openshift-adp namespace. This caused synchronization issues for applications requiring custom labels such as Argo CD, leading to improper functionality. With this update, this issue is fixed and custom labels are not removed from the openshift-adp namespace.

OADP-3189

OADP must-gather image collects CRDs

Previously, the OADP must-gather image did not collect the custom resource definitions (CRDs) shipped by OADP. Consequently, you could not use the omg tool to extract data in the support shell. With this fix, the must-gather image now collects CRDs shipped by OADP and can use the omg tool to extract data.

OADP-3229

Garbage collection has the correct description for the default frequency value

Previously, the garbage-collection-frequency field had a wrong description for the default frequency value. With this update, garbage-collection-frequency has a correct value of one hour for the gc-controller reconciliation default frequency.

OADP-3486

FIPS Mode flag is available in OperatorHub

By setting the fips-compliant flag to true, the FIPS mode flag is now added to the OADP Operator listing in OperatorHub. This feature was enabled in OADP 1.3.0 but did not show up in the Red Hat Container catalog as being FIPS enabled.

OADP-3495

CSI plugin does not panic with a nil pointer when csiSnapshotTimeout is set to a short duration

Previously, when the csiSnapshotTimeout parameter was set to a short duration, the CSI plugin encountered the following error: plugin panicked: runtime error: invalid memory address or nil pointer dereference.

With this fix, the backup fails with the following error: Timed out awaiting reconciliation of volumesnapshot.

OADP-3069

For a complete list of all issues resolved in this release, see the list of OADP 1.3.1 resolved issues in Jira.

4.2.1.1.3. Known issues

Backup and storage restrictions for Single-node OpenShift clusters deployed on {ibm-power-name} and {ibm-z-name} platforms

Review the following backup and storage related restrictions for Single-node OpenShift clusters that are deployed on {ibm-power-name} and {ibm-z-name} platforms:

Storage
Only NFS storage is currently compatible with single-node OpenShift clusters deployed on {ibm-power-name} and {ibm-z-name} platforms.
Backup
Only the backing up applications with File System Backup such as kopia and restic are supported for backup and restore operations.

OADP-3787

Cassandra application pods enter in the CrashLoopBackoff status after restoring OADP

After OADP restores, the Cassandra application pods might enter in the CrashLoopBackoff status. To work around this problem, delete the StatefulSet pods with any error or the CrashLoopBackoff state after restoring OADP. The StatefulSet controller recreates these pods and it runs normally.

OADP-3767

4.2.1.2. OADP 1.3.0 release notes

The OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) 1.3.0 release notes lists new features, resolved issues and bugs, and known issues.

4.2.1.2.1. New features

Velero built-in DataMover

OADP 1.3 includes a built-in Data Mover that you can use to move Container Storage Interface (CSI) volume snapshots to a remote object store. The built-in Data Mover allows you to restore stateful applications from the remote object store if a failure, accidental deletion, or corruption of the cluster occurs. It uses Kopia as the uploader mechanism to read the snapshot data and to write to the Unified Repository.

Velero built-in DataMover is a Technology Preview feature only. Technology Preview features are not supported with Red Hat production service level agreements (SLAs) and might not be functionally complete. Red Hat does not recommend using them in production. These features provide early access to upcoming product features, enabling customers to test functionality and provide feedback during the development process.

Backing up applications with File System Backup: Kopia or Restic

Velero’s File System Backup (FSB) supports two backup libraries: the Restic path and the Kopia path.

Velero allows users to select between the two paths.

For backup, specify the path during the installation through the uploader-type flag. The valid value is either restic or kopia. This field defaults to kopia if the value is not specified. The selection cannot be changed after the installation.

GCP Cloud authentication

Google Cloud Platform (GCP) authentication enables you to use short-lived Google credentials.

GCP with Workload Identity Federation enables you to use Identity and Access Management (IAM) to grant external identities IAM roles, including the ability to impersonate service accounts. This eliminates the maintenance and security risks associated with service account keys.

AWS ROSA STS authentication

You can use OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) with Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) clusters to backup and restore application data.

ROSA provides seamless integration with a wide range of AWS compute, database, analytics, machine learning, networking, mobile, and other services to speed up the building and delivering of differentiating experiences to your customers.

You can subscribe to the service directly from your AWS account.

After the clusters are created, you can operate your clusters by using the OpenShift web console. The ROSA service also uses OpenShift APIs and command-line interface (CLI) tools.

4.2.1.2.2. Resolved issues

ACM applications were removed and re-created on managed clusters after restore

Applications on managed clusters were deleted and re-created upon restore activation. OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP 1.2) backup and restore process is faster than the older versions. The OADP performance change caused this behavior when restoring ACM resources. Therefore, some resources were restored before other resources, which caused the removal of the applications from managed clusters. OADP-2686

Restic restore was partially failing due to Pod Security standard

During interoperability testing, OpenShift Container Platform 4.14 had the pod Security mode set to enforce, which caused the pod to be denied. This was caused due to the restore order. The pod was getting created before the security context constraints (SCC) resource, since the pod violated the podSecurity standard, it denied the pod. When setting the restore priority field on the Velero server, restore is successful. OADP-2688

Possible pod volume backup failure if Velero is installed in several namespaces

There was a regresssion in Pod Volume Backup (PVB) functionality when Velero was installed in several namespaces. The PVB controller was not properly limiting itself to PVBs in its own namespace. OADP-2308

OADP Velero plugins returning "received EOF, stopping recv loop" message

In OADP, Velero plugins were started as separate processes. When the Velero operation completes, either successfully or not, they exit. Therefore, if you see a received EOF, stopping recv loop messages in debug logs, it does not mean an error occurred, it means that a plugin operation has completed. OADP-2176

CVE-2023-39325 Multiple HTTP/2 enabled web servers are vulnerable to a DDoS attack (Rapid Reset Attack)

In previous releases of OADP, the HTTP/2 protocol was susceptible to a denial of service attack because request cancellation could reset multiple streams quickly. The server had to set up and tear down the streams while not hitting any server-side limit for the maximum number of active streams per connection. This resulted in a denial of service due to server resource consumption.

For more information, see CVE-2023-39325 (Rapid Reset Attack)

For a complete list of all issues resolved in this release, see the list of OADP 1.3.0 resolved issues in Jira.

4.2.1.2.3. Known issues

CSI plugin errors on nil pointer when csiSnapshotTimeout is set to a short duration

The CSI plugin errors on nil pointer when csiSnapshotTimeout is set to a short duration. Sometimes it succeeds to complete the snapshot within a short duration, but often it panics with the backup PartiallyFailed with the following error: plugin panicked: runtime error: invalid memory address or nil pointer dereference.

Backup is marked as PartiallyFailed when volumeSnapshotContent CR has an error

If any of the VolumeSnapshotContent CRs have an error related to removing the VolumeSnapshotBeingCreated annotation, it moves the backup to the WaitingForPluginOperationsPartiallyFailed phase. OADP-2871

Performance issues when restoring 30,000 resources for the first time

When restoring 30,000 resources for the first time, without an existing-resource-policy, it takes twice as long to restore them, than it takes during the second and third try with an existing-resource-policy set to update. OADP-3071

Post restore hooks might start running before Datadownload operation has released the related PV

Due to the asynchronous nature of the Data Mover operation, a post-hook might be attempted before the related pods persistent volumes (PVs) are released by the Data Mover persistent volume claim (PVC).

GCP-Workload Identity Federation VSL backup PartiallyFailed

VSL backup PartiallyFailed when GCP workload identity is configured on GCP.

For a complete list of all known issues in this release, see the list of OADP 1.3.0 known issues in Jira.

4.2.1.2.4. Upgrade notes
Note

Always upgrade to the next minor version. Do not skip versions. To update to a later version, upgrade only one channel at a time. For example, to upgrade from OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) 1.1 to 1.3, upgrade first to 1.2, and then to 1.3.

4.2.1.2.4.1. Changes from OADP 1.2 to 1.3

The Velero server has been updated from version 1.11 to 1.12.

OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) 1.3 uses the Velero built-in Data Mover instead of the VolumeSnapshotMover (VSM) or the Volsync Data Mover.

This changes the following:

  • The spec.features.dataMover field and the VSM plugin are not compatible with OADP 1.3, and you must remove the configuration from the DataProtectionApplication (DPA) configuration.
  • The Volsync Operator is no longer required for Data Mover functionality, and you can remove it.
  • The custom resource definitions volumesnapshotbackups.datamover.oadp.openshift.io and volumesnapshotrestores.datamover.oadp.openshift.io are no longer required, and you can remove them.
  • The secrets used for the OADP-1.2 Data Mover are no longer required, and you can remove them.

OADP 1.3 supports Kopia, which is an alternative file system backup tool to Restic.

  • To employ Kopia, use the new spec.configuration.nodeAgent field as shown in the following example:

    Example

    spec:
      configuration:
        nodeAgent:
          enable: true
          uploaderType: kopia
    # ...

  • The spec.configuration.restic field is deprecated in OADP 1.3 and will be removed in a future version of OADP. To avoid seeing deprecation warnings, remove the restic key and its values, and use the following new syntax:

    Example

    spec:
      configuration:
        nodeAgent:
          enable: true
          uploaderType: restic
    # ...

Note

In a future OADP release, it is planned that the kopia tool will become the default uploaderType value.

4.2.1.2.4.2. Upgrading steps
4.2.1.2.4.3. Upgrading from OADP 1.2 Technology Preview Data Mover

OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) 1.2 Data Mover backups cannot be restored with OADP 1.3. To prevent a gap in the data protection of your applications, complete the following steps before upgrading to OADP 1.3:

Procedure

  1. If your cluster backups are sufficient and Container Storage Interface (CSI) storage is available, back up the applications with a CSI backup.
  2. If you require off cluster backups:

    1. Back up the applications with a file system backup that uses the --default-volumes-to-fs-backup=true or backup.spec.defaultVolumesToFsBackup options.
    2. Back up the applications with your object storage plugins, for example, velero-plugin-for-aws.
Note

To restore OADP 1.2 Data Mover backup, you must uninstall OADP, and install and configure OADP 1.2.

4.2.1.2.4.4. Backing up the DPA configuration

You must back up your current DataProtectionApplication (DPA) configuration.

Procedure

  • Save your current DPA configuration by running the following command:

    Example

    $ oc get dpa -n openshift-adp -o yaml > dpa.orig.backup

4.2.1.2.4.5. Upgrading the OADP Operator

Use the following sequence when upgrading the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) Operator.

Procedure

  1. Change your subscription channel for the OADP Operator from stable-1.2 to stable-1.3.
  2. Allow time for the Operator and containers to update and restart.

Additional resources

4.2.1.2.4.6. Converting DPA to the new version

If you need to move backups off cluster with the Data Mover, reconfigure the DataProtectionApplication (DPA) manifest as follows.

Procedure

  1. Click OperatorsInstalled Operators and select the OADP Operator.
  2. In the Provided APIs section, click View more.
  3. Click Create instance in the DataProtectionApplication box.
  4. Click YAML View to display the current DPA parameters.

    Example current DPA

    spec:
      configuration:
        features:
          dataMover:
          enable: true
          credentialName: dm-credentials
        velero:
          defaultPlugins:
          - vsm
          - csi
          - openshift
    # ...

  5. Update the DPA parameters:

    • Remove the features.dataMover key and values from the DPA.
    • Remove the VolumeSnapshotMover (VSM) plugin.
    • Add the nodeAgent key and values.

      Example updated DPA

      spec:
        configuration:
          nodeAgent:
            enable: true
            uploaderType: kopia
          velero:
            defaultPlugins:
            - csi
            - openshift
      # ...

  6. Wait for the DPA to reconcile successfully.
4.2.1.2.4.7. Verifying the upgrade

Use the following procedure to verify the upgrade.

Procedure

  1. Verify the installation by viewing the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) resources by running the following command:

    $ oc get all -n openshift-adp

    Example output

    NAME                                                     READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    pod/oadp-operator-controller-manager-67d9494d47-6l8z8    2/2     Running   0          2m8s
    pod/node-agent-9cq4q                                     1/1     Running   0          94s
    pod/node-agent-m4lts                                     1/1     Running   0          94s
    pod/node-agent-pv4kr                                     1/1     Running   0          95s
    pod/velero-588db7f655-n842v                              1/1     Running   0          95s
    
    NAME                                                       TYPE        CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)    AGE
    service/oadp-operator-controller-manager-metrics-service   ClusterIP   172.30.70.140    <none>        8443/TCP   2m8s
    service/openshift-adp-velero-metrics-svc                   ClusterIP   172.30.10.0      <none>        8085/TCP   8h
    
    NAME                        DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   NODE SELECTOR   AGE
    daemonset.apps/node-agent    3         3         3       3            3           <none>          96s
    
    NAME                                                READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
    deployment.apps/oadp-operator-controller-manager    1/1     1            1           2m9s
    deployment.apps/velero                              1/1     1            1           96s
    
    NAME                                                           DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AGE
    replicaset.apps/oadp-operator-controller-manager-67d9494d47    1         1         1       2m9s
    replicaset.apps/velero-588db7f655                              1         1         1       96s

  2. Verify that the DataProtectionApplication (DPA) is reconciled by running the following command:

    $ oc get dpa dpa-sample -n openshift-adp -o jsonpath='{.status}'

    Example output

    {"conditions":[{"lastTransitionTime":"2023-10-27T01:23:57Z","message":"Reconcile complete","reason":"Complete","status":"True","type":"Reconciled"}]}

  3. Verify the type is set to Reconciled.
  4. Verify the backup storage location and confirm that the PHASE is Available by running the following command:

    $ oc get backupStorageLocation -n openshift-adp

    Example output

    NAME           PHASE       LAST VALIDATED   AGE     DEFAULT
    dpa-sample-1   Available   1s               3d16h   true

In OADP 1.3 you can start data movement off cluster per backup versus creating a DataProtectionApplication (DPA) configuration.

Example

$ velero backup create example-backup --include-namespaces mysql-persistent --snapshot-move-data=true

Example

apiVersion: velero.io/v1
kind: Backup
metadata:
  name: example-backup
  namespace: openshift-adp
spec:
  snapshotMoveData: true
  includedNamespaces:
  - mysql-persistent
  storageLocation: dpa-sample-1
  ttl: 720h0m0s
# ...

4.2.2. OADP 1.2 release notes

The release notes for OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) 1.2 describe new features and enhancements, deprecated features, product recommendations, known issues, and resolved issues.

4.2.2.1. OADP 1.2.4 release notes

OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) 1.2.4 is a Container Grade Only (CGO) release, released to refresh the health grades of the containers, with no changes to any code in the product itself compared to that of {oadp-short} 1.2.3.

4.2.2.1.1. Resolved issues

There are no resolved issues in {oadp-short} 1.2.4.

4.2.2.1.2. Known issues

The {oadp-short} 1.2.4 has the following known issue:

Data Protection Application (DPA) does not reconcile when the credentials secret is updated

Currently, the {oadp-short} Operator does not reconcile when you update the cloud-credentials secret. This occurs because there are no {oadp-short} specific labels or owner references on the cloud-credentials secret. If you create a cloud-credentials secret with incorrect credentials, such as empty data, the Operator reconciles and creates a Backup Storage Location (BSL) and registry deployment with the empty data. As a result, when you update the cloud-credentials secret with the correct credentials, the Operator does not immediately reconcile to catch the new credentials.

Workaround: Update to {oadp-short} 1.3.

(OADP-3327)

4.2.2.2. OADP 1.2.3 release notes

4.2.2.2.1. New features

There are no new features in the release of OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) 1.2.3.

4.2.2.2.2. Resolved issues

The following highlighted issues are resolved in OADP 1.2.3:

Multiple HTTP/2 enabled web servers are vulnerable to a DDoS attack (Rapid Reset Attack)

In previous releases of OADP 1.2, the HTTP/2 protocol was susceptible to a denial of service attack because request cancellation could reset multiple streams quickly. The server had to set up and tear down the streams while not hitting any server-side limit for the maximum number of active streams per connection. This resulted in a denial of service due to server resource consumption. For a list of all OADP issues associated with this CVE, see the following Jira list.

For more information, see CVE-2023-39325 (Rapid Reset Attack).

For a complete list of all issues resolved in the release of OADP 1.2.3, see the list of OADP 1.2.3 resolved issues in Jira.

4.2.2.2.3. Known issues

The {oadp-short} 1.2.3 has the following known issue:

Data Protection Application (DPA) does not reconcile when the credentials secret is updated

Currently, the {oadp-short} Operator does not reconcile when you update the cloud-credentials secret. This occurs because there are no {oadp-short} specific labels or owner references on the cloud-credentials secret. If you create a cloud-credentials secret with incorrect credentials, such as empty data, the Operator reconciles and creates a Backup Storage Location (BSL) and registry deployment with the empty data. As a result, when you update the cloud-credentials secret with the correct credentials, the Operator does not immediately reconcile to catch the new credentials.

Workaround: Update to {oadp-short} 1.3.

(OADP-3327)

4.2.2.3. OADP 1.2.2 release notes

4.2.2.3.1. New features

There are no new features in the release of OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) 1.2.2.

4.2.2.3.2. Resolved issues

The following highlighted issues are resolved in OADP 1.2.2:

Restic restore partially failed due to a Pod Security standard

In previous releases of OADP 1.2, OpenShift Container Platform 4.14 enforced a pod security admission (PSA) policy that hindered the readiness of pods during a Restic restore process.

This issue has been resolved in the release of OADP 1.2.2, and also OADP 1.1.6. Therefore, it is recommended that users upgrade to these releases.

For more information, see Restic restore partially failing on OCP 4.14 due to changed PSA policy. (OADP-2094)

Backup of an app with internal images partially failed with plugin panicked error

In previous releases of OADP 1.2, the backup of an application with internal images partially failed with plugin panicked error returned. The backup partially fails with this error in the Velero logs:

time="2022-11-23T15:40:46Z" level=info msg="1 errors encountered backup up item" backup=openshift-adp/django-persistent-67a5b83d-6b44-11ed-9cba-902e163f806c logSource="/remote-source/velero/app/pkg/backup/backup.go:413" name=django-psql-persistent
time="2022-11-23T15:40:46Z" level=error msg="Error backing up item" backup=openshift-adp/django-persistent-67a5b83d-6b44-11ed-9cba-902e163f8

This issue has been resolved in OADP 1.2.2. (OADP-1057).

ACM cluster restore was not functioning as expected due to restore order

In previous releases of OADP 1.2, ACM cluster restore was not functioning as expected due to restore order. ACM applications were removed and re-created on managed clusters after restore activation. (OADP-2505)

VM’s using filesystemOverhead failed when backing up and restoring due to volume size mismatch

In previous releases of OADP 1.2, due to storage provider implementation choices, whenever there was a difference between the application persistent volume claims (PVCs) storage request and the snapshot size of the same PVC, VM’s using filesystemOverhead failed when backing up and restoring. This issue has been resolved in the Data Mover of OADP 1.2.2. (OADP-2144)

OADP did not contain an option to set VolSync replication source prune interval

In previous releases of OADP 1.2, there was no option to set the VolSync replication source pruneInterval. (OADP-2052)

Possible pod volume backup failure if Velero was installed in multiple namespaces

In previous releases of OADP 1.2, there was a possibility of pod volume backup failure if Velero was installed in multiple namespaces. (OADP-2409)

Backup Storage Locations moved to unavailable phase when VSL uses custom secret

In previous releases of OADP 1.2, Backup Storage Locations moved to unavailable phase when Volume Snapshot Location used custom secret. (OADP-1737)

For a complete list of all issues resolved in the release of OADP 1.2.2, see the list of OADP 1.2.2 resolved issues in Jira.

4.2.2.3.3. Known issues

The following issues have been highlighted as known issues in the release of OADP 1.2.2:

Must-gather command fails to remove ClusterRoleBinding resources

The oc adm must-gather command fails to remove ClusterRoleBinding resources, which are left on cluster due to admission webhook. Therefore, requests for the removal of the ClusterRoleBinding resources are denied. (OADP-27730)

admission webhook "clusterrolebindings-validation.managed.openshift.io" denied the request: Deleting ClusterRoleBinding must-gather-p7vwj is not allowed

For a complete list of all known issues in this release, see the list of OADP 1.2.2 known issues in Jira.

4.2.2.4. OADP 1.2.1 release notes

4.2.2.4.1. New features

There are no new features in the release of OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) 1.2.1.

4.2.2.4.2. Resolved issues

For a complete list of all issues resolved in the release of OADP 1.2.1, see the list of OADP 1.2.1 resolved issues in Jira.

4.2.2.4.3. Known issues

The following issues have been highlighted as known issues in the release of OADP 1.2.1:

DataMover Restic retain and prune policies do not work as expected

The retention and prune features provided by VolSync and Restic are not working as expected. Because there is no working option to set the prune interval on VolSync replication, you have to manage and prune remotely stored backups on S3 storage outside of OADP. For more details, see:

Important

OADP Data Mover is a Technology Preview feature only. Technology Preview features are not supported with Red Hat production service level agreements (SLAs) and might not be functionally complete. Red Hat does not recommend using them in production. These features provide early access to upcoming product features, enabling customers to test functionality and provide feedback during the development process.

For more information about the support scope of Red Hat Technology Preview features, see Technology Preview Features Support Scope.

For a complete list of all known issues in this release, see the list of OADP 1.2.1 known issues in Jira.

4.2.2.5. OADP 1.2.0 release notes

The OADP 1.2.0 release notes include information about new features, bug fixes, and known issues.

4.2.2.5.1. New features

Resource timeouts

The new resourceTimeout option specifies the timeout duration in minutes for waiting on various Velero resources. This option applies to resources such as Velero CRD availability, volumeSnapshot deletion, and backup repository availability. The default duration is 10 minutes.

AWS S3 compatible backup storage providers

You can back up objects and snapshots on AWS S3 compatible providers.

4.2.2.5.1.1. Technical preview features

Data Mover

The OADP Data Mover enables you to back up Container Storage Interface (CSI) volume snapshots to a remote object store. When you enable Data Mover, you can restore stateful applications using CSI volume snapshots pulled from the object store in case of accidental cluster deletion, cluster failure, or data corruption.

Important

OADP Data Mover is a Technology Preview feature only. Technology Preview features are not supported with Red Hat production service level agreements (SLAs) and might not be functionally complete. Red Hat does not recommend using them in production. These features provide early access to upcoming product features, enabling customers to test functionality and provide feedback during the development process.

For more information about the support scope of Red Hat Technology Preview features, see Technology Preview Features Support Scope.

4.2.2.5.2. Resolved issues

For a complete list of all issues resolved in this release, see the list of OADP 1.2.0 resolved issues in Jira.

4.2.2.5.3. Known issues

The following issues have been highlighted as known issues in the release of OADP 1.2.0:

Multiple HTTP/2 enabled web servers are vulnerable to a DDoS attack (Rapid Reset Attack)

The HTTP/2 protocol is susceptible to a denial of service attack because request cancellation can reset multiple streams quickly. The server has to set up and tear down the streams while not hitting any server-side limit for the maximum number of active streams per connection. This results in a denial of service due to server resource consumption.

It is advised to upgrade to OADP 1.2.3, which resolves this issue.

For more information, see CVE-2023-39325 (Rapid Reset Attack).

An incorrect hostname can be created when changing a hostname in a generated route.

By default, the OpenShift Container Platform cluster makes sure that the openshift.io/host.generated: true annotation is turned on and fills in the field for both the routes that are generated and those that are not generated.

You cannot modify the value for the .spec.host field based on the base domain name of your cluster in the generated and non-generated routes.

If you modify the value for the .spec.host field, it is not possible to restore the default value that was generated by the OpenShift Container Platform cluster. After you restore your OpenShift Container Platform cluster, the Operator resets the value for the field.

4.2.2.5.4. Upgrade notes
Note

Always upgrade to the next minor version. Do not skip versions. To update to a later version, upgrade only one channel at a time. For example, to upgrade from OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) 1.1 to 1.3, upgrade first to 1.2, then to 1.3.

4.2.2.5.4.1. Changes from OADP 1.1 to 1.2

The Velero server was updated from version 1.9 to 1.11.

In OADP 1.2, the DataProtectionApplication (DPA) configuration dpa.spec.configuration.velero.args has the following changes:

  • The default-volumes-to-restic field was renamed to default-volumes-to-fs-backup. If you use dpa.spec.configuration.velero.args, you must add it again with the new name to your DPA after upgrading OADP.
  • The restic-timeout field was renamed to fs-backup-timeout. If you use dpa.spec.configuration.velero.args, you must add it again with the new name to your DPA after upgrading OADP.
  • The restic daemon set was renamed to node-agent. OADP automatically updates the name of the daemon set.
  • The custom resource definition resticrepositories.velero.io was renamed to backuprepositories.velero.io.
  • The custom resource definition resticrepositories.velero.io can be removed from the cluster.
4.2.2.5.5. Upgrading steps
4.2.2.5.5.1. Backing up the DPA configuration

You must back up your current DataProtectionApplication (DPA) configuration.

Procedure

  • Save your current DPA configuration by running the following command:

    Example

    $ oc get dpa -n openshift-adp -o yaml > dpa.orig.backup

4.2.2.5.5.2. Upgrading the OADP Operator

Use the following sequence when upgrading the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) Operator.

Procedure

  1. Change your subscription channel for the OADP Operator from stable-1.1 to stable-1.2.
  2. Allow time for the Operator and containers to update and restart.
4.2.2.5.5.3. Converting DPA to the new version

If you use the fields that were updated in the spec.configuration.velero.args stanza, you must configure your DataProtectionApplication (DPA) manifest to use the new parameter names.

Procedure

  1. Click OperatorsInstalled Operators and select the OADP Operator.
  2. Select Provided APIs, click Create instance in the DataProtectionApplication box.
  3. Click YAML View to display the current DPA parameters.

    Example current DPA

    spec:
      configuration:
        velero:
          args:
            default-volumes-to-fs-backup: true
            default-restic-prune-frequency: 6000
            fs-backup-timeout: 600
    # ...

  4. Update the DPA parameters:
  5. Update the DPA parameter names without changing their values:

    1. Change the default-volumes-to-restic key to default-volumes-to-fs-backup.
    2. Change the default-restic-prune-frequency key to default-repo-maintain-frequency.
    3. Change the restic-timeout key to fs-backup-timeout.

    .Example updated DPA

    spec:
      configuration:
        velero:
          args:
            default-volumes-to-fs-backup: true
            default-repo-maintain-frequency: 6000
            fs-backup-timeout: 600
    # ...
  6. Wait for the DPA to reconcile successfully.
4.2.2.5.5.4. Verifying the upgrade

Use the following procedure to verify the upgrade.

Procedure

  1. Verify the installation by viewing the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) resources by running the following command:

    $ oc get all -n openshift-adp

    Example output

    NAME                                                     READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    pod/oadp-operator-controller-manager-67d9494d47-6l8z8    2/2     Running   0          2m8s
    pod/restic-9cq4q                                         1/1     Running   0          94s
    pod/restic-m4lts                                         1/1     Running   0          94s
    pod/restic-pv4kr                                         1/1     Running   0          95s
    pod/velero-588db7f655-n842v                              1/1     Running   0          95s
    
    NAME                                                       TYPE        CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)    AGE
    service/oadp-operator-controller-manager-metrics-service   ClusterIP   172.30.70.140    <none>        8443/TCP   2m8s
    
    NAME                    DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   NODE SELECTOR   AGE
    daemonset.apps/restic   3         3         3       3            3           <none>          96s
    
    NAME                                                READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
    deployment.apps/oadp-operator-controller-manager    1/1     1            1           2m9s
    deployment.apps/velero                              1/1     1            1           96s
    
    NAME                                                           DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AGE
    replicaset.apps/oadp-operator-controller-manager-67d9494d47    1         1         1       2m9s
    replicaset.apps/velero-588db7f655                              1         1         1       96s

  2. Verify that the DataProtectionApplication (DPA) is reconciled by running the following command:

    $ oc get dpa dpa-sample -n openshift-adp -o jsonpath='{.status}'

    Example output

    {"conditions":[{"lastTransitionTime":"2023-10-27T01:23:57Z","message":"Reconcile complete","reason":"Complete","status":"True","type":"Reconciled"}]}

  3. Verify the type is set to Reconciled.
  4. Verify the backup storage location and confirm that the PHASE is Available by running the following command:

    $ oc get backupStorageLocation -n openshift-adp

    Example output

    NAME           PHASE       LAST VALIDATED   AGE     DEFAULT
    dpa-sample-1   Available   1s               3d16h   true

4.2.3. OADP 1.1 release notes

The release notes for OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) 1.1 describe new features and enhancements, deprecated features, product recommendations, known issues, and resolved issues.

4.2.3.1. OADP 1.1.7 release notes

The OADP 1.1.7 release notes lists any resolved issues and known issues.

4.2.3.1.1. Resolved issues

The following highlighted issues are resolved in OADP 1.1.7:

Multiple HTTP/2 enabled web servers are vulnerable to a DDoS attack (Rapid Reset Attack)

In previous releases of OADP 1.1, the HTTP/2 protocol was susceptible to a denial of service attack because request cancellation could reset multiple streams quickly. The server had to set up and tear down the streams while not hitting any server-side limit for the maximum number of active streams per connection. This resulted in a denial of service due to server resource consumption. For a list of all OADP issues associated with this CVE, see the following Jira list.

For more information, see CVE-2023-39325 (Rapid Reset Attack).

For a complete list of all issues resolved in the release of OADP 1.1.7, see the list of OADP 1.1.7 resolved issues in Jira.

4.2.3.1.2. Known issues

There are no known issues in the release of OADP 1.1.7.

4.2.3.2. OADP 1.1.6 release notes

The OADP 1.1.6 release notes lists any new features, resolved issues and bugs, and known issues.

4.2.3.2.1. Resolved issues

Restic restore partially failing due to Pod Security standard

OCP 4.14 introduced pod security standards that meant the privileged profile is enforced. In previous releases of OADP, this profile caused the pod to receive permission denied errors. This issue was caused because of the restore order. The pod was created before the security context constraints (SCC) resource. As this pod violated the pod security standard, the pod was denied and subsequently failed. OADP-2420

Restore partially failing for job resource

In previous releases of OADP, the restore of job resource was partially failing in OCP 4.14. This issue was not seen in older OCP versions. The issue was caused by an additional label being to the job resource, which was not present in older OCP versions. OADP-2530

For a complete list of all issues resolved in this release, see the list of OADP 1.1.6 resolved issues in Jira.

4.2.3.2.2. Known issues

For a complete list of all known issues in this release, see the list of OADP 1.1.6 known issues in Jira.

4.2.3.3. OADP 1.1.5 release notes

The OADP 1.1.5 release notes lists any new features, resolved issues and bugs, and known issues.

4.2.3.3.1. New features

This version of OADP is a service release. No new features are added to this version.

4.2.3.3.2. Resolved issues

For a complete list of all issues resolved in this release, see the list of OADP 1.1.5 resolved issues in Jira.

4.2.3.3.3. Known issues

For a complete list of all known issues in this release, see the list of OADP 1.1.5 known issues in Jira.

4.2.3.4. OADP 1.1.4 release notes

The OADP 1.1.4 release notes lists any new features, resolved issues and bugs, and known issues.

4.2.3.4.1. New features

This version of OADP is a service release. No new features are added to this version.

4.2.3.4.2. Resolved issues

Add support for all the velero deployment server arguments

In previous releases of OADP, OADP did not facilitate the support of all the upstream Velero server arguments. This issue has been resolved in OADP 1.1.4 and all the upstream Velero server arguments are supported. OADP-1557

Data Mover can restore from an incorrect snapshot when there was more than one VSR for the restore name and pvc name

In previous releases of OADP, OADP Data Mover could restore from an incorrect snapshot if there was more than one Volume Snapshot Restore (VSR) resource in the cluster for the same Velero restore name and PersistentVolumeClaim (pvc) name. OADP-1822

Cloud Storage API BSLs need OwnerReference

In previous releases of OADP, ACM BackupSchedules failed validation because of a missing OwnerReference on Backup Storage Locations (BSLs) created with dpa.spec.backupLocations.bucket. OADP-1511

For a complete list of all issues resolved in this release, see the list of OADP 1.1.4 resolved issues in Jira.

4.2.3.4.3. Known issues

This release has the following known issues:

OADP backups might fail because a UID/GID range might have changed on the cluster

OADP backups might fail because a UID/GID range might have changed on the cluster where the application has been restored, with the result that OADP does not back up and restore OpenShift Container Platform UID/GID range metadata. To avoid the issue, if the backed application requires a specific UUID, ensure the range is available when restored. An additional workaround is to allow OADP to create the namespace in the restore operation.

A restoration might fail if ArgoCD is used during the process due to a label used by ArgoCD

A restoration might fail if ArgoCD is used during the process due to a label used by ArgoCD, app.kubernetes.io/instance. This label identifies which resources ArgoCD needs to manage, which can create a conflict with OADP’s procedure for managing resources on restoration. To work around this issue, set .spec.resourceTrackingMethod on the ArgoCD YAML to annotation+label or annotation. If the issue continues to persist, then disable ArgoCD before beginning to restore, and enable it again when restoration is finished.

OADP Velero plugins returning "received EOF, stopping recv loop" message

Velero plugins are started as separate processes. When the Velero operation has completed, either successfully or not, they exit. Therefore if you see a received EOF, stopping recv loop messages in debug logs, it does not mean an error occurred. The message indicates that a plugin operation has completed. OADP-2176

For a complete list of all known issues in this release, see the list of OADP 1.1.4 known issues in Jira.

4.2.3.5. OADP 1.1.3 release notes

The OADP 1.1.3 release notes lists any new features, resolved issues and bugs, and known issues.

4.2.3.5.1. New features

This version of OADP is a service release. No new features are added to this version.

4.2.3.5.2. Resolved issues

For a complete list of all issues resolved in this release, see the list of OADP 1.1.3 resolved issues in Jira.

4.2.3.5.3. Known issues

For a complete list of all known issues in this release, see the list of OADP 1.1.3 known issues in Jira.

4.2.3.6. OADP 1.1.2 release notes

The OADP 1.1.2 release notes include product recommendations, a list of fixed bugs and descriptions of known issues.

4.2.3.6.1. Product recommendations

VolSync

To prepare for the upgrade from VolSync 0.5.1 to the latest version available from the VolSync stable channel, you must add this annotation in the openshift-adp namespace by running the following command:

$ oc annotate --overwrite namespace/openshift-adp volsync.backube/privileged-movers='true'

Velero

In this release, Velero has been upgraded from version 1.9.2 to version 1.9.5.

Restic

In this release, Restic has been upgraded from version 0.13.1 to version 0.14.0.

4.2.3.6.2. Resolved issues

The following issues have been resolved in this release:

4.2.3.6.3. Known issues

This release has the following known issues:

  • OADP currently does not support backup and restore of AWS EFS volumes using restic in Velero (OADP-778).
  • CSI backups might fail due to a Ceph limitation of VolumeSnapshotContent snapshots per PVC.

    You can create many snapshots of the same persistent volume claim (PVC) but cannot schedule periodic creation of snapshots:

    • For CephFS, you can create up to 100 snapshots per PVC. (OADP-804)
    • For RADOS Block Device (RBD), you can create up to 512 snapshots for each PVC. (OADP-975)

    For more information, see Volume Snapshots.

4.2.3.7. OADP 1.1.1 release notes

The OADP 1.1.1 release notes include product recommendations and descriptions of known issues.

4.2.3.7.1. Product recommendations

Before you install OADP 1.1.1, it is recommended to either install VolSync 0.5.1 or to upgrade to it.

4.2.3.7.2. Known issues

This release has the following known issues:

  • Multiple HTTP/2 enabled web servers are vulnerable to a DDoS attack (Rapid Reset Attack)

    The HTTP/2 protocol is susceptible to a denial of service attack because request cancellation can reset multiple streams quickly. The server has to set up and tear down the streams while not hitting any server-side limit for the maximum number of active streams per connection. This results in a denial of service due to server resource consumption. For a list of all OADP issues associated with this CVE, see the following Jira list.

    It is advised to upgrade to OADP 1.1.7 or 1.2.3, which resolve this issue.

    For more information, see CVE-2023-39325 (Rapid Reset Attack).

  • OADP currently does not support backup and restore of AWS EFS volumes using restic in Velero (OADP-778).
  • CSI backups might fail due to a Ceph limitation of VolumeSnapshotContent snapshots per PVC.

    You can create many snapshots of the same persistent volume claim (PVC) but cannot schedule periodic creation of snapshots:

    • For CephFS, you can create up to 100 snapshots per PVC.
    • For RADOS Block Device (RBD), you can create up to 512 snapshots for each PVC. (OADP-804) and (OADP-975)

      For more information, see Volume Snapshots.

4.3. OADP features and plugins

OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) features provide options for backing up and restoring applications.

The default plugins enable Velero to integrate with certain cloud providers and to back up and restore OpenShift Container Platform resources.

4.3.1. OADP features

OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) supports the following features:

Backup

You can use OADP to back up all applications on the OpenShift Platform, or you can filter the resources by type, namespace, or label.

OADP backs up Kubernetes objects and internal images by saving them as an archive file on object storage. OADP backs up persistent volumes (PVs) by creating snapshots with the native cloud snapshot API or with the Container Storage Interface (CSI). For cloud providers that do not support snapshots, OADP backs up resources and PV data with Restic.

Note

You must exclude Operators from the backup of an application for backup and restore to succeed.

Restore

You can restore resources and PVs from a backup. You can restore all objects in a backup or filter the objects by namespace, PV, or label.

Note

You must exclude Operators from the backup of an application for backup and restore to succeed.

Schedule
You can schedule backups at specified intervals.
Hooks
You can use hooks to run commands in a container on a pod, for example, fsfreeze to freeze a file system. You can configure a hook to run before or after a backup or restore. Restore hooks can run in an init container or in the application container.

4.3.2. OADP plugins

The OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) provides default Velero plugins that are integrated with storage providers to support backup and snapshot operations. You can create custom plugins based on the Velero plugins.

OADP also provides plugins for OpenShift Container Platform resource backups, OpenShift Virtualization resource backups, and Container Storage Interface (CSI) snapshots.

Table 4.1. OADP plugins

OADP pluginFunctionStorage location

aws

Backs up and restores Kubernetes objects.

AWS S3

Backs up and restores volumes with snapshots.

AWS EBS

azure

Backs up and restores Kubernetes objects.

Microsoft Azure Blob storage

Backs up and restores volumes with snapshots.

Microsoft Azure Managed Disks

gcp

Backs up and restores Kubernetes objects.

Google Cloud Storage

Backs up and restores volumes with snapshots.

Google Compute Engine Disks

openshift

Backs up and restores OpenShift Container Platform resources. [1]

Object store

kubevirt

Backs up and restores OpenShift Virtualization resources. [2]

Object store

csi

Backs up and restores volumes with CSI snapshots. [3]

Cloud storage that supports CSI snapshots

vsm

VolumeSnapshotMover relocates snapshots from the cluster into an object store to be used during a restore process to recover stateful applications, in situations such as cluster deletion. [4]

Object store

  1. Mandatory.
  2. Virtual machine disks are backed up with CSI snapshots or Restic.
  3. The csi plugin uses the Kubernetes CSI snapshot API.

    • OADP 1.1 or later uses snapshot.storage.k8s.io/v1
    • OADP 1.0 uses snapshot.storage.k8s.io/v1beta1
  4. OADP 1.2 only.

4.3.3. About OADP Velero plugins

You can configure two types of plugins when you install Velero:

  • Default cloud provider plugins
  • Custom plugins

Both types of plugin are optional, but most users configure at least one cloud provider plugin.

4.3.3.1. Default Velero cloud provider plugins

You can install any of the following default Velero cloud provider plugins when you configure the oadp_v1alpha1_dpa.yaml file during deployment:

  • aws (Amazon Web Services)
  • gcp (Google Cloud Platform)
  • azure (Microsoft Azure)
  • openshift (OpenShift Velero plugin)
  • csi (Container Storage Interface)
  • kubevirt (KubeVirt)

You specify the desired default plugins in the oadp_v1alpha1_dpa.yaml file during deployment.

Example file

The following .yaml file installs the openshift, aws, azure, and gcp plugins:

 apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
 kind: DataProtectionApplication
 metadata:
   name: dpa-sample
 spec:
   configuration:
     velero:
       defaultPlugins:
       - openshift
       - aws
       - azure
       - gcp

4.3.3.2. Custom Velero plugins

You can install a custom Velero plugin by specifying the plugin image and name when you configure the oadp_v1alpha1_dpa.yaml file during deployment.

You specify the desired custom plugins in the oadp_v1alpha1_dpa.yaml file during deployment.

Example file

The following .yaml file installs the default openshift, azure, and gcp plugins and a custom plugin that has the name custom-plugin-example and the image quay.io/example-repo/custom-velero-plugin:

apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
kind: DataProtectionApplication
metadata:
 name: dpa-sample
spec:
 configuration:
   velero:
     defaultPlugins:
     - openshift
     - azure
     - gcp
     customPlugins:
     - name: custom-plugin-example
       image: quay.io/example-repo/custom-velero-plugin

4.3.3.3. Velero plugins returning "received EOF, stopping recv loop" message

Note

Velero plugins are started as separate processes. After the Velero operation has completed, either successfully or not, they exit. Receiving a received EOF, stopping recv loop message in the debug logs indicates that a plugin operation has completed. It does not mean that an error has occurred.

4.3.4. Supported architectures for OADP

OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) supports the following architectures:

  • AMD64
  • ARM64
  • PPC64le
  • s390x
Note

OADP 1.2.0 and later versions support the ARM64 architecture.

4.3.5. OADP support for IBM Power and IBM Z

OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) is platform neutral. The information that follows relates only to IBM Power and to IBM Z.

OADP 1.1.0 was tested successfully against OpenShift Container Platform 4.11 for both IBM Power and IBM Z. The sections that follow give testing and support information for OADP 1.1.0 in terms of backup locations for these systems.

4.3.5.1. OADP support for target backup locations using IBM Power

IBM Power running with OpenShift Container Platform 4.11 and 4.12, and OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) 1.1.2 was tested successfully against an AWS S3 backup location target. Although the test involved only an AWS S3 target, Red Hat supports running IBM Power with OpenShift Container Platform 4.11 and 4.12, and OADP 1.1.2 against all non-AWS S3 backup location targets as well.

4.3.5.2. OADP testing and support for target backup locations using IBM Z

IBM Z running with OpenShift Container Platform 4.11 and 4.12, and OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) 1.1.2 was tested successfully against an AWS S3 backup location target. Although the test involved only an AWS S3 target, Red Hat supports running IBM Z with OpenShift Container Platform 4.11 and 4.12, and OADP 1.1.2 against all non-AWS S3 backup location targets as well.

4.3.6. OADP plugins known issues

The following section describes known issues in OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) plugins:

4.3.6.1. Velero plugin panics during imagestream backups due to a missing secret

When the backup and the Backup Storage Location (BSL) are managed outside the scope of the Data Protection Application (DPA), the OADP controller, meaning the DPA reconciliation does not create the relevant oadp-<bsl_name>-<bsl_provider>-registry-secret.

When the backup is run, the OpenShift Velero plugin panics on the imagestream backup, with the following panic error:

024-02-27T10:46:50.028951744Z time="2024-02-27T10:46:50Z" level=error msg="Error backing up item"
backup=openshift-adp/<backup name> error="error executing custom action (groupResource=imagestreams.image.openshift.io,
namespace=<BSL Name>, name=postgres): rpc error: code = Aborted desc = plugin panicked:
runtime error: index out of range with length 1, stack trace: goroutine 94…
4.3.6.1.1. Workaround to avoid the panic error

To avoid the Velero plugin panic error, perform the following steps:

  1. Label the custom BSL with the relevant label:

    $ oc label BackupStorageLocation <bsl_name> app.kubernetes.io/component=bsl
  2. After the BSL is labeled, wait until the DPA reconciles.

    Note

    You can force the reconciliation by making any minor change to the DPA itself.

  3. When the DPA reconciles, confirm that the relevant oadp-<bsl_name>-<bsl_provider>-registry-secret has been created and that the correct registry data has been populated into it:

    $ oc -n openshift-adp get secret/oadp-<bsl_name>-<bsl_provider>-registry-secret -o json | jq -r '.data'

4.3.6.2. OpenShift ADP Controller segmentation fault

If you configure a DPA with both cloudstorage and restic enabled, the openshift-adp-controller-manager pod crashes and restarts indefinitely until the pod fails with a crash loop segmentation fault.

You can have either velero or cloudstorage defined, because they are mutually exclusive fields.

  • If you have both velero and cloudstorage defined, the openshift-adp-controller-manager fails.
  • If you have neither velero nor cloudstorage defined, the openshift-adp-controller-manager fails.

For more information about this issue, see OADP-1054.

4.3.6.2.1. OpenShift ADP Controller segmentation fault workaround

You must define either velero or cloudstorage when you configure a DPA. If you define both APIs in your DPA, the openshift-adp-controller-manager pod fails with a crash loop segmentation fault.

4.4. Installing and configuring OADP

4.4.1. About installing OADP

As a cluster administrator, you install the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) by installing the OADP Operator. The OADP Operator installs Velero 1.12.

Note

Starting from OADP 1.0.4, all OADP 1.0.z versions can only be used as a dependency of the MTC Operator and are not available as a standalone Operator.

To back up Kubernetes resources and internal images, you must have object storage as a backup location, such as one of the following storage types:

You can configure multiple backup storage locations within the same namespace for each individual OADP deployment.

Note

Unless specified otherwise, "NooBaa" refers to the open source project that provides lightweight object storage, while "Multicloud Object Gateway (MCG)" refers to the Red Hat distribution of NooBaa.

For more information on the MCG, see Accessing the Multicloud Object Gateway with your applications.

Important

The CloudStorage API, which automates the creation of a bucket for object storage, is a Technology Preview feature only. Technology Preview features are not supported with Red Hat production service level agreements (SLAs) and might not be functionally complete. Red Hat does not recommend using them in production. These features provide early access to upcoming product features, enabling customers to test functionality and provide feedback during the development process.

For more information about the support scope of Red Hat Technology Preview features, see Technology Preview Features Support Scope.

You can back up persistent volumes (PVs) by using snapshots or Restic.

To back up PVs with snapshots, you must have a cloud provider that supports either a native snapshot API or Container Storage Interface (CSI) snapshots, such as one of the following cloud providers:

Note

If you want to use CSI backup on OCP 4.11 and later, install OADP 1.1.x.

OADP 1.0.x does not support CSI backup on OCP 4.11 and later. OADP 1.0.x includes Velero 1.7.x and expects the API group snapshot.storage.k8s.io/v1beta1, which is not present on OCP 4.11 and later.

If your cloud provider does not support snapshots or if your storage is NFS, you can back up applications with Restic backups on object storage.

You create a default Secret and then you install the Data Protection Application.

4.4.1.1. AWS S3 compatible backup storage providers

OADP is compatible with many object storage providers for use with different backup and snapshot operations. Several object storage providers are fully supported, several are unsupported but known to work, and some have known limitations.

4.4.1.1.1. Supported backup storage providers

The following AWS S3 compatible object storage providers are fully supported by OADP through the AWS plugin for use as backup storage locations:

  • MinIO
  • Multicloud Object Gateway (MCG)
  • Amazon Web Services (AWS) S3
Note

The following compatible object storage providers are supported and have their own Velero object store plugins:

  • Google Cloud Platform (GCP)
  • Microsoft Azure
4.4.1.1.2. Unsupported backup storage providers

The following AWS S3 compatible object storage providers, are known to work with Velero through the AWS plugin, for use as backup storage locations, however, they are unsupported and have not been tested by Red Hat:

  • IBM Cloud
  • Oracle Cloud
  • DigitalOcean
  • NooBaa, unless installed using Multicloud Object Gateway (MCG)
  • Tencent Cloud
  • Ceph RADOS v12.2.7
  • Quobyte
  • Cloudian HyperStore
Note

Unless specified otherwise, "NooBaa" refers to the open source project that provides lightweight object storage, while "Multicloud Object Gateway (MCG)" refers to the Red Hat distribution of NooBaa.

For more information on the MCG, see Accessing the Multicloud Object Gateway with your applications.

4.4.1.1.3. Backup storage providers with known limitations

The following AWS S3 compatible object storage providers are known to work with Velero through the AWS plugin with a limited feature set:

  • Swift - It works for use as a backup storage location for backup storage, but is not compatible with Restic for filesystem-based volume backup and restore.

4.4.1.2. Configuring Multicloud Object Gateway (MCG) for disaster recovery on OpenShift Data Foundation

If you use cluster storage for your MCG bucket backupStorageLocation on OpenShift Data Foundation, configure MCG as an external object store.

Warning

Failure to configure MCG as an external object store might lead to backups not being available.

Note

Unless specified otherwise, "NooBaa" refers to the open source project that provides lightweight object storage, while "Multicloud Object Gateway (MCG)" refers to the Red Hat distribution of NooBaa.

For more information on the MCG, see Accessing the Multicloud Object Gateway with your applications.

Procedure

4.4.1.3. About OADP update channels

When you install an OADP Operator, you choose an update channel. This channel determines which upgrades to the OADP Operator and to Velero you receive. You can switch channels at any time.

The following update channels are available:

  • The stable channel is now deprecated. The stable channel contains the patches (z-stream updates) of OADP ClusterServiceVersion for oadp.v1.1.z and older versions from oadp.v1.0.z.
  • The stable-1.0 channel contains oadp.v1.0.z, the most recent OADP 1.0 ClusterServiceVersion.
  • The stable-1.1 channel contains oadp.v1.1.z, the most recent OADP 1.1 ClusterServiceVersion.
  • The stable-1.2 channel contains oadp.v1.2.z, the most recent OADP 1.2 ClusterServiceVersion.
  • The stable-1.3 channel contains oadp.v1.3.z, the most recent OADP 1.3 ClusterServiceVersion.

Which update channel is right for you?

  • The stable channel is now deprecated. If you are already using the stable channel, you will continue to get updates from oadp.v1.1.z.
  • Choose the stable-1.y update channel to install OADP 1.y and to continue receiving patches for it. If you choose this channel, you will receive all z-stream patches for version 1.y.z.

When must you switch update channels?

  • If you have OADP 1.y installed, and you want to receive patches only for that y-stream, you must switch from the stable update channel to the stable-1.y update channel. You will then receive all z-stream patches for version 1.y.z.
  • If you have OADP 1.0 installed, want to upgrade to OADP 1.1, and then receive patches only for OADP 1.1, you must switch from the stable-1.0 update channel to the stable-1.1 update channel. You will then receive all z-stream patches for version 1.1.z.
  • If you have OADP 1.y installed, with y greater than 0, and want to switch to OADP 1.0, you must uninstall your OADP Operator and then reinstall it using the stable-1.0 update channel. You will then receive all z-stream patches for version 1.0.z.
Note

You cannot switch from OADP 1.y to OADP 1.0 by switching update channels. You must uninstall the Operator and then reinstall it.

4.4.1.4. Installation of OADP on multiple namespaces

You can install OADP into multiple namespaces on the same cluster so that multiple project owners can manage their own OADP instance. This use case has been validated with Restic and CSI.

You install each instance of OADP as specified by the per-platform procedures contained in this document with the following additional requirements:

  • All deployments of OADP on the same cluster must be the same version, for example, 1.1.4. Installing different versions of OADP on the same cluster is not supported.
  • Each individual deployment of OADP must have a unique set of credentials and at least one BackupStorageLocation configuration. You can also use multiple BackupStorageLocation configurations within the same namespace.
  • By default, each OADP deployment has cluster-level access across namespaces. OpenShift Container Platform administrators need to review security and RBAC settings carefully and make any necessary changes to them to ensure that each OADP instance has the correct permissions.

Additional resources

4.4.1.5. Velero CPU and memory requirements based on collected data

The following recommendations are based on observations of performance made in the scale and performance lab. The backup and restore resources can be impacted by the type of plugin, the amount of resources required by that backup or restore, and the respective data contained in the persistent volumes (PVs) related to those resources.

4.4.1.5.1. CPU and memory requirement for configurations
Configuration types[1] Average usage[2] Large usageresourceTimeouts

CSI

Velero:

CPU- Request 200m, Limits 1000m

Memory - Request 256Mi, Limits 1024Mi

Velero:

CPU- Request 200m, Limits 2000m

Memory- Request 256Mi, Limits 2048Mi

N/A

Restic

[3] Restic:

CPU- Request 1000m, Limits 2000m

Memory - Request 16Gi, Limits 32Gi

[4] Restic:

CPU - Request 2000m, Limits 8000m

Memory - Request 16Gi, Limits 40Gi

900m

[5] DataMover

N/A

N/A

10m - average usage

60m - large usage

  1. Average usage - use these settings for most usage situations.
  2. Large usage - use these settings for large usage situations, such as a large PV (500GB Usage), multiple namespaces (100+), or many pods within a single namespace (2000 pods+), and for optimal performance for backup and restore involving large datasets.
  3. Restic resource usage corresponds to the amount of data, and type of data. For example, many small files or large amounts of data can cause Restic to utilize large amounts of resources. The Velero documentation references 500m as a supplied default, for most of our testing we found 200m request suitable with 1000m limit. As cited in the Velero documentation, exact CPU and memory usage is dependent on the scale of files and directories, in addition to environmental limitations.
  4. Increasing the CPU has a significant impact on improving backup and restore times.
  5. DataMover - DataMover default resourceTimeout is 10m. Our tests show that for restoring a large PV (500GB usage), it is required to increase the resourceTimeout to 60m.
Note

The resource requirements listed throughout the guide are for average usage only. For large usage, adjust the settings as described in the table above.

4.4.1.5.2. NodeAgent CPU for large usage

Testing shows that increasing NodeAgent CPU can significantly improve backup and restore times when using OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP).

Important

It is not recommended to use Kopia without limits in production environments on nodes running production workloads due to Kopia’s aggressive consumption of resources. However, running Kopia with limits that are too low results in CPU limiting and slow backups and restore situations. Testing showed that running Kopia with 20 cores and 32 Gi memory supported backup and restore operations of over 100 GB of data, multiple namespaces, or over 2000 pods in a single namespace.

Testing detected no CPU limiting or memory saturation with these resource specifications.

You can set these limits in Ceph MDS pods by following the procedure in Changing the CPU and memory resources on the rook-ceph pods.

You need to add the following lines to the storage cluster Custom Resource (CR) to set the limits:

   resources:
     mds:
       limits:
         cpu: "3"
         memory: 128Gi
       requests:
         cpu: "3"
         memory: 8Gi

4.4.2. Installing the OADP Operator

You can install the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) Operator on OpenShift Container Platform 4.12 by using Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM).

The OADP Operator installs Velero 1.12.

Prerequisites

  • You must be logged in as a user with cluster-admin privileges.

Procedure

  1. In the OpenShift Container Platform web console, click OperatorsOperatorHub.
  2. Use the Filter by keyword field to find the OADP Operator.
  3. Select the OADP Operator and click Install.
  4. Click Install to install the Operator in the openshift-adp project.
  5. Click OperatorsInstalled Operators to verify the installation.

4.4.2.1. OADP-Velero-OpenShift Container Platform version relationship

OADP versionVelero versionOpenShift Container Platform version

1.1.0

1.9

4.9 and later

1.1.1

1.9

4.9 and later

1.1.2

1.9

4.9 and later

1.1.3

1.9

4.9 and later

1.1.4

1.9

4.9 and later

1.1.5

1.9

4.9 and later

1.1.6

1.9

4.11 and later

1.1.7

1.9

4.11 and later

1.2.0

1.11

4.11 and later

1.2.1

1.11

4.11 and later

1.2.2

1.11

4.11 and later

1.2.3

1.11

4.11 and later

1.3.0

1.12

4.12 and later

4.4.3. Configuring the OpenShift API for Data Protection with Amazon Web Services

You install the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) with Amazon Web Services (AWS) by installing the OADP Operator. The Operator installs Velero 1.12.

Note

Starting from OADP 1.0.4, all OADP 1.0.z versions can only be used as a dependency of the MTC Operator and are not available as a standalone Operator.

You configure AWS for Velero, create a default Secret, and then install the Data Protection Application. For more details, see Installing the OADP Operator.

To install the OADP Operator in a restricted network environment, you must first disable the default OperatorHub sources and mirror the Operator catalog. See Using Operator Lifecycle Manager on restricted networks for details.

4.4.3.1. Configuring Amazon Web Services

You configure Amazon Web Services (AWS) for the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP).

Prerequisites

  • You must have the AWS CLI installed.

Procedure

  1. Set the BUCKET variable:

    $ BUCKET=<your_bucket>
  2. Set the REGION variable:

    $ REGION=<your_region>
  3. Create an AWS S3 bucket:

    $ aws s3api create-bucket \
        --bucket $BUCKET \
        --region $REGION \
        --create-bucket-configuration LocationConstraint=$REGION 1
    1
    us-east-1 does not support a LocationConstraint. If your region is us-east-1, omit --create-bucket-configuration LocationConstraint=$REGION.
  4. Create an IAM user:

    $ aws iam create-user --user-name velero 1
    1
    If you want to use Velero to back up multiple clusters with multiple S3 buckets, create a unique user name for each cluster.
  5. Create a velero-policy.json file:

    $ cat > velero-policy.json <<EOF
    {
        "Version": "2012-10-17",
        "Statement": [
            {
                "Effect": "Allow",
                "Action": [
                    "ec2:DescribeVolumes",
                    "ec2:DescribeSnapshots",
                    "ec2:CreateTags",
                    "ec2:CreateVolume",
                    "ec2:CreateSnapshot",
                    "ec2:DeleteSnapshot"
                ],
                "Resource": "*"
            },
            {
                "Effect": "Allow",
                "Action": [
                    "s3:GetObject",
                    "s3:DeleteObject",
                    "s3:PutObject",
                    "s3:AbortMultipartUpload",
                    "s3:ListMultipartUploadParts"
                ],
                "Resource": [
                    "arn:aws:s3:::${BUCKET}/*"
                ]
            },
            {
                "Effect": "Allow",
                "Action": [
                    "s3:ListBucket",
                    "s3:GetBucketLocation",
                    "s3:ListBucketMultipartUploads"
                ],
                "Resource": [
                    "arn:aws:s3:::${BUCKET}"
                ]
            }
        ]
    }
    EOF
  6. Attach the policies to give the velero user the minimum necessary permissions:

    $ aws iam put-user-policy \
      --user-name velero \
      --policy-name velero \
      --policy-document file://velero-policy.json
  7. Create an access key for the velero user:

    $ aws iam create-access-key --user-name velero

    Example output

    {
      "AccessKey": {
            "UserName": "velero",
            "Status": "Active",
            "CreateDate": "2017-07-31T22:24:41.576Z",
            "SecretAccessKey": <AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY>,
            "AccessKeyId": <AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID>
      }
    }

  8. Create a credentials-velero file:

    $ cat << EOF > ./credentials-velero
    [default]
    aws_access_key_id=<AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID>
    aws_secret_access_key=<AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY>
    EOF

    You use the credentials-velero file to create a Secret object for AWS before you install the Data Protection Application.

4.4.3.2. About backup and snapshot locations and their secrets

You specify backup and snapshot locations and their secrets in the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR).

Backup locations

You specify S3-compatible object storage, such as Multicloud Object Gateway or MinIO, as a backup location.

Velero backs up OpenShift Container Platform resources, Kubernetes objects, and internal images as an archive file on object storage.

Snapshot locations

If you use your cloud provider’s native snapshot API to back up persistent volumes, you must specify the cloud provider as the snapshot location.

If you use Container Storage Interface (CSI) snapshots, you do not need to specify a snapshot location because you will create a VolumeSnapshotClass CR to register the CSI driver.

If you use Restic, you do not need to specify a snapshot location because Restic backs up the file system on object storage.

Secrets

If the backup and snapshot locations use the same credentials or if you do not require a snapshot location, you create a default Secret.

If the backup and snapshot locations use different credentials, you create two secret objects:

  • Custom Secret for the backup location, which you specify in the DataProtectionApplication CR.
  • Default Secret for the snapshot location, which is not referenced in the DataProtectionApplication CR.
Important

The Data Protection Application requires a default Secret. Otherwise, the installation will fail.

If you do not want to specify backup or snapshot locations during the installation, you can create a default Secret with an empty credentials-velero file.

4.4.3.2.1. Creating a default Secret

You create a default Secret if your backup and snapshot locations use the same credentials or if you do not require a snapshot location.

The default name of the Secret is cloud-credentials.

Note

The DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR) requires a default Secret. Otherwise, the installation will fail. If the name of the backup location Secret is not specified, the default name is used.

If you do not want to use the backup location credentials during the installation, you can create a Secret with the default name by using an empty credentials-velero file.

Prerequisites

  • Your object storage and cloud storage, if any, must use the same credentials.
  • You must configure object storage for Velero.
  • You must create a credentials-velero file for the object storage in the appropriate format.

Procedure

  • Create a Secret with the default name:

    $ oc create secret generic cloud-credentials -n openshift-adp --from-file cloud=credentials-velero

The Secret is referenced in the spec.backupLocations.credential block of the DataProtectionApplication CR when you install the Data Protection Application.

4.4.3.2.2. Creating profiles for different credentials

If your backup and snapshot locations use different credentials, you create separate profiles in the credentials-velero file.

Then, you create a Secret object and specify the profiles in the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR).

Procedure

  1. Create a credentials-velero file with separate profiles for the backup and snapshot locations, as in the following example:

    [backupStorage]
    aws_access_key_id=<AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID>
    aws_secret_access_key=<AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY>
    
    [volumeSnapshot]
    aws_access_key_id=<AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID>
    aws_secret_access_key=<AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY>
  2. Create a Secret object with the credentials-velero file:

    $ oc create secret generic cloud-credentials -n openshift-adp --from-file cloud=credentials-velero 1
  3. Add the profiles to the DataProtectionApplication CR, as in the following example:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    metadata:
      name: <dpa_sample>
      namespace: openshift-adp
    spec:
    ...
      backupLocations:
        - name: default
          velero:
            provider: aws
            default: true
            objectStorage:
              bucket: <bucket_name>
              prefix: <prefix>
            config:
              region: us-east-1
              profile: "backupStorage"
            credential:
              key: cloud
              name: cloud-credentials
      snapshotLocations:
        - velero:
            provider: aws
            config:
              region: us-west-2
              profile: "volumeSnapshot"

4.4.3.3. Configuring the Data Protection Application

You can configure the Data Protection Application by setting Velero resource allocations or enabling self-signed CA certificates.

4.4.3.3.1. Setting Velero CPU and memory resource allocations

You set the CPU and memory resource allocations for the Velero pod by editing the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR) manifest.

Prerequisites

  • You must have the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) Operator installed.

Procedure

  • Edit the values in the spec.configuration.velero.podConfig.ResourceAllocations block of the DataProtectionApplication CR manifest, as in the following example:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    metadata:
      name: <dpa_sample>
    spec:
    ...
      configuration:
        velero:
          podConfig:
            nodeSelector: <node selector> 1
            resourceAllocations: 2
              limits:
                cpu: "1"
                memory: 1024Mi
              requests:
                cpu: 200m
                memory: 256Mi
    1 1
    Specify the node selector to be supplied to Velero podSpec.
    2
    The resourceAllocations listed are for average usage.
4.4.3.3.2. Enabling self-signed CA certificates

You must enable a self-signed CA certificate for object storage by editing the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR) manifest to prevent a certificate signed by unknown authority error.

Prerequisites

  • You must have the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) Operator installed.

Procedure

  • Edit the spec.backupLocations.velero.objectStorage.caCert parameter and spec.backupLocations.velero.config parameters of the DataProtectionApplication CR manifest:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    metadata:
      name: <dpa_sample>
    spec:
    ...
      backupLocations:
        - name: default
          velero:
            provider: aws
            default: true
            objectStorage:
              bucket: <bucket>
              prefix: <prefix>
              caCert: <base64_encoded_cert_string> 1
            config:
              insecureSkipTLSVerify: "false" 2
    ...
    1
    Specify the Base64-encoded CA certificate string.
    2
    The insecureSkipTLSVerify configuration can be set to either "true" or "false". If set to "true", SSL/TLS security is disabled. If set to "false", SSL/TLS security is enabled.

4.4.3.4. Installing the Data Protection Application

You install the Data Protection Application (DPA) by creating an instance of the DataProtectionApplication API.

Prerequisites

  • You must install the OADP Operator.
  • You must configure object storage as a backup location.
  • If you use snapshots to back up PVs, your cloud provider must support either a native snapshot API or Container Storage Interface (CSI) snapshots.
  • If the backup and snapshot locations use the same credentials, you must create a Secret with the default name, cloud-credentials.
  • If the backup and snapshot locations use different credentials, you must create a Secret with the default name, cloud-credentials, which contains separate profiles for the backup and snapshot location credentials.

    Note

    If you do not want to specify backup or snapshot locations during the installation, you can create a default Secret with an empty credentials-velero file. If there is no default Secret, the installation will fail.

    Note

    Velero creates a secret named velero-repo-credentials in the OADP namespace, which contains a default backup repository password. You can update the secret with your own password encoded as base64 before you run your first backup targeted to the backup repository. The value of the key to update is Data[repository-password].

    After you create your DPA, the first time that you run a backup targeted to the backup repository, Velero creates a backup repository whose secret is velero-repo-credentials, which contains either the default password or the one you replaced it with. If you update the secret password after the first backup, the new password will not match the password in velero-repo-credentials, and therefore, Velero will not be able to connect with the older backups.

Procedure

  1. Click OperatorsInstalled Operators and select the OADP Operator.
  2. Under Provided APIs, click Create instance in the DataProtectionApplication box.
  3. Click YAML View and update the parameters of the DataProtectionApplication manifest:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    metadata:
      name: <dpa_sample>
      namespace: openshift-adp
    spec:
      configuration:
        velero:
          defaultPlugins:
            - openshift 1
            - aws
          resourceTimeout: 10m 2
        restic:
          enable: true 3
          podConfig:
            nodeSelector: <node_selector> 4
      backupLocations:
        - name: default
          velero:
            provider: aws
            default: true
            objectStorage:
              bucket: <bucket_name> 5
              prefix: <prefix> 6
            config:
              region: <region>
              profile: "default"
            credential:
              key: cloud
              name: cloud-credentials 7
      snapshotLocations: 8
        - velero:
            provider: aws
            config:
              region: <region> 9
              profile: "default"
    1
    The openshift plugin is mandatory.
    2
    Specify how many minutes to wait for several Velero resources before timeout occurs, such as Velero CRD availability, volumeSnapshot deletion, and backup repository availability. The default is 10m.
    3
    Set this value to false if you want to disable the Restic installation. Restic deploys a daemon set, which means that Restic pods run on each working node. In OADP version 1.2 and later, you can configure Restic for backups by adding spec.defaultVolumesToFsBackup: true to the Backup CR. In OADP version 1.1, add spec.defaultVolumesToRestic: true to the Backup CR.
    4
    Specify on which nodes Restic is available. By default, Restic runs on all nodes.
    5
    Specify a bucket as the backup storage location. If the bucket is not a dedicated bucket for Velero backups, you must specify a prefix.
    6
    Specify a prefix for Velero backups, for example, velero, if the bucket is used for multiple purposes.
    7
    Specify the name of the Secret object that you created. If you do not specify this value, the default name, cloud-credentials, is used. If you specify a custom name, the custom name is used for the backup location.
    8
    Specify a snapshot location, unless you use CSI snapshots or Restic to back up PVs.
    9
    The snapshot location must be in the same region as the PVs.
  4. Click Create.
  5. Verify the installation by viewing the OADP resources:

    $ oc get all -n openshift-adp

    Example output

    NAME                                                     READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    pod/oadp-operator-controller-manager-67d9494d47-6l8z8    2/2     Running   0          2m8s
    pod/restic-9cq4q                                         1/1     Running   0          94s
    pod/restic-m4lts                                         1/1     Running   0          94s
    pod/restic-pv4kr                                         1/1     Running   0          95s
    pod/velero-588db7f655-n842v                              1/1     Running   0          95s
    
    NAME                                                       TYPE        CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)    AGE
    service/oadp-operator-controller-manager-metrics-service   ClusterIP   172.30.70.140    <none>        8443/TCP   2m8s
    
    NAME                    DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   NODE SELECTOR   AGE
    daemonset.apps/restic   3         3         3       3            3           <none>          96s
    
    NAME                                                READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
    deployment.apps/oadp-operator-controller-manager    1/1     1            1           2m9s
    deployment.apps/velero                              1/1     1            1           96s
    
    NAME                                                           DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AGE
    replicaset.apps/oadp-operator-controller-manager-67d9494d47    1         1         1       2m9s
    replicaset.apps/velero-588db7f655                              1         1         1       96s

4.4.3.4.1. Enabling CSI in the DataProtectionApplication CR

You enable the Container Storage Interface (CSI) in the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR) in order to back up persistent volumes with CSI snapshots.

Prerequisites

  • The cloud provider must support CSI snapshots.

Procedure

  • Edit the DataProtectionApplication CR, as in the following example:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    ...
    spec:
      configuration:
        velero:
          defaultPlugins:
          - openshift
          - csi 1
    1
    Add the csi default plugin.

4.4.4. Configuring the OpenShift API for Data Protection with Microsoft Azure

You install the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) with Microsoft Azure by installing the OADP Operator. The Operator installs Velero 1.12.

Note

Starting from OADP 1.0.4, all OADP 1.0.z versions can only be used as a dependency of the MTC Operator and are not available as a standalone Operator.

You configure Azure for Velero, create a default Secret, and then install the Data Protection Application. For more details, see Installing the OADP Operator.

To install the OADP Operator in a restricted network environment, you must first disable the default OperatorHub sources and mirror the Operator catalog. See Using Operator Lifecycle Manager on restricted networks for details.

4.4.4.1. Configuring Microsoft Azure

You configure a Microsoft Azure for the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP).

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Log in to Azure:

    $ az login
  2. Set the AZURE_RESOURCE_GROUP variable:

    $ AZURE_RESOURCE_GROUP=Velero_Backups
  3. Create an Azure resource group:

    $ az group create -n $AZURE_RESOURCE_GROUP --location CentralUS 1
    1
    Specify your location.
  4. Set the AZURE_STORAGE_ACCOUNT_ID variable:

    $ AZURE_STORAGE_ACCOUNT_ID="velero$(uuidgen | cut -d '-' -f5 | tr '[A-Z]' '[a-z]')"
  5. Create an Azure storage account:

    $ az storage account create \
        --name $AZURE_STORAGE_ACCOUNT_ID \
        --resource-group $AZURE_RESOURCE_GROUP \
        --sku Standard_GRS \
        --encryption-services blob \
        --https-only true \
        --kind BlobStorage \
        --access-tier Hot
  6. Set the BLOB_CONTAINER variable:

    $ BLOB_CONTAINER=velero
  7. Create an Azure Blob storage container:

    $ az storage container create \
      -n $BLOB_CONTAINER \
      --public-access off \
      --account-name $AZURE_STORAGE_ACCOUNT_ID
  8. Obtain the storage account access key:

    $ AZURE_STORAGE_ACCOUNT_ACCESS_KEY=`az storage account keys list \
      --account-name $AZURE_STORAGE_ACCOUNT_ID \
      --query "[?keyName == 'key1'].value" -o tsv`
  9. Create a custom role that has the minimum required permissions:

    AZURE_ROLE=Velero
    az role definition create --role-definition '{
       "Name": "'$AZURE_ROLE'",
       "Description": "Velero related permissions to perform backups, restores and deletions",
       "Actions": [
           "Microsoft.Compute/disks/read",
           "Microsoft.Compute/disks/write",
           "Microsoft.Compute/disks/endGetAccess/action",
           "Microsoft.Compute/disks/beginGetAccess/action",
           "Microsoft.Compute/snapshots/read",
           "Microsoft.Compute/snapshots/write",
           "Microsoft.Compute/snapshots/delete",
           "Microsoft.Storage/storageAccounts/listkeys/action",
           "Microsoft.Storage/storageAccounts/regeneratekey/action"
       ],
       "AssignableScopes": ["/subscriptions/'$AZURE_SUBSCRIPTION_ID'"]
       }'
  10. Create a credentials-velero file:

    $ cat << EOF > ./credentials-velero
    AZURE_SUBSCRIPTION_ID=${AZURE_SUBSCRIPTION_ID}
    AZURE_TENANT_ID=${AZURE_TENANT_ID}
    AZURE_CLIENT_ID=${AZURE_CLIENT_ID}
    AZURE_CLIENT_SECRET=${AZURE_CLIENT_SECRET}
    AZURE_RESOURCE_GROUP=${AZURE_RESOURCE_GROUP}
    AZURE_STORAGE_ACCOUNT_ACCESS_KEY=${AZURE_STORAGE_ACCOUNT_ACCESS_KEY} 1
    AZURE_CLOUD_NAME=AzurePublicCloud
    EOF
    1
    Mandatory. You cannot back up internal images if the credentials-velero file contains only the service principal credentials.

    You use the credentials-velero file to create a Secret object for Azure before you install the Data Protection Application.

4.4.4.2. About backup and snapshot locations and their secrets

You specify backup and snapshot locations and their secrets in the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR).

Backup locations

You specify S3-compatible object storage, such as Multicloud Object Gateway or MinIO, as a backup location.

Velero backs up OpenShift Container Platform resources, Kubernetes objects, and internal images as an archive file on object storage.

Snapshot locations

If you use your cloud provider’s native snapshot API to back up persistent volumes, you must specify the cloud provider as the snapshot location.

If you use Container Storage Interface (CSI) snapshots, you do not need to specify a snapshot location because you will create a VolumeSnapshotClass CR to register the CSI driver.

If you use Restic, you do not need to specify a snapshot location because Restic backs up the file system on object storage.

Secrets

If the backup and snapshot locations use the same credentials or if you do not require a snapshot location, you create a default Secret.

If the backup and snapshot locations use different credentials, you create two secret objects:

  • Custom Secret for the backup location, which you specify in the DataProtectionApplication CR.
  • Default Secret for the snapshot location, which is not referenced in the DataProtectionApplication CR.
Important

The Data Protection Application requires a default Secret. Otherwise, the installation will fail.

If you do not want to specify backup or snapshot locations during the installation, you can create a default Secret with an empty credentials-velero file.

4.4.4.2.1. Creating a default Secret

You create a default Secret if your backup and snapshot locations use the same credentials or if you do not require a snapshot location.

The default name of the Secret is cloud-credentials-azure.

Note

The DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR) requires a default Secret. Otherwise, the installation will fail. If the name of the backup location Secret is not specified, the default name is used.

If you do not want to use the backup location credentials during the installation, you can create a Secret with the default name by using an empty credentials-velero file.

Prerequisites

  • Your object storage and cloud storage, if any, must use the same credentials.
  • You must configure object storage for Velero.
  • You must create a credentials-velero file for the object storage in the appropriate format.

Procedure

  • Create a Secret with the default name:

    $ oc create secret generic cloud-credentials-azure -n openshift-adp --from-file cloud=credentials-velero

The Secret is referenced in the spec.backupLocations.credential block of the DataProtectionApplication CR when you install the Data Protection Application.

4.4.4.2.2. Creating secrets for different credentials

If your backup and snapshot locations use different credentials, you must create two Secret objects:

  • Backup location Secret with a custom name. The custom name is specified in the spec.backupLocations block of the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR).
  • Snapshot location Secret with the default name, cloud-credentials-azure. This Secret is not specified in the DataProtectionApplication CR.

Procedure

  1. Create a credentials-velero file for the snapshot location in the appropriate format for your cloud provider.
  2. Create a Secret for the snapshot location with the default name:

    $ oc create secret generic cloud-credentials-azure -n openshift-adp --from-file cloud=credentials-velero
  3. Create a credentials-velero file for the backup location in the appropriate format for your object storage.
  4. Create a Secret for the backup location with a custom name:

    $ oc create secret generic <custom_secret> -n openshift-adp --from-file cloud=credentials-velero
  5. Add the Secret with the custom name to the DataProtectionApplication CR, as in the following example:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    metadata:
      name: <dpa_sample>
      namespace: openshift-adp
    spec:
    ...
      backupLocations:
        - velero:
            config:
              resourceGroup: <azure_resource_group>
              storageAccount: <azure_storage_account_id>
              subscriptionId: <azure_subscription_id>
              storageAccountKeyEnvVar: AZURE_STORAGE_ACCOUNT_ACCESS_KEY
            credential:
              key: cloud
              name: <custom_secret> 1
            provider: azure
            default: true
            objectStorage:
              bucket: <bucket_name>
              prefix: <prefix>
      snapshotLocations:
        - velero:
            config:
              resourceGroup: <azure_resource_group>
              subscriptionId: <azure_subscription_id>
              incremental: "true"
            provider: azure
    1
    Backup location Secret with custom name.

4.4.4.3. Configuring the Data Protection Application

You can configure the Data Protection Application by setting Velero resource allocations or enabling self-signed CA certificates.

4.4.4.3.1. Setting Velero CPU and memory resource allocations

You set the CPU and memory resource allocations for the Velero pod by editing the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR) manifest.

Prerequisites

  • You must have the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) Operator installed.

Procedure

  • Edit the values in the spec.configuration.velero.podConfig.ResourceAllocations block of the DataProtectionApplication CR manifest, as in the following example:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    metadata:
      name: <dpa_sample>
    spec:
    ...
      configuration:
        velero:
          podConfig:
            nodeSelector: <node selector> 1
            resourceAllocations: 2
              limits:
                cpu: "1"
                memory: 1024Mi
              requests:
                cpu: 200m
                memory: 256Mi
    1
    Specify the node selector to be supplied to Velero podSpec.
    2
    The resourceAllocations listed are for average usage.
4.4.4.3.2. Enabling self-signed CA certificates

You must enable a self-signed CA certificate for object storage by editing the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR) manifest to prevent a certificate signed by unknown authority error.

Prerequisites

  • You must have the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) Operator installed.

Procedure

  • Edit the spec.backupLocations.velero.objectStorage.caCert parameter and spec.backupLocations.velero.config parameters of the DataProtectionApplication CR manifest:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    metadata:
      name: <dpa_sample>
    spec:
    ...
      backupLocations:
        - name: default
          velero:
            provider: aws
            default: true
            objectStorage:
              bucket: <bucket>
              prefix: <prefix>
              caCert: <base64_encoded_cert_string> 1
            config:
              insecureSkipTLSVerify: "false" 2
    ...
    1
    Specify the Base64-encoded CA certificate string.
    2
    The insecureSkipTLSVerify configuration can be set to either "true" or "false". If set to "true", SSL/TLS security is disabled. If set to "false", SSL/TLS security is enabled.

4.4.4.4. Installing the Data Protection Application

You install the Data Protection Application (DPA) by creating an instance of the DataProtectionApplication API.

Prerequisites

  • You must install the OADP Operator.
  • You must configure object storage as a backup location.
  • If you use snapshots to back up PVs, your cloud provider must support either a native snapshot API or Container Storage Interface (CSI) snapshots.
  • If the backup and snapshot locations use the same credentials, you must create a Secret with the default name, cloud-credentials-azure.
  • If the backup and snapshot locations use different credentials, you must create two Secrets:

    • Secret with a custom name for the backup location. You add this Secret to the DataProtectionApplication CR.
    • Secret with the default name, cloud-credentials-azure, for the snapshot location. This Secret is not referenced in the DataProtectionApplication CR.

      Note

      If you do not want to specify backup or snapshot locations during the installation, you can create a default Secret with an empty credentials-velero file. If there is no default Secret, the installation will fail.

      Note

      Velero creates a secret named velero-repo-credentials in the OADP namespace, which contains a default backup repository password. You can update the secret with your own password encoded as base64 before you run your first backup targeted to the backup repository. The value of the key to update is Data[repository-password].

      After you create your DPA, the first time that you run a backup targeted to the backup repository, Velero creates a backup repository whose secret is velero-repo-credentials, which contains either the default password or the one you replaced it with. If you update the secret password after the first backup, the new password will not match the password in velero-repo-credentials, and therefore, Velero will not be able to connect with the older backups.

Procedure

  1. Click OperatorsInstalled Operators and select the OADP Operator.
  2. Under Provided APIs, click Create instance in the DataProtectionApplication box.
  3. Click YAML View and update the parameters of the DataProtectionApplication manifest:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    metadata:
      name: <dpa_sample>
      namespace: openshift-adp
    spec:
      configuration:
        velero:
          defaultPlugins:
            - azure
            - openshift 1
          resourceTimeout: 10m 2
        restic:
          enable: true 3
          podConfig:
            nodeSelector: <node_selector> 4
      backupLocations:
        - velero:
            config:
              resourceGroup: <azure_resource_group> 5
              storageAccount: <azure_storage_account_id> 6
              subscriptionId: <azure_subscription_id> 7
              storageAccountKeyEnvVar: AZURE_STORAGE_ACCOUNT_ACCESS_KEY
            credential:
              key: cloud
              name: cloud-credentials-azure  8
            provider: azure
            default: true
            objectStorage:
              bucket: <bucket_name> 9
              prefix: <prefix> 10
      snapshotLocations: 11
        - velero:
            config:
              resourceGroup: <azure_resource_group>
              subscriptionId: <azure_subscription_id>
              incremental: "true"
            name: default
            provider: azure
    1
    The openshift plugin is mandatory.
    2
    Specify how many minutes to wait for several Velero resources before timeout occurs, such as Velero CRD availability, volumeSnapshot deletion, and backup repository availability. The default is 10m.
    3
    Set this value to false if you want to disable the Restic installation. Restic deploys a daemon set, which means that Restic pods run on each working node. In OADP version 1.2 and later, you can configure Restic for backups by adding spec.defaultVolumesToFsBackup: true to the Backup CR. In OADP version 1.1, add spec.defaultVolumesToRestic: true to the Backup CR.
    4
    Specify on which nodes Restic is available. By default, Restic runs on all nodes.
    5
    Specify the Azure resource group.
    6
    Specify the Azure storage account ID.
    7
    Specify the Azure subscription ID.
    8
    If you do not specify this value, the default name, cloud-credentials-azure, is used. If you specify a custom name, the custom name is used for the backup location.
    9
    Specify a bucket as the backup storage location. If the bucket is not a dedicated bucket for Velero backups, you must specify a prefix.
    10
    Specify a prefix for Velero backups, for example, velero, if the bucket is used for multiple purposes.
    11
    You do not need to specify a snapshot location if you use CSI snapshots or Restic to back up PVs.
  4. Click Create.
  5. Verify the installation by viewing the OADP resources:

    $ oc get all -n openshift-adp

    Example output

    NAME                                                     READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    pod/oadp-operator-controller-manager-67d9494d47-6l8z8    2/2     Running   0          2m8s
    pod/restic-9cq4q                                         1/1     Running   0          94s
    pod/restic-m4lts                                         1/1     Running   0          94s
    pod/restic-pv4kr                                         1/1     Running   0          95s
    pod/velero-588db7f655-n842v                              1/1     Running   0          95s
    
    NAME                                                       TYPE        CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)    AGE
    service/oadp-operator-controller-manager-metrics-service   ClusterIP   172.30.70.140    <none>        8443/TCP   2m8s
    
    NAME                    DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   NODE SELECTOR   AGE
    daemonset.apps/restic   3         3         3       3            3           <none>          96s
    
    NAME                                                READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
    deployment.apps/oadp-operator-controller-manager    1/1     1            1           2m9s
    deployment.apps/velero                              1/1     1            1           96s
    
    NAME                                                           DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AGE
    replicaset.apps/oadp-operator-controller-manager-67d9494d47    1         1         1       2m9s
    replicaset.apps/velero-588db7f655                              1         1         1       96s

4.4.4.4.1. Enabling CSI in the DataProtectionApplication CR

You enable the Container Storage Interface (CSI) in the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR) in order to back up persistent volumes with CSI snapshots.

Prerequisites

  • The cloud provider must support CSI snapshots.

Procedure

  • Edit the DataProtectionApplication CR, as in the following example:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    ...
    spec:
      configuration:
        velero:
          defaultPlugins:
          - openshift
          - csi 1
    1
    Add the csi default plugin.

4.4.5. Configuring the OpenShift API for Data Protection with Google Cloud Platform

You install the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) with Google Cloud Platform (GCP) by installing the OADP Operator. The Operator installs Velero 1.12.

Note

Starting from OADP 1.0.4, all OADP 1.0.z versions can only be used as a dependency of the MTC Operator and are not available as a standalone Operator.

You configure GCP for Velero, create a default Secret, and then install the Data Protection Application. For more details, see Installing the OADP Operator.

To install the OADP Operator in a restricted network environment, you must first disable the default OperatorHub sources and mirror the Operator catalog. See Using Operator Lifecycle Manager on restricted networks for details.

4.4.5.1. Configuring Google Cloud Platform

You configure Google Cloud Platform (GCP) for the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP).

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Log in to GCP:

    $ gcloud auth login
  2. Set the BUCKET variable:

    $ BUCKET=<bucket> 1
    1
    Specify your bucket name.
  3. Create the storage bucket:

    $ gsutil mb gs://$BUCKET/
  4. Set the PROJECT_ID variable to your active project:

    $ PROJECT_ID=$(gcloud config get-value project)
  5. Create a service account:

    $ gcloud iam service-accounts create velero \
        --display-name "Velero service account"
  6. List your service accounts:

    $ gcloud iam service-accounts list
  7. Set the SERVICE_ACCOUNT_EMAIL variable to match its email value:

    $ SERVICE_ACCOUNT_EMAIL=$(gcloud iam service-accounts list \
        --filter="displayName:Velero service account" \
        --format 'value(email)')
  8. Attach the policies to give the velero user the minimum necessary permissions:

    $ ROLE_PERMISSIONS=(
        compute.disks.get
        compute.disks.create
        compute.disks.createSnapshot
        compute.snapshots.get
        compute.snapshots.create
        compute.snapshots.useReadOnly
        compute.snapshots.delete
        compute.zones.get
        storage.objects.create
        storage.objects.delete
        storage.objects.get
        storage.objects.list
        iam.serviceAccounts.signBlob
    )
  9. Create the velero.server custom role:

    $ gcloud iam roles create velero.server \
        --project $PROJECT_ID \
        --title "Velero Server" \
        --permissions "$(IFS=","; echo "${ROLE_PERMISSIONS[*]}")"
  10. Add IAM policy binding to the project:

    $ gcloud projects add-iam-policy-binding $PROJECT_ID \
        --member serviceAccount:$SERVICE_ACCOUNT_EMAIL \
        --role projects/$PROJECT_ID/roles/velero.server
  11. Update the IAM service account:

    $ gsutil iam ch serviceAccount:$SERVICE_ACCOUNT_EMAIL:objectAdmin gs://${BUCKET}
  12. Save the IAM service account keys to the credentials-velero file in the current directory:

    $ gcloud iam service-accounts keys create credentials-velero \
        --iam-account $SERVICE_ACCOUNT_EMAIL

    You use the credentials-velero file to create a Secret object for GCP before you install the Data Protection Application.

4.4.5.2. About backup and snapshot locations and their secrets

You specify backup and snapshot locations and their secrets in the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR).

Backup locations

You specify S3-compatible object storage, such as Multicloud Object Gateway or MinIO, as a backup location.

Velero backs up OpenShift Container Platform resources, Kubernetes objects, and internal images as an archive file on object storage.

Snapshot locations

If you use your cloud provider’s native snapshot API to back up persistent volumes, you must specify the cloud provider as the snapshot location.

If you use Container Storage Interface (CSI) snapshots, you do not need to specify a snapshot location because you will create a VolumeSnapshotClass CR to register the CSI driver.

If you use Restic, you do not need to specify a snapshot location because Restic backs up the file system on object storage.

Secrets

If the backup and snapshot locations use the same credentials or if you do not require a snapshot location, you create a default Secret.

If the backup and snapshot locations use different credentials, you create two secret objects:

  • Custom Secret for the backup location, which you specify in the DataProtectionApplication CR.
  • Default Secret for the snapshot location, which is not referenced in the DataProtectionApplication CR.
Important

The Data Protection Application requires a default Secret. Otherwise, the installation will fail.

If you do not want to specify backup or snapshot locations during the installation, you can create a default Secret with an empty credentials-velero file.

4.4.5.2.1. Creating a default Secret

You create a default Secret if your backup and snapshot locations use the same credentials or if you do not require a snapshot location.

The default name of the Secret is cloud-credentials-gcp.

Note

The DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR) requires a default Secret. Otherwise, the installation will fail. If the name of the backup location Secret is not specified, the default name is used.

If you do not want to use the backup location credentials during the installation, you can create a Secret with the default name by using an empty credentials-velero file.

Prerequisites

  • Your object storage and cloud storage, if any, must use the same credentials.
  • You must configure object storage for Velero.
  • You must create a credentials-velero file for the object storage in the appropriate format.

Procedure

  • Create a Secret with the default name:

    $ oc create secret generic cloud-credentials-gcp -n openshift-adp --from-file cloud=credentials-velero

The Secret is referenced in the spec.backupLocations.credential block of the DataProtectionApplication CR when you install the Data Protection Application.

4.4.5.2.2. Creating secrets for different credentials

If your backup and snapshot locations use different credentials, you must create two Secret objects:

  • Backup location Secret with a custom name. The custom name is specified in the spec.backupLocations block of the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR).
  • Snapshot location Secret with the default name, cloud-credentials-gcp. This Secret is not specified in the DataProtectionApplication CR.

Procedure

  1. Create a credentials-velero file for the snapshot location in the appropriate format for your cloud provider.
  2. Create a Secret for the snapshot location with the default name:

    $ oc create secret generic cloud-credentials-gcp -n openshift-adp --from-file cloud=credentials-velero
  3. Create a credentials-velero file for the backup location in the appropriate format for your object storage.
  4. Create a Secret for the backup location with a custom name:

    $ oc create secret generic <custom_secret> -n openshift-adp --from-file cloud=credentials-velero
  5. Add the Secret with the custom name to the DataProtectionApplication CR, as in the following example:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    metadata:
      name: <dpa_sample>
      namespace: openshift-adp
    spec:
    ...
      backupLocations:
        - velero:
            provider: gcp
            default: true
            credential:
              key: cloud
              name: <custom_secret> 1
            objectStorage:
              bucket: <bucket_name>
              prefix: <prefix>
      snapshotLocations:
        - velero:
            provider: gcp
            default: true
            config:
              project: <project>
              snapshotLocation: us-west1
    1
    Backup location Secret with custom name.

4.4.5.3. Configuring the Data Protection Application

You can configure the Data Protection Application by setting Velero resource allocations or enabling self-signed CA certificates.

4.4.5.3.1. Setting Velero CPU and memory resource allocations

You set the CPU and memory resource allocations for the Velero pod by editing the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR) manifest.

Prerequisites

  • You must have the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) Operator installed.

Procedure

  • Edit the values in the spec.configuration.velero.podConfig.ResourceAllocations block of the DataProtectionApplication CR manifest, as in the following example:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    metadata:
      name: <dpa_sample>
    spec:
    ...
      configuration:
        velero:
          podConfig:
            nodeSelector: <node selector> 1
            resourceAllocations: 2
              limits:
                cpu: "1"
                memory: 1024Mi
              requests:
                cpu: 200m
                memory: 256Mi
    1
    Specify the node selector to be supplied to Velero podSpec.
    2
    The resourceAllocations listed are for average usage.
4.4.5.3.2. Enabling self-signed CA certificates

You must enable a self-signed CA certificate for object storage by editing the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR) manifest to prevent a certificate signed by unknown authority error.

Prerequisites

  • You must have the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) Operator installed.

Procedure

  • Edit the spec.backupLocations.velero.objectStorage.caCert parameter and spec.backupLocations.velero.config parameters of the DataProtectionApplication CR manifest:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    metadata:
      name: <dpa_sample>
    spec:
    ...
      backupLocations:
        - name: default
          velero:
            provider: aws
            default: true
            objectStorage:
              bucket: <bucket>
              prefix: <prefix>
              caCert: <base64_encoded_cert_string> 1
            config:
              insecureSkipTLSVerify: "false" 2
    ...
    1
    Specify the Base64-encoded CA certificate string.
    2
    The insecureSkipTLSVerify configuration can be set to either "true" or "false". If set to "true", SSL/TLS security is disabled. If set to "false", SSL/TLS security is enabled.

4.4.5.4. Installing the Data Protection Application

You install the Data Protection Application (DPA) by creating an instance of the DataProtectionApplication API.

Prerequisites

  • You must install the OADP Operator.
  • You must configure object storage as a backup location.
  • If you use snapshots to back up PVs, your cloud provider must support either a native snapshot API or Container Storage Interface (CSI) snapshots.
  • If the backup and snapshot locations use the same credentials, you must create a Secret with the default name, cloud-credentials-gcp.
  • If the backup and snapshot locations use different credentials, you must create two Secrets:

    • Secret with a custom name for the backup location. You add this Secret to the DataProtectionApplication CR.
    • Secret with the default name, cloud-credentials-gcp, for the snapshot location. This Secret is not referenced in the DataProtectionApplication CR.

      Note

      If you do not want to specify backup or snapshot locations during the installation, you can create a default Secret with an empty credentials-velero file. If there is no default Secret, the installation will fail.

      Note

      Velero creates a secret named velero-repo-credentials in the OADP namespace, which contains a default backup repository password. You can update the secret with your own password encoded as base64 before you run your first backup targeted to the backup repository. The value of the key to update is Data[repository-password].

      After you create your DPA, the first time that you run a backup targeted to the backup repository, Velero creates a backup repository whose secret is velero-repo-credentials, which contains either the default password or the one you replaced it with. If you update the secret password after the first backup, the new password will not match the password in velero-repo-credentials, and therefore, Velero will not be able to connect with the older backups.

Procedure

  1. Click OperatorsInstalled Operators and select the OADP Operator.
  2. Under Provided APIs, click Create instance in the DataProtectionApplication box.
  3. Click YAML View and update the parameters of the DataProtectionApplication manifest:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    metadata:
      name: <dpa_sample>
      namespace: openshift-adp
    spec:
      configuration:
        velero:
          defaultPlugins:
            - gcp
            - openshift 1
          resourceTimeout: 10m 2
        restic:
          enable: true 3
          podConfig:
            nodeSelector: <node_selector> 4
      backupLocations:
        - velero:
            provider: gcp
            default: true
            credential:
              key: cloud
              name: cloud-credentials-gcp 5
            objectStorage:
              bucket: <bucket_name> 6
              prefix: <prefix> 7
      snapshotLocations: 8
        - velero:
            provider: gcp
            default: true
            config:
              project: <project>
              snapshotLocation: us-west1 9
    1
    The openshift plugin is mandatory.
    2
    Specify how many minutes to wait for several Velero resources before timeout occurs, such as Velero CRD availability, volumeSnapshot deletion, and backup repository availability. The default is 10m.
    3
    Set this value to false if you want to disable the Restic installation. Restic deploys a daemon set, which means that Restic pods run on each working node. In OADP version 1.2 and later, you can configure Restic for backups by adding spec.defaultVolumesToFsBackup: true to the Backup CR. In OADP version 1.1, add spec.defaultVolumesToRestic: true to the Backup CR.
    4
    Specify on which nodes Restic is available. By default, Restic runs on all nodes.
    5
    If you do not specify this value, the default name, cloud-credentials-gcp, is used. If you specify a custom name, the custom name is used for the backup location.
    6
    Specify a bucket as the backup storage location. If the bucket is not a dedicated bucket for Velero backups, you must specify a prefix.
    7
    Specify a prefix for Velero backups, for example, velero, if the bucket is used for multiple purposes.
    8
    Specify a snapshot location, unless you use CSI snapshots or Restic to back up PVs.
    9
    The snapshot location must be in the same region as the PVs.
  4. Click Create.
  5. Verify the installation by viewing the OADP resources:

    $ oc get all -n openshift-adp

    Example output

    NAME                                                     READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    pod/oadp-operator-controller-manager-67d9494d47-6l8z8    2/2     Running   0          2m8s
    pod/restic-9cq4q                                         1/1     Running   0          94s
    pod/restic-m4lts                                         1/1     Running   0          94s
    pod/restic-pv4kr                                         1/1     Running   0          95s
    pod/velero-588db7f655-n842v                              1/1     Running   0          95s
    
    NAME                                                       TYPE        CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)    AGE
    service/oadp-operator-controller-manager-metrics-service   ClusterIP   172.30.70.140    <none>        8443/TCP   2m8s
    
    NAME                    DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   NODE SELECTOR   AGE
    daemonset.apps/restic   3         3         3       3            3           <none>          96s
    
    NAME                                                READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
    deployment.apps/oadp-operator-controller-manager    1/1     1            1           2m9s
    deployment.apps/velero                              1/1     1            1           96s
    
    NAME                                                           DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AGE
    replicaset.apps/oadp-operator-controller-manager-67d9494d47    1         1         1       2m9s
    replicaset.apps/velero-588db7f655                              1         1         1       96s

4.4.5.4.1. Enabling CSI in the DataProtectionApplication CR

You enable the Container Storage Interface (CSI) in the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR) in order to back up persistent volumes with CSI snapshots.

Prerequisites

  • The cloud provider must support CSI snapshots.

Procedure

  • Edit the DataProtectionApplication CR, as in the following example:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    ...
    spec:
      configuration:
        velero:
          defaultPlugins:
          - openshift
          - csi 1
    1
    Add the csi default plugin.

4.4.6. Configuring the OpenShift API for Data Protection with Multicloud Object Gateway

You install the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) with Multicloud Object Gateway (MCG) by installing the OADP Operator. The Operator installs Velero 1.12.

Note

Starting from OADP 1.0.4, all OADP 1.0.z versions can only be used as a dependency of the MTC Operator and are not available as a standalone Operator.

You configure Multicloud Object Gateway as a backup location. MCG is a component of OpenShift Data Foundation. You configure MCG as a backup location in the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR).

Important

The CloudStorage API, which automates the creation of a bucket for object storage, is a Technology Preview feature only. Technology Preview features are not supported with Red Hat production service level agreements (SLAs) and might not be functionally complete. Red Hat does not recommend using them in production. These features provide early access to upcoming product features, enabling customers to test functionality and provide feedback during the development process.

For more information about the support scope of Red Hat Technology Preview features, see Technology Preview Features Support Scope.

You create a Secret for the backup location and then you install the Data Protection Application. For more details, see Installing the OADP Operator.

To install the OADP Operator in a restricted network environment, you must first disable the default OperatorHub sources and mirror the Operator catalog. For details, see Using Operator Lifecycle Manager on restricted networks.

4.4.6.1. Retrieving Multicloud Object Gateway credentials

You must retrieve the Multicloud Object Gateway (MCG) credentials in order to create a Secret custom resource (CR) for the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP).

MCG is a component of OpenShift Data Foundation.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Obtain the S3 endpoint, AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID, and AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY by running the describe command on the NooBaa custom resource.
  2. Create a credentials-velero file:

    $ cat << EOF > ./credentials-velero
    [default]
    aws_access_key_id=<AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID>
    aws_secret_access_key=<AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY>
    EOF

    You use the credentials-velero file to create a Secret object when you install the Data Protection Application.

4.4.6.2. About backup and snapshot locations and their secrets

You specify backup and snapshot locations and their secrets in the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR).

Backup locations

You specify S3-compatible object storage, such as Multicloud Object Gateway or MinIO, as a backup location.

Velero backs up OpenShift Container Platform resources, Kubernetes objects, and internal images as an archive file on object storage.

Snapshot locations

If you use your cloud provider’s native snapshot API to back up persistent volumes, you must specify the cloud provider as the snapshot location.

If you use Container Storage Interface (CSI) snapshots, you do not need to specify a snapshot location because you will create a VolumeSnapshotClass CR to register the CSI driver.

If you use Restic, you do not need to specify a snapshot location because Restic backs up the file system on object storage.

Secrets

If the backup and snapshot locations use the same credentials or if you do not require a snapshot location, you create a default Secret.

If the backup and snapshot locations use different credentials, you create two secret objects:

  • Custom Secret for the backup location, which you specify in the DataProtectionApplication CR.
  • Default Secret for the snapshot location, which is not referenced in the DataProtectionApplication CR.
Important

The Data Protection Application requires a default Secret. Otherwise, the installation will fail.

If you do not want to specify backup or snapshot locations during the installation, you can create a default Secret with an empty credentials-velero file.

4.4.6.2.1. Creating a default Secret

You create a default Secret if your backup and snapshot locations use the same credentials or if you do not require a snapshot location.

The default name of the Secret is cloud-credentials.

Note

The DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR) requires a default Secret. Otherwise, the installation will fail. If the name of the backup location Secret is not specified, the default name is used.

If you do not want to use the backup location credentials during the installation, you can create a Secret with the default name by using an empty credentials-velero file.

Prerequisites

  • Your object storage and cloud storage, if any, must use the same credentials.
  • You must configure object storage for Velero.
  • You must create a credentials-velero file for the object storage in the appropriate format.

Procedure

  • Create a Secret with the default name:

    $ oc create secret generic cloud-credentials -n openshift-adp --from-file cloud=credentials-velero

The Secret is referenced in the spec.backupLocations.credential block of the DataProtectionApplication CR when you install the Data Protection Application.

4.4.6.2.2. Creating secrets for different credentials

If your backup and snapshot locations use different credentials, you must create two Secret objects:

  • Backup location Secret with a custom name. The custom name is specified in the spec.backupLocations block of the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR).
  • Snapshot location Secret with the default name, cloud-credentials. This Secret is not specified in the DataProtectionApplication CR.

Procedure

  1. Create a credentials-velero file for the snapshot location in the appropriate format for your cloud provider.
  2. Create a Secret for the snapshot location with the default name:

    $ oc create secret generic cloud-credentials -n openshift-adp --from-file cloud=credentials-velero
  3. Create a credentials-velero file for the backup location in the appropriate format for your object storage.
  4. Create a Secret for the backup location with a custom name:

    $ oc create secret generic <custom_secret> -n openshift-adp --from-file cloud=credentials-velero
  5. Add the Secret with the custom name to the DataProtectionApplication CR, as in the following example:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    metadata:
      name: <dpa_sample>
      namespace: openshift-adp
    spec:
    ...
      backupLocations:
        - velero:
            config:
              profile: "default"
              region: minio
              s3Url: <url>
              insecureSkipTLSVerify: "true"
              s3ForcePathStyle: "true"
            provider: aws
            default: true
            credential:
              key: cloud
              name:  <custom_secret> 1
            objectStorage:
              bucket: <bucket_name>
              prefix: <prefix>
    1
    Backup location Secret with custom name.

4.4.6.3. Configuring the Data Protection Application

You can configure the Data Protection Application by setting Velero resource allocations or enabling self-signed CA certificates.

4.4.6.3.1. Setting Velero CPU and memory resource allocations

You set the CPU and memory resource allocations for the Velero pod by editing the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR) manifest.

Prerequisites

  • You must have the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) Operator installed.

Procedure

  • Edit the values in the spec.configuration.velero.podConfig.ResourceAllocations block of the DataProtectionApplication CR manifest, as in the following example:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    metadata:
      name: <dpa_sample>
    spec:
    ...
      configuration:
        velero:
          podConfig:
            nodeSelector: <node selector> 1
            resourceAllocations: 2
              limits:
                cpu: "1"
                memory: 1024Mi
              requests:
                cpu: 200m
                memory: 256Mi
    1
    Specify the node selector to be supplied to Velero podSpec.
    2
    The resourceAllocations listed are for average usage.
4.4.6.3.2. Enabling self-signed CA certificates

You must enable a self-signed CA certificate for object storage by editing the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR) manifest to prevent a certificate signed by unknown authority error.

Prerequisites

  • You must have the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) Operator installed.

Procedure

  • Edit the spec.backupLocations.velero.objectStorage.caCert parameter and spec.backupLocations.velero.config parameters of the DataProtectionApplication CR manifest:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    metadata:
      name: <dpa_sample>
    spec:
    ...
      backupLocations:
        - name: default
          velero:
            provider: aws
            default: true
            objectStorage:
              bucket: <bucket>
              prefix: <prefix>
              caCert: <base64_encoded_cert_string> 1
            config:
              insecureSkipTLSVerify: "false" 2
    ...
    1
    Specify the Base64-encoded CA certificate string.
    2
    The insecureSkipTLSVerify configuration can be set to either "true" or "false". If set to "true", SSL/TLS security is disabled. If set to "false", SSL/TLS security is enabled.

4.4.6.4. Installing the Data Protection Application

You install the Data Protection Application (DPA) by creating an instance of the DataProtectionApplication API.

Prerequisites

  • You must install the OADP Operator.
  • You must configure object storage as a backup location.
  • If you use snapshots to back up PVs, your cloud provider must support either a native snapshot API or Container Storage Interface (CSI) snapshots.
  • If the backup and snapshot locations use the same credentials, you must create a Secret with the default name, cloud-credentials.
  • If the backup and snapshot locations use different credentials, you must create two Secrets:

    • Secret with a custom name for the backup location. You add this Secret to the DataProtectionApplication CR.
    • Secret with the default name, cloud-credentials, for the snapshot location. This Secret is not referenced in the DataProtectionApplication CR.

      Note

      If you do not want to specify backup or snapshot locations during the installation, you can create a default Secret with an empty credentials-velero file. If there is no default Secret, the installation will fail.

      Note

      Velero creates a secret named velero-repo-credentials in the OADP namespace, which contains a default backup repository password. You can update the secret with your own password encoded as base64 before you run your first backup targeted to the backup repository. The value of the key to update is Data[repository-password].

      After you create your DPA, the first time that you run a backup targeted to the backup repository, Velero creates a backup repository whose secret is velero-repo-credentials, which contains either the default password or the one you replaced it with. If you update the secret password after the first backup, the new password will not match the password in velero-repo-credentials, and therefore, Velero will not be able to connect with the older backups.

Procedure

  1. Click OperatorsInstalled Operators and select the OADP Operator.
  2. Under Provided APIs, click Create instance in the DataProtectionApplication box.
  3. Click YAML View and update the parameters of the DataProtectionApplication manifest:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    metadata:
      name: <dpa_sample>
      namespace: openshift-adp
    spec:
      configuration:
        velero:
          defaultPlugins:
            - aws
            - openshift 1
          resourceTimeout: 10m 2
        restic:
          enable: true 3
          podConfig:
            nodeSelector: <node_selector> 4
      backupLocations:
        - velero:
            config:
              profile: "default"
              region: minio
              s3Url: <url> 5
              insecureSkipTLSVerify: "true"
              s3ForcePathStyle: "true"
            provider: aws
            default: true
            credential:
              key: cloud
              name: cloud-credentials 6
            objectStorage:
              bucket: <bucket_name> 7
              prefix: <prefix> 8
    1
    The openshift plugin is mandatory.
    2
    Specify how many minutes to wait for several Velero resources before timeout occurs, such as Velero CRD availability, volumeSnapshot deletion, and backup repository availability. The default is 10m.
    3
    Set this value to false if you want to disable the Restic installation. Restic deploys a daemon set, which means that Restic pods run on each working node. In OADP version 1.2 and later, you can configure Restic for backups by adding spec.defaultVolumesToFsBackup: true to the Backup CR. In OADP version 1.1, add spec.defaultVolumesToRestic: true to the Backup CR.
    4
    Specify on which nodes Restic is available. By default, Restic runs on all nodes.
    5
    Specify the URL of the S3 endpoint.
    6
    If you do not specify this value, the default name, cloud-credentials, is used. If you specify a custom name, the custom name is used for the backup location.
    7
    Specify a bucket as the backup storage location. If the bucket is not a dedicated bucket for Velero backups, you must specify a prefix.
    8
    Specify a prefix for Velero backups, for example, velero, if the bucket is used for multiple purposes.
  4. Click Create.
  5. Verify the installation by viewing the OADP resources:

    $ oc get all -n openshift-adp

    Example output

    NAME                                                     READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    pod/oadp-operator-controller-manager-67d9494d47-6l8z8    2/2     Running   0          2m8s
    pod/restic-9cq4q                                         1/1     Running   0          94s
    pod/restic-m4lts                                         1/1     Running   0          94s
    pod/restic-pv4kr                                         1/1     Running   0          95s
    pod/velero-588db7f655-n842v                              1/1     Running   0          95s
    
    NAME                                                       TYPE        CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)    AGE
    service/oadp-operator-controller-manager-metrics-service   ClusterIP   172.30.70.140    <none>        8443/TCP   2m8s
    
    NAME                    DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   NODE SELECTOR   AGE
    daemonset.apps/restic   3         3         3       3            3           <none>          96s
    
    NAME                                                READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
    deployment.apps/oadp-operator-controller-manager    1/1     1            1           2m9s
    deployment.apps/velero                              1/1     1            1           96s
    
    NAME                                                           DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AGE
    replicaset.apps/oadp-operator-controller-manager-67d9494d47    1         1         1       2m9s
    replicaset.apps/velero-588db7f655                              1         1         1       96s

4.4.6.4.1. Enabling CSI in the DataProtectionApplication CR

You enable the Container Storage Interface (CSI) in the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR) in order to back up persistent volumes with CSI snapshots.

Prerequisites

  • The cloud provider must support CSI snapshots.

Procedure

  • Edit the DataProtectionApplication CR, as in the following example:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    ...
    spec:
      configuration:
        velero:
          defaultPlugins:
          - openshift
          - csi 1
    1
    Add the csi default plugin.

4.4.7. Configuring the OpenShift API for Data Protection with OpenShift Data Foundation

You install the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) with OpenShift Data Foundation by installing the OADP Operator and configuring a backup location and a snapshot location. Then, you install the Data Protection Application.

Note

Starting from OADP 1.0.4, all OADP 1.0.z versions can only be used as a dependency of the MTC Operator and are not available as a standalone Operator.

You can configure Multicloud Object Gateway or any S3-compatible object storage as a backup location.

Important

The CloudStorage API, which automates the creation of a bucket for object storage, is a Technology Preview feature only. Technology Preview features are not supported with Red Hat production service level agreements (SLAs) and might not be functionally complete. Red Hat does not recommend using them in production. These features provide early access to upcoming product features, enabling customers to test functionality and provide feedback during the development process.

For more information about the support scope of Red Hat Technology Preview features, see Technology Preview Features Support Scope.

You create a Secret for the backup location and then you install the Data Protection Application. For more details, see Installing the OADP Operator.

To install the OADP Operator in a restricted network environment, you must first disable the default OperatorHub sources and mirror the Operator catalog. For details, see Using Operator Lifecycle Manager on restricted networks.

4.4.7.1. About backup and snapshot locations and their secrets

You specify backup and snapshot locations and their secrets in the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR).

Backup locations

You specify S3-compatible object storage, such as Multicloud Object Gateway or MinIO, as a backup location.

Velero backs up OpenShift Container Platform resources, Kubernetes objects, and internal images as an archive file on object storage.

Snapshot locations

If you use your cloud provider’s native snapshot API to back up persistent volumes, you must specify the cloud provider as the snapshot location.

If you use Container Storage Interface (CSI) snapshots, you do not need to specify a snapshot location because you will create a VolumeSnapshotClass CR to register the CSI driver.

If you use Restic, you do not need to specify a snapshot location because Restic backs up the file system on object storage.

Secrets

If the backup and snapshot locations use the same credentials or if you do not require a snapshot location, you create a default Secret.

If the backup and snapshot locations use different credentials, you create two secret objects:

  • Custom Secret for the backup location, which you specify in the DataProtectionApplication CR.
  • Default Secret for the snapshot location, which is not referenced in the DataProtectionApplication CR.
Important

The Data Protection Application requires a default Secret. Otherwise, the installation will fail.

If you do not want to specify backup or snapshot locations during the installation, you can create a default Secret with an empty credentials-velero file.

4.4.7.1.1. Creating a default Secret

You create a default Secret if your backup and snapshot locations use the same credentials or if you do not require a snapshot location.

The default name of the Secret is cloud-credentials.

Note

The DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR) requires a default Secret. Otherwise, the installation will fail. If the name of the backup location Secret is not specified, the default name is used.

If you do not want to use the backup location credentials during the installation, you can create a Secret with the default name by using an empty credentials-velero file.

Prerequisites

  • Your object storage and cloud storage, if any, must use the same credentials.
  • You must configure object storage for Velero.
  • You must create a credentials-velero file for the object storage in the appropriate format.

Procedure

  • Create a Secret with the default name:

    $ oc create secret generic cloud-credentials -n openshift-adp --from-file cloud=credentials-velero

The Secret is referenced in the spec.backupLocations.credential block of the DataProtectionApplication CR when you install the Data Protection Application.

4.4.7.1.2. Creating secrets for different credentials

If your backup and snapshot locations use different credentials, you must create two Secret objects:

  • Backup location Secret with a custom name. The custom name is specified in the spec.backupLocations block of the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR).
  • Snapshot location Secret with the default name, cloud-credentials. This Secret is not specified in the DataProtectionApplication CR.

Procedure

  1. Create a credentials-velero file for the snapshot location in the appropriate format for your cloud provider.
  2. Create a Secret for the snapshot location with the default name:

    $ oc create secret generic cloud-credentials -n openshift-adp --from-file cloud=credentials-velero
  3. Create a credentials-velero file for the backup location in the appropriate format for your object storage.
  4. Create a Secret for the backup location with a custom name:

    $ oc create secret generic <custom_secret> -n openshift-adp --from-file cloud=credentials-velero
  5. Add the Secret with the custom name to the DataProtectionApplication CR, as in the following example:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    metadata:
      name: <dpa_sample>
      namespace: openshift-adp
    spec:
    ...
      backupLocations:
        - velero:
            config:
              profile: "default"
              region: minio
              s3Url: <url>
              insecureSkipTLSVerify: "true"
              s3ForcePathStyle: "true"
            provider: gcp
            default: true
            credential:
              key: cloud
              name:  <custom_secret> 1
            objectStorage:
              bucket: <bucket_name>
              prefix: <prefix>
    1
    Backup location Secret with custom name.

4.4.7.2. Configuring the Data Protection Application

You can configure the Data Protection Application by setting Velero resource allocations or enabling self-signed CA certificates.

4.4.7.2.1. Setting Velero CPU and memory resource allocations

You set the CPU and memory resource allocations for the Velero pod by editing the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR) manifest.

Prerequisites

  • You must have the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) Operator installed.

Procedure

  • Edit the values in the spec.configuration.velero.podConfig.ResourceAllocations block of the DataProtectionApplication CR manifest, as in the following example:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    metadata:
      name: <dpa_sample>
    spec:
    ...
      configuration:
        velero:
          podConfig:
            nodeSelector: <node selector> 1
            resourceAllocations: 2
              limits:
                cpu: "1"
                memory: 1024Mi
              requests:
                cpu: 200m
                memory: 256Mi
    1
    Specify the node selector to be supplied to Velero podSpec.
    2
    The resourceAllocations listed are for average usage.
4.4.7.2.1.1. Adjusting Ceph CPU and memory requirements based on collected data

The following recommendations are based on observations of performance made in the scale and performance lab. The changes are specifically related to {odf-first}. If working with {odf-short}, consult the appropriate tuning guides for official recommendations.

4.4.7.2.1.1.1. CPU and memory requirement for configurations

Backup and restore operations require large amounts of CephFS PersistentVolumes (PVs). To avoid Ceph MDS pods restarting with an out-of-memory (OOM) error, the following configuration is suggested:

Configuration typesRequestMax limit

CPU

Request changed to 3

Max limit to 3

Memory

Request changed to 8 Gi

Max limit to 128 Gi

4.4.7.2.2. Enabling self-signed CA certificates

You must enable a self-signed CA certificate for object storage by editing the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR) manifest to prevent a certificate signed by unknown authority error.

Prerequisites

  • You must have the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) Operator installed.

Procedure

  • Edit the spec.backupLocations.velero.objectStorage.caCert parameter and spec.backupLocations.velero.config parameters of the DataProtectionApplication CR manifest:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    metadata:
      name: <dpa_sample>
    spec:
    ...
      backupLocations:
        - name: default
          velero:
            provider: aws
            default: true
            objectStorage:
              bucket: <bucket>
              prefix: <prefix>
              caCert: <base64_encoded_cert_string> 1
            config:
              insecureSkipTLSVerify: "false" 2
    ...
    1
    Specify the Base64-encoded CA certificate string.
    2
    The insecureSkipTLSVerify configuration can be set to either "true" or "false". If set to "true", SSL/TLS security is disabled. If set to "false", SSL/TLS security is enabled.

4.4.7.3. Installing the Data Protection Application

You install the Data Protection Application (DPA) by creating an instance of the DataProtectionApplication API.

Prerequisites

  • You must install the OADP Operator.
  • You must configure object storage as a backup location.
  • If you use snapshots to back up PVs, your cloud provider must support either a native snapshot API or Container Storage Interface (CSI) snapshots.
  • If the backup and snapshot locations use the same credentials, you must create a Secret with the default name, cloud-credentials.
  • If the backup and snapshot locations use different credentials, you must create two Secrets:

    • Secret with a custom name for the backup location. You add this Secret to the DataProtectionApplication CR.
    • Secret with the default name, cloud-credentials, for the snapshot location. This Secret is not referenced in the DataProtectionApplication CR.

      Note

      If you do not want to specify backup or snapshot locations during the installation, you can create a default Secret with an empty credentials-velero file. If there is no default Secret, the installation will fail.

      Note

      Velero creates a secret named velero-repo-credentials in the OADP namespace, which contains a default backup repository password. You can update the secret with your own password encoded as base64 before you run your first backup targeted to the backup repository. The value of the key to update is Data[repository-password].

      After you create your DPA, the first time that you run a backup targeted to the backup repository, Velero creates a backup repository whose secret is velero-repo-credentials, which contains either the default password or the one you replaced it with. If you update the secret password after the first backup, the new password will not match the password in velero-repo-credentials, and therefore, Velero will not be able to connect with the older backups.

Procedure

  1. Click OperatorsInstalled Operators and select the OADP Operator.
  2. Under Provided APIs, click Create instance in the DataProtectionApplication box.
  3. Click YAML View and update the parameters of the DataProtectionApplication manifest:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    metadata:
      name: <dpa_sample>
      namespace: openshift-adp
    spec:
      configuration:
        velero:
          defaultPlugins:
            - aws
            - openshift 1
          resourceTimeout: 10m 2
        restic:
          enable: true 3
          podConfig:
            nodeSelector: <node_selector> 4
      backupLocations:
        - velero:
            config:
              profile: "default"
              region: minio
              s3Url: <url> 5
              insecureSkipTLSVerify: "true"
              s3ForcePathStyle: "true"
            provider: gcp
            default: true
            credential:
              key: cloud
              name: cloud-credentials 6
            objectStorage:
              bucket: <bucket_name> 7
              prefix: <prefix> 8
    1
    The openshift plugin is mandatory.
    2
    Specify how many minutes to wait for several Velero resources before timeout occurs, such as Velero CRD availability, volumeSnapshot deletion, and backup repository availability. The default is 10m.
    3
    Set this value to false if you want to disable the Restic installation. Restic deploys a daemon set, which means that Restic pods run on each working node. In OADP version 1.2 and later, you can configure Restic for backups by adding spec.defaultVolumesToFsBackup: true to the Backup CR. In OADP version 1.1, add spec.defaultVolumesToRestic: true to the Backup CR.
    4
    Specify on which nodes Restic is available. By default, Restic runs on all nodes.
    5
    Specify the URL of the S3 endpoint.
    6
    If you do not specify this value, the default name, cloud-credentials, is used. If you specify a custom name, the custom name is used for the backup location.
    7
    Specify a bucket as the backup storage location. If the bucket is not a dedicated bucket for Velero backups, you must specify a prefix.
    8
    Specify a prefix for Velero backups, for example, velero, if the bucket is used for multiple purposes.
  4. Click Create.
  5. Verify the installation by viewing the OADP resources:

    $ oc get all -n openshift-adp

    Example output

    NAME                                                     READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    pod/oadp-operator-controller-manager-67d9494d47-6l8z8    2/2     Running   0          2m8s
    pod/restic-9cq4q                                         1/1     Running   0          94s
    pod/restic-m4lts                                         1/1     Running   0          94s
    pod/restic-pv4kr                                         1/1     Running   0          95s
    pod/velero-588db7f655-n842v                              1/1     Running   0          95s
    
    NAME                                                       TYPE        CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)    AGE
    service/oadp-operator-controller-manager-metrics-service   ClusterIP   172.30.70.140    <none>        8443/TCP   2m8s
    
    NAME                    DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   NODE SELECTOR   AGE
    daemonset.apps/restic   3         3         3       3            3           <none>          96s
    
    NAME                                                READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
    deployment.apps/oadp-operator-controller-manager    1/1     1            1           2m9s
    deployment.apps/velero                              1/1     1            1           96s
    
    NAME                                                           DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AGE
    replicaset.apps/oadp-operator-controller-manager-67d9494d47    1         1         1       2m9s
    replicaset.apps/velero-588db7f655                              1         1         1       96s

4.4.7.3.1. Creating an Object Bucket Claim for disaster recovery on OpenShift Data Foundation

If you use cluster storage for your Multicloud Object Gateway (MCG) bucket backupStorageLocation on OpenShift Data Foundation, create an Object Bucket Claim (OBC) using the OpenShift Web Console.

Warning

Failure to configure an Object Bucket Claim (OBC) might lead to backups not being available.

Note

Unless specified otherwise, "NooBaa" refers to the open source project that provides lightweight object storage, while "Multicloud Object Gateway (MCG)" refers to the Red Hat distribution of NooBaa.

For more information on the MCG, see Accessing the Multicloud Object Gateway with your applications.

Procedure

4.4.7.3.2. Enabling CSI in the DataProtectionApplication CR

You enable the Container Storage Interface (CSI) in the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR) in order to back up persistent volumes with CSI snapshots.

Prerequisites

  • The cloud provider must support CSI snapshots.

Procedure

  • Edit the DataProtectionApplication CR, as in the following example:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    ...
    spec:
      configuration:
        velero:
          defaultPlugins:
          - openshift
          - csi 1
    1
    Add the csi default plugin.

4.5. Uninstalling OADP

4.5.1. Uninstalling the OpenShift API for Data Protection

You uninstall the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) by deleting the OADP Operator. See Deleting Operators from a cluster for details.

4.6. OADP backing up

4.6.1. Backing up applications

You back up applications by creating a Backup custom resource (CR). See Creating a Backup CR.

  • The Backup CR creates backup files for Kubernetes resources and internal images on S3 object storage.
  • If your cloud provider has a native snapshot API or supports CSI snapshots, the Backup CR backs up persistent volumes (PVs) by creating snapshots. For more information about working with CSI snapshots, see Backing up persistent volumes with CSI snapshots.

For more information about CSI volume snapshots, see CSI volume snapshots.

Important

The CloudStorage API for S3 storage is a Technology Preview feature only. Technology Preview features are not supported with Red Hat production service level agreements (SLAs) and might not be functionally complete. Red Hat does not recommend using them in production. These features provide early access to upcoming product features, enabling customers to test functionality and provide feedback during the development process.

For more information about the support scope of Red Hat Technology Preview features, see Technology Preview Features Support Scope.

Important

The OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) does not support backing up volume snapshots that were created by other software.

You can create backup hooks to run commands before or after the backup operation. See Creating backup hooks.

You can schedule backups by creating a Schedule CR instead of a Backup CR. See Scheduling backups using Schedule CR].

4.6.1.1. Known issues

OpenShift Container Platform 4.14 enforces a pod security admission (PSA) policy that can hinder the readiness of pods during a Restic restore process. 

This issue has been resolved in the OADP 1.1.6 and OADP 1.2.2 releases, therefore it is recommended that users upgrade to these releases.

For more information, see Restic restore partially failing on OCP 4.14 due to changed PSA policy.

4.6.2. Creating a Backup CR

You back up Kubernetes images, internal images, and persistent volumes (PVs) by creating a Backup custom resource (CR).

Prerequisites

  • You must install the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) Operator.
  • The DataProtectionApplication CR must be in a Ready state.
  • Backup location prerequisites:

    • You must have S3 object storage configured for Velero.
    • You must have a backup location configured in the DataProtectionApplication CR.
  • Snapshot location prerequisites:

    • Your cloud provider must have a native snapshot API or support Container Storage Interface (CSI) snapshots.
    • For CSI snapshots, you must create a VolumeSnapshotClass CR to register the CSI driver.
    • You must have a volume location configured in the DataProtectionApplication CR.

Procedure

  1. Retrieve the backupStorageLocations CRs by entering the following command:

    $ oc get backupStorageLocations -n openshift-adp

    Example output

    NAMESPACE       NAME              PHASE       LAST VALIDATED   AGE   DEFAULT
    openshift-adp   velero-sample-1   Available   11s              31m

  2. Create a Backup CR, as in the following example:

    apiVersion: velero.io/v1
    kind: Backup
    metadata:
      name: <backup>
      labels:
        velero.io/storage-location: default
      namespace: openshift-adp
    spec:
      hooks: {}
      includedNamespaces:
      - <namespace> 1
      includedResources: [] 2
      excludedResources: [] 3
      storageLocation: <velero-sample-1> 4
      ttl: 720h0m0s
      labelSelector: 5
        matchLabels:
          app: <label_1>
          app: <label_2>
          app: <label_3>
      orLabelSelectors: 6
      - matchLabels:
          app: <label_1>
          app: <label_2>
          app: <label_3>
    1
    Specify an array of namespaces to back up.
    2
    Optional: Specify an array of resources to include in the backup. Resources might be shortcuts (for example, 'po' for 'pods') or fully-qualified. If unspecified, all resources are included.
    3
    Optional: Specify an array of resources to exclude from the backup. Resources might be shortcuts (for example, 'po' for 'pods') or fully-qualified.
    4
    Specify the name of the backupStorageLocations CR.
    5
    Map of {key,value} pairs of backup resources that have all the specified labels.
    6
    Map of {key,value} pairs of backup resources that have one or more of the specified labels.
  3. Verify that the status of the Backup CR is Completed:

    $ oc get backup -n openshift-adp <backup> -o jsonpath='{.status.phase}'

4.6.3. Backing up persistent volumes with CSI snapshots

You back up persistent volumes with Container Storage Interface (CSI) snapshots by editing the VolumeSnapshotClass custom resource (CR) of the cloud storage before you create the Backup CR, see CSI volume snapshots.

For more information, see Creating a Backup CR.

Prerequisites

  • The cloud provider must support CSI snapshots.
  • You must enable CSI in the DataProtectionApplication CR.

Procedure

  • Add the metadata.labels.velero.io/csi-volumesnapshot-class: "true" key-value pair to the VolumeSnapshotClass CR:

    apiVersion: snapshot.storage.k8s.io/v1
    kind: VolumeSnapshotClass
    metadata:
      name: <volume_snapshot_class_name>
      labels:
        velero.io/csi-volumesnapshot-class: "true"
    driver: <csi_driver>
    deletionPolicy: Retain

You can now create a Backup CR.

4.6.4. Backing up applications with File System Backup: Kopia or Restic

You can use OADP to back up and restore Kubernetes volumes attached to pods from the file system of the volumes. This process is called File System Backup (FSB) or Pod Volume Backup (PVB). It is accomplished by using modules from the open source backup tools Restic or Kopia.

If your cloud provider does not support snapshots or if your applications are on NFS data volumes, you can create backups by using FSB.

Note

Restic is installed by the OADP Operator by default. If you prefer, you can install Kopia instead.

FSB integration with OADP provides a solution for backing up and restoring almost any type of Kubernetes volumes. This integration is an additional capability of OADP and is not a replacement for existing functionality.

You back up Kubernetes resources, internal images, and persistent volumes with Kopia or Restic by editing the Backup custom resource (CR).

You do not need to specify a snapshot location in the DataProtectionApplication CR.

Note

In OADP version 1.3 and later, you can use either Kopia or Restic for backing up applications.

For the Built-in DataMover, you must use Kopia.

In OADP version 1.2 and earlier, you can only use Restic for backing up applications.

Important

FSB does not support backing up hostPath volumes. For more information, see FSB limitations.

Prerequisites

  • You must install the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) Operator.
  • You must not disable the default nodeAgent installation by setting spec.configuration.nodeAgent.enable to false in the DataProtectionApplication CR.
  • You must select Kopia or Restic as the uploader by setting spec.configuration.nodeAgent.uploaderType to kopia or restic in the DataProtectionApplication CR.
  • The DataProtectionApplication CR must be in a Ready state.

Procedure

  • Create the Backup CR, as in the following example:

    apiVersion: velero.io/v1
    kind: Backup
    metadata:
      name: <backup>
      labels:
        velero.io/storage-location: default
      namespace: openshift-adp
    spec:
      defaultVolumesToFsBackup: true 1
    ...
    1
    In OADP version 1.2 and later, add the defaultVolumesToFsBackup: true setting within the spec block. In OADP version 1.1, add defaultVolumesToRestic: true.

4.6.5. Creating backup hooks

When performing a backup, it is possible to specify one or more commands to execute in a container within a pod, based on the pod being backed up.

The commands can be configured to performed before any custom action processing (Pre hooks), or after all custom actions have been completed and any additional items specified by the custom action have been backed up (Post hooks).

You create backup hooks to run commands in a container in a pod by editing the Backup custom resource (CR).

Procedure

  • Add a hook to the spec.hooks block of the Backup CR, as in the following example:

    apiVersion: velero.io/v1
    kind: Backup
    metadata:
      name: <backup>
      namespace: openshift-adp
    spec:
      hooks:
        resources:
          - name: <hook_name>
            includedNamespaces:
            - <namespace> 1
            excludedNamespaces: 2
            - <namespace>
            includedResources: []
            - pods 3
            excludedResources: [] 4
            labelSelector: 5
              matchLabels:
                app: velero
                component: server
            pre: 6
              - exec:
                  container: <container> 7
                  command:
                  - /bin/uname 8
                  - -a
                  onError: Fail 9
                  timeout: 30s 10
            post: 11
    ...
    1
    Optional: You can specify namespaces to which the hook applies. If this value is not specified, the hook applies to all namespaces.
    2
    Optional: You can specify namespaces to which the hook does not apply.
    3
    Currently, pods are the only supported resource that hooks can apply to.
    4
    Optional: You can specify resources to which the hook does not apply.
    5
    Optional: This hook only applies to objects matching the label. If this value is not specified, the hook applies to all objects.
    6
    Array of hooks to run before the backup.
    7
    Optional: If the container is not specified, the command runs in the first container in the pod.
    8
    This is the entry point for the init container being added.
    9
    Allowed values for error handling are Fail and Continue. The default is Fail.
    10
    Optional: How long to wait for the commands to run. The default is 30s.
    11
    This block defines an array of hooks to run after the backup, with the same parameters as the pre-backup hooks.

4.6.6. Scheduling backups using Schedule CR

The schedule operation allows you to create a backup of your data at a particular time, specified by a Cron expression.

You schedule backups by creating a Schedule custom resource (CR) instead of a Backup CR.

Warning

Leave enough time in your backup schedule for a backup to finish before another backup is created.

For example, if a backup of a namespace typically takes 10 minutes, do not schedule backups more frequently than every 15 minutes.

Prerequisites

  • You must install the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) Operator.
  • The DataProtectionApplication CR must be in a Ready state.

Procedure

  1. Retrieve the backupStorageLocations CRs:

    $ oc get backupStorageLocations -n openshift-adp

    Example output

    NAMESPACE       NAME              PHASE       LAST VALIDATED   AGE   DEFAULT
    openshift-adp   velero-sample-1   Available   11s              31m

  2. Create a Schedule CR, as in the following example:

    $ cat << EOF | oc apply -f -
    apiVersion: velero.io/v1
    kind: Schedule
    metadata:
      name: <schedule>
      namespace: openshift-adp
    spec:
      schedule: 0 7 * * * 1
      template:
        hooks: {}
        includedNamespaces:
        - <namespace> 2
        storageLocation: <velero-sample-1> 3
        defaultVolumesToFsBackup: true 4
        ttl: 720h0m0s
    EOF
1
cron expression to schedule the backup, for example, 0 7 * * * to perform a backup every day at 7:00.
Note

To schedule a backup at specific intervals, enter the <duration_in_minutes> in the following format:

  schedule: "*/10 * * * *"

Enter the minutes value between quotation marks (" ").

2
Array of namespaces to back up.
3
Name of the backupStorageLocations CR.
4
Optional: In OADP version 1.2 and later, add the defaultVolumesToFsBackup: true key-value pair to your configuration when performing backups of volumes with Restic. In OADP version 1.1, add the defaultVolumesToRestic: true key-value pair when you back up volumes with Restic.
  1. Verify that the status of the Schedule CR is Completed after the scheduled backup runs:

    $ oc get schedule -n openshift-adp <schedule> -o jsonpath='{.status.phase}'

4.6.7. Deleting backups

You can remove backup files by deleting the Backup custom resource (CR).

Warning

After you delete the Backup CR and the associated object storage data, you cannot recover the deleted data.

Prerequisites

  • You created a Backup CR.
  • You know the name of the Backup CR and the namespace that contains it.
  • You downloaded the Velero CLI tool.
  • You can access the Velero binary in your cluster.

Procedure

  • Choose one of the following actions to delete the Backup CR:

    • To delete the Backup CR and keep the associated object storage data, run the following command:

      $ oc delete backup <backup_CR_name> -n <velero_namespace>
    • To delete the Backup CR and delete the associated object storage data, run the following command:

      $ velero backup delete <backup_CR_name> -n <velero_namespace>

      Where:

      <backup_CR_name>
      The name of the Backup custom resource.
      <velero_namespace>
      The namespace that contains the Backup custom resource.

4.6.8. About Kopia

Kopia is a fast and secure open-source backup and restore tool that allows you to create encrypted snapshots of your data and save the snapshots to remote or cloud storage of your choice.

Kopia supports network and local storage locations, and many cloud or remote storage locations, including:

  • Amazon S3 and any cloud storage that is compatible with S3
  • Azure Blob Storage
  • Google Cloud Storage platform

Kopia uses content-addressable storage for snapshots:

  • Snapshots are always incremental; data that is already included in previous snapshots is not re-uploaded to the repository. A file is only uploaded to the repository again if it is modified.
  • Stored data is deduplicated; if multiple copies of the same file exist, only one of them is stored.
  • If files are moved or renamed, Kopia can recognize that they have the same content and does not upload them again.

4.6.8.1. OADP integration with Kopia

OADP 1.3 supports Kopia as the backup mechanism for pod volume backup in addition to Restic. You must choose one or the other at installation by setting the uploaderType field in the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR). The possible values are restic or kopia. If you do not specify an uploaderType, OADP 1.3 defaults to using Kopia as the backup mechanism. The data is written to and read from a unified repository.

The following example shows a DataProtectionApplication CR configured for using Kopia:

apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
kind: DataProtectionApplication
metadata:
  name: dpa-sample
spec:
  configuration:
    nodeAgent:
      enable: true
      uploaderType: kopia
# ...

4.7. OADP restoring

4.7.1. Restoring applications

You restore application backups by creating a Restore custom resource (CR). See Creating a Restore CR.

You can create restore hooks to run commands in a container in a pod by editing the Restore CR. See Creating restore hooks.

4.7.1.1. Creating a Restore CR

You restore a Backup custom resource (CR) by creating a Restore CR.

Prerequisites

  • You must install the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) Operator.
  • The DataProtectionApplication CR must be in a Ready state.
  • You must have a Velero Backup CR.
  • The persistent volume (PV) capacity must match the requested size at backup time. Adjust the requested size if needed.

Procedure

  1. Create a Restore CR, as in the following example:

    apiVersion: velero.io/v1
    kind: Restore
    metadata:
      name: <restore>
      namespace: openshift-adp
    spec:
      backupName: <backup> 1
      includedResources: [] 2
      excludedResources:
      - nodes
      - events
      - events.events.k8s.io
      - backups.velero.io
      - restores.velero.io
      - resticrepositories.velero.io
      restorePVs: true 3
    1
    Name of the Backup CR.
    2
    Optional: Specify an array of resources to include in the restore process. Resources might be shortcuts (for example, po for pods) or fully-qualified. If unspecified, all resources are included.
    3
    Optional: The restorePVs parameter can be set to false to turn off restore of PersistentVolumes from VolumeSnapshot of Container Storage Interface (CSI) snapshots or from native snapshots when VolumeSnapshotLocation is configured.
  2. Verify that the status of the Restore CR is Completed by entering the following command:

    $ oc get restore -n openshift-adp <restore> -o jsonpath='{.status.phase}'
  3. Verify that the backup resources have been restored by entering the following command:

    $ oc get all -n <namespace> 1
    1
    Namespace that you backed up.
  4. If you use Restic to restore DeploymentConfig objects or if you use post-restore hooks, run the dc-restic-post-restore.sh cleanup script by entering the following command:

    $ bash dc-restic-post-restore.sh <restore-name>
    Note

    During the restore process, the OADP Velero plug-ins scale down the DeploymentConfig objects and restore the pods as standalone pods. This is done to prevent the cluster from deleting the restored DeploymentConfig pods immediately on restore and to allow Restic and post-restore hooks to complete their actions on the restored pods. The cleanup script shown below removes these disconnected pods and scales any DeploymentConfig objects back up to the appropriate number of replicas.

    Example 4.1. dc-restic-post-restore.sh cleanup script

    #!/bin/bash
    set -e
    
    # if sha256sum exists, use it to check the integrity of the file
    if command -v sha256sum >/dev/null 2>&1; then
      CHECKSUM_CMD="sha256sum"
    else
      CHECKSUM_CMD="shasum -a 256"
    fi
    
    label_name () {
        if [ "${#1}" -le "63" ]; then
    	echo $1
    	return
        fi
        sha=$(echo -n $1|$CHECKSUM_CMD)
        echo "${1:0:57}${sha:0:6}"
    }
    
    OADP_NAMESPACE=${OADP_NAMESPACE:=openshift-adp}
    
    if [[ $# -ne 1 ]]; then
        echo "usage: ${BASH_SOURCE} restore-name"
        exit 1
    fi
    
    echo using OADP Namespace $OADP_NAMESPACE
    echo restore: $1
    
    label=$(label_name $1)
    echo label: $label
    
    echo Deleting disconnected restore pods
    oc delete pods -l oadp.openshift.io/disconnected-from-dc=$label
    
    for dc in $(oc get dc --all-namespaces -l oadp.openshift.io/replicas-modified=$label -o jsonpath='{range .items[*]}{.metadata.namespace}{","}{.metadata.name}{","}{.metadata.annotations.oadp\.openshift\.io/original-replicas}{","}{.metadata.annotations.oadp\.openshift\.io/original-paused}{"\n"}')
    do
        IFS=',' read -ra dc_arr <<< "$dc"
        if [ ${#dc_arr[0]} -gt 0 ]; then
    	echo Found deployment ${dc_arr[0]}/${dc_arr[1]}, setting replicas: ${dc_arr[2]}, paused: ${dc_arr[3]}
    	cat <<EOF | oc patch dc  -n ${dc_arr[0]} ${dc_arr[1]} --patch-file /dev/stdin
    spec:
      replicas: ${dc_arr[2]}
      paused: ${dc_arr[3]}
    EOF
        fi
    done

4.7.1.2. Creating restore hooks

You create restore hooks to run commands in a container in a pod by editing the Restore custom resource (CR).

You can create two types of restore hooks:

  • An init hook adds an init container to a pod to perform setup tasks before the application container starts.

    If you restore a Restic backup, the restic-wait init container is added before the restore hook init container.

  • An exec hook runs commands or scripts in a container of a restored pod.

Procedure

  • Add a hook to the spec.hooks block of the Restore CR, as in the following example:

    apiVersion: velero.io/v1
    kind: Restore
    metadata:
      name: <restore>
      namespace: openshift-adp
    spec:
      hooks:
        resources:
          - name: <hook_name>
            includedNamespaces:
            - <namespace> 1
            excludedNamespaces:
            - <namespace>
            includedResources:
            - pods 2
            excludedResources: []
            labelSelector: 3
              matchLabels:
                app: velero
                component: server
            postHooks:
            - init:
                initContainers:
                - name: restore-hook-init
                  image: alpine:latest
                  volumeMounts:
                  - mountPath: /restores/pvc1-vm
                    name: pvc1-vm
                  command:
                  - /bin/ash
                  - -c
                timeout: 4
            - exec:
                container: <container> 5
                command:
                - /bin/bash 6
                - -c
                - "psql < /backup/backup.sql"
                waitTimeout: 5m 7
                execTimeout: 1m 8
                onError: Continue 9
    1
    Optional: Array of namespaces to which the hook applies. If this value is not specified, the hook applies to all namespaces.
    2
    Currently, pods are the only supported resource that hooks can apply to.
    3
    Optional: This hook only applies to objects matching the label selector.
    4
    Optional: Timeout specifies the maximum length of time Velero waits for initContainers to complete.
    5
    Optional: If the container is not specified, the command runs in the first container in the pod.
    6
    This is the entrypoint for the init container being added.
    7
    Optional: How long to wait for a container to become ready. This should be long enough for the container to start and for any preceding hooks in the same container to complete. If not set, the restore process waits indefinitely.
    8
    Optional: How long to wait for the commands to run. The default is 30s.
    9
    Allowed values for error handling are Fail and Continue:
    • Continue: Only command failures are logged.
    • Fail: No more restore hooks run in any container in any pod. The status of the Restore CR will be PartiallyFailed.

4.8. OADP and ROSA

4.8.1. Backing up applications on ROSA clusters using OADP

You can use OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) with Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) clusters to back up and restore application data.

ROSA is a fully-managed, turnkey application platform that allows you to deliver value to your customers by building and deploying applications.

ROSA provides seamless integration with a wide range of Amazon Web Services (AWS) compute, database, analytics, machine learning, networking, mobile, and other services to speed up the building and delivery of differentiating experiences to your customers.

You can subscribe to the service directly from your AWS account.

After you create your clusters, you can operate your clusters with the OpenShift Container Platform web console or through Red Hat OpenShift Cluster Manager. You can also use ROSA with OpenShift APIs and command-line interface (CLI) tools.

For additional information about ROSA installation, see Installing Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) interactive walkthrough.

Before installing OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP), you must set up role and policy credentials for OADP so that it can use the Amazon Web Services API.

This process is performed in the following two stages:

  1. Prepare AWS credentials
  2. Install the OADP Operator and give it an IAM role

4.8.1.1. Preparing AWS credentials for OADP

An Amazon Web Services account must be prepared and configured to accept an OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) installation.

Procedure

  1. Create the following environment variables by running the following commands:

    Important

    Change the cluster name to match your ROSA cluster, and ensure you are logged into the cluster as an administrator. Ensure that all fields are outputted correctly before continuing.

    $ export CLUSTER_NAME=my-cluster 1
      export ROSA_CLUSTER_ID=$(rosa describe cluster -c ${CLUSTER_NAME} --output json | jq -r .id)
      export REGION=$(rosa describe cluster -c ${CLUSTER_NAME} --output json | jq -r .region.id)
      export OIDC_ENDPOINT=$(oc get authentication.config.openshift.io cluster -o jsonpath='{.spec.serviceAccountIssuer}' | sed 's|^https://||')
      export AWS_ACCOUNT_ID=$(aws sts get-caller-identity --query Account --output text)
      export CLUSTER_VERSION=$(rosa describe cluster -c ${CLUSTER_NAME} -o json | jq -r .version.raw_id | cut -f -2 -d '.')
      export ROLE_NAME="${CLUSTER_NAME}-openshift-oadp-aws-cloud-credentials"
      export SCRATCH="/tmp/${CLUSTER_NAME}/oadp"
      mkdir -p ${SCRATCH}
      echo "Cluster ID: ${ROSA_CLUSTER_ID}, Region: ${REGION}, OIDC Endpoint:
      ${OIDC_ENDPOINT}, AWS Account ID: ${AWS_ACCOUNT_ID}"
    1
    Replace my-cluster with your ROSA cluster name.
  2. On the AWS account, create an IAM policy to allow access to AWS S3:

    1. Check to see if the policy exists by running the following command:

      $ POLICY_ARN=$(aws iam list-policies --query "Policies[?PolicyName=='RosaOadpVer1'].{ARN:Arn}" --output text) 1
      1
      Replace RosaOadp with your policy name.
    2. Enter the following command to create the policy JSON file and then create the policy in ROSA:

      Note

      If the policy ARN is not found, the command creates the policy. If the policy ARN already exists, the if statement intentionally skips the policy creation.

      $ if [[ -z "${POLICY_ARN}" ]]; then
        cat << EOF > ${SCRATCH}/policy.json 1
        {
        "Version": "2012-10-17",
        "Statement": [
          {
            "Effect": "Allow",
            "Action": [
              "s3:CreateBucket",
              "s3:DeleteBucket",
              "s3:PutBucketTagging",
              "s3:GetBucketTagging",
              "s3:PutEncryptionConfiguration",
              "s3:GetEncryptionConfiguration",
              "s3:PutLifecycleConfiguration",
              "s3:GetLifecycleConfiguration",
              "s3:GetBucketLocation",
              "s3:ListBucket",
              "s3:GetObject",
              "s3:PutObject",
              "s3:DeleteObject",
              "s3:ListBucketMultipartUploads",
              "s3:AbortMultipartUploads",
              "s3:ListMultipartUploadParts",
              "s3:DescribeSnapshots",
              "ec2:DescribeVolumes",
              "ec2:DescribeVolumeAttribute",
              "ec2:DescribeVolumesModifications",
              "ec2:DescribeVolumeStatus",
              "ec2:CreateTags",
              "ec2:CreateVolume",
              "ec2:CreateSnapshot",
              "ec2:DeleteSnapshot"
            ],
            "Resource": "*"
          }
         ]}
      EOF
      
        POLICY_ARN=$(aws iam create-policy --policy-name "RosaOadpVer1" \
        --policy-document file:///${SCRATCH}/policy.json --query Policy.Arn \
        --tags Key=rosa_openshift_version,Value=${CLUSTER_VERSION} Key=rosa_role_prefix,Value=ManagedOpenShift Key=operator_namespace,Value=openshift-oadp Key=operator_name,Value=openshift-oadp \
        --output text)
        fi
      1
      SCRATCH is a name for a temporary directory created for the environment variables.
    3. View the policy ARN by running the following command:

      $ echo ${POLICY_ARN}
  3. Create an IAM role trust policy for the cluster:

    1. Create the trust policy file by running the following command:

      $ cat <<EOF > ${SCRATCH}/trust-policy.json
        {
            "Version":2012-10-17",
            "Statement": [{
              "Effect": "Allow",
              "Principal": {
                "Federated": "arn:aws:iam::${AWS_ACCOUNT_ID}:oidc-provider/${OIDC_ENDPOINT}"
              },
              "Action": "sts:AssumeRoleWithWebIdentity",
              "Condition": {
                "StringEquals": {
                  "${OIDC_ENDPOINT}:sub": [
                    "system:serviceaccount:openshift-adp:openshift-adp-controller-manager",
                    "system:serviceaccount:openshift-adp:velero"]
                }
              }
            }]
        }
      EOF
    2. Create the role by running the following command:

      $ ROLE_ARN=$(aws iam create-role --role-name \
        "${ROLE_NAME}" \
        --assume-role-policy-document file://${SCRATCH}/trust-policy.json \
      --tags Key=rosa_cluster_id,Value=${ROSA_CLUSTER_ID} Key=rosa_openshift_version,Value=${CLUSTER_VERSION} Key=rosa_role_prefix,Value=ManagedOpenShift Key=operator_namespace,Value=openshift-adp Key=operator_name,Value=openshift-oadp \
         --query Role.Arn --output text)
    3. View the role ARN by running the following command:

      $ echo ${ROLE_ARN}
  4. Attach the IAM policy to the IAM role by running the following command:

    $ aws iam attach-role-policy --role-name "${ROLE_NAME}" \
      --policy-arn ${POLICY_ARN}

4.8.1.2. Installing the OADP Operator and providing the IAM role

AWS Security Token Service (AWS STS) is a global web service that provides short-term credentials for IAM or federated users. OpenShift Container Platform (ROSA) with STS is the recommended credential mode for ROSA clusters. This document describes how to install OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) on ROSA with AWS STS.

Important

Restic and Kopia are not supported in the OADP on ROSA with AWS STS environment. Verify that the Restic and Kopia node agent is disabled. For backing up volumes, OADP on ROSA with AWS STS supports only native snapshots and Container Storage Interface (CSI) snapshots.

Important

In an Amazon ROSA cluster that uses STS authentication, restoring backed-up data in a different AWS region is not supported.

The Data Mover feature is not currently supported in ROSA clusters. You can use native AWS S3 tools for moving data.

Prerequisites

  • An OpenShift Container Platform ROSA cluster with the required access and tokens. For instructions, see the previous procedure Preparing AWS credentials for OADP. If you plan to use two different clusters for backing up and restoring, you must prepare AWS credentials, including ROLE_ARN, for each cluster.

Procedure

  1. Create an OpenShift Container Platform secret from your AWS token file by entering the following commands:

    1. Create the credentials file:

      $ cat <<EOF > ${SCRATCH}/credentials
        [default]
        role_arn = ${ROLE_ARN}
        web_identity_token_file = /var/run/secrets/openshift/serviceaccount/token
      EOF
    2. Create a namespace for OADP:

      $ oc create namespace openshift-adp
    3. Create the OpenShift Container Platform secret:

      $ oc -n openshift-adp create secret generic cloud-credentials \
        --from-file=${SCRATCH}/credentials
      Note

      In OpenShift Container Platform versions 4.14 and later, the OADP Operator supports a new standardized STS workflow through the Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) and Cloud Credentials Operator (CCO). In this workflow, you do not need to create the above secret, you only need to supply the role ARN during the installation of OLM-managed operators using the OpenShift Container Platform web console, for more information see Installing from OperatorHub using the web console.

      The preceding secret is created automatically by CCO.

  2. Install the OADP Operator:

    1. In the OpenShift Container Platform web console, browse to OperatorsOperatorHub.
    2. Search for the OADP Operator.
    3. In the role_ARN field, paste the role_arn that you created previously and click Install.
  3. Create AWS cloud storage using your AWS credentials by entering the following command:

    $ cat << EOF | oc create -f -
      apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
      kind: CloudStorage
      metadata:
        name: ${CLUSTER_NAME}-oadp
        namespace: openshift-adp
      spec:
        creationSecret:
          key: credentials
          name: cloud-credentials
        enableSharedConfig: true
        name: ${CLUSTER_NAME}-oadp
        provider: aws
        region: $REGION
    EOF
  4. Check your application’s storage default storage class by entering the following command:

    $ oc get pvc -n <namespace>

    Example output

    NAME     STATUS   VOLUME                                     CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   STORAGECLASS   AGE
    applog   Bound    pvc-351791ae-b6ab-4e8b-88a4-30f73caf5ef8   1Gi        RWO            gp3-csi        4d19h
    mysql    Bound    pvc-16b8e009-a20a-4379-accc-bc81fedd0621   1Gi        RWO            gp3-csi        4d19h

  5. Get the storage class by running the following command:

    $ oc get storageclass

    Example output

    NAME                PROVISIONER             RECLAIMPOLICY   VOLUMEBINDINGMODE      ALLOWVOLUMEEXPANSION   AGE
    gp2                 kubernetes.io/aws-ebs   Delete          WaitForFirstConsumer   true                   4d21h
    gp2-csi             ebs.csi.aws.com         Delete          WaitForFirstConsumer   true                   4d21h
    gp3                 ebs.csi.aws.com         Delete          WaitForFirstConsumer   true                   4d21h
    gp3-csi (default)   ebs.csi.aws.com         Delete          WaitForFirstConsumer   true                   4d21h

    Note

    The following storage classes will work:

    • gp3-csi
    • gp2-csi
    • gp3
    • gp2

    If the application or applications that are being backed up are all using persistent volumes (PVs) with Container Storage Interface (CSI), it is advisable to include the CSI plugin in the OADP DPA configuration.

  6. Create the DataProtectionApplication resource to configure the connection to the storage where the backups and volume snapshots are stored:

    1. If you are using only CSI volumes, deploy a Data Protection Application by entering the following command:

      $ cat << EOF | oc create -f -
        apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
        kind: DataProtectionApplication
        metadata:
          name: ${CLUSTER_NAME}-dpa
          namespace: openshift-adp
        spec:
          backupImages: true 1
          features:
            dataMover:
              enable: false
          backupLocations:
          - bucket:
              cloudStorageRef:
                name: ${CLUSTER_NAME}-oadp
              credential:
                key: credentials
                name: cloud-credentials
              prefix: velero
              default: true
              config:
                region: ${REGION}
          configuration:
            velero:
              defaultPlugins:
              - openshift
              - aws
              - csi
            restic:
              enable: false
      EOF
      1
      ROSA supports internal image backup. Set this field to false if you do not want to use image backup.
  1. If you are using CSI or non-CSI volumes, deploy a Data Protection Application by entering the following command:

    $ cat << EOF | oc create -f -
      apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
      kind: DataProtectionApplication
      metadata:
        name: ${CLUSTER_NAME}-dpa
        namespace: openshift-adp
      spec:
        backupImages: true 1
        features:
          dataMover:
             enable: false
        backupLocations:
        - bucket:
            cloudStorageRef:
              name: ${CLUSTER_NAME}-oadp
            credential:
              key: credentials
              name: cloud-credentials
            prefix: velero
            default: true
            config:
              region: ${REGION}
        configuration:
          velero:
            defaultPlugins:
            - openshift
            - aws
          nodeAgent: 2
            enable: false
            uploaderType: restic
        snapshotLocations:
          - velero:
              config:
                credentialsFile: /tmp/credentials/openshift-adp/cloud-credentials-credentials 3
                enableSharedConfig: "true" 4
                profile: default 5
                region: ${REGION} 6
              provider: aws
    EOF
    1
    ROSA supports internal image backup. Set this field to false if you do not want to use image backup.
    2
    See the following note.
    3
    The credentialsFile field is the mounted location of the bucket credential on the pod.
    4
    The enableSharedConfig field allows the snapshotLocations to share or reuse the credential defined for the bucket.
    5
    Use the profile name set in the AWS credentials file.
    6
    Specify region as your AWS region. This must be the same as the cluster region.

    You are now ready to back up and restore OpenShift Container Platform applications, as described in Backing up applications.

Note

The enable parameter of restic is set to false in this configuration, because OADP does not support Restic in ROSA environments.

If you use OADP 1.2, replace this configuration:

nodeAgent:
  enable: false
  uploaderType: restic

with the following configuration:

restic:
  enable: false
Note

If you want to use two different clusters for backing up and restoring, the two clusters must have the same AWS S3 storage names in both the cloud storage CR and the OADP DataProtectionApplication configuration.

4.8.1.3. Example: Backing up workload on OADP ROSA STS, with an optional cleanup

4.8.1.3.1. Performing a backup with OADP and ROSA STS

The following example hello-world application has no persistent volumes (PVs) attached. Perform a backup with OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) with Red Hat OpenShift Service on AWS (ROSA) STS.

Either Data Protection Application (DPA) configuration will work.

  1. Create a workload to back up by running the following commands:

    $ oc create namespace hello-world
    $ oc new-app -n hello-world --image=docker.io/openshift/hello-openshift
  2. Expose the route by running the following command:

    $ oc expose service/hello-openshift -n hello-world
  3. Check that the application is working by running the following command:

    $ curl `oc get route/hello-openshift -n hello-world -o jsonpath='{.spec.host}'`

    Example output

    Hello OpenShift!

  4. Back up the workload by running the following command:

    $ cat << EOF | oc create -f -
      apiVersion: velero.io/v1
      kind: Backup
      metadata:
        name: hello-world
        namespace: openshift-adp
      spec:
        includedNamespaces:
        - hello-world
        storageLocation: ${CLUSTER_NAME}-dpa-1
        ttl: 720h0m0s
    EOF
  5. Wait until the backup is completed and then run the following command:

    $ watch "oc -n openshift-adp get backup hello-world -o json | jq .status"

    Example output

    {
      "completionTimestamp": "2022-09-07T22:20:44Z",
      "expiration": "2022-10-07T22:20:22Z",
      "formatVersion": "1.1.0",
      "phase": "Completed",
      "progress": {
        "itemsBackedUp": 58,
        "totalItems": 58
      },
      "startTimestamp": "2022-09-07T22:20:22Z",
      "version": 1
    }

  6. Delete the demo workload by running the following command:

    $ oc delete ns hello-world
  7. Restore the workload from the backup by running the following command:

    $ cat << EOF | oc create -f -
      apiVersion: velero.io/v1
      kind: Restore
      metadata:
        name: hello-world
        namespace: openshift-adp
      spec:
        backupName: hello-world
    EOF
  8. Wait for the Restore to finish by running the following command:

    $ watch "oc -n openshift-adp get restore hello-world -o json | jq .status"

    Example output

    {
      "completionTimestamp": "2022-09-07T22:25:47Z",
      "phase": "Completed",
      "progress": {
        "itemsRestored": 38,
        "totalItems": 38
      },
      "startTimestamp": "2022-09-07T22:25:28Z",
      "warnings": 9
    }

  9. Check that the workload is restored by running the following command:

    $ oc -n hello-world get pods

    Example output

    NAME                              READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    hello-openshift-9f885f7c6-kdjpj   1/1     Running   0          90s

  10. Check the JSONPath by running the following command:

    $ curl `oc get route/hello-openshift -n hello-world -o jsonpath='{.spec.host}'`

    Example output

    Hello OpenShift!

Note

For troubleshooting tips, see the OADP team’s troubleshooting documentation.

4.8.1.3.2. Cleaning up a cluster after a backup with OADP and ROSA STS

If you need to uninstall the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) Operator together with the backups and the S3 bucket from this example, follow these instructions.

Procedure

  1. Delete the workload by running the following command:

    $ oc delete ns hello-world
  2. Delete the Data Protection Application (DPA) by running the following command:

    $ oc -n openshift-adp delete dpa ${CLUSTER_NAME}-dpa
  3. Delete the cloud storage by running the following command:

    $ oc -n openshift-adp delete cloudstorage ${CLUSTER_NAME}-oadp
    Warning

    If this command hangs, you might need to delete the finalizer by running the following command:

    $ oc -n openshift-adp patch cloudstorage ${CLUSTER_NAME}-oadp -p '{"metadata":{"finalizers":null}}' --type=merge
  4. If the Operator is no longer required, remove it by running the following command:

    $ oc -n openshift-adp delete subscription oadp-operator
  5. Remove the namespace from the Operator:

    $ oc delete ns openshift-adp
  6. If the backup and restore resources are no longer required, remove them from the cluster by running the following command:

    $ oc delete backup hello-world
  7. To delete backup, restore and remote objects in AWS S3 run the following command:

    $ velero backup delete hello-world
  8. If you no longer need the Custom Resource Definitions (CRD), remove them from the cluster by running the following command:

    $ for CRD in `oc get crds | grep velero | awk '{print $1}'`; do oc delete crd $CRD; done
  9. Delete the AWS S3 bucket by running the following commands:

    $ aws s3 rm s3://${CLUSTER_NAME}-oadp --recursive
    $ aws s3api delete-bucket --bucket ${CLUSTER_NAME}-oadp
  10. Detach the policy from the role by running the following command:

    $ aws iam detach-role-policy --role-name "${ROLE_NAME}"  --policy-arn "${POLICY_ARN}"
  11. Delete the role by running the following command:

    $ aws iam delete-role --role-name "${ROLE_NAME}"

4.9. OADP Data Mover

4.9.1. OADP Data Mover Introduction

OADP Data Mover allows you to restore stateful applications from the store if a failure, accidental deletion, or corruption of the cluster occurs.

Note

The OADP 1.1 Data Mover is a Technology Preview feature.

The OADP 1.2 Data Mover has significantly improved features and performances, but is still a Technology Preview feature.

Important

The OADP Data Mover is a Technology Preview feature only. Technology Preview features are not supported with Red Hat production service level agreements (SLAs) and might not be functionally complete. Red Hat does not recommend using them in production. These features provide early access to upcoming product features, enabling customers to test functionality and provide feedback during the development process.

For more information about the support scope of Red Hat Technology Preview features, see Technology Preview Features Support Scope.

Note

Post-migration hooks are not likely to work well with the OADP 1.3 Data Mover.

The OADP 1.1 and OADP 1.2 Data Movers use synchronous processes to back up and restore application data. Because the processes are synchronous, users can be sure that any post-restore hooks start only after the persistent volumes (PVs) of the related pods are released by the persistent volume claim (PVC) of the Data Mover.

However, the OADP 1.3 Data Mover uses an asynchronous process. As a result of this difference in sequencing, a post-restore hook might be called before the related PVs were released by the PVC of the Data Mover. If this happens, the pod remains in Pending status and cannot run the hook. The hook attempt might time out before the pod is released, leading to a PartiallyFailed restore operation.

4.9.1.1. OADP Data Mover prerequisites

  • You have a stateful application running in a separate namespace.
  • You have installed the OADP Operator by using Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM).
  • You have created an appropriate VolumeSnapshotClass and StorageClass.
  • You have installed the VolSync operator using OLM.

4.9.2. Using Data Mover for CSI snapshots

The OADP Data Mover enables customers to back up Container Storage Interface (CSI) volume snapshots to a remote object store. When Data Mover is enabled, you can restore stateful applications, using CSI volume snapshots pulled from the object store if a failure, accidental deletion, or corruption of the cluster occurs.

The Data Mover solution uses the Restic option of VolSync.

Data Mover supports backup and restore of CSI volume snapshots only.

In OADP 1.2 Data Mover VolumeSnapshotBackups (VSBs) and VolumeSnapshotRestores (VSRs) are queued using the VolumeSnapshotMover (VSM). The VSM’s performance is improved by specifying a concurrent number of VSBs and VSRs simultaneously InProgress. After all async plugin operations are complete, the backup is marked as complete.

Note

The OADP 1.1 Data Mover is a Technology Preview feature.

The OADP 1.2 Data Mover has significantly improved features and performances, but is still a Technology Preview feature.

Important

The OADP Data Mover is a Technology Preview feature only. Technology Preview features are not supported with Red Hat production service level agreements (SLAs) and might not be functionally complete. Red Hat does not recommend using them in production. These features provide early access to upcoming product features, enabling customers to test functionality and provide feedback during the development process.

For more information about the support scope of Red Hat Technology Preview features, see Technology Preview Features Support Scope.

Note

Red Hat recommends that customers who use OADP 1.2 Data Mover in order to back up and restore ODF CephFS volumes, upgrade or install OpenShift Container Platform version 4.12 or later for improved performance. OADP Data Mover can leverage CephFS shallow volumes in OpenShift Container Platform version 4.12 or later, which based on our testing, can improve the performance of backup times.

Prerequisites

  • You have verified that the StorageClass and VolumeSnapshotClass custom resources (CRs) support CSI.
  • You have verified that only one VolumeSnapshotClass CR has the annotation snapshot.storage.kubernetes.io/is-default-class: "true".

    Note

    In OpenShift Container Platform version 4.12 or later, verify that this is the only default VolumeSnapshotClass.

  • You have verified that deletionPolicy of the VolumeSnapshotClass CR is set to Retain.
  • You have verified that only one StorageClass CR has the annotation storageclass.kubernetes.io/is-default-class: "true".
  • You have included the label velero.io/csi-volumesnapshot-class: "true" in your VolumeSnapshotClass CR.
  • You have verified that the OADP namespace has the annotation oc annotate --overwrite namespace/openshift-adp volsync.backube/privileged-movers="true".

    Note

    In OADP 1.1 the above setting is mandatory.

    In OADP 1.2 the privileged-movers setting is not required in most scenarios. The restoring container permissions should be adequate for the Volsync copy. In some user scenarios, there may be permission errors that the privileged-mover= true setting should resolve.

  • You have installed the VolSync Operator by using the Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM).

    Note

    The VolSync Operator is required for using OADP Data Mover.

  • You have installed the OADP operator by using OLM.

Procedure

  1. Configure a Restic secret by creating a .yaml file as following:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Secret
    metadata:
      name: <secret_name>
      namespace: openshift-adp
    type: Opaque
    stringData:
      RESTIC_PASSWORD: <secure_restic_password>
    Note

    By default, the Operator looks for a secret named dm-credential. If you are using a different name, you need to specify the name through a Data Protection Application (DPA) CR using dpa.spec.features.dataMover.credentialName.

  2. Create a DPA CR similar to the following example. The default plugins include CSI.

    Example Data Protection Application (DPA) CR

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    metadata:
      name: velero-sample
      namespace: openshift-adp
    spec:
      backupLocations:
        - velero:
            config:
              profile: default
              region: us-east-1
            credential:
              key: cloud
              name: cloud-credentials
            default: true
            objectStorage:
              bucket: <bucket_name>
              prefix: <bucket-prefix>
            provider: aws
      configuration:
        restic:
          enable: <true_or_false>
        velero:
           itemOperationSyncFrequency: "10s"
           defaultPlugins:
            - openshift
            - aws
            - csi
            - vsm 1
      features:
        dataMover:
          credentialName: restic-secret
          enable: true
          maxConcurrentBackupVolumes: "3" 2
          maxConcurrentRestoreVolumes: "3" 3
          pruneInterval: "14" 4
          volumeOptions: 5
          sourceVolumeOptions:
              accessMode: ReadOnlyMany
              cacheAccessMode: ReadWriteOnce
              cacheCapacity: 2Gi
          destinationVolumeOptions:
              storageClass: other-storageclass-name
              cacheAccessMode: ReadWriteMany
      snapshotLocations:
        - velero:
            config:
              profile: default
              region: us-west-2
            provider: aws

    1
    OADP 1.2 only.
    2
    OADP 1.2 only. Optional: Specify the upper limit of the number of snapshots allowed to be queued for backup. The default value is 10.
    3
    OADP 1.2 only. Optional: Specify the upper limit of the number of snapshots allowed to be queued for restore. The default value is 10.
    4
    OADP 1.2 only. Optional: Specify the number of days, between running Restic pruning on the repository. The prune operation repacks the data to free space, but it can also generate significant I/O traffic as a part of the process. Setting this option allows a trade-off between storage consumption, from no longer referenced data, and access costs.
    5
    OADP 1.2 only. Optional: Specify VolumeSync volume options for backup and restore.

    The OADP Operator installs two custom resource definitions (CRDs), VolumeSnapshotBackup and VolumeSnapshotRestore.

    Example VolumeSnapshotBackup CRD

    apiVersion: datamover.oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: VolumeSnapshotBackup
    metadata:
      name: <vsb_name>
      namespace: <namespace_name> 1
    spec:
      volumeSnapshotContent:
        name: <snapcontent_name>
      protectedNamespace: <adp_namespace> 2
      resticSecretRef:
        name: <restic_secret_name>

    1
    Specify the namespace where the volume snapshot exists.
    2
    Specify the namespace where the OADP Operator is installed. The default is openshift-adp.

    Example VolumeSnapshotRestore CRD

    apiVersion: datamover.oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: VolumeSnapshotRestore
    metadata:
      name: <vsr_name>
      namespace: <namespace_name> 1
    spec:
      protectedNamespace: <protected_ns> 2
      resticSecretRef:
        name: <restic_secret_name>
      volumeSnapshotMoverBackupRef:
        sourcePVCData:
          name: <source_pvc_name>
          size: <source_pvc_size>
        resticrepository: <your_restic_repo>
        volumeSnapshotClassName: <vsclass_name>

    1
    Specify the namespace where the volume snapshot exists.
    2
    Specify the namespace where the OADP Operator is installed. The default is openshift-adp.
  3. You can back up a volume snapshot by performing the following steps:

    1. Create a backup CR:

      apiVersion: velero.io/v1
      kind: Backup
      metadata:
        name: <backup_name>
        namespace: <protected_ns> 1
      spec:
        includedNamespaces:
        - <app_ns> 2
        storageLocation: velero-sample-1
      1
      Specify the namespace where the Operator is installed. The default namespace is openshift-adp.
      2
      Specify the application namespace or namespaces to be backed up.
    2. Wait up to 10 minutes and check whether the VolumeSnapshotBackup CR status is Completed by entering the following commands:

      $ oc get vsb -n <app_ns>
      $ oc get vsb <vsb_name> -n <app_ns> -o jsonpath="{.status.phase}"

      A snapshot is created in the object store was configured in the DPA.

      Note

      If the status of the VolumeSnapshotBackup CR becomes Failed, refer to the Velero logs for troubleshooting.

  4. You can restore a volume snapshot by performing the following steps:

    1. Delete the application namespace and the VolumeSnapshotContent that was created by the Velero CSI plugin.
    2. Create a Restore CR and set restorePVs to true.

      Example Restore CR

      apiVersion: velero.io/v1
      kind: Restore
      metadata:
        name: <restore_name>
        namespace: <protected_ns>
      spec:
        backupName: <previous_backup_name>
        restorePVs: true

    3. Wait up to 10 minutes and check whether the VolumeSnapshotRestore CR status is Completed by entering the following command:

      $ oc get vsr -n <app_ns>
      $ oc get vsr <vsr_name> -n <app_ns> -o jsonpath="{.status.phase}"
    4. Check whether your application data and resources have been restored.

      Note

      If the status of the VolumeSnapshotRestore CR becomes 'Failed', refer to the Velero logs for troubleshooting.

4.9.3. Using OADP 1.2 Data Mover with Ceph storage

You can use OADP 1.2 Data Mover to backup and restore application data for clusters that use CephFS, CephRBD, or both.

OADP 1.2 Data Mover leverages Ceph features that support large-scale environments. One of these is the shallow copy method, which is available for OpenShift Container Platform 4.12 and later. This feature supports backing up and restoring StorageClass and AccessMode resources other than what is found on the source persistent volume claim (PVC).

Important

The CephFS shallow copy feature is a back up feature. It is not part of restore operations.

4.9.3.1. Prerequisites for using OADP 1.2 Data Mover with Ceph storage

The following prerequisites apply to all back up and restore operations of data using OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) 1.2 Data Mover in a cluster that uses Ceph storage:

  • You have installed OpenShift Container Platform 4.12 or later.
  • You have installed the OADP Operator.
  • You have created a secret cloud-credentials in the namespace openshift-adp.
  • You have installed Red Hat OpenShift Data Foundation.
  • You have installed the latest VolSync Operator by using Operator Lifecycle Manager.

4.9.3.2. Defining custom resources for use with OADP 1.2 Data Mover

When you install Red Hat OpenShift Data Foundation, it automatically creates default CephFS and a CephRBD StorageClass and VolumeSnapshotClass custom resources (CRs). You must define these CRs for use with OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) 1.2 Data Mover.

After you define the CRs, you must make several other changes to your environment before you can perform your back up and restore operations.

4.9.3.2.1. Defining CephFS custom resources for use with OADP 1.2 Data Mover

When you install Red Hat OpenShift Data Foundation, it automatically creates a default CephFS StorageClass custom resource (CR) and a default CephFS VolumeSnapshotClass CR. You can define these CRs for use with OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) 1.2 Data Mover.

Procedure

  1. Define the VolumeSnapshotClass CR as in the following example:

    Example VolumeSnapshotClass CR

    apiVersion: snapshot.storage.k8s.io/v1
    deletionPolicy: Retain 1
    driver: openshift-storage.cephfs.csi.ceph.com
    kind: VolumeSnapshotClass
    metadata:
      annotations:
        snapshot.storage.kubernetes.io/is-default-class: true 2
      labels:
        velero.io/csi-volumesnapshot-class: true 3
      name: ocs-storagecluster-cephfsplugin-snapclass
    parameters:
      clusterID: openshift-storage
      csi.storage.k8s.io/snapshotter-secret-name: rook-csi-cephfs-provisioner
      csi.storage.k8s.io/snapshotter-secret-namespace: openshift-storage

    1
    Must be set to Retain.
    2
    Must be set to true.
    3
    Must be set to true.
  2. Define the StorageClass CR as in the following example:

    Example StorageClass CR

    kind: StorageClass
    apiVersion: storage.k8s.io/v1
    metadata:
      name: ocs-storagecluster-cephfs
      annotations:
        description: Provides RWO and RWX Filesystem volumes
        storageclass.kubernetes.io/is-default-class: true 1
    provisioner: openshift-storage.cephfs.csi.ceph.com
    parameters:
      clusterID: openshift-storage
      csi.storage.k8s.io/controller-expand-secret-name: rook-csi-cephfs-provisioner
      csi.storage.k8s.io/controller-expand-secret-namespace: openshift-storage
      csi.storage.k8s.io/node-stage-secret-name: rook-csi-cephfs-node
      csi.storage.k8s.io/node-stage-secret-namespace: openshift-storage
      csi.storage.k8s.io/provisioner-secret-name: rook-csi-cephfs-provisioner
      csi.storage.k8s.io/provisioner-secret-namespace: openshift-storage
      fsName: ocs-storagecluster-cephfilesystem
    reclaimPolicy: Delete
    allowVolumeExpansion: true
    volumeBindingMode: Immediate

    1
    Must be set to true.
4.9.3.2.2. Defining CephRBD custom resources for use with OADP 1.2 Data Mover

When you install Red Hat OpenShift Data Foundation, it automatically creates a default CephRBD StorageClass custom resource (CR) and a default CephRBD VolumeSnapshotClass CR. You can define these CRs for use with OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) 1.2 Data Mover.

Procedure

  1. Define the VolumeSnapshotClass CR as in the following example:

    Example VolumeSnapshotClass CR

    apiVersion: snapshot.storage.k8s.io/v1
    deletionPolicy: Retain 1
    driver: openshift-storage.rbd.csi.ceph.com
    kind: VolumeSnapshotClass
    metadata:
      labels:
        velero.io/csi-volumesnapshot-class: true 2
      name: ocs-storagecluster-rbdplugin-snapclass
    parameters:
      clusterID: openshift-storage
      csi.storage.k8s.io/snapshotter-secret-name: rook-csi-rbd-provisioner
      csi.storage.k8s.io/snapshotter-secret-namespace: openshift-storage

    1
    Must be set to Retain.
    2
    Must be set to true.
  2. Define the StorageClass CR as in the following example:

    Example StorageClass CR

    kind: StorageClass
    apiVersion: storage.k8s.io/v1
    metadata:
      name: ocs-storagecluster-ceph-rbd
      annotations:
        description: 'Provides RWO Filesystem volumes, and RWO and RWX Block volumes'
    provisioner: openshift-storage.rbd.csi.ceph.com
    parameters:
      csi.storage.k8s.io/fstype: ext4
      csi.storage.k8s.io/provisioner-secret-namespace: openshift-storage
      csi.storage.k8s.io/provisioner-secret-name: rook-csi-rbd-provisioner
      csi.storage.k8s.io/node-stage-secret-name: rook-csi-rbd-node
      csi.storage.k8s.io/controller-expand-secret-name: rook-csi-rbd-provisioner
      imageFormat: '2'
      clusterID: openshift-storage
      imageFeatures: layering
      csi.storage.k8s.io/controller-expand-secret-namespace: openshift-storage
      pool: ocs-storagecluster-cephblockpool
      csi.storage.k8s.io/node-stage-secret-namespace: openshift-storage
    reclaimPolicy: Delete
    allowVolumeExpansion: true
    volumeBindingMode: Immediate

4.9.3.2.3. Defining additional custom resources for use with OADP 1.2 Data Mover

After you redefine the default StorageClass and CephRBD VolumeSnapshotClass custom resources (CRs), you must create the following CRs:

  • A CephFS StorageClass CR defined to use the shallow copy feature
  • A Restic Secret CR

Procedure

  1. Create a CephFS StorageClass CR and set the backingSnapshot parameter set to true as in the following example:

    Example CephFS StorageClass CR with backingSnapshot set to true

    kind: StorageClass
    apiVersion: storage.k8s.io/v1
    metadata:
      name: ocs-storagecluster-cephfs-shallow
      annotations:
        description: Provides RWO and RWX Filesystem volumes
        storageclass.kubernetes.io/is-default-class: false
    provisioner: openshift-storage.cephfs.csi.ceph.com
    parameters:
      csi.storage.k8s.io/provisioner-secret-namespace: openshift-storage
      csi.storage.k8s.io/provisioner-secret-name: rook-csi-cephfs-provisioner
      csi.storage.k8s.io/node-stage-secret-name: rook-csi-cephfs-node
      csi.storage.k8s.io/controller-expand-secret-name: rook-csi-cephfs-provisioner
      clusterID: openshift-storage
      fsName: ocs-storagecluster-cephfilesystem
      csi.storage.k8s.io/controller-expand-secret-namespace: openshift-storage
      backingSnapshot: true 1
      csi.storage.k8s.io/node-stage-secret-namespace: openshift-storage
    reclaimPolicy: Delete
    allowVolumeExpansion: true
    volumeBindingMode: Immediate

    1
    Must be set to true.
    Important

    Ensure that the CephFS VolumeSnapshotClass and StorageClass CRs have the same value for provisioner.

  2. Configure a Restic Secret CR as in the following example:

    Example Restic Secret CR

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Secret
    metadata:
      name: <secret_name>
      namespace: <namespace>
    type: Opaque
    stringData:
      RESTIC_PASSWORD: <restic_password>

4.9.3.3. Backing up and restoring data using OADP 1.2 Data Mover and CephFS storage

You can use OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) 1.2 Data Mover to back up and restore data using CephFS storage by enabling the shallow copy feature of CephFS.

Prerequisites

  • A stateful application is running in a separate namespace with persistent volume claims (PVCs) using CephFS as the provisioner.
  • The StorageClass and VolumeSnapshotClass custom resources (CRs) are defined for CephFS and OADP 1.2 Data Mover.
  • There is a secret cloud-credentials in the openshift-adp namespace.
4.9.3.3.1. Creating a DPA for use with CephFS storage

You must create a Data Protection Application (DPA) CR before you use the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) 1.2 Data Mover to back up and restore data using CephFS storage.

Procedure

  1. Verify that the deletionPolicy field of the VolumeSnapshotClass CR is set to Retain by running the following command:

    $ oc get volumesnapshotclass -A  -o jsonpath='{range .items[*]}{"Name: "}{.metadata.name}{"  "}{"Retention Policy: "}{.deletionPolicy}{"\n"}{end}'
  2. Verify that the labels of the VolumeSnapshotClass CR are set to true by running the following command:

    $ oc get volumesnapshotclass -A  -o jsonpath='{range .items[*]}{"Name: "}{.metadata.name}{"  "}{"labels: "}{.metadata.labels}{"\n"}{end}'
  3. Verify that the storageclass.kubernetes.io/is-default-class annotation of the StorageClass CR is set to true by running the following command:

    $ oc get storageClass -A  -o jsonpath='{range .items[*]}{"Name: "}{.metadata.name}{"  "}{"annotations: "}{.metadata.annotations}{"\n"}{end}'
  4. Create a Data Protection Application (DPA) CR similar to the following example:

    Example DPA CR

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    metadata:
      name: velero-sample
      namespace: openshift-adp
    spec:
      backupLocations:
        - velero:
            config:
              profile: default
              region: us-east-1
            credential:
              key: cloud
              name: cloud-credentials
            default: true
            objectStorage:
              bucket: <my_bucket>
              prefix: velero
           provider: aws
        configuration:
          restic:
            enable: false  1
          velero:
            defaultPlugins:
              - openshift
              - aws
              - csi
              - vsm
        features:
          dataMover:
            credentialName: <restic_secret_name> 2
            enable: true 3
            volumeOptionsForStorageClasses:
              ocs-storagecluster-cephfs:
                sourceVolumeOptions:
                  accessMode: ReadOnlyMany
                  cacheAccessMode: ReadWriteMany
                  cacheStorageClassName: ocs-storagecluster-cephfs
                  storageClassName: ocs-storagecluster-cephfs-shallow

    1
    There is no default value for the enable field. Valid values are true or false.
    2
    Use the Restic Secret that you created when you prepared your environment for working with OADP 1.2 Data Mover and Ceph. If you do not use your Restic Secret, the CR uses the default value dm-credential for this parameter.
    3
    There is no default value for the enable field. Valid values are true or false.
4.9.3.3.2. Backing up data using OADP 1.2 Data Mover and CephFS storage

You can use OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) 1.2 Data Mover to back up data using CephFS storage by enabling the shallow copy feature of CephFS storage.

Procedure

  1. Create a Backup CR as in the following example:

    Example Backup CR

    apiVersion: velero.io/v1
    kind: Backup
    metadata:
      name: <backup_name>
      namespace: <protected_ns>
    spec:
      includedNamespaces:
      - <app_ns>
      storageLocation: velero-sample-1

  2. Monitor the progress of the VolumeSnapshotBackup CRs by completing the following steps:

    1. To check the progress of all the VolumeSnapshotBackup CRs, run the following command:

      $ oc get vsb -n <app_ns>
    2. To check the progress of a specific VolumeSnapshotBackup CR, run the following command:

      $ oc get vsb <vsb_name> -n <app_ns> -ojsonpath="{.status.phase}`
  3. Wait several minutes until the VolumeSnapshotBackup CR has the status Completed.
  4. Verify that there is at least one snapshot in the object store that is given in the Restic Secret. You can check for this snapshot in your targeted BackupStorageLocation storage provider that has a prefix of /<OADP_namespace>.
4.9.3.3.3. Restoring data using OADP 1.2 Data Mover and CephFS storage

You can use OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) 1.2 Data Mover to restore data using CephFS storage if the shallow copy feature of CephFS storage was enabled for the back up procedure. The shallow copy feature is not used in the restore procedure.

Procedure

  1. Delete the application namespace by running the following command:

    $ oc delete vsb -n <app_namespace> --all
  2. Delete any VolumeSnapshotContent CRs that were created during backup by running the following command:

    $ oc delete volumesnapshotcontent --all
  3. Create a Restore CR as in the following example:

    Example Restore CR

    apiVersion: velero.io/v1
    kind: Restore
    metadata:
      name: <restore_name>
      namespace: <protected_ns>
    spec:
      backupName: <previous_backup_name>

  4. Monitor the progress of the VolumeSnapshotRestore CRs by doing the following:

    1. To check the progress of all the VolumeSnapshotRestore CRs, run the following command:

      $ oc get vsr -n <app_ns>
    2. To check the progress of a specific VolumeSnapshotRestore CR, run the following command:

      $ oc get vsr <vsr_name> -n <app_ns> -ojsonpath="{.status.phase}
  5. Verify that your application data has been restored by running the following command:

    $ oc get route <route_name> -n <app_ns> -ojsonpath="{.spec.host}"

4.9.3.4. Backing up and restoring data using OADP 1.2 Data Mover and split volumes (CephFS and Ceph RBD)

You can use OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) 1.2 Data Mover to back up and restore data in an environment that has split volumes, that is, an environment that uses both CephFS and CephRBD.

Prerequisites

  • A stateful application is running in a separate namespace with persistent volume claims (PVCs) using CephFS as the provisioner.
  • The StorageClass and VolumeSnapshotClass custom resources (CRs) are defined for CephFS and OADP 1.2 Data Mover.
  • There is a secret cloud-credentials in the openshift-adp namespace.
4.9.3.4.1. Creating a DPA for use with split volumes

You must create a Data Protection Application (DPA) CR before you use the OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) 1.2 Data Mover to back up and restore data using split volumes.

Procedure

  • Create a Data Protection Application (DPA) CR as in the following example:

    Example DPA CR for environment with split volumes

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    metadata:
      name: velero-sample
      namespace: openshift-adp
    spec:
      backupLocations:
        - velero:
            config:
              profile: default
              region: us-east-1
            credential:
              key: cloud
              name: cloud-credentials
            default: true
            objectStorage:
              bucket: <my-bucket>
              prefix: velero
            provider: aws
      configuration:
        restic:
          enable: false
        velero:
          defaultPlugins:
            - openshift
            - aws
            - csi
            - vsm
      features:
        dataMover:
          credentialName: <restic_secret_name> 1
          enable: true
          volumeOptionsForStorageClasses: 2
            ocs-storagecluster-cephfs:
              sourceVolumeOptions:
                accessMode: ReadOnlyMany
                cacheAccessMode: ReadWriteMany
                cacheStorageClassName: ocs-storagecluster-cephfs
                storageClassName: ocs-storagecluster-cephfs-shallow
            ocs-storagecluster-ceph-rbd:
              sourceVolumeOptions:
                storageClassName: ocs-storagecluster-ceph-rbd
                cacheStorageClassName: ocs-storagecluster-ceph-rbd
            destinationVolumeOptions:
                storageClassName: ocs-storagecluster-ceph-rbd
                cacheStorageClassName: ocs-storagecluster-ceph-rbd

    1
    Use the Restic Secret that you created when you prepared your environment for working with OADP 1.2 Data Mover and Ceph. If you do not, then the CR will use the default value dm-credential for this parameter.
    2
    A different set of VolumeOptionsForStorageClass labels can be defined for each storageClass volume, thus allowing a backup to volumes with different providers.
4.9.3.4.2. Backing up data using OADP 1.2 Data Mover and split volumes

You can use OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) 1.2 Data Mover to back up data in an environment that has split volumes.

Procedure

  1. Create a Backup CR as in the following example:

    Example Backup CR

    apiVersion: velero.io/v1
    kind: Backup
    metadata:
      name: <backup_name>
      namespace: <protected_ns>
    spec:
      includedNamespaces:
      - <app_ns>
      storageLocation: velero-sample-1

  2. Monitor the progress of the VolumeSnapshotBackup CRs by completing the following steps:

    1. To check the progress of all the VolumeSnapshotBackup CRs, run the following command:

      $ oc get vsb -n <app_ns>
    2. To check the progress of a specific VolumeSnapshotBackup CR, run the following command:

      $ oc get vsb <vsb_name> -n <app_ns> -ojsonpath="{.status.phase}`
  3. Wait several minutes until the VolumeSnapshotBackup CR has the status Completed.
  4. Verify that there is at least one snapshot in the object store that is given in the Restic Secret. You can check for this snapshot in your targeted BackupStorageLocation storage provider that has a prefix of /<OADP_namespace>.
4.9.3.4.3. Restoring data using OADP 1.2 Data Mover and split volumes

You can use OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) 1.2 Data Mover to restore data in an environment that has split volumes, if the shallow copy feature of CephFS storage was enabled for the back up procedure. The shallow copy feature is not used in the restore procedure.

Procedure

  1. Delete the application namespace by running the following command:

    $ oc delete vsb -n <app_namespace> --all
  2. Delete any VolumeSnapshotContent CRs that were created during backup by running the following command:

    $ oc delete volumesnapshotcontent --all
  3. Create a Restore CR as in the following example:

    Example Restore CR

    apiVersion: velero.io/v1
    kind: Restore
    metadata:
      name: <restore_name>
      namespace: <protected_ns>
    spec:
      backupName: <previous_backup_name>

  4. Monitor the progress of the VolumeSnapshotRestore CRs by doing the following:

    1. To check the progress of all the VolumeSnapshotRestore CRs, run the following command:

      $ oc get vsr -n <app_ns>
    2. To check the progress of a specific VolumeSnapshotRestore CR, run the following command:

      $ oc get vsr <vsr_name> -n <app_ns> -ojsonpath="{.status.phase}
  5. Verify that your application data has been restored by running the following command:

    $ oc get route <route_name> -n <app_ns> -ojsonpath="{.spec.host}"

4.9.4. Cleaning up after a backup using OADP 1.1 Data Mover

For OADP 1.1 Data Mover, you must perform a data cleanup after you perform a backup.

The cleanup consists of deleting the following resources:

  • Snapshots in a bucket
  • Cluster resources
  • Volume snapshot backups (VSBs) after a backup procedure that is either run by a schedule or is run repetitively

4.9.4.1. Deleting snapshots in a bucket

OADP 1.1 Data Mover might leave one or more snapshots in a bucket after a backup. You can either delete all the snapshots or delete individual snapshots.

Procedure

  • To delete all snapshots in your bucket, delete the /<protected_namespace> folder that is specified in the Data Protection Application (DPA) .spec.backupLocation.objectStorage.bucket resource.
  • To delete an individual snapshot:

    1. Browse to the /<protected_namespace> folder that is specified in the DPA .spec.backupLocation.objectStorage.bucket resource.
    2. Delete the appropriate folders that are prefixed with /<volumeSnapshotContent name>-pvc where <VolumeSnapshotContent_name> is the VolumeSnapshotContent created by Data Mover per PVC.

4.9.4.2. Deleting cluster resources

OADP 1.1 Data Mover might leave cluster resources whether or not it successfully backs up your container storage interface (CSI) volume snapshots to a remote object store.

4.9.4.2.1. Deleting cluster resources following a successful backup and restore that used Data Mover

You can delete any VolumeSnapshotBackup or VolumeSnapshotRestore CRs that remain in your application namespace after a successful backup and restore where you used Data Mover.

Procedure

  1. Delete cluster resources that remain on the application namespace, the namespace with the application PVCs to backup and restore, after a backup where you use Data Mover:

    $ oc delete vsb -n <app_namespace> --all
  2. Delete cluster resources that remain after a restore where you use Data Mover:

    $ oc delete vsr -n <app_namespace> --all
  3. If needed, delete any VolumeSnapshotContent resources that remain after a backup and restore where you use Data Mover:

    $ oc delete volumesnapshotcontent --all
4.9.4.2.2. Deleting cluster resources following a partially successful or a failed backup and restore that used Data Mover

If your backup and restore operation that uses Data Mover either fails or only partially succeeds, you must clean up any VolumeSnapshotBackup (VSB) or VolumeSnapshotRestore custom resource definitions (CRDs) that exist in the application namespace, and clean up any extra resources created by these controllers.

Procedure

  1. Clean up cluster resources that remain after a backup operation where you used Data Mover by entering the following commands:

    1. Delete VSB CRDs on the application namespace, the namespace with the application PVCs to backup and restore:

      $ oc delete vsb -n <app_namespace> --all
    2. Delete VolumeSnapshot CRs:

      $ oc delete volumesnapshot -A --all
    3. Delete VolumeSnapshotContent CRs:

      $ oc delete volumesnapshotcontent --all
    4. Delete any PVCs on the protected namespace, the namespace the Operator is installed on.

      $ oc delete pvc -n <protected_namespace> --all
    5. Delete any ReplicationSource resources on the namespace.

      $ oc delete replicationsource -n <protected_namespace> --all
  2. Clean up cluster resources that remain after a restore operation using Data Mover by entering the following commands:

    1. Delete VSR CRDs:

      $ oc delete vsr -n <app-ns> --all
    2. Delete VolumeSnapshot CRs:

      $ oc delete volumesnapshot -A --all
    3. Delete VolumeSnapshotContent CRs:

      $ oc delete volumesnapshotcontent --all
    4. Delete any ReplicationDestination resources on the namespace.

      $ oc delete replicationdestination -n <protected_namespace> --all

4.10. OADP 1.3 Data Mover

4.10.1. About the OADP 1.3 Data Mover

OADP 1.3 includes a built-in Data Mover that you can use to move Container Storage Interface (CSI) volume snapshots to a remote object store. The built-in Data Mover allows you to restore stateful applications from the remote object store if a failure, accidental deletion, or corruption of the cluster occurs. It uses Kopia as the uploader mechanism to read the snapshot data and write to the unified repository.

OADP supports CSI snapshots on the following:

  • Red Hat OpenShift Data Foundation
  • Any other cloud storage provider with the Container Storage Interface (CSI) driver that supports the Kubernetes Volume Snapshot API
Important

The OADP built-in Data Mover is a Technology Preview feature only. Technology Preview features are not supported with Red Hat production service level agreements (SLAs) and might not be functionally complete. Red Hat does not recommend using them in production. These features provide early access to upcoming product features, enabling customers to test functionality and provide feedback during the development process.

For more information about the support scope of Red Hat Technology Preview features, see Technology Preview Features Support Scope.

4.10.1.1. Enabling the built-in Data Mover

To enable the built-in Data Mover, you must include the CSI plugin and enable the node agent in the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR). The node agent is a Kubernetes daemonset that hosts data movement modules. These include the Data Mover controller, uploader, and the repository.

Example DataProtectionApplication manifest

apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
kind: DataProtectionApplication
metadata:
  name: dpa-sample
spec:
  configuration:
    nodeAgent:
      enable: true 1
      uploaderType: kopia 2
    velero:
      defaultPlugins:
      - openshift
      - aws
      - csi 3
# ...

1
The flag to enable the node agent.
2
The type of uploader. The possible values are restic or kopia. The built-in Data Mover uses Kopia as the default uploader mechanism regardless of the value of the uploaderType field.
3
The CSI plugin included in the list of default plugins.

4.10.1.2. Built-in Data Mover controller and custom resource definitions (CRDs)

The built-in Data Mover feature introduces three new API objects defined as CRDs for managing backup and restore:

  • DataDownload: Represents a data download of a volume snapshot. The CSI plugin creates one DataDownload object per volume to be restored. The DataDownload CR includes information about the target volume, the specified Data Mover, the progress of the current data download, the specified backup repository, and the result of the current data download after the process is complete.
  • DataUpload: Represents a data upload of a volume snapshot. The CSI plugin creates one DataUpload object per CSI snapshot. The DataUpload CR includes information about the specified snapshot, the specified Data Mover, the specified backup repository, the progress of the current data upload, and the result of the current data upload after the process is complete.
  • BackupRepository: Represents and manages the lifecycle of the backup repositories. OADP creates a backup repository per namespace when the first CSI snapshot backup or restore for a namespace is requested.

4.10.2. Backing up and restoring CSI snapshots

You can back up and restore persistent volumes by using the OADP 1.3 Data Mover.

4.10.2.1. Backing up persistent volumes with CSI snapshots

You can use the OADP Data Mover to back up Container Storage Interface (CSI) volume snapshots to a remote object store.

Prerequisites

  • You have access to the cluster with the cluster-admin role.
  • You have installed the OADP Operator.
  • You have included the CSI plugin and enabled the node agent in the DataProtectionApplication custom resource (CR).
  • You have an application with persistent volumes running in a separate namespace.
  • You have added the metadata.labels.velero.io/csi-volumesnapshot-class: "true" key-value pair to the VolumeSnapshotClass CR.

Procedure

  1. Create a YAML file for the Backup object, as in the following example:

    Example Backup CR

    kind: Backup
    apiVersion: velero.io/v1
    metadata:
      name: backup
      namespace: openshift-adp
    spec:
      csiSnapshotTimeout: 10m0s
      defaultVolumesToFsBackup: false
      includedNamespaces:
      - mysql-persistent
      itemOperationTimeout: 4h0m0s
      snapshotMoveData: true 1
      storageLocation: default
      ttl: 720h0m0s
      volumeSnapshotLocations:
      - dpa-sample-1
    # ...

    1
    Set to true to enable movement of CSI snapshots to remote object storage.
  2. Apply the manifest:

    $ oc create -f backup.yaml

    A DataUpload CR is created after the snapshot creation is complete.

Verification

  • Verify that the snapshot data is successfully transferred to the remote object store by monitoring the status.phase field of the DataUpload CR. Possible values are In Progress, Completed, Failed, or Canceled. The object store is configured in the backupLocations stanza of the DataProtectionApplication CR.

    • Run the following command to get a list of all DataUpload objects:

      $ oc get datauploads -A

      Example output

      NAMESPACE       NAME                  STATUS      STARTED   BYTES DONE   TOTAL BYTES   STORAGE LOCATION   AGE     NODE
      openshift-adp   backup-test-1-sw76b   Completed   9m47s     108104082    108104082     dpa-sample-1       9m47s   ip-10-0-150-57.us-west-2.compute.internal
      openshift-adp   mongo-block-7dtpf     Completed   14m       1073741824   1073741824    dpa-sample-1       14m     ip-10-0-150-57.us-west-2.compute.internal

    • Check the value of the status.phase field of the specific DataUpload object by running the following command:

      $ oc get datauploads <dataupload_name> -o yaml

      Example output

      apiVersion: velero.io/v2alpha1
      kind: DataUpload
      metadata:
        name: backup-test-1-sw76b
        namespace: openshift-adp
      spec:
        backupStorageLocation: dpa-sample-1
        csiSnapshot:
          snapshotClass: ""
          storageClass: gp3-csi
          volumeSnapshot: velero-mysql-fq8sl
        operationTimeout: 10m0s
        snapshotType: CSI
        sourceNamespace: mysql-persistent
        sourcePVC: mysql
      status:
        completionTimestamp: "2023-11-02T16:57:02Z"
        node: ip-10-0-150-57.us-west-2.compute.internal
        path: /host_pods/15116bac-cc01-4d9b-8ee7-609c3bef6bde/volumes/kubernetes.io~csi/pvc-eead8167-556b-461a-b3ec-441749e291c4/mount
        phase: Completed 1
        progress:
          bytesDone: 108104082
          totalBytes: 108104082
        snapshotID: 8da1c5febf25225f4577ada2aeb9f899
        startTimestamp: "2023-11-02T16:56:22Z"

      1
      Indicates that snapshot data is successfully transferred to the remote object store.

4.10.2.2. Restoring CSI volume snapshots

You can restore a volume snapshot by creating a Restore CR.

Note

You cannot restore Volsync backups from OADP 1.2 with the OAPD 1.3 built-in Data Mover. It is recommended to do a file system backup of all of your workloads with Restic prior to upgrading to OADP 1.3.

Prerequisites

  • You have access to the cluster with the cluster-admin role.
  • You have an OADP Backup CR from which to restore the data.

Procedure

  1. Create a YAML file for the Restore CR, as in the following example:

    Example Restore CR

    apiVersion: velero.io/v1
    kind: Restore
    metadata:
      name: restore
      namespace: openshift-adp
    spec:
      backupName: <backup>
    # ...

  2. Apply the manifest:

    $ oc create -f restore.yaml

    A DataDownload CR is created when the restore starts.

Verification

  • You can monitor the status of the restore process by checking the status.phase field of the DataDownload CR. Possible values are In Progress, Completed, Failed, or Canceled.

    • To get a list of all DataDownload objects, run the following command:

      $ oc get datadownloads -A

      Example output

      NAMESPACE       NAME                   STATUS      STARTED   BYTES DONE   TOTAL BYTES   STORAGE LOCATION   AGE     NODE
      openshift-adp   restore-test-1-sk7lg   Completed   7m11s     108104082    108104082     dpa-sample-1       7m11s   ip-10-0-150-57.us-west-2.compute.internal

    • Enter the following command to check the value of the status.phase field of the specific DataDownload object:

      $ oc get datadownloads <datadownload_name> -o yaml

      Example output

      apiVersion: velero.io/v2alpha1
      kind: DataDownload
      metadata:
        name: restore-test-1-sk7lg
        namespace: openshift-adp
      spec:
        backupStorageLocation: dpa-sample-1
        operationTimeout: 10m0s
        snapshotID: 8da1c5febf25225f4577ada2aeb9f899
        sourceNamespace: mysql-persistent
        targetVolume:
          namespace: mysql-persistent
          pv: ""
          pvc: mysql
      status:
        completionTimestamp: "2023-11-02T17:01:24Z"
        node: ip-10-0-150-57.us-west-2.compute.internal
        phase: Completed 1
        progress:
          bytesDone: 108104082
          totalBytes: 108104082
        startTimestamp: "2023-11-02T17:00:52Z"

      1
      Indicates that the CSI snapshot data is successfully restored.

4.11. Troubleshooting

You can debug Velero custom resources (CRs) by using the OpenShift CLI tool or the Velero CLI tool. The Velero CLI tool provides more detailed logs and information.

You can check installation issues, backup and restore CR issues, and Restic issues.

You can collect logs and CR information by using the must-gather tool.

You can obtain the Velero CLI tool by:

  • Downloading the Velero CLI tool
  • Accessing the Velero binary in the Velero deployment in the cluster

4.11.1. Downloading the Velero CLI tool

You can download and install the Velero CLI tool by following the instructions on the Velero documentation page.

The page includes instructions for:

  • macOS by using Homebrew
  • GitHub
  • Windows by using Chocolatey

Prerequisites

  • You have access to a Kubernetes cluster, v1.16 or later, with DNS and container networking enabled.
  • You have installed kubectl locally.

Procedure

  1. Open a browser and navigate to "Install the CLI" on the Velero website.
  2. Follow the appropriate procedure for macOS, GitHub, or Windows.
  3. Download the Velero version appropriate for your version of OADP and OpenShift Container Platform.

4.11.1.1. OADP-Velero-OpenShift Container Platform version relationship

OADP versionVelero versionOpenShift Container Platform version

1.1.0

1.9

4.9 and later

1.1.1

1.9

4.9 and later

1.1.2

1.9

4.9 and later

1.1.3

1.9

4.9 and later

1.1.4

1.9

4.9 and later

1.1.5

1.9

4.9 and later

1.1.6

1.9

4.11 and later

1.1.7

1.9

4.11 and later

1.2.0

1.11

4.11 and later

1.2.1

1.11

4.11 and later

1.2.2

1.11

4.11 and later

1.2.3

1.11

4.11 and later

1.3.0

1.12

4.12 and later

4.11.2. Accessing the Velero binary in the Velero deployment in the cluster

You can use a shell command to access the Velero binary in the Velero deployment in the cluster.

Prerequisites

  • Your DataProtectionApplication custom resource has a status of Reconcile complete.

Procedure

  • Enter the following command to set the needed alias:

    $ alias velero='oc -n openshift-adp exec deployment/velero -c velero -it -- ./velero'

4.11.3. Debugging Velero resources with the OpenShift CLI tool

You can debug a failed backup or restore by checking Velero custom resources (CRs) and the Velero pod log with the OpenShift CLI tool.

Velero CRs

Use the oc describe command to retrieve a summary of warnings and errors associated with a Backup or Restore CR:

$ oc describe <velero_cr> <cr_name>
Velero pod logs

Use the oc logs command to retrieve the Velero pod logs:

$ oc logs pod/<velero>
Velero pod debug logs

You can specify the Velero log level in the DataProtectionApplication resource as shown in the following example.

Note

This option is available starting from OADP 1.0.3.

apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
kind: DataProtectionApplication
metadata:
  name: velero-sample
spec:
  configuration:
    velero:
      logLevel: warning

The following logLevel values are available:

  • trace
  • debug
  • info
  • warning
  • error
  • fatal
  • panic

It is recommended to use debug for most logs.

4.11.4. Debugging Velero resources with the Velero CLI tool

You can debug Backup and Restore custom resources (CRs) and retrieve logs with the Velero CLI tool.

The Velero CLI tool provides more detailed information than the OpenShift CLI tool.

Syntax

Use the oc exec command to run a Velero CLI command:

$ oc -n openshift-adp exec deployment/velero -c velero -- ./velero \
  <backup_restore_cr> <command> <cr_name>

Example

$ oc -n openshift-adp exec deployment/velero -c velero -- ./velero \
  backup describe 0e44ae00-5dc3-11eb-9ca8-df7e5254778b-2d8ql

Help option

Use the velero --help option to list all Velero CLI commands:

$ oc -n openshift-adp exec deployment/velero -c velero -- ./velero \
  --help
Describe command

Use the velero describe command to retrieve a summary of warnings and errors associated with a Backup or Restore CR:

$ oc -n openshift-adp exec deployment/velero -c velero -- ./velero \
  <backup_restore_cr> describe <cr_name>

Example

$ oc -n openshift-adp exec deployment/velero -c velero -- ./velero \
  backup describe 0e44ae00-5dc3-11eb-9ca8-df7e5254778b-2d8ql

The following types of restore errors and warnings are shown in the output of a velero describe request:

  • Velero: A list of messages related to the operation of Velero itself, for example, messages related to connecting to the cloud, reading a backup file, and so on
  • Cluster: A list of messages related to backing up or restoring cluster-scoped resources
  • Namespaces: A list of list of messages related to backing up or restoring resources stored in namespaces

One or more errors in one of these categories results in a Restore operation receiving the status of PartiallyFailed and not Completed. Warnings do not lead to a change in the completion status.

Important
  • For resource-specific errors, that is, Cluster and Namespaces errors, the restore describe --details output includes a resource list that lists all resources that Velero succeeded in restoring. For any resource that has such an error, check to see if the resource is actually in the cluster.
  • If there are Velero errors, but no resource-specific errors, in the output of a describe command, it is possible that the restore completed without any actual problems in restoring workloads, but carefully validate post-restore applications.

    For example, if the output contains PodVolumeRestore or node agent-related errors, check the status of PodVolumeRestores and DataDownloads. If none of these are failed or still running, then volume data might have been fully restored.

Logs command

Use the velero logs command to retrieve the logs of a Backup or Restore CR:

$ oc -n openshift-adp exec deployment/velero -c velero -- ./velero \
  <backup_restore_cr> logs <cr_name>

Example

$ oc -n openshift-adp exec deployment/velero -c velero -- ./velero \
  restore logs ccc7c2d0-6017-11eb-afab-85d0007f5a19-x4lbf

4.11.5. Pods crash or restart due to lack of memory or CPU

If a Velero or Restic pod crashes due to a lack of memory or CPU, you can set specific resource requests for either of those resources.

Additional resources

4.11.5.1. Setting resource requests for a Velero pod

You can use the configuration.velero.podConfig.resourceAllocations specification field in the oadp_v1alpha1_dpa.yaml file to set specific resource requests for a Velero pod.

Procedure

  • Set the cpu and memory resource requests in the YAML file:

    Example Velero file

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    ...
    configuration:
      velero:
        podConfig:
          resourceAllocations: 1
            requests:
              cpu: 200m
              memory: 256Mi

    1
    The resourceAllocations listed are for average usage.

4.11.5.2. Setting resource requests for a Restic pod

You can use the configuration.restic.podConfig.resourceAllocations specification field to set specific resource requests for a Restic pod.

Procedure

  • Set the cpu and memory resource requests in the YAML file:

    Example Restic file

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    ...
    configuration:
      restic:
        podConfig:
          resourceAllocations: 1
            requests:
              cpu: 1000m
              memory: 16Gi

    1
    The resourceAllocations listed are for average usage.
Important

The values for the resource request fields must follow the same format as Kubernetes resource requirements. Also, if you do not specify configuration.velero.podConfig.resourceAllocations or configuration.restic.podConfig.resourceAllocations, the default resources specification for a Velero pod or a Restic pod is as follows:

requests:
  cpu: 500m
  memory: 128Mi

4.11.6. Issues with Velero and admission webhooks

Velero has limited abilities to resolve admission webhook issues during a restore. If you have workloads with admission webhooks, you might need to use an additional Velero plugin or make changes to how you restore the workload.

Typically, workloads with admission webhooks require you to create a resource of a specific kind first. This is especially true if your workload has child resources because admission webhooks typically block child resources.

For example, creating or restoring a top-level object such as service.serving.knative.dev typically creates child resources automatically. If you do this first, you will not need to use Velero to create and restore these resources. This avoids the problem of child resources being blocked by an admission webhook that Velero might use.

4.11.6.1. Restoring workarounds for Velero backups that use admission webhooks

This section describes the additional steps required to restore resources for several types of Velero backups that use admission webhooks.

4.11.6.1.1. Restoring Knative resources

You might encounter problems using Velero to back up Knative resources that use admission webhooks.

You can avoid such problems by restoring the top level Service resource first whenever you back up and restore Knative resources that use admission webhooks.

Procedure

  • Restore the top level service.serving.knavtive.dev Service resource:

    $ velero restore <restore_name> \
      --from-backup=<backup_name> --include-resources \
      service.serving.knavtive.dev
4.11.6.1.2. Restoring IBM AppConnect resources

If you experience issues when you use Velero to a restore an IBM AppConnect resource that has an admission webhook, you can run the checks in this procedure.

Procedure

  1. Check if you have any mutating admission plugins of kind: MutatingWebhookConfiguration in the cluster:

    $ oc get mutatingwebhookconfigurations
  2. Examine the YAML file of each kind: MutatingWebhookConfiguration to ensure that none of its rules block creation of the objects that are experiencing issues. For more information, see the official Kubernetes documentation.
  3. Check that any spec.version in type: Configuration.appconnect.ibm.com/v1beta1 used at backup time is supported by the installed Operator.

4.11.6.2. OADP plugins known issues

The following section describes known issues in OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) plugins:

4.11.6.2.1. Velero plugin panics during imagestream backups due to a missing secret

When the backup and the Backup Storage Location (BSL) are managed outside the scope of the Data Protection Application (DPA), the OADP controller, meaning the DPA reconciliation does not create the relevant oadp-<bsl_name>-<bsl_provider>-registry-secret.

When the backup is run, the OpenShift Velero plugin panics on the imagestream backup, with the following panic error:

024-02-27T10:46:50.028951744Z time="2024-02-27T10:46:50Z" level=error msg="Error backing up item"
backup=openshift-adp/<backup name> error="error executing custom action (groupResource=imagestreams.image.openshift.io,
namespace=<BSL Name>, name=postgres): rpc error: code = Aborted desc = plugin panicked:
runtime error: index out of range with length 1, stack trace: goroutine 94…
4.11.6.2.1.1. Workaround to avoid the panic error

To avoid the Velero plugin panic error, perform the following steps:

  1. Label the custom BSL with the relevant label:

    $ oc label BackupStorageLocation <bsl_name> app.kubernetes.io/component=bsl
  2. After the BSL is labeled, wait until the DPA reconciles.

    Note

    You can force the reconciliation by making any minor change to the DPA itself.

  3. When the DPA reconciles, confirm that the relevant oadp-<bsl_name>-<bsl_provider>-registry-secret has been created and that the correct registry data has been populated into it:

    $ oc -n openshift-adp get secret/oadp-<bsl_name>-<bsl_provider>-registry-secret -o json | jq -r '.data'
4.11.6.2.2. OpenShift ADP Controller segmentation fault

If you configure a DPA with both cloudstorage and restic enabled, the openshift-adp-controller-manager pod crashes and restarts indefinitely until the pod fails with a crash loop segmentation fault.

You can have either velero or cloudstorage defined, because they are mutually exclusive fields.

  • If you have both velero and cloudstorage defined, the openshift-adp-controller-manager fails.
  • If you have neither velero nor cloudstorage defined, the openshift-adp-controller-manager fails.

For more information about this issue, see OADP-1054.

4.11.6.2.2.1. OpenShift ADP Controller segmentation fault workaround

You must define either velero or cloudstorage when you configure a DPA. If you define both APIs in your DPA, the openshift-adp-controller-manager pod fails with a crash loop segmentation fault.

4.11.6.3. Velero plugins returning "received EOF, stopping recv loop" message

Note

Velero plugins are started as separate processes. After the Velero operation has completed, either successfully or not, they exit. Receiving a received EOF, stopping recv loop message in the debug logs indicates that a plugin operation has completed. It does not mean that an error has occurred.

4.11.7. Installation issues

You might encounter issues caused by using invalid directories or incorrect credentials when you install the Data Protection Application.

4.11.7.1. Backup storage contains invalid directories

The Velero pod log displays the error message, Backup storage contains invalid top-level directories.

Cause

The object storage contains top-level directories that are not Velero directories.

Solution

If the object storage is not dedicated to Velero, you must specify a prefix for the bucket by setting the spec.backupLocations.velero.objectStorage.prefix parameter in the DataProtectionApplication manifest.

4.11.7.2. Incorrect AWS credentials

The oadp-aws-registry pod log displays the error message, InvalidAccessKeyId: The AWS Access Key Id you provided does not exist in our records.

The Velero pod log displays the error message, NoCredentialProviders: no valid providers in chain.

Cause

The credentials-velero file used to create the Secret object is incorrectly formatted.

Solution

Ensure that the credentials-velero file is correctly formatted, as in the following example:

Example credentials-velero file

[default] 1
aws_access_key_id=AKIAIOSFODNN7EXAMPLE 2
aws_secret_access_key=wJalrXUtnFEMI/K7MDENG/bPxRfiCYEXAMPLEKEY

1
AWS default profile.
2
Do not enclose the values with quotation marks (", ').

4.11.8. OADP Operator issues

The OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) Operator might encounter issues caused by problems it is not able to resolve.

4.11.8.1. OADP Operator fails silently

The S3 buckets of an OADP Operator might be empty, but when you run the command oc get po -n <OADP_Operator_namespace>, you see that the Operator has a status of Running. In such a case, the Operator is said to have failed silently because it incorrectly reports that it is running.

Cause

The problem is caused when cloud credentials provide insufficient permissions.

Solution

Retrieve a list of backup storage locations (BSLs) and check the manifest of each BSL for credential issues.

Procedure

  1. Run one of the following commands to retrieve a list of BSLs:

    1. Using the OpenShift CLI:

      $ oc get backupstoragelocation -A
    2. Using the Velero CLI:

      $ velero backup-location get -n <OADP_Operator_namespace>
  2. Using the list of BSLs, run the following command to display the manifest of each BSL, and examine each manifest for an error.

    $ oc get backupstoragelocation -n <namespace> -o yaml

Example result

apiVersion: v1
items:
- apiVersion: velero.io/v1
  kind: BackupStorageLocation
  metadata:
    creationTimestamp: "2023-11-03T19:49:04Z"
    generation: 9703
    name: example-dpa-1
    namespace: openshift-adp-operator
    ownerReferences:
    - apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
      blockOwnerDeletion: true
      controller: true
      kind: DataProtectionApplication
      name: example-dpa
      uid: 0beeeaff-0287-4f32-bcb1-2e3c921b6e82
    resourceVersion: "24273698"
    uid: ba37cd15-cf17-4f7d-bf03-8af8655cea83
  spec:
    config:
      enableSharedConfig: "true"
      region: us-west-2
    credential:
      key: credentials
      name: cloud-credentials
    default: true
    objectStorage:
      bucket: example-oadp-operator
      prefix: example
    provider: aws
  status:
    lastValidationTime: "2023-11-10T22:06:46Z"
    message: "BackupStorageLocation \"example-dpa-1\" is unavailable: rpc
      error: code = Unknown desc = WebIdentityErr: failed to retrieve credentials\ncaused
      by: AccessDenied: Not authorized to perform sts:AssumeRoleWithWebIdentity\n\tstatus
      code: 403, request id: d3f2e099-70a0-467b-997e-ff62345e3b54"
    phase: Unavailable
kind: List
metadata:
  resourceVersion: ""

4.11.9. OADP timeouts

Extending a timeout allows complex or resource-intensive processes to complete successfully without premature termination. This configuration can reduce the likelihood of errors, retries, or failures.

Ensure that you balance timeout extensions in a logical manner so that you do not configure excessively long timeouts that might hide underlying issues in the process. Carefully consider and monitor an appropriate timeout value that meets the needs of the process and the overall system performance.

The following are various OADP timeouts, with instructions of how and when to implement these parameters:

4.11.9.1. Restic timeout

timeout defines the Restic timeout. The default value is 1h.

Use the Restic timeout for the following scenarios:

  • For Restic backups with total PV data usage that is greater than 500GB.
  • If backups are timing out with the following error:

    level=error msg="Error backing up item" backup=velero/monitoring error="timed out waiting for all PodVolumeBackups to complete"

Procedure

  • Edit the values in the spec.configuration.restic.timeout block of the DataProtectionApplication CR manifest, as in the following example:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    metadata:
     name: <dpa_name>
    spec:
      configuration:
        restic:
          timeout: 1h
    # ...

4.11.9.2. Velero resource timeout

resourceTimeout defines how long to wait for several Velero resources before timeout occurs, such as Velero custom resource definition (CRD) availability, volumeSnapshot deletion, and repository availability. The default is 10m.

Use the resourceTimeout for the following scenarios:

  • For backups with total PV data usage that is greater than 1TB. This parameter is used as a timeout value when Velero tries to clean up or delete the Container Storage Interface (CSI) snapshots, before marking the backup as complete.

    • A sub-task of this cleanup tries to patch VSC and this timeout can be used for that task.
  • To create or ensure a backup repository is ready for filesystem based backups for Restic or Kopia.
  • To check if the Velero CRD is available in the cluster before restoring the custom resource (CR) or resource from the backup.

Procedure

  • Edit the values in the spec.configuration.velero.resourceTimeout block of the DataProtectionApplication CR manifest, as in the following example:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    metadata:
     name: <dpa_name>
    spec:
      configuration:
        velero:
          resourceTimeout: 10m
    # ...

4.11.9.3. Data Mover timeout

timeout is a user-supplied timeout to complete VolumeSnapshotBackup and VolumeSnapshotRestore. The default value is 10m.

Use the Data Mover timeout for the following scenarios:

  • If creation of VolumeSnapshotBackups (VSBs) and VolumeSnapshotRestores (VSRs), times out after 10 minutes.
  • For large scale environments with total PV data usage that is greater than 500GB. Set the timeout for 1h.
  • With the VolumeSnapshotMover (VSM) plugin.
  • Only with OADP 1.1.x.

Procedure

  • Edit the values in the spec.features.dataMover.timeout block of the DataProtectionApplication CR manifest, as in the following example:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    metadata:
     name: <dpa_name>
    spec:
      features:
        dataMover:
          timeout: 10m
    # ...

4.11.9.4. CSI snapshot timeout

CSISnapshotTimeout specifies the time during creation to wait until the CSI VolumeSnapshot status becomes ReadyToUse, before returning error as timeout. The default value is 10m.

Use the CSISnapshotTimeout for the following scenarios:

  • With the CSI plugin.
  • For very large storage volumes that may take longer than 10 minutes to snapshot. Adjust this timeout if timeouts are found in the logs.
Note

Typically, the default value for CSISnapshotTimeout does not require adjustment, because the default setting can accommodate large storage volumes.

Procedure

  • Edit the values in the spec.csiSnapshotTimeout block of the Backup CR manifest, as in the following example:

    apiVersion: velero.io/v1
    kind: Backup
    metadata:
     name: <backup_name>
    spec:
     csiSnapshotTimeout: 10m
    # ...

4.11.9.5. Velero default item operation timeout

defaultItemOperationTimeout defines how long to wait on asynchronous BackupItemActions and RestoreItemActions to complete before timing out. The default value is 1h.

Use the defaultItemOperationTimeout for the following scenarios:

  • Only with Data Mover 1.2.x.
  • To specify the amount of time a particular backup or restore should wait for the Asynchronous actions to complete. In the context of OADP features, this value is used for the Asynchronous actions involved in the Container Storage Interface (CSI) Data Mover feature.
  • When defaultItemOperationTimeout is defined in the Data Protection Application (DPA) using the defaultItemOperationTimeout, it applies to both backup and restore operations. You can use itemOperationTimeout to define only the backup or only the restore of those CRs, as described in the following "Item operation timeout - restore", and "Item operation timeout - backup" sections.

Procedure

  • Edit the values in the spec.configuration.velero.defaultItemOperationTimeout block of the DataProtectionApplication CR manifest, as in the following example:

    apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/v1alpha1
    kind: DataProtectionApplication
    metadata:
     name: <dpa_name>
    spec:
      configuration:
        velero:
          defaultItemOperationTimeout: 1h
    # ...

4.11.9.6. Item operation timeout - restore

ItemOperationTimeout specifies the time that is used to wait for RestoreItemAction operations. The default value is 1h.

Use the restore ItemOperationTimeout for the following scenarios:

  • Only with Data Mover 1.2.x.
  • For Data Mover uploads and downloads to or from the BackupStorageLocation. If the restore action is not completed when the timeout is reached, it will be marked as failed. If Data Mover operations are failing due to timeout issues, because of large storage volume sizes, then this timeout setting may need to be increased.

Procedure

  • Edit the values in the Restore.spec.itemOperationTimeout block of the Restore CR manifest, as in the following example:

    apiVersion: velero.io/v1
    kind: Restore
    metadata:
     name: <restore_name>
    spec:
     itemOperationTimeout: 1h
    # ...

4.11.9.7. Item operation timeout - backup

ItemOperationTimeout specifies the time used to wait for asynchronous BackupItemAction operations. The default value is 1h.

Use the backup ItemOperationTimeout for the following scenarios:

  • Only with Data Mover 1.2.x.
  • For Data Mover uploads and downloads to or from the BackupStorageLocation. If the backup action is not completed when the timeout is reached, it will be marked as failed. If Data Mover operations are failing due to timeout issues, because of large storage volume sizes, then this timeout setting may need to be increased.

Procedure

  • Edit the values in the Backup.spec.itemOperationTimeout block of the Backup CR manifest, as in the following example:

    apiVersion: velero.io/v1
    kind: Backup
    metadata:
     name: <backup_name>
    spec:
     itemOperationTimeout: 1h
    # ...

4.11.10. Backup and Restore CR issues

You might encounter these common issues with Backup and Restore custom resources (CRs).

4.11.10.1. Backup CR cannot retrieve volume

The Backup CR displays the error message, InvalidVolume.NotFound: The volume ‘vol-xxxx’ does not exist.

Cause

The persistent volume (PV) and the snapshot locations are in different regions.

Solution

  1. Edit the value of the spec.snapshotLocations.velero.config.region key in the DataProtectionApplication manifest so that the snapshot location is in the same region as the PV.
  2. Create a new Backup CR.

4.11.10.2. Backup CR status remains in progress

The status of a Backup CR remains in the InProgress phase and does not complete.

Cause

If a backup is interrupted, it cannot be resumed.

Solution

  1. Retrieve the details of the Backup CR:

    $ oc -n {namespace} exec deployment/velero -c velero -- ./velero \
      backup describe <backup>
  2. Delete the Backup CR:

    $ oc delete backup <backup> -n openshift-adp

    You do not need to clean up the backup location because a Backup CR in progress has not uploaded files to object storage.

  3. Create a new Backup CR.

4.11.10.3. Backup CR status remains in PartiallyFailed

The status of a Backup CR without Restic in use remains in the PartiallyFailed phase and does not complete. A snapshot of the affiliated PVC is not created.

Cause

If the backup is created based on the CSI snapshot class, but the label is missing, CSI snapshot plugin fails to create a snapshot. As a result, the Velero pod logs an error similar to the following:

+

time="2023-02-17T16:33:13Z" level=error msg="Error backing up item" backup=openshift-adp/user1-backup-check5 error="error executing custom action (groupResource=persistentvolumeclaims, namespace=busy1, name=pvc1-user1): rpc error: code = Unknown desc = failed to get volumesnapshotclass for storageclass ocs-storagecluster-ceph-rbd: failed to get volumesnapshotclass for provisioner openshift-storage.rbd.csi.ceph.com, ensure that the desired volumesnapshot class has the velero.io/csi-volumesnapshot-class label" logSource="/remote-source/velero/app/pkg/backup/backup.go:417" name=busybox-79799557b5-vprq

Solution

  1. Delete the Backup CR:

    $ oc delete backup <backup> -n openshift-adp
  2. If required, clean up the stored data on the BackupStorageLocation to free up space.
  3. Apply label velero.io/csi-volumesnapshot-class=true to the VolumeSnapshotClass object:

    $ oc label volumesnapshotclass/<snapclass_name> velero.io/csi-volumesnapshot-class=true
  4. Create a new Backup CR.

4.11.11. Restic issues

You might encounter these issues when you back up applications with Restic.

4.11.11.1. Restic permission error for NFS data volumes with root_squash enabled

The Restic pod log displays the error message: controller=pod-volume-backup error="fork/exec/usr/bin/restic: permission denied".

Cause

If your NFS data volumes have root_squash enabled, Restic maps to nfsnobody and does not have permission to create backups.

Solution

You can resolve this issue by creating a supplemental group for Restic and adding the group ID to the DataProtectionApplication manifest:

  1. Create a supplemental group for Restic on the NFS data volume.
  2. Set the setgid bit on the NFS directories so that group ownership is inherited.
  3. Add the spec.configuration.restic.supplementalGroups parameter and the group ID to the DataProtectionApplication manifest, as in the following example:

    spec:
      configuration:
        restic:
          enable: true
          supplementalGroups:
          - <group_id> 1
    1
    Specify the supplemental group ID.
  4. Wait for the Restic pods to restart so that the changes are applied.

4.11.11.2. Restic Backup CR cannot be recreated after bucket is emptied

If you create a Restic Backup CR for a namespace, empty the object storage bucket, and then recreate the Backup CR for the same namespace, the recreated Backup CR fails.

The velero pod log displays the following error message: stderr=Fatal: unable to open config file: Stat: The specified key does not exist.\nIs there a repository at the following location?.

Cause

Velero does not recreate or update the Restic repository from the ResticRepository manifest if the Restic directories are deleted from object storage. See Velero issue 4421 for more information.

Solution

  • Remove the related Restic repository from the namespace by running the following command:

    $ oc delete resticrepository openshift-adp <name_of_the_restic_repository>

    In the following error log, mysql-persistent is the problematic Restic repository. The name of the repository appears in italics for clarity.

     time="2021-12-29T18:29:14Z" level=info msg="1 errors
     encountered backup up item" backup=velero/backup65
     logSource="pkg/backup/backup.go:431" name=mysql-7d99fc949-qbkds
     time="2021-12-29T18:29:14Z" level=error msg="Error backing up item"
     backup=velero/backup65 error="pod volume backup failed: error running
     restic backup, stderr=Fatal: unable to open config file: Stat: The
     specified key does not exist.\nIs there a repository at the following
     location?\ns3:http://minio-minio.apps.mayap-oadp-
     veleo-1234.qe.devcluster.openshift.com/mayapvelerooadp2/velero1/
     restic/mysql-persistent\n: exit status 1" error.file="/remote-source/
     src/github.com/vmware-tanzu/velero/pkg/restic/backupper.go:184"
     error.function="github.com/vmware-tanzu/velero/
     pkg/restic.(*backupper).BackupPodVolumes"
     logSource="pkg/backup/backup.go:435" name=mysql-7d99fc949-qbkds

4.11.12. Using the must-gather tool

You can collect logs, metrics, and information about OADP custom resources by using the must-gather tool.

The must-gather data must be attached to all customer cases.

Prerequisites

  • You must be logged in to the OpenShift Container Platform cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.
  • You must have the OpenShift CLI (oc) installed.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the directory where you want to store the must-gather data.
  2. Run the oc adm must-gather command for one of the following data collection options:

4.11.12.1. Combining options when using the must-gather tool

Currently, it is not possible to combine must-gather scripts, for example specifying a timeout threshold while permitting insecure TLS connections. In some situations, you can get around this limitation by setting up internal variables on the must-gather command line, such as the following example:

$ oc adm must-gather --image=brew.registry.redhat.io/rh-osbs/oadp-oadp-mustgather-rhel8:1.1.1-8  -- skip_tls=true /usr/bin/gather_with_timeout <timeout_value_in_seconds>

In this example, set the skip_tls variable before running the gather_with_timeout script. The result is a combination of gather_with_timeout and gather_without_tls.

The only other variables that you can specify this way are the following:

  • logs_since, with a default value of 72h
  • request_timeout, with a default value of 0s

4.11.13. OADP Monitoring

The OpenShift Container Platform provides a monitoring stack that allows users and administrators to effectively monitor and manage their clusters, as well as monitor and analyze the workload performance of user applications and services running on the clusters, including receiving alerts if an event occurs.

Additional resources

4.11.13.1. OADP monitoring setup

The OADP Operator leverages an OpenShift User Workload Monitoring provided by the OpenShift Monitoring Stack for retrieving metrics from the Velero service endpoint. The monitoring stack allows creating user-defined Alerting Rules or querying metrics by using the OpenShift Metrics query front end.

With enabled User Workload Monitoring, it is possible to configure and use any Prometheus-compatible third-party UI, such as Grafana, to visualize Velero metrics.

Monitoring metrics requires enabling monitoring for the user-defined projects and creating a ServiceMonitor resource to scrape those metrics from the already enabled OADP service endpoint that resides in the openshift-adp namespace.

Prerequisites

  • You have access to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster using an account with cluster-admin permissions.
  • You have created a cluster monitoring config map.

Procedure

  1. Edit the cluster-monitoring-config ConfigMap object in the openshift-monitoring namespace:

    $ oc edit configmap cluster-monitoring-config -n openshift-monitoring
  2. Add or enable the enableUserWorkload option in the data section’s config.yaml field:

    apiVersion: v1
    data:
      config.yaml: |
        enableUserWorkload: true 1
    kind: ConfigMap
    metadata:
    # ...
    1
    Add this option or set to true
  3. Wait a short period of time to verify the User Workload Monitoring Setup by checking if the following components are up and running in the openshift-user-workload-monitoring namespace:

    $ oc get pods -n openshift-user-workload-monitoring

    Example output

    NAME                                   READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    prometheus-operator-6844b4b99c-b57j9   2/2     Running   0          43s
    prometheus-user-workload-0             5/5     Running   0          32s
    prometheus-user-workload-1             5/5     Running   0          32s
    thanos-ruler-user-workload-0           3/3     Running   0          32s
    thanos-ruler-user-workload-1           3/3     Running   0          32s

  4. Verify the existence of the user-workload-monitoring-config ConfigMap in the openshift-user-workload-monitoring. If it exists, skip the remaining steps in this procedure.

    $ oc get configmap user-workload-monitoring-config -n openshift-user-workload-monitoring

    Example output

    Error from server (NotFound): configmaps "user-workload-monitoring-config" not found

  5. Create a user-workload-monitoring-config ConfigMap object for the User Workload Monitoring, and save it under the 2_configure_user_workload_monitoring.yaml file name:

    Example output

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: ConfigMap
    metadata:
      name: user-workload-monitoring-config
      namespace: openshift-user-workload-monitoring
    data:
      config.yaml: |

  6. Apply the 2_configure_user_workload_monitoring.yaml file:

    $ oc apply -f 2_configure_user_workload_monitoring.yaml
    configmap/user-workload-monitoring-config created

4.11.13.2. Creating OADP service monitor

OADP provides an openshift-adp-velero-metrics-svc service which is created when the DPA is configured. The service monitor used by the user workload monitoring must point to the defined service.

Get details about the service by running the following commands:

Procedure

  1. Ensure the openshift-adp-velero-metrics-svc service exists. It should contain app.kubernetes.io/name=velero label, which will be used as selector for the ServiceMonitor object.

    $ oc get svc -n openshift-adp -l app.kubernetes.io/name=velero

    Example output

    NAME                               TYPE        CLUSTER-IP      EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)    AGE
    openshift-adp-velero-metrics-svc   ClusterIP   172.30.38.244   <none>        8085/TCP   1h

  2. Create a ServiceMonitor YAML file that matches the existing service label, and save the file as 3_create_oadp_service_monitor.yaml. The service monitor is created in the openshift-adp namespace where the openshift-adp-velero-metrics-svc service resides.

    Example ServiceMonitor object

    apiVersion: monitoring.coreos.com/v1
    kind: ServiceMonitor
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: oadp-service-monitor
      name: oadp-service-monitor
      namespace: openshift-adp
    spec:
      endpoints:
      - interval: 30s
        path: /metrics
        targetPort: 8085
        scheme: http
      selector:
        matchLabels:
          app.kubernetes.io/name: "velero"

  3. Apply the 3_create_oadp_service_monitor.yaml file:

    $ oc apply -f 3_create_oadp_service_monitor.yaml

    Example output

    servicemonitor.monitoring.coreos.com/oadp-service-monitor created

Verification

  • Confirm that the new service monitor is in an Up state by using the Administrator perspective of the OpenShift Container Platform web console:

    1. Navigate to the ObserveTargets page.
    2. Ensure the Filter is unselected or that the User source is selected and type openshift-adp in the Text search field.
    3. Verify that the status for the Status for the service monitor is Up.

      Figure 4.1. OADP metrics targets

      OADP metrics targets

4.11.13.3. Creating an alerting rule

The OpenShift Container Platform monitoring stack allows to receive Alerts configured using Alerting Rules. To create an Alerting rule for the OADP project, use one of the Metrics which are scraped with the user workload monitoring.

Procedure

  1. Create a PrometheusRule YAML file with the sample OADPBackupFailing alert and save it as 4_create_oadp_alert_rule.yaml.

    Sample OADPBackupFailing alert

    apiVersion: monitoring.coreos.com/v1
    kind: PrometheusRule
    metadata:
      name: sample-oadp-alert
      namespace: openshift-adp
    spec:
      groups:
      - name: sample-oadp-backup-alert
        rules:
        - alert: OADPBackupFailing
          annotations:
            description: 'OADP had {{$value | humanize}} backup failures over the last 2 hours.'
            summary: OADP has issues creating backups
          expr: |
            increase(velero_backup_failure_total{job="openshift-adp-velero-metrics-svc"}[2h]) > 0
          for: 5m
          labels:
            severity: warning

    In this sample, the Alert displays under the following conditions:

    • There is an increase of new failing backups during the 2 last hours that is greater than 0 and the state persists for at least 5 minutes.
    • If the time of the first increase is less than 5 minutes, the Alert will be in a Pending state, after which it will turn into a Firing state.
  2. Apply the 4_create_oadp_alert_rule.yaml file, which creates the PrometheusRule object in the openshift-adp namespace:

    $ oc apply -f 4_create_oadp_alert_rule.yaml

    Example output

    prometheusrule.monitoring.coreos.com/sample-oadp-alert created

Verification

  • After the Alert is triggered, you can view it in the following ways:

    • In the Developer perspective, select the Observe menu.
    • In the Administrator perspective under the ObserveAlerting menu, select User in the Filter box. Otherwise, by default only the Platform Alerts are displayed.

      Figure 4.2. OADP backup failing alert

      OADP backup failing alert

Additional resources

4.11.13.4. List of available metrics

These are the list of metrics provided by the OADP together with their Types.

Metric nameDescriptionType

kopia_content_cache_hit_bytes

Number of bytes retrieved from the cache

Counter

kopia_content_cache_hit_count

Number of times content was retrieved from the cache

Counter

kopia_content_cache_malformed

Number of times malformed content was read from the cache

Counter

kopia_content_cache_miss_count

Number of times content was not found in the cache and fetched

Counter

kopia_content_cache_missed_bytes

Number of bytes retrieved from the underlying storage

Counter

kopia_content_cache_miss_error_count

Number of times content could not be found in the underlying storage

Counter

kopia_content_cache_store_error_count

Number of times content could not be saved in the cache

Counter

kopia_content_get_bytes

Number of bytes retrieved using GetContent()

Counter

kopia_content_get_count

Number of times GetContent() was called

Counter

kopia_content_get_error_count

Number of times GetContent() was called and the result was an error

Counter

kopia_content_get_not_found_count

Number of times GetContent() was called and the result was not found

Counter

kopia_content_write_bytes

Number of bytes passed to WriteContent()

Counter

kopia_content_write_count

Number of times WriteContent() was called

Counter

velero_backup_attempt_total

Total number of attempted backups

Counter

velero_backup_deletion_attempt_total

Total number of attempted backup deletions

Counter

velero_backup_deletion_failure_total

Total number of failed backup deletions

Counter

velero_backup_deletion_success_total

Total number of successful backup deletions

Counter

velero_backup_duration_seconds

Time taken to complete backup, in seconds

Histogram

velero_backup_failure_total

Total number of failed backups

Counter

velero_backup_items_errors

Total number of errors encountered during backup

Gauge

velero_backup_items_total

Total number of items backed up

Gauge

velero_backup_last_status

Last status of the backup. A value of 1 is success, 0.

Gauge

velero_backup_last_successful_timestamp

Last time a backup ran successfully, Unix timestamp in seconds

Gauge

velero_backup_partial_failure_total

Total number of partially failed backups

Counter

velero_backup_success_total

Total number of successful backups

Counter

velero_backup_tarball_size_bytes

Size, in bytes, of a backup

Gauge

velero_backup_total

Current number of existent backups

Gauge

velero_backup_validation_failure_total

Total number of validation failed backups

Counter

velero_backup_warning_total

Total number of warned backups

Counter

velero_csi_snapshot_attempt_total

Total number of CSI attempted volume snapshots

Counter

velero_csi_snapshot_failure_total

Total number of CSI failed volume snapshots

Counter

velero_csi_snapshot_success_total

Total number of CSI successful volume snapshots

Counter

velero_restore_attempt_total

Total number of attempted restores

Counter

velero_restore_failed_total

Total number of failed restores

Counter

velero_restore_partial_failure_total

Total number of partially failed restores

Counter

velero_restore_success_total

Total number of successful restores

Counter

velero_restore_total

Current number of existent restores

Gauge

velero_restore_validation_failed_total

Total number of failed restores failing validations

Counter

velero_volume_snapshot_attempt_total

Total number of attempted volume snapshots

Counter

velero_volume_snapshot_failure_total

Total number of failed volume snapshots

Counter

velero_volume_snapshot_success_total

Total number of successful volume snapshots

Counter

4.11.13.5. Viewing metrics using the Observe UI

You can view metrics in the OpenShift Container Platform web console from the Administrator or Developer perspective, which must have access to the openshift-adp project.

Procedure

  • Navigate to the ObserveMetrics page:

    • If you are using the Developer perspective, follow these steps:

      1. Select Custom query, or click on the Show PromQL link.
      2. Type the query and click Enter.
    • If you are using the Administrator perspective, type the expression in the text field and select Run Queries.

      Figure 4.3. OADP metrics query

      OADP metrics query

4.12. APIs used with OADP

The document provides information about the following APIs that you can use with OADP:

  • Velero API
  • OADP API

4.12.1. Velero API

Velero API documentation is maintained by Velero, not by Red Hat. It can be found at Velero API types.

4.12.2. OADP API

The following tables provide the structure of the OADP API:

Table 4.2. DataProtectionApplicationSpec

PropertyTypeDescription

backupLocations

[] BackupLocation

Defines the list of configurations to use for BackupStorageLocations.

snapshotLocations

[] SnapshotLocation

Defines the list of configurations to use for VolumeSnapshotLocations.

unsupportedOverrides

map [ UnsupportedImageKey ] string

Can be used to override the deployed dependent images for development. Options are veleroImageFqin, awsPluginImageFqin, openshiftPluginImageFqin, azurePluginImageFqin, gcpPluginImageFqin, csiPluginImageFqin, dataMoverImageFqin, resticRestoreImageFqin, kubevirtPluginImageFqin, and operator-type.

podAnnotations

map [ string ] string

Used to add annotations to pods deployed by Operators.

podDnsPolicy

DNSPolicy

Defines the configuration of the DNS of a pod.

podDnsConfig

PodDNSConfig

Defines the DNS parameters of a pod in addition to those generated from DNSPolicy.

backupImages

*bool

Used to specify whether or not you want to deploy a registry for enabling backup and restore of images.

configuration

*ApplicationConfig

Used to define the data protection application’s server configuration.

features

*Features

Defines the configuration for the DPA to enable the Technology Preview features.

Complete schema definitions for the OADP API.

Table 4.3. BackupLocation

PropertyTypeDescription

velero

*velero.BackupStorageLocationSpec

Location to store volume snapshots, as described in Backup Storage Location.

bucket

*CloudStorageLocation

[Technology Preview] Automates creation of a bucket at some cloud storage providers for use as a backup storage location.

Important

The bucket parameter is a Technology Preview feature only. Technology Preview features are not supported with Red Hat production service level agreements (SLAs) and might not be functionally complete. Red Hat does not recommend using them in production. These features provide early access to upcoming product features, enabling customers to test functionality and provide feedback during the development process.

For more information about the support scope of Red Hat Technology Preview features, see Technology Preview Features Support Scope.

Complete schema definitions for the type BackupLocation.

Table 4.4. SnapshotLocation

PropertyTypeDescription

velero

*VolumeSnapshotLocationSpec

Location to store volume snapshots, as described in Volume Snapshot Location.

Complete schema definitions for the type SnapshotLocation.

Table 4.5. ApplicationConfig

PropertyTypeDescription

velero

*VeleroConfig

Defines the configuration for the Velero server.

restic

*ResticConfig

Defines the configuration for the Restic server.

Complete schema definitions for the type ApplicationConfig.

Table 4.6. VeleroConfig

PropertyTypeDescription

featureFlags

[] string

Defines the list of features to enable for the Velero instance.

defaultPlugins

[] string

The following types of default Velero plugins can be installed: aws,azure, csi, gcp, kubevirt, and openshift.

customPlugins

[]CustomPlugin

Used for installation of custom Velero plugins.

Default and custom plugins are described in OADP plugins

restoreResourcesVersionPriority

string

Represents a config map that is created if defined for use in conjunction with the EnableAPIGroupVersions feature flag. Defining this field automatically adds EnableAPIGroupVersions to the Velero server feature flag.

noDefaultBackupLocation

bool

To install Velero without a default backup storage location, you must set the noDefaultBackupLocation flag in order to confirm installation.

podConfig

*PodConfig

Defines the configuration of the Velero pod.

logLevel

string

Velero server’s log level (use debug for the most granular logging, leave unset for Velero default). Valid options are trace, debug, info, warning, error, fatal, and panic.

Complete schema definitions for the type VeleroConfig.

Table 4.7. CustomPlugin

PropertyTypeDescription

name

string

Name of custom plugin.

image

string

Image of custom plugin.

Complete schema definitions for the type CustomPlugin.

Table 4.8. ResticConfig

PropertyTypeDescription

enable

*bool

If set to true, enables backup and restore using Restic. If set to false, snapshots are needed.

supplementalGroups

[]int64

Defines the Linux groups to be applied to the Restic pod.

timeout

string

A user-supplied duration string that defines the Restic timeout. Default value is 1hr (1 hour). A duration string is a possibly signed sequence of decimal numbers, each with optional fraction and a unit suffix, such as 300ms, -1.5h` or 2h45m. Valid time units are ns, us (or µs), ms, s, m, and h.

podConfig

*PodConfig

Defines the configuration of the Restic pod.

Complete schema definitions for the type ResticConfig.

Table 4.9. PodConfig

PropertyTypeDescription

nodeSelector

map [ string ] string

Defines the nodeSelector to be supplied to a Velero podSpec or a Restic podSpec.

tolerations

[]Toleration

Defines the list of tolerations to be applied to a Velero deployment or a Restic daemonset.

resourceAllocations

ResourceRequirements

Set specific resource limits and requests for a Velero pod or a Restic pod as described in Setting Velero CPU and memory resource allocations.

labels

map [ string ] string

Labels to add to pods.

Complete schema definitions for the type PodConfig.

Table 4.10. Features

PropertyTypeDescription

dataMover

*DataMover

Defines the configuration of the Data Mover.

Complete schema definitions for the type Features.

Table 4.11. DataMover

PropertyTypeDescription

enable

bool

If set to true, deploys the volume snapshot mover controller and a modified CSI Data Mover plugin. If set to false, these are not deployed.

credentialName

string

User-supplied Restic Secret name for Data Mover.

timeout

string

A user-supplied duration string for VolumeSnapshotBackup and VolumeSnapshotRestore to complete. Default is 10m (10 minutes). A duration string is a possibly signed sequence of decimal numbers, each with optional fraction and a unit suffix, such as 300ms, -1.5h` or 2h45m. Valid time units are ns, us (or µs), ms, s, m, and h.

The OADP API is more fully detailed in OADP Operator.

4.13. Advanced OADP features and functionalities

This document provides information about advanced features and functionalities of OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP).

4.13.1. Working with different Kubernetes API versions on the same cluster

4.13.1.1. Listing the Kubernetes API group versions on a cluster

A source cluster might offer multiple versions of an API, where one of these versions is the preferred API version. For example, a source cluster with an API named Example might be available in the example.com/v1 and example.com/v1beta2 API groups.

If you use Velero to back up and restore such a source cluster, Velero backs up only the version of that resource that uses the preferred version of its Kubernetes API.

To return to the above example, if example.com/v1 is the preferred API, then Velero only backs up the version of a resource that uses example.com/v1. Moreover, the target cluster needs to have example.com/v1 registered in its set of available API resources in order for Velero to restore the resource on the target cluster.

Therefore, you need to generate a list of the Kubernetes API group versions on your target cluster to be sure the preferred API version is registered in its set of available API resources.

Procedure

  • Enter the following command:
$ oc api-resources

4.13.1.2. About Enable API Group Versions

By default, Velero only backs up resources that use the preferred version of the Kubernetes API. However, Velero also includes a feature, Enable API Group Versions, that overcomes this limitation. When enabled on the source cluster, this feature causes Velero to back up all Kubernetes API group versions that are supported on the cluster, not only the preferred one. After the versions are stored in the backup .tar file, they are available to be restored on the destination cluster.

For example, a source cluster with an API named Example might be available in the example.com/v1 and example.com/v1beta2 API groups, with example.com/v1 being the preferred API.

Without the Enable API Group Versions feature enabled, Velero backs up only the preferred API group version for Example, which is example.com/v1. With the feature enabled, Velero also backs up example.com/v1beta2.

When the Enable API Group Versions feature is enabled on the destination cluster, Velero selects the version to restore on the basis of the order of priority of API group versions.

Note

Enable API Group Versions is still in beta.

Velero uses the following algorithm to assign priorities to API versions, with 1 as the top priority:

  1. Preferred version of the destination cluster
  2. Preferred version of the source_ cluster
  3. Common non-preferred supported version with the highest Kubernetes version priority

Additional resources

4.13.1.3. Using Enable API Group Versions

You can use Velero’s Enable API Group Versions feature to back up all Kubernetes API group versions that are supported on a cluster, not only the preferred one.

Note

Enable API Group Versions is still in beta.

Procedure

  • Configure the EnableAPIGroupVersions feature flag:
apiVersion: oadp.openshift.io/vialpha1
kind: DataProtectionApplication
...
spec:
  configuration:
    velero:
      featureFlags:
      - EnableAPIGroupVersions

Additional resources

4.13.2. Backing up data from one cluster and restoring it to another cluster

4.13.2.1. About backing up data from one cluster and restoring it on another cluster

OpenShift API for Data Protection (OADP) is designed to back up and restore application data in the same OpenShift Container Platform cluster. Migration Toolkit for Containers (MTC) is designed to migrate containers, including application data, from one OpenShift Container Platform cluster to another cluster.

You can use OADP to back up application data from one OpenShift Container Platform cluster and restore it on another cluster. However, doing so is more complicated than using MTC or using OADP to back up and restore on the same cluster.

To successfully use OADP to back up data from one cluster and restore it to another cluster, you must take into account the following factors, in addition to the prerequisites and procedures that apply to using OADP to back up and restore data on the same cluster:

  • Operators
  • Use of Velero
  • UID and GID ranges
4.13.2.1.1. Operators

You must exclude Operators from the backup of an application for backup and restore to succeed.

4.13.2.1.2. Use of Velero

Velero, which OADP is built upon, does not natively support migrating persistent volume snapshots across cloud providers. To migrate volume snapshot data between cloud platforms, you must either enable the Velero Restic file system backup option, which backs up volume contents at the file system level, or use the OADP Data Mover for CSI snapshots.

Note

In OADP 1.1 and earlier, the Velero Restic file system backup option is called restic. In OADP 1.2 and later, the Velero Restic file system backup option is called file-system-backup.

  • You must also use Velero’s File System Backup to migrate data between AWS regions or between Microsoft Azure regions.
  • Velero does not support restoring data to a cluster with an earlier Kubernetes version than the source cluster.
  • It is theoretically possible to migrate workloads to a destination with a later Kubernetes version than the source, but you must consider the compatibility of API groups between clusters for each custom resource. If a Kubernetes version upgrade breaks the compatibility of core or native API groups, you must first update the impacted custom resources.

4.13.2.2. About determining which pod volumes to back up

Before you start a backup operation by using File System Backup (FSB), you must specify which pods contain a volume that you want to back up. Velero refers to this process as "discovering" the appropriate pod volumes.

Velero supports two approaches for determining pod volumes:

  • Opt-in approach: The opt-in approach requires that you actively indicate that you want to include - opt-in - a volume in a backup. You do this by labelling each pod that contains a volume to be backed up with the name of the volume. When Velero finds a persistent volume (PV), it checks the pod that mounted the volume. If the pod is labelled with the name of the volume, Velero backs up the pod.
  • Opt-out approach: With the opt-out approach, you must actively specify that you want to exclude a volume from a backup. You do this by labelling each pod that contains a volume you do not want to back up with the name of the volume. When Velero finds a PV, it checks the pod that mounted the volume. If the pod is labelled with the volume’s name, Velero does not back up the pod.
4.13.2.2.1. Limitations
  • FSB does not support backing up and restoring hostpath volumes. However, FSB does support backing up and restoring local volumes.
  • Velero uses a static, common encryption key for all backup repositories it creates. This static key means that anyone who can access your backup storage can also decrypt your backup data. It is essential that you limit access to backup storage.
  • For PVCs, every incremental backup chain is maintained across pod reschedules.

    For pod volumes that are not PVCs, such as emptyDir volumes, if a pod is deleted or recreated, for example, by a ReplicaSet or a deployment, the next backup of those volumes will be a full backup and not an incremental backup. It is assumed that the lifecycle of a pod volume is defined by its pod.

  • Even though backup data can be kept incrementally, backing up large files, such as a database, can take a long time. This is because FSB uses deduplication to find the difference that needs to be backed up.
  • FSB reads and writes data from volumes by accessing the file system of the node on which the pod is running. For this reason, FSB can only back up volumes that are mounted from a pod and not directly from a PVC. Some Velero users have overcome this limitation by running a staging pod, such as a BusyBox or Alpine container with an infinite sleep, to mount these PVC and PV pairs before performing a Velero backup..
  • FSB expects volumes to be mounted under <hostPath>/<pod UID>, with <hostPath> being configurable. Some Kubernetes systems, for example, vCluster, do not mount volumes under the <pod UID> subdirectory, and VFSB does not work with them as expected.
4.13.2.2.2. Backing up pod volumes by using the opt-in method

You can use the opt-in method to specify which volumes need to be backed up by File System Backup (FSB). You can do this by using the backup.velero.io/backup-volumes command.

Procedure

  • On each pod that contains one or more volumes that you want to back up, enter the following command:

    $ oc -n <your_pod_namespace> annotate pod/<your_pod_name> \
      backup.velero.io/backup-volumes=<your_volume_name_1>, \ <your_volume_name_2>>,...,<your_volume_name_n>

    where:

    <your_volume_name_x>
    specifies the name of the xth volume in the pod specification.
4.13.2.2.3. Backing up pod volumes by using the opt-out method

When using the opt-out approach, all pod volumes are backed up by using File System Backup (FSB), although there are some exceptions:

  • Volumes that mount the default service account token, secrets, and configuration maps.
  • hostPath volumes

You can use the opt-out method to specify which volumes not to back up. You can do this by using the backup.velero.io/backup-volumes-excludes command.

Procedure

  • On each pod that contains one or more volumes that you do not want to back up, run the following command:

    $ oc -n <your_pod_namespace> annotate pod/<your_pod_name> \
      backup.velero.io/backup-volumes-excludes=<your_volume_name_1>, \ <your_volume_name_2>>,...,<your_volume_name_n>

    where:

    <your_volume_name_x>
    specifies the name of the xth volume in the pod specification.
Note

You can enable this behavior for all Velero backups by running the velero install command with the --default-volumes-to-fs-backup flag.

4.13.2.3. UID and GID ranges

If you back up data from one cluster and restore it to another cluster, problems might occur with UID (User ID) and GID (Group ID) ranges. The following section explains these potential issues and mitigations:

Summary of the issues
The namespace UID and GID ranges might change depending on the destination cluster. OADP does not back up and restore OpenShift UID range metadata. If the backed up application requires a specific UID, ensure the range is availableupon restore. For more information about OpenShift’s UID and GID ranges, see A Guide to OpenShift and UIDs.
Detailed description of the issues

When you create a namespace in OpenShift Container Platform by using the shell command oc create namespace, OpenShift Container Platform assigns the namespace a unique User ID (UID) range from its available pool of UIDs, a Supplemental Group (GID) range, and unique SELinux MCS labels. This information is stored in the metadata.annotations field of the cluster. This information is part of the Security Context Constraints (SCC) annotations, which comprise of the following components:

  • openshift.io/sa.scc.mcs
  • openshift.io/sa.scc.supplemental-groups
  • openshift.io/sa.scc.uid-range

When you use OADP to restore the namespace, it automatically uses the information in metadata.annotations without resetting it for the destination cluster. As a result, the workload might not have access to the backed up data if any of the following is true:

  • There is an existing namespace with other SCC annotations, for example, on another cluster. In this case, OADP uses the existing namespace during the backup instead of the namespace you want to restore.
  • A label selector was used during the backup, but the namespace in which the workloads are executed does not have the label. In this case, OADP does not back up the namespace, but creates a new namespace during the restore that does not contain the annotations of the backed up namespace. This results in a new UID range being assigned to the namespace.

    This can be an issue for customer workloads if OpenShift Container Platform assigns a pod a securityContext UID to a pod based on namespace annotations that have changed since the persistent volume data was backed up.

  • The UID of the container no longer matches the UID of the file owner.
  • An error occurs because OpenShift Container Platform has not changed the UID range of the destination cluster to match the backup cluster data. As a result, the backup cluster has a different UID than the destination cluster, which means that the application cannot read or write data on the destination cluster.

    Mitigations
    You can use one or more of the following mitigations to resolve the UID and GID range issues:
  • Simple mitigations:

    • If you use a label selector in the Backup CR to filter the objects to include in the backup, be sure to add this label selector to the namespace that contains the workspace.
    • Remove any pre-existing version of a namespace on the destination cluster before attempting to restore a namespace with the same name.
  • Advanced mitigations:

For an in-depth discussion of UID and GID ranges in OpenShift Container Platform with an emphasis on overcoming issues in backing up data on one cluster and restoring it on another, see A Guide to OpenShift and UIDs.

4.13.2.4. Backing up data from one cluster and restoring it to another cluster

In general, you back up data from one OpenShift Container Platform cluster and restore it on another OpenShift Container Platform cluster in the same way that you back up and restore data to the same cluster. However, there are some additional prerequisites and differences in the procedure when backing up data from one OpenShift Container Platform cluster and restoring it on another.

Prerequisites

  • All relevant prerequisites for backing up and restoring on your platform (for example, AWS, Microsoft Azure, GCP, and so on), especially the prerequisites for the Data Protection Application (DPA), are described in the relevant sections of this guide.

Procedure

  • Make the following additions to the procedures given for your platform:

    • Ensure that the backup store location (BSL) and volume snapshot location have the same names and paths to restore resources to another cluster.
    • Share the same object storage location credentials across the clusters.
    • For best results, use OADP to create the namespace on the destination cluster.
    • If you use the Velero file-system-backup option, enable the --default-volumes-to-fs-backup flag for use during backup by running the following command:

      $ velero backup create <backup_name> --default-volumes-to-fs-backup <any_other_options>
Note

In OADP 1.2 and later, the Velero Restic option is called file-system-backup.

4.13.3. Additional resources

For more information about API group versions, see Working with different Kubernetes API versions on the same cluster.

For more information about OADP Data Mover, see Using Data Mover for CSI snapshots.

For more information about using Restic with OADP, see Backing up applications with Restic.

Chapter 5. Control plane backup and restore

5.1. Backing up etcd

etcd is the key-value store for OpenShift Container Platform, which persists the state of all resource objects.

Back up your cluster’s etcd data regularly and store in a secure location ideally outside the OpenShift Container Platform environment. Do not take an etcd backup before the first certificate rotation completes, which occurs 24 hours after installation, otherwise the backup will contain expired certificates. It is also recommended to take etcd backups during non-peak usage hours because the etcd snapshot has a high I/O cost.

Be sure to take an etcd backup after you upgrade your cluster. This is important because when you restore your cluster, you must use an etcd backup that was taken from the same z-stream release. For example, an OpenShift Container Platform 4.y.z cluster must use an etcd backup that was taken from 4.y.z.

Important

Back up your cluster’s etcd data by performing a single invocation of the backup script on a control plane host. Do not take a backup for each control plane host.

After you have an etcd backup, you can restore to a previous cluster state.

5.1.1. Backing up etcd data

Follow these steps to back up etcd data by creating an etcd snapshot and backing up the resources for the static pods. This backup can be saved and used at a later time if you need to restore etcd.

Important

Only save a backup from a single control plane host. Do not take a backup from each control plane host in the cluster.

Prerequisites

  • You have access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.
  • You have checked whether the cluster-wide proxy is enabled.

    Tip

    You can check whether the proxy is enabled by reviewing the output of oc get proxy cluster -o yaml. The proxy is enabled if the httpProxy, httpsProxy, and noProxy fields have values set.

Procedure

  1. Start a debug session as root for a control plane node:

    $ oc debug --as-root node/<node_name>
  2. Change your root directory to /host in the debug shell:

    sh-4.4# chroot /host
  3. If the cluster-wide proxy is enabled, be sure that you have exported the NO_PROXY, HTTP_PROXY, and HTTPS_PROXY environment variables.
  4. Run the cluster-backup.sh script in the debug shell and pass in the location to save the backup to.

    Tip

    The cluster-backup.sh script is maintained as a component of the etcd Cluster Operator and is a wrapper around the etcdctl snapshot save command.

    sh-4.4# /usr/local/bin/cluster-backup.sh /home/core/assets/backup

    Example script output

    found latest kube-apiserver: /etc/kubernetes/static-pod-resources/kube-apiserver-pod-6
    found latest kube-controller-manager: /etc/kubernetes/static-pod-resources/kube-controller-manager-pod-7
    found latest kube-scheduler: /etc/kubernetes/static-pod-resources/kube-scheduler-pod-6
    found latest etcd: /etc/kubernetes/static-pod-resources/etcd-pod-3
    ede95fe6b88b87ba86a03c15e669fb4aa5bf0991c180d3c6895ce72eaade54a1
    etcdctl version: 3.4.14
    API version: 3.4
    {"level":"info","ts":1624647639.0188997,"caller":"snapshot/v3_snapshot.go:119","msg":"created temporary db file","path":"/home/core/assets/backup/snapshot_2021-06-25_190035.db.part"}
    {"level":"info","ts":"2021-06-25T19:00:39.030Z","caller":"clientv3/maintenance.go:200","msg":"opened snapshot stream; downloading"}
    {"level":"info","ts":1624647639.0301006,"caller":"snapshot/v3_snapshot.go:127","msg":"fetching snapshot","endpoint":"https://10.0.0.5:2379"}
    {"level":"info","ts":"2021-06-25T19:00:40.215Z","caller":"clientv3/maintenance.go:208","msg":"completed snapshot read; closing"}
    {"level":"info","ts":1624647640.6032252,"caller":"snapshot/v3_snapshot.go:142","msg":"fetched snapshot","endpoint":"https://10.0.0.5:2379","size":"114 MB","took":1.584090459}
    {"level":"info","ts":1624647640.6047094,"caller":"snapshot/v3_snapshot.go:152","msg":"saved","path":"/home/core/assets/backup/snapshot_2021-06-25_190035.db"}
    Snapshot saved at /home/core/assets/backup/snapshot_2021-06-25_190035.db
    {"hash":3866667823,"revision":31407,"totalKey":12828,"totalSize":114446336}
    snapshot db and kube resources are successfully saved to /home/core/assets/backup

    In this example, two files are created in the /home/core/assets/backup/ directory on the control plane host:

    • snapshot_<datetimestamp>.db: This file is the etcd snapshot. The cluster-backup.sh script confirms its validity.
    • static_kuberesources_<datetimestamp>.tar.gz: This file contains the resources for the static pods. If etcd encryption is enabled, it also contains the encryption keys for the etcd snapshot.

      Note

      If etcd encryption is enabled, it is recommended to store this second file separately from the etcd snapshot for security reasons. However, this file is required to restore from the etcd snapshot.

      Keep in mind that etcd encryption only encrypts values, not keys. This means that resource types, namespaces, and object names are unencrypted.

5.2. Replacing an unhealthy etcd member

This document describes the process to replace a single unhealthy etcd member.

This process depends on whether the etcd member is unhealthy because the machine is not running or the node is not ready, or whether it is unhealthy because the etcd pod is crashlooping.

Note

If you have lost the majority of your control plane hosts, follow the disaster recovery procedure to restore to a previous cluster state instead of this procedure.

If the control plane certificates are not valid on the member being replaced, then you must follow the procedure to recover from expired control plane certificates instead of this procedure.

If a control plane node is lost and a new one is created, the etcd cluster Operator handles generating the new TLS certificates and adding the node as an etcd member.

5.2.1. Prerequisites

  • Take an etcd backup prior to replacing an unhealthy etcd member.

5.2.2. Identifying an unhealthy etcd member

You can identify if your cluster has an unhealthy etcd member.

Prerequisites

  • Access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.

Procedure

  1. Check the status of the EtcdMembersAvailable status condition using the following command:

    $ oc get etcd -o=jsonpath='{range .items[0].status.conditions[?(@.type=="EtcdMembersAvailable")]}{.message}{"\n"}'
  2. Review the output:

    2 of 3 members are available, ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal is unhealthy

    This example output shows that the ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal etcd member is unhealthy.

5.2.3. Determining the state of the unhealthy etcd member

The steps to replace an unhealthy etcd member depend on which of the following states your etcd member is in:

  • The machine is not running or the node is not ready
  • The etcd pod is crashlooping

This procedure determines which state your etcd member is in. This enables you to know which procedure to follow to replace the unhealthy etcd member.

Note

If you are aware that the machine is not running or the node is not ready, but you expect it to return to a healthy state soon, then you do not need to perform a procedure to replace the etcd member. The etcd cluster Operator will automatically sync when the machine or node returns to a healthy state.

Prerequisites

  • You have access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.
  • You have identified an unhealthy etcd member.

Procedure

  1. Determine if the machine is not running:

    $ oc get machines -A -ojsonpath='{range .items[*]}{@.status.nodeRef.name}{"\t"}{@.status.providerStatus.instanceState}{"\n"}' | grep -v running

    Example output

    ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal  stopped 1

    1
    This output lists the node and the status of the node’s machine. If the status is anything other than running, then the machine is not running.

    If the machine is not running, then follow the Replacing an unhealthy etcd member whose machine is not running or whose node is not ready procedure.

  2. Determine if the node is not ready.

    If either of the following scenarios are true, then the node is not ready.

    • If the machine is running, then check whether the node is unreachable:

      $ oc get nodes -o jsonpath='{range .items[*]}{"\n"}{.metadata.name}{"\t"}{range .spec.taints[*]}{.key}{" "}' | grep unreachable

      Example output

      ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal	node-role.kubernetes.io/master node.kubernetes.io/unreachable node.kubernetes.io/unreachable 1

      1
      If the node is listed with an unreachable taint, then the node is not ready.
    • If the node is still reachable, then check whether the node is listed as NotReady:

      $ oc get nodes -l node-role.kubernetes.io/master | grep "NotReady"

      Example output

      ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal   NotReady   master   122m   v1.25.0 1

      1
      If the node is listed as NotReady, then the node is not ready.

    If the node is not ready, then follow the Replacing an unhealthy etcd member whose machine is not running or whose node is not ready procedure.

  3. Determine if the etcd pod is crashlooping.

    If the machine is running and the node is ready, then check whether the etcd pod is crashlooping.

    1. Verify that all control plane nodes are listed as Ready:

      $ oc get nodes -l node-role.kubernetes.io/master

      Example output

      NAME                           STATUS   ROLES    AGE     VERSION
      ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal   Ready    master   6h13m   v1.25.0
      ip-10-0-164-97.ec2.internal    Ready    master   6h13m   v1.25.0
      ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal   Ready    master   6h13m   v1.25.0

    2. Check whether the status of an etcd pod is either Error or CrashloopBackoff:

      $ oc -n openshift-etcd get pods -l k8s-app=etcd

      Example output

      etcd-ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal                2/3     Error       7          6h9m 1
      etcd-ip-10-0-164-97.ec2.internal                 3/3     Running     0          6h6m
      etcd-ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal                3/3     Running     0          6h6m

      1
      Since this status of this pod is Error, then the etcd pod is crashlooping.

    If the etcd pod is crashlooping, then follow the Replacing an unhealthy etcd member whose etcd pod is crashlooping procedure.

5.2.4. Replacing the unhealthy etcd member

Depending on the state of your unhealthy etcd member, use one of the following procedures:

5.2.4.1. Replacing an unhealthy etcd member whose machine is not running or whose node is not ready

This procedure details the steps to replace an etcd member that is unhealthy either because the machine is not running or because the node is not ready.

Note

If your cluster uses a control plane machine set, see "Recovering a degraded etcd Operator" in "Troubleshooting the control plane machine set" for a more simple etcd recovery procedure.

Prerequisites

  • You have identified the unhealthy etcd member.
  • You have verified that either the machine is not running or the node is not ready.

    Important

    You must wait if the other control plane nodes are powered off. The control plane nodes must remain powered off until the replacement of an unhealthy etcd member is complete.

  • You have access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.
  • You have taken an etcd backup.

    Important

    It is important to take an etcd backup before performing this procedure so that your cluster can be restored if you encounter any issues.

Procedure

  1. Remove the unhealthy member.

    1. Choose a pod that is not on the affected node:

      In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

      $ oc -n openshift-etcd get pods -l k8s-app=etcd

      Example output

      etcd-ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal                3/3     Running     0          123m
      etcd-ip-10-0-164-97.ec2.internal                 3/3     Running     0          123m
      etcd-ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal                3/3     Running     0          124m

    2. Connect to the running etcd container, passing in the name of a pod that is not on the affected node:

      In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

      $ oc rsh -n openshift-etcd etcd-ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal
    3. View the member list:

      sh-4.2# etcdctl member list -w table

      Example output

      +------------------+---------+------------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
      |        ID        | STATUS  |             NAME             |        PEER ADDRS         |       CLIENT ADDRS        |
      +------------------+---------+------------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
      | 6fc1e7c9db35841d | started | ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal | https://10.0.131.183:2380 | https://10.0.131.183:2379 |
      | 757b6793e2408b6c | started |  ip-10-0-164-97.ec2.internal |  https://10.0.164.97:2380 |  https://10.0.164.97:2379 |
      | ca8c2990a0aa29d1 | started | ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal | https://10.0.154.204:2380 | https://10.0.154.204:2379 |
      +------------------+---------+------------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+

      Take note of the ID and the name of the unhealthy etcd member, because these values are needed later in the procedure. The $ etcdctl endpoint health command will list the removed member until the procedure of replacement is finished and a new member is added.

    4. Remove the unhealthy etcd member by providing the ID to the etcdctl member remove command:

      sh-4.2# etcdctl member remove 6fc1e7c9db35841d

      Example output

      Member 6fc1e7c9db35841d removed from cluster ead669ce1fbfb346

    5. View the member list again and verify that the member was removed:

      sh-4.2# etcdctl member list -w table

      Example output

      +------------------+---------+------------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
      |        ID        | STATUS  |             NAME             |        PEER ADDRS         |       CLIENT ADDRS        |
      +------------------+---------+------------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
      | 757b6793e2408b6c | started |  ip-10-0-164-97.ec2.internal |  https://10.0.164.97:2380 |  https://10.0.164.97:2379 |
      | ca8c2990a0aa29d1 | started | ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal | https://10.0.154.204:2380 | https://10.0.154.204:2379 |
      +------------------+---------+------------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+

      You can now exit the node shell.

  2. Turn off the quorum guard by entering the following command:

    $ oc patch etcd/cluster --type=merge -p '{"spec": {"unsupportedConfigOverrides": {"useUnsupportedUnsafeNonHANonProductionUnstableEtcd": true}}}'

    This command ensures that you can successfully re-create secrets and roll out the static pods.

    Important

    After you turn off the quorum guard, the cluster might be unreachable for a short time while the remaining etcd instances reboot to reflect the configuration change.

    Note

    etcd cannot tolerate any additional member failure when running with two members. Restarting either remaining member breaks the quorum and causes downtime in your cluster. The quorum guard protects etcd from restarts due to configuration changes that could cause downtime, so it must be disabled to complete this procedure.

  3. Remove the old secrets for the unhealthy etcd member that was removed.

    1. List the secrets for the unhealthy etcd member that was removed.

      $ oc get secrets -n openshift-etcd | grep ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal 1
      1
      Pass in the name of the unhealthy etcd member that you took note of earlier in this procedure.

      There is a peer, serving, and metrics secret as shown in the following output:

      Example output

      etcd-peer-ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal              kubernetes.io/tls                     2      47m
      etcd-serving-ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal           kubernetes.io/tls                     2      47m
      etcd-serving-metrics-ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal   kubernetes.io/tls                     2      47m

    2. Delete the secrets for the unhealthy etcd member that was removed.

      1. Delete the peer secret:

        $ oc delete secret -n openshift-etcd etcd-peer-ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal
      2. Delete the serving secret:

        $ oc delete secret -n openshift-etcd etcd-serving-ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal
      3. Delete the metrics secret:

        $ oc delete secret -n openshift-etcd etcd-serving-metrics-ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal
  4. Delete and recreate the control plane machine. After this machine is recreated, a new revision is forced and etcd scales up automatically.

    If you are running installer-provisioned infrastructure, or you used the Machine API to create your machines, follow these steps. Otherwise, you must create the new master using the same method that was used to originally create it.

    1. Obtain the machine for the unhealthy member.

      In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

      $ oc get machines -n openshift-machine-api -o wide

      Example output

      NAME                                        PHASE     TYPE        REGION      ZONE         AGE     NODE                           PROVIDERID                              STATE
      clustername-8qw5l-master-0                  Running   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1a   3h37m   ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1a/i-0ec2782f8287dfb7e   stopped 1
      clustername-8qw5l-master-1                  Running   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1b   3h37m   ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1b/i-096c349b700a19631   running
      clustername-8qw5l-master-2                  Running   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1c   3h37m   ip-10-0-164-97.ec2.internal    aws:///us-east-1c/i-02626f1dba9ed5bba   running
      clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1a-wbtgd   Running   m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1a   3h28m   ip-10-0-129-226.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1a/i-010ef6279b4662ced   running
      clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1b-lrdxb   Running   m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1b   3h28m   ip-10-0-144-248.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1b/i-0cb45ac45a166173b   running
      clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1c-pkg26   Running   m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1c   3h28m   ip-10-0-170-181.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1c/i-06861c00007751b0a   running

      1
      This is the control plane machine for the unhealthy node, ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal.
    2. Save the machine configuration to a file on your file system:

      $ oc get machine clustername-8qw5l-master-0 \ 1
          -n openshift-machine-api \
          -o yaml \
          > new-master-machine.yaml
      1
      Specify the name of the control plane machine for the unhealthy node.
    3. Edit the new-master-machine.yaml file that was created in the previous step to assign a new name and remove unnecessary fields.

      1. Remove the entire status section:

        status:
          addresses:
          - address: 10.0.131.183
            type: InternalIP
          - address: ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal
            type: InternalDNS
          - address: ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal
            type: Hostname
          lastUpdated: "2020-04-20T17:44:29Z"
          nodeRef:
            kind: Node
            name: ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal
            uid: acca4411-af0d-4387-b73e-52b2484295ad
          phase: Running
          providerStatus:
            apiVersion: awsproviderconfig.openshift.io/v1beta1
            conditions:
            - lastProbeTime: "2020-04-20T16:53:50Z"
              lastTransitionTime: "2020-04-20T16:53:50Z"
              message: machine successfully created
              reason: MachineCreationSucceeded
              status: "True"
              type: MachineCreation
            instanceId: i-0fdb85790d76d0c3f
            instanceState: stopped
            kind: AWSMachineProviderStatus
      2. Change the metadata.name field to a new name.

        It is recommended to keep the same base name as the old machine and change the ending number to the next available number. In this example, clustername-8qw5l-master-0 is changed to clustername-8qw5l-master-3.

        For example:

        apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
        kind: Machine
        metadata:
          ...
          name: clustername-8qw5l-master-3
          ...
      3. Remove the spec.providerID field:

          providerID: aws:///us-east-1a/i-0fdb85790d76d0c3f
    4. Delete the machine of the unhealthy member:

      $ oc delete machine -n openshift-machine-api clustername-8qw5l-master-0 1
      1
      Specify the name of the control plane machine for the unhealthy node.
    5. Verify that the machine was deleted:

      $ oc get machines -n openshift-machine-api -o wide

      Example output

      NAME                                        PHASE     TYPE        REGION      ZONE         AGE     NODE                           PROVIDERID                              STATE
      clustername-8qw5l-master-1                  Running   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1b   3h37m   ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1b/i-096c349b700a19631   running
      clustername-8qw5l-master-2                  Running   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1c   3h37m   ip-10-0-164-97.ec2.internal    aws:///us-east-1c/i-02626f1dba9ed5bba   running
      clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1a-wbtgd   Running   m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1a   3h28m   ip-10-0-129-226.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1a/i-010ef6279b4662ced   running
      clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1b-lrdxb   Running   m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1b   3h28m   ip-10-0-144-248.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1b/i-0cb45ac45a166173b   running
      clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1c-pkg26   Running   m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1c   3h28m   ip-10-0-170-181.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1c/i-06861c00007751b0a   running

    6. Create the new machine using the new-master-machine.yaml file:

      $ oc apply -f new-master-machine.yaml
    7. Verify that the new machine has been created:

      $ oc get machines -n openshift-machine-api -o wide

      Example output

      NAME                                        PHASE          TYPE        REGION      ZONE         AGE     NODE                           PROVIDERID                              STATE
      clustername-8qw5l-master-1                  Running        m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1b   3h37m   ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1b/i-096c349b700a19631   running
      clustername-8qw5l-master-2                  Running        m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1c   3h37m   ip-10-0-164-97.ec2.internal    aws:///us-east-1c/i-02626f1dba9ed5bba   running
      clustername-8qw5l-master-3                  Provisioning   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1a   85s     ip-10-0-133-53.ec2.internal    aws:///us-east-1a/i-015b0888fe17bc2c8   running 1
      clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1a-wbtgd   Running        m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1a   3h28m   ip-10-0-129-226.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1a/i-010ef6279b4662ced   running
      clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1b-lrdxb   Running        m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1b   3h28m   ip-10-0-144-248.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1b/i-0cb45ac45a166173b   running
      clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1c-pkg26   Running        m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1c   3h28m   ip-10-0-170-181.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1c/i-06861c00007751b0a   running

      1
      The new machine, clustername-8qw5l-master-3 is being created and is ready once the phase changes from Provisioning to Running.

      It might take a few minutes for the new machine to be created. The etcd cluster Operator will automatically sync when the machine or node returns to a healthy state.

  5. Turn the quorum guard back on by entering the following command:

    $ oc patch etcd/cluster --type=merge -p '{"spec": {"unsupportedConfigOverrides": null}}'
  6. You can verify that the unsupportedConfigOverrides section is removed from the object by entering this command:

    $ oc get etcd/cluster -oyaml
  7. If you are using single-node OpenShift, restart the node. Otherwise, you might encounter the following error in the etcd cluster Operator:

    Example output

    EtcdCertSignerControllerDegraded: [Operation cannot be fulfilled on secrets "etcd-peer-sno-0": the object has been modified; please apply your changes to the latest version and try again, Operation cannot be fulfilled on secrets "etcd-serving-sno-0": the object has been modified; please apply your changes to the latest version and try again, Operation cannot be fulfilled on secrets "etcd-serving-metrics-sno-0": the object has been modified; please apply your changes to the latest version and try again]

Verification

  1. Verify that all etcd pods are running properly.

    In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

    $ oc -n openshift-etcd get pods -l k8s-app=etcd

    Example output

    etcd-ip-10-0-133-53.ec2.internal                 3/3     Running     0          7m49s
    etcd-ip-10-0-164-97.ec2.internal                 3/3     Running     0          123m
    etcd-ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal                3/3     Running     0          124m

    If the output from the previous command only lists two pods, you can manually force an etcd redeployment. In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

    $ oc patch etcd cluster -p='{"spec": {"forceRedeploymentReason": "recovery-'"$( date --rfc-3339=ns )"'"}}' --type=merge 1
    1
    The forceRedeploymentReason value must be unique, which is why a timestamp is appended.
  2. Verify that there are exactly three etcd members.

    1. Connect to the running etcd container, passing in the name of a pod that was not on the affected node:

      In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

      $ oc rsh -n openshift-etcd etcd-ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal
    2. View the member list:

      sh-4.2# etcdctl member list -w table

      Example output

      +------------------+---------+------------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
      |        ID        | STATUS  |             NAME             |        PEER ADDRS         |       CLIENT ADDRS        |
      +------------------+---------+------------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
      | 5eb0d6b8ca24730c | started |  ip-10-0-133-53.ec2.internal |  https://10.0.133.53:2380 |  https://10.0.133.53:2379 |
      | 757b6793e2408b6c | started |  ip-10-0-164-97.ec2.internal |  https://10.0.164.97:2380 |  https://10.0.164.97:2379 |
      | ca8c2990a0aa29d1 | started | ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal | https://10.0.154.204:2380 | https://10.0.154.204:2379 |
      +------------------+---------+------------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+

      If the output from the previous command lists more than three etcd members, you must carefully remove the unwanted member.

      Warning

      Be sure to remove the correct etcd member; removing a good etcd member might lead to quorum loss.

5.2.4.2. Replacing an unhealthy etcd member whose etcd pod is crashlooping

This procedure details the steps to replace an etcd member that is unhealthy because the etcd pod is crashlooping.

Prerequisites

  • You have identified the unhealthy etcd member.
  • You have verified that the etcd pod is crashlooping.
  • You have access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.
  • You have taken an etcd backup.

    Important

    It is important to take an etcd backup before performing this procedure so that your cluster can be restored if you encounter any issues.

Procedure

  1. Stop the crashlooping etcd pod.

    1. Debug the node that is crashlooping.

      In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

      $ oc debug node/ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal 1
      1
      Replace this with the name of the unhealthy node.
    2. Change your root directory to /host:

      sh-4.2# chroot /host
    3. Move the existing etcd pod file out of the kubelet manifest directory:

      sh-4.2# mkdir /var/lib/etcd-backup
      sh-4.2# mv /etc/kubernetes/manifests/etcd-pod.yaml /var/lib/etcd-backup/
    4. Move the etcd data directory to a different location:

      sh-4.2# mv /var/lib/etcd/ /tmp

      You can now exit the node shell.

  2. Remove the unhealthy member.

    1. Choose a pod that is not on the affected node.

      In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

      $ oc -n openshift-etcd get pods -l k8s-app=etcd

      Example output

      etcd-ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal                2/3     Error       7          6h9m
      etcd-ip-10-0-164-97.ec2.internal                 3/3     Running     0          6h6m
      etcd-ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal                3/3     Running     0          6h6m

    2. Connect to the running etcd container, passing in the name of a pod that is not on the affected node.

      In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

      $ oc rsh -n openshift-etcd etcd-ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal
    3. View the member list:

      sh-4.2# etcdctl member list -w table

      Example output

      +------------------+---------+------------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
      |        ID        | STATUS  |             NAME             |        PEER ADDRS         |       CLIENT ADDRS        |
      +------------------+---------+------------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
      | 62bcf33650a7170a | started | ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal | https://10.0.131.183:2380 | https://10.0.131.183:2379 |
      | b78e2856655bc2eb | started |  ip-10-0-164-97.ec2.internal |  https://10.0.164.97:2380 |  https://10.0.164.97:2379 |
      | d022e10b498760d5 | started | ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal | https://10.0.154.204:2380 | https://10.0.154.204:2379 |
      +------------------+---------+------------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+

      Take note of the ID and the name of the unhealthy etcd member, because these values are needed later in the procedure.

    4. Remove the unhealthy etcd member by providing the ID to the etcdctl member remove command:

      sh-4.2# etcdctl member remove 62bcf33650a7170a

      Example output

      Member 62bcf33650a7170a removed from cluster ead669ce1fbfb346

    5. View the member list again and verify that the member was removed:

      sh-4.2# etcdctl member list -w table

      Example output

      +------------------+---------+------------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
      |        ID        | STATUS  |             NAME             |        PEER ADDRS         |       CLIENT ADDRS        |
      +------------------+---------+------------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+
      | b78e2856655bc2eb | started |  ip-10-0-164-97.ec2.internal |  https://10.0.164.97:2380 |  https://10.0.164.97:2379 |
      | d022e10b498760d5 | started | ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal | https://10.0.154.204:2380 | https://10.0.154.204:2379 |
      +------------------+---------+------------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+

      You can now exit the node shell.

  3. Turn off the quorum guard by entering the following command:

    $ oc patch etcd/cluster --type=merge -p '{"spec": {"unsupportedConfigOverrides": {"useUnsupportedUnsafeNonHANonProductionUnstableEtcd": true}}}'

    This command ensures that you can successfully re-create secrets and roll out the static pods.

  4. Remove the old secrets for the unhealthy etcd member that was removed.

    1. List the secrets for the unhealthy etcd member that was removed.

      $ oc get secrets -n openshift-etcd | grep ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal 1
      1
      Pass in the name of the unhealthy etcd member that you took note of earlier in this procedure.

      There is a peer, serving, and metrics secret as shown in the following output:

      Example output

      etcd-peer-ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal              kubernetes.io/tls                     2      47m
      etcd-serving-ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal           kubernetes.io/tls                     2      47m
      etcd-serving-metrics-ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal   kubernetes.io/tls                     2      47m

    2. Delete the secrets for the unhealthy etcd member that was removed.

      1. Delete the peer secret:

        $ oc delete secret -n openshift-etcd etcd-peer-ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal
      2. Delete the serving secret:

        $ oc delete secret -n openshift-etcd etcd-serving-ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal
      3. Delete the metrics secret:

        $ oc delete secret -n openshift-etcd etcd-serving-metrics-ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal
  5. Force etcd redeployment.

    In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

    $ oc patch etcd cluster -p='{"spec": {"forceRedeploymentReason": "single-master-recovery-'"$( date --rfc-3339=ns )"'"}}' --type=merge 1
    1
    The forceRedeploymentReason value must be unique, which is why a timestamp is appended.

    When the etcd cluster Operator performs a redeployment, it ensures that all control plane nodes have a functioning etcd pod.

  6. Turn the quorum guard back on by entering the following command:

    $ oc patch etcd/cluster --type=merge -p '{"spec": {"unsupportedConfigOverrides": null}}'
  7. You can verify that the unsupportedConfigOverrides section is removed from the object by entering this command:

    $ oc get etcd/cluster -oyaml
  8. If you are using single-node OpenShift, restart the node. Otherwise, you might encounter the following error in the etcd cluster Operator:

    Example output

    EtcdCertSignerControllerDegraded: [Operation cannot be fulfilled on secrets "etcd-peer-sno-0": the object has been modified; please apply your changes to the latest version and try again, Operation cannot be fulfilled on secrets "etcd-serving-sno-0": the object has been modified; please apply your changes to the latest version and try again, Operation cannot be fulfilled on secrets "etcd-serving-metrics-sno-0": the object has been modified; please apply your changes to the latest version and try again]

Verification

  • Verify that the new member is available and healthy.

    1. Connect to the running etcd container again.

      In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

      $ oc rsh -n openshift-etcd etcd-ip-10-0-154-204.ec2.internal
    2. Verify that all members are healthy:

      sh-4.2# etcdctl endpoint health

      Example output

      https://10.0.131.183:2379 is healthy: successfully committed proposal: took = 16.671434ms
      https://10.0.154.204:2379 is healthy: successfully committed proposal: took = 16.698331ms
      https://10.0.164.97:2379 is healthy: successfully committed proposal: took = 16.621645ms

5.2.4.3. Replacing an unhealthy bare metal etcd member whose machine is not running or whose node is not ready

This procedure details the steps to replace a bare metal etcd member that is unhealthy either because the machine is not running or because the node is not ready.

If you are running installer-provisioned infrastructure or you used the Machine API to create your machines, follow these steps. Otherwise you must create the new control plane node using the same method that was used to originally create it.

Prerequisites

  • You have identified the unhealthy bare metal etcd member.
  • You have verified that either the machine is not running or the node is not ready.
  • You have access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.
  • You have taken an etcd backup.

    Important

    You must take an etcd backup before performing this procedure so that your cluster can be restored if you encounter any issues.

Procedure

  1. Verify and remove the unhealthy member.

    1. Choose a pod that is not on the affected node:

      In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

      $ oc -n openshift-etcd get pods -l k8s-app=etcd -o wide

      Example output

      etcd-openshift-control-plane-0   5/5   Running   11   3h56m   192.168.10.9   openshift-control-plane-0  <none>           <none>
      etcd-openshift-control-plane-1   5/5   Running   0    3h54m   192.168.10.10   openshift-control-plane-1   <none>           <none>
      etcd-openshift-control-plane-2   5/5   Running   0    3h58m   192.168.10.11   openshift-control-plane-2   <none>           <none>

    2. Connect to the running etcd container, passing in the name of a pod that is not on the affected node:

      In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

      $ oc rsh -n openshift-etcd etcd-openshift-control-plane-0
    3. View the member list:

      sh-4.2# etcdctl member list -w table

      Example output

      +------------------+---------+--------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------+
      | ID               | STATUS  | NAME                      | PEER ADDRS                  | CLIENT ADDRS                | IS LEARNER |
      +------------------+---------+--------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------+
      | 7a8197040a5126c8 | started | openshift-control-plane-2 | https://192.168.10.11:2380/ | https://192.168.10.11:2379/ | false |
      | 8d5abe9669a39192 | started | openshift-control-plane-1 | https://192.168.10.10:2380/ | https://192.168.10.10:2379/ | false |
      | cc3830a72fc357f9 | started | openshift-control-plane-0 | https://192.168.10.9:2380/ | https://192.168.10.9:2379/   | false |
      +------------------+---------+--------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+---------------------+

      Take note of the ID and the name of the unhealthy etcd member, because these values are required later in the procedure. The etcdctl endpoint health command will list the removed member until the replacement procedure is completed and the new member is added.

    4. Remove the unhealthy etcd member by providing the ID to the etcdctl member remove command:

      Warning

      Be sure to remove the correct etcd member; removing a good etcd member might lead to quorum loss.

      sh-4.2# etcdctl member remove 7a8197040a5126c8

      Example output

      Member 7a8197040a5126c8 removed from cluster b23536c33f2cdd1b

    5. View the member list again and verify that the member was removed:

      sh-4.2# etcdctl member list -w table

      Example output

      +------------------+---------+--------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+-------------------------+
      | ID               | STATUS  | NAME                      | PEER ADDRS                  | CLIENT ADDRS                | IS LEARNER |
      +------------------+---------+--------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+-------------------------+
      | 7a8197040a5126c8 | started | openshift-control-plane-2 | https://192.168.10.11:2380/ | https://192.168.10.11:2379/ | false |
      | 8d5abe9669a39192 | started | openshift-control-plane-1 | https://192.168.10.10:2380/ | https://192.168.10.10:2379/ | false |
      +------------------+---------+--------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+-------------------------+

      You can now exit the node shell.

      Important

      After you remove the member, the cluster might be unreachable for a short time while the remaining etcd instances reboot.

  2. Turn off the quorum guard by entering the following command:

    $ oc patch etcd/cluster --type=merge -p '{"spec": {"unsupportedConfigOverrides": {"useUnsupportedUnsafeNonHANonProductionUnstableEtcd": true}}}'

    This command ensures that you can successfully re-create secrets and roll out the static pods.

  3. Remove the old secrets for the unhealthy etcd member that was removed by running the following commands.

    1. List the secrets for the unhealthy etcd member that was removed.

      $ oc get secrets -n openshift-etcd | grep openshift-control-plane-2

      Pass in the name of the unhealthy etcd member that you took note of earlier in this procedure.

      There is a peer, serving, and metrics secret as shown in the following output:

      etcd-peer-openshift-control-plane-2             kubernetes.io/tls   2   134m
      etcd-serving-metrics-openshift-control-plane-2  kubernetes.io/tls   2   134m
      etcd-serving-openshift-control-plane-2          kubernetes.io/tls   2   134m
    2. Delete the secrets for the unhealthy etcd member that was removed.

      1. Delete the peer secret:

        $ oc delete secret etcd-peer-openshift-control-plane-2 -n openshift-etcd
        
        secret "etcd-peer-openshift-control-plane-2" deleted
      2. Delete the serving secret:

        $ oc delete secret etcd-serving-metrics-openshift-control-plane-2 -n openshift-etcd
        
        secret "etcd-serving-metrics-openshift-control-plane-2" deleted
      3. Delete the metrics secret:

        $ oc delete secret etcd-serving-openshift-control-plane-2 -n openshift-etcd
        
        secret "etcd-serving-openshift-control-plane-2" deleted
  4. Delete the control plane machine.

    If you are running installer-provisioned infrastructure, or you used the Machine API to create your machines, follow these steps. Otherwise, you must create the new control plane node using the same method that was used to originally create it.

    1. Obtain the machine for the unhealthy member.

      In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

      $ oc get machines -n openshift-machine-api -o wide

      Example output

      NAME                              PHASE     TYPE   REGION   ZONE   AGE     NODE                               PROVIDERID                                                                                              STATE
      examplecluster-control-plane-0    Running                          3h11m   openshift-control-plane-0   baremetalhost:///openshift-machine-api/openshift-control-plane-0/da1ebe11-3ff2-41c5-b099-0aa41222964e   externally provisioned 1
      examplecluster-control-plane-1    Running                          3h11m   openshift-control-plane-1   baremetalhost:///openshift-machine-api/openshift-control-plane-1/d9f9acbc-329c-475e-8d81-03b20280a3e1   externally provisioned
      examplecluster-control-plane-2    Running                          3h11m   openshift-control-plane-2   baremetalhost:///openshift-machine-api/openshift-control-plane-2/3354bdac-61d8-410f-be5b-6a395b056135   externally provisioned
      examplecluster-compute-0          Running                          165m    openshift-compute-0         baremetalhost:///openshift-machine-api/openshift-compute-0/3d685b81-7410-4bb3-80ec-13a31858241f         provisioned
      examplecluster-compute-1          Running                          165m    openshift-compute-1         baremetalhost:///openshift-machine-api/openshift-compute-1/0fdae6eb-2066-4241-91dc-e7ea72ab13b9         provisioned

      1
      This is the control plane machine for the unhealthy node, examplecluster-control-plane-2.
    2. Save the machine configuration to a file on your file system:

      $ oc get machine examplecluster-control-plane-2 \ 1
          -n openshift-machine-api \
          -o yaml \
          > new-master-machine.yaml
      1
      Specify the name of the control plane machine for the unhealthy node.
    3. Edit the new-master-machine.yaml file that was created in the previous step to assign a new name and remove unnecessary fields.

      1. Remove the entire status section:

        status:
          addresses:
          - address: ""
            type: InternalIP
          - address: fe80::4adf:37ff:feb0:8aa1%ens1f1.373
            type: InternalDNS
          - address: fe80::4adf:37ff:feb0:8aa1%ens1f1.371
            type: Hostname
          lastUpdated: "2020-04-20T17:44:29Z"
          nodeRef:
            kind: Machine
            name: fe80::4adf:37ff:feb0:8aa1%ens1f1.372
            uid: acca4411-af0d-4387-b73e-52b2484295ad
          phase: Running
          providerStatus:
            apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
            conditions:
            - lastProbeTime: "2020-04-20T16:53:50Z"
              lastTransitionTime: "2020-04-20T16:53:50Z"
              message: machine successfully created
              reason: MachineCreationSucceeded
              status: "True"
              type: MachineCreation
            instanceId: i-0fdb85790d76d0c3f
            instanceState: stopped
            kind: Machine
  5. Change the metadata.name field to a new name.

    It is recommended to keep the same base name as the old machine and change the ending number to the next available number. In this example, examplecluster-control-plane-2 is changed to examplecluster-control-plane-3.

    For example:

    apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
    kind: Machine
    metadata:
      ...
      name: examplecluster-control-plane-3
      ...
    1. Remove the spec.providerID field:

        providerID: baremetalhost:///openshift-machine-api/openshift-control-plane-2/3354bdac-61d8-410f-be5b-6a395b056135
    2. Remove the metadata.annotations and metadata.generation fields:

        annotations:
          machine.openshift.io/instance-state: externally provisioned
        ...
        generation: 2
    3. Remove the spec.conditions, spec.lastUpdated, spec.nodeRef and spec.phase fields:

        lastTransitionTime: "2022-08-03T08:40:36Z"
      message: 'Drain operation currently blocked by: [{Name:EtcdQuorumOperator Owner:clusteroperator/etcd}]'
      reason: HookPresent
      severity: Warning
      status: "False"
      
      type: Drainable
      lastTransitionTime: "2022-08-03T08:39:55Z"
      status: "True"
      type: InstanceExists
      
      lastTransitionTime: "2022-08-03T08:36:37Z"
      status: "True"
      type: Terminable
      lastUpdated: "2022-08-03T08:40:36Z"
      nodeRef:
      kind: Node
      name: openshift-control-plane-2
      uid: 788df282-6507-4ea2-9a43-24f237ccbc3c
      phase: Running
  6. Ensure that the Bare Metal Operator is available by running the following command:

    $ oc get clusteroperator baremetal

    Example output

    NAME        VERSION   AVAILABLE   PROGRESSING   DEGRADED   SINCE   MESSAGE
    baremetal   4.12.0    True        False         False      3d15h

  7. Remove the old BareMetalHost object by running the following command:

    $ oc delete bmh openshift-control-plane-2 -n openshift-machine-api

    Example output

    baremetalhost.metal3.io "openshift-control-plane-2" deleted

  8. Delete the machine of the unhealthy member by running the following command:

    $ oc delete machine -n openshift-machine-api examplecluster-control-plane-2

    After you remove the BareMetalHost and Machine objects, then the Machine controller automatically deletes the Node object.

    If deletion of the machine is delayed for any reason or the command is obstructed and delayed, you can force deletion by removing the machine object finalizer field.

    Important

    Do not interrupt machine deletion by pressing Ctrl+c. You must allow the command to proceed to completion. Open a new terminal window to edit and delete the finalizer fields.

    1. Edit the machine configuration by running the following command:

      $ oc edit machine -n openshift-machine-api examplecluster-control-plane-2
    2. Delete the following fields in the Machine custom resource, and then save the updated file:

      finalizers:
      - machine.machine.openshift.io

      Example output

      machine.machine.openshift.io/examplecluster-control-plane-2 edited

  9. Verify that the machine was deleted by running the following command:

    $ oc get machines -n openshift-machine-api -o wide

    Example output

    NAME                              PHASE     TYPE   REGION   ZONE   AGE     NODE                                 PROVIDERID                                                                                       STATE
    examplecluster-control-plane-0    Running                          3h11m   openshift-control-plane-0   baremetalhost:///openshift-machine-api/openshift-control-plane-0/da1ebe11-3ff2-41c5-b099-0aa41222964e   externally provisioned
    examplecluster-control-plane-1    Running                          3h11m   openshift-control-plane-1   baremetalhost:///openshift-machine-api/openshift-control-plane-1/d9f9acbc-329c-475e-8d81-03b20280a3e1   externally provisioned
    examplecluster-compute-0          Running                          165m    openshift-compute-0         baremetalhost:///openshift-machine-api/openshift-compute-0/3d685b81-7410-4bb3-80ec-13a31858241f         provisioned
    examplecluster-compute-1          Running                          165m    openshift-compute-1         baremetalhost:///openshift-machine-api/openshift-compute-1/0fdae6eb-2066-4241-91dc-e7ea72ab13b9         provisioned

  10. Verify that the node has been deleted by running the following command:

    $ oc get nodes
    
    NAME                     STATUS ROLES   AGE   VERSION
    openshift-control-plane-0 Ready master 3h24m v1.25.0
    openshift-control-plane-1 Ready master 3h24m v1.25.0
    openshift-compute-0       Ready worker 176m v1.25.0
    openshift-compute-1       Ready worker 176m v1.25.0
  11. Create the new BareMetalHost object and the secret to store the BMC credentials:

    $ cat <<EOF | oc apply -f -
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Secret
    metadata:
      name: openshift-control-plane-2-bmc-secret
      namespace: openshift-machine-api
    data:
      password: <password>
      username: <username>
    type: Opaque
    ---
    apiVersion: metal3.io/v1alpha1
    kind: BareMetalHost
    metadata:
      name: openshift-control-plane-2
      namespace: openshift-machine-api
    spec:
      automatedCleaningMode: disabled
      bmc:
        address: redfish://10.46.61.18:443/redfish/v1/Systems/1
        credentialsName: openshift-control-plane-2-bmc-secret
        disableCertificateVerification: true
      bootMACAddress: 48:df:37:b0:8a:a0
      bootMode: UEFI
      externallyProvisioned: false
      online: true
      rootDeviceHints:
        deviceName: /dev/sda
      userData:
        name: master-user-data-managed
        namespace: openshift-machine-api
    EOF
    Note

    The username and password can be found from the other bare metal host’s secrets. The protocol to use in bmc:address can be taken from other bmh objects.

    Important

    If you reuse the BareMetalHost object definition from an existing control plane host, do not leave the externallyProvisioned field set to true.

    Existing control plane BareMetalHost objects may have the externallyProvisioned flag set to true if they were provisioned by the OpenShift Container Platform installation program.

    After the inspection is complete, the BareMetalHost object is created and available to be provisioned.

  12. Verify the creation process using available BareMetalHost objects:

    $ oc get bmh -n openshift-machine-api
    
    NAME                      STATE                  CONSUMER                      ONLINE ERROR   AGE
    openshift-control-plane-0 externally provisioned examplecluster-control-plane-0 true         4h48m
    openshift-control-plane-1 externally provisioned examplecluster-control-plane-1 true         4h48m
    openshift-control-plane-2 available              examplecluster-control-plane-3 true         47m
    openshift-compute-0       provisioned            examplecluster-compute-0       true         4h48m
    openshift-compute-1       provisioned            examplecluster-compute-1       true         4h48m
    1. Create the new control plane machine using the new-master-machine.yaml file:

      $ oc apply -f new-master-machine.yaml
    2. Verify that the new machine has been created:

      $ oc get machines -n openshift-machine-api -o wide

      Example output

      NAME                                   PHASE     TYPE   REGION   ZONE   AGE     NODE                              PROVIDERID                                                                                            STATE
      examplecluster-control-plane-0         Running                          3h11m   openshift-control-plane-0   baremetalhost:///openshift-machine-api/openshift-control-plane-0/da1ebe11-3ff2-41c5-b099-0aa41222964e   externally provisioned 1
      examplecluster-control-plane-1         Running                          3h11m   openshift-control-plane-1   baremetalhost:///openshift-machine-api/openshift-control-plane-1/d9f9acbc-329c-475e-8d81-03b20280a3e1   externally provisioned
      examplecluster-control-plane-2         Running                          3h11m   openshift-control-plane-2   baremetalhost:///openshift-machine-api/openshift-control-plane-2/3354bdac-61d8-410f-be5b-6a395b056135   externally provisioned
      examplecluster-compute-0               Running                          165m    openshift-compute-0         baremetalhost:///openshift-machine-api/openshift-compute-0/3d685b81-7410-4bb3-80ec-13a31858241f         provisioned
      examplecluster-compute-1               Running                          165m    openshift-compute-1         baremetalhost:///openshift-machine-api/openshift-compute-1/0fdae6eb-2066-4241-91dc-e7ea72ab13b9         provisioned

      1
      The new machine, clustername-8qw5l-master-3 is being created and is ready after the phase changes from Provisioning to Running.

      It should take a few minutes for the new machine to be created. The etcd cluster Operator will automatically sync when the machine or node returns to a healthy state.

    3. Verify that the bare metal host becomes provisioned and no error reported by running the following command:

      $ oc get bmh -n openshift-machine-api

      Example output

      $ oc get bmh -n openshift-machine-api
      NAME                      STATE                  CONSUMER                       ONLINE ERROR AGE
      openshift-control-plane-0 externally provisioned examplecluster-control-plane-0 true         4h48m
      openshift-control-plane-1 externally provisioned examplecluster-control-plane-1 true         4h48m
      openshift-control-plane-2 provisioned            examplecluster-control-plane-3 true          47m
      openshift-compute-0       provisioned            examplecluster-compute-0       true         4h48m
      openshift-compute-1       provisioned            examplecluster-compute-1       true         4h48m

    4. Verify that the new node is added and in a ready state by running this command:

      $ oc get nodes

      Example output

      $ oc get nodes
      NAME                     STATUS ROLES   AGE   VERSION
      openshift-control-plane-0 Ready master 4h26m v1.25.0
      openshift-control-plane-1 Ready master 4h26m v1.25.0
      openshift-control-plane-2 Ready master 12m   v1.25.0
      openshift-compute-0       Ready worker 3h58m v1.25.0
      openshift-compute-1       Ready worker 3h58m v1.25.0

  13. Turn the quorum guard back on by entering the following command:

    $ oc patch etcd/cluster --type=merge -p '{"spec": {"unsupportedConfigOverrides": null}}'
  14. You can verify that the unsupportedConfigOverrides section is removed from the object by entering this command:

    $ oc get etcd/cluster -oyaml
  15. If you are using single-node OpenShift, restart the node. Otherwise, you might encounter the following error in the etcd cluster Operator:

    Example output

    EtcdCertSignerControllerDegraded: [Operation cannot be fulfilled on secrets "etcd-peer-sno-0": the object has been modified; please apply your changes to the latest version and try again, Operation cannot be fulfilled on secrets "etcd-serving-sno-0": the object has been modified; please apply your changes to the latest version and try again, Operation cannot be fulfilled on secrets "etcd-serving-metrics-sno-0": the object has been modified; please apply your changes to the latest version and try again]

Verification

  1. Verify that all etcd pods are running properly.

    In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

    $ oc -n openshift-etcd get pods -l k8s-app=etcd

    Example output

    etcd-openshift-control-plane-0      5/5     Running     0     105m
    etcd-openshift-control-plane-1      5/5     Running     0     107m
    etcd-openshift-control-plane-2      5/5     Running     0     103m

    If the output from the previous command only lists two pods, you can manually force an etcd redeployment. In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

    $ oc patch etcd cluster -p='{"spec": {"forceRedeploymentReason": "recovery-'"$( date --rfc-3339=ns )"'"}}' --type=merge 1
    1
    The forceRedeploymentReason value must be unique, which is why a timestamp is appended.

    To verify there are exactly three etcd members, connect to the running etcd container, passing in the name of a pod that was not on the affected node. In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

    $ oc rsh -n openshift-etcd etcd-openshift-control-plane-0
  2. View the member list:

    sh-4.2# etcdctl member list -w table

    Example output

    +------------------+---------+--------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+-----------------+
    |        ID        | STATUS  |        NAME        |        PEER ADDRS         |       CLIENT ADDRS        |    IS LEARNER    |
    +------------------+---------+--------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+-----------------+
    | 7a8197040a5126c8 | started | openshift-control-plane-2 | https://192.168.10.11:2380 | https://192.168.10.11:2379 |   false |
    | 8d5abe9669a39192 | started | openshift-control-plane-1 | https://192.168.10.10:2380 | https://192.168.10.10:2379 |   false |
    | cc3830a72fc357f9 | started | openshift-control-plane-0 | https://192.168.10.9:2380 | https://192.168.10.9:2379 |     false |
    +------------------+---------+--------------------+---------------------------+---------------------------+-----------------+

    Note

    If the output from the previous command lists more than three etcd members, you must carefully remove the unwanted member.

  3. Verify that all etcd members are healthy by running the following command:

    # etcdctl endpoint health --cluster

    Example output

    https://192.168.10.10:2379 is healthy: successfully committed proposal: took = 8.973065ms
    https://192.168.10.9:2379 is healthy: successfully committed proposal: took = 11.559829ms
    https://192.168.10.11:2379 is healthy: successfully committed proposal: took = 11.665203ms

  4. Validate that all nodes are at the latest revision by running the following command:

    $ oc get etcd -o=jsonpath='{range.items[0].status.conditions[?(@.type=="NodeInstallerProgressing")]}{.reason}{"\n"}{.message}{"\n"}'
    AllNodesAtLatestRevision

5.2.5. Additional resources

5.3. Backing up and restoring etcd on a hosted cluster

If you use hosted control planes on OpenShift Container Platform, the process to back up and restore etcd is different from the usual etcd backup process.

Important

Hosted control planes is a Technology Preview feature only. Technology Preview features are not supported with Red Hat production service level agreements (SLAs) and might not be functionally complete. Red Hat does not recommend using them in production. These features provide early access to upcoming product features, enabling customers to test functionality and provide feedback during the development process.

For more information about the support scope of Red Hat Technology Preview features, see Technology Preview Features Support Scope.

5.3.1. Taking a snapshot of etcd on a hosted cluster

As part of the process to back up etcd for a hosted cluster, you take a snapshot of etcd. After you take the snapshot, you can restore it, for example, as part of a disaster recovery operation.

Important

This procedure requires API downtime.

Procedure

  1. Pause reconciliation of the hosted cluster by entering this command:

    $ oc patch -n clusters hostedclusters/${CLUSTER_NAME} -p '{"spec":{"pausedUntil":"'${PAUSED_UNTIL}'"}}' --type=merge
  2. Stop all etcd-writer deployments by entering this command:

    $ oc scale deployment -n ${HOSTED_CLUSTER_NAMESPACE} --replicas=0 kube-apiserver openshift-apiserver openshift-oauth-apiserver
  3. Take an etcd snapshot by using the exec command in each etcd container:

    $ oc exec -it etcd-0 -n ${HOSTED_CLUSTER_NAMESPACE} -- env ETCDCTL_API=3 /usr/bin/etcdctl --cacert /etc/etcd/tls/client/etcd-client-ca.crt --cert /etc/etcd/tls/client/etcd-client.crt --key /etc/etcd/tls/client/etcd-client.key --endpoints=localhost:2379 snapshot save /var/lib/data/snapshot.db
    $ oc exec -it etcd-0 -n ${HOSTED_CLUSTER_NAMESPACE} -- env ETCDCTL_API=3 /usr/bin/etcdctl -w table snapshot status /var/lib/data/snapshot.db
  4. Copy the snapshot data to a location where you can retrieve it later, such as an S3 bucket, as shown in the following example.

    Note

    The following example uses signature version 2. If you are in a region that supports signature version 4, such as the us-east-2 region, use signature version 4. Otherwise, if you use signature version 2 to copy the snapshot to an S3 bucket, the upload fails and signature version 2 is deprecated.

    Example

    BUCKET_NAME=somebucket
    FILEPATH="/${BUCKET_NAME}/${CLUSTER_NAME}-snapshot.db"
    CONTENT_TYPE="application/x-compressed-tar"
    DATE_VALUE=`date -R`
    SIGNATURE_STRING="PUT\n\n${CONTENT_TYPE}\n${DATE_VALUE}\n${FILEPATH}"
    ACCESS_KEY=accesskey
    SECRET_KEY=secret
    SIGNATURE_HASH=`echo -en ${SIGNATURE_STRING} | openssl sha1 -hmac ${SECRET_KEY} -binary | base64`
    
    oc exec -it etcd-0 -n ${HOSTED_CLUSTER_NAMESPACE} -- curl -X PUT -T "/var/lib/data/snapshot.db" \
      -H "Host: ${BUCKET_NAME}.s3.amazonaws.com" \
      -H "Date: ${DATE_VALUE}" \
      -H "Content-Type: ${CONTENT_TYPE}" \
      -H "Authorization: AWS ${ACCESS_KEY}:${SIGNATURE_HASH}" \
      https://${BUCKET_NAME}.s3.amazonaws.com/${CLUSTER_NAME}-snapshot.db

  5. If you want to be able to restore the snapshot on a new cluster later, save the encryption secret that the hosted cluster references, as shown in this example:

    Example

    oc get hostedcluster $CLUSTER_NAME -o=jsonpath='{.spec.secretEncryption.aescbc}'
    {"activeKey":{"name":"CLUSTER_NAME-etcd-encryption-key"}}
    
    # Save this secret, or the key it contains so the etcd data can later be decrypted
    oc get secret ${CLUSTER_NAME}-etcd-encryption-key -o=jsonpath='{.data.key}'

Next steps

Restore the etcd snapshot.

5.3.2. Restoring an etcd snapshot on a hosted cluster

If you have a snapshot of etcd from your hosted cluster, you can restore it. Currently, you can restore an etcd snapshot only during cluster creation.

To restore an etcd snapshot, you modify the output from the create cluster --render command and define a restoreSnapshotURL value in the etcd section of the HostedCluster specification.

Prerequisites

You took an etcd snapshot on a hosted cluster.

Procedure

  1. On the aws command-line interface (CLI), create a pre-signed URL so that you can download your etcd snapshot from S3 without passing credentials to the etcd deployment:

    ETCD_SNAPSHOT=${ETCD_SNAPSHOT:-"s3://${BUCKET_NAME}/${CLUSTER_NAME}-snapshot.db"}
    ETCD_SNAPSHOT_URL=$(aws s3 presign ${ETCD_SNAPSHOT})
  2. Modify the HostedCluster specification to refer to the URL:

    spec:
      etcd:
        managed:
          storage:
            persistentVolume:
              size: 4Gi
            type: PersistentVolume
            restoreSnapshotURL:
            - "${ETCD_SNAPSHOT_URL}"
        managementType: Managed
  3. Ensure that the secret that you referenced from the spec.secretEncryption.aescbc value contains the same AES key that you saved in the previous steps.

5.3.3. Additional resources

5.4. Disaster recovery

5.4.1. About disaster recovery

The disaster recovery documentation provides information for administrators on how to recover from several disaster situations that might occur with their OpenShift Container Platform cluster. As an administrator, you might need to follow one or more of the following procedures to return your cluster to a working state.

Important

Disaster recovery requires you to have at least one healthy control plane host.

Restoring to a previous cluster state

This solution handles situations where you want to restore your cluster to a previous state, for example, if an administrator deletes something critical. This also includes situations where you have lost the majority of your control plane hosts, leading to etcd quorum loss and the cluster going offline. As long as you have taken an etcd backup, you can follow this procedure to restore your cluster to a previous state.

If applicable, you might also need to recover from expired control plane certificates.

Warning

Restoring to a previous cluster state is a destructive and destablizing action to take on a running cluster. This procedure should only be used as a last resort.

Prior to performing a restore, see About restoring cluster state for more information on the impact to the cluster.

Note

If you have a majority of your masters still available and have an etcd quorum, then follow the procedure to replace a single unhealthy etcd member.

Recovering from expired control plane certificates
This solution handles situations where your control plane certificates have expired. For example, if you shut down your cluster before the first certificate rotation, which occurs 24 hours after installation, your certificates will not be rotated and will expire. You can follow this procedure to recover from expired control plane certificates.

5.4.2. Restoring to a previous cluster state

To restore the cluster to a previous state, you must have previously backed up etcd data by creating a snapshot. You will use this snapshot to restore the cluster state.

5.4.2.1. About restoring cluster state

You can use an etcd backup to restore your cluster to a previous state. This can be used to recover from the following situations:

  • The cluster has lost the majority of control plane hosts (quorum loss).
  • An administrator has deleted something critical and must restore to recover the cluster.
Warning

Restoring to a previous cluster state is a destructive and destablizing action to take on a running cluster. This should only be used as a last resort.

If you are able to retrieve data using the Kubernetes API server, then etcd is available and you should not restore using an etcd backup.

Restoring etcd effectively takes a cluster back in time and all clients will experience a conflicting, parallel history. This can impact the behavior of watching components like kubelets, Kubernetes controller managers, SDN controllers, and persistent volume controllers.

It can cause Operator churn when the content in etcd does not match the actual content on disk, causing Operators for the Kubernetes API server, Kubernetes controller manager, Kubernetes scheduler, and etcd to get stuck when files on disk conflict with content in etcd. This can require manual actions to resolve the issues.

In extreme cases, the cluster can lose track of persistent volumes, delete critical workloads that no longer exist, reimage machines, and rewrite CA bundles with expired certificates.

5.4.2.2. Restoring to a previous cluster state

You can use a saved etcd backup to restore a previous cluster state or restore a cluster that has lost the majority of control plane hosts.

Note

If your cluster uses a control plane machine set, see "Troubleshooting the control plane machine set" for a more simple etcd recovery procedure.

Important

When you restore your cluster, you must use an etcd backup that was taken from the same z-stream release. For example, an OpenShift Container Platform 4.7.2 cluster must use an etcd backup that was taken from 4.7.2.

Prerequisites

  • Access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role through a certificate-based kubeconfig file, like the one that was used during installation.
  • A healthy control plane host to use as the recovery host.
  • SSH access to control plane hosts.
  • A backup directory containing both the etcd snapshot and the resources for the static pods, which were from the same backup. The file names in the directory must be in the following formats: snapshot_<datetimestamp>.db and static_kuberesources_<datetimestamp>.tar.gz.
Important

For non-recovery control plane nodes, it is not required to establish SSH connectivity or to stop the static pods. You can delete and recreate other non-recovery, control plane machines, one by one.

Procedure

  1. Select a control plane host to use as the recovery host. This is the host that you will run the restore operation on.
  2. Establish SSH connectivity to each of the control plane nodes, including the recovery host.

    The Kubernetes API server becomes inaccessible after the restore process starts, so you cannot access the control plane nodes. For this reason, it is recommended to establish SSH connectivity to each control plane host in a separate terminal.

    Important

    If you do not complete this step, you will not be able to access the control plane hosts to complete the restore procedure, and you will be unable to recover your cluster from this state.

  3. Copy the etcd backup directory to the recovery control plane host.

    This procedure assumes that you copied the backup directory containing the etcd snapshot and the resources for the static pods to the /home/core/ directory of your recovery control plane host.

  4. Stop the static pods on any other control plane nodes.

    Note

    You do not need to stop the static pods on the recovery host.

    1. Access a control plane host that is not the recovery host.
    2. Move the existing etcd pod file out of the kubelet manifest directory:

      $ sudo mv -v /etc/kubernetes/manifests/etcd-pod.yaml /tmp
    3. Verify that the etcd pods are stopped.

      $ sudo crictl ps | grep etcd | egrep -v "operator|etcd-guard"

      The output of this command should be empty. If it is not empty, wait a few minutes and check again.

    4. Move the existing Kubernetes API server pod file out of the kubelet manifest directory:

      $ sudo mv -v /etc/kubernetes/manifests/kube-apiserver-pod.yaml /tmp
    5. Verify that the Kubernetes API server pods are stopped.

      $ sudo crictl ps | grep kube-apiserver | egrep -v "operator|guard"

      The output of this command should be empty. If it is not empty, wait a few minutes and check again.

    6. Move the etcd data directory to a different location:

      $ sudo mv -v /var/lib/etcd/ /tmp
    7. If the /etc/kubernetes/manifests/keepalived.yaml file exists and the node is deleted, follow these steps:

      1. Move the /etc/kubernetes/manifests/keepalived.yaml file out of the kubelet manifest directory:

        $ sudo mv -v /etc/kubernetes/manifests/keepalived.yaml /tmp
      2. Verify that any containers managed by the keepalived daemon are stopped:

        $ sudo crictl ps --name keepalived

        The output of this command should be empty. If it is not empty, wait a few minutes and check again.

      3. Check if the control plane has any Virtual IPs (VIPs) assigned to it:

        $ ip -o address | egrep '<api_vip>|<ingress_vip>'
      4. For each reported VIP, run the following command to remove it:

        $ sudo ip address del <reported_vip> dev <reported_vip_device>
    8. Repeat this step on each of the other control plane hosts that is not the recovery host.
  5. Access the recovery control plane host.
  6. If the keepalived daemon is in use, verify that the recovery control plane node owns the VIP:

    $ ip -o address | grep <api_vip>

    The address of the VIP is highlighted in the output if it exists. This command returns an empty string if the VIP is not set or configured incorrectly.

  7. If the cluster-wide proxy is enabled, be sure that you have exported the NO_PROXY, HTTP_PROXY, and HTTPS_PROXY environment variables.

    Tip

    You can check whether the proxy is enabled by reviewing the output of oc get proxy cluster -o yaml. The proxy is enabled if the httpProxy, httpsProxy, and noProxy fields have values set.

  8. Run the restore script on the recovery control plane host and pass in the path to the etcd backup directory:

    $ sudo -E /usr/local/bin/cluster-restore.sh /home/core/assets/backup

    Example script output

    ...stopping kube-scheduler-pod.yaml
    ...stopping kube-controller-manager-pod.yaml
    ...stopping etcd-pod.yaml
    ...stopping kube-apiserver-pod.yaml
    Waiting for container etcd to stop
    .complete
    Waiting for container etcdctl to stop
    .............................complete
    Waiting for container etcd-metrics to stop
    complete
    Waiting for container kube-controller-manager to stop
    complete
    Waiting for container kube-apiserver to stop
    ..........................................................................................complete
    Waiting for container kube-scheduler to stop
    complete
    Moving etcd data-dir /var/lib/etcd/member to /var/lib/etcd-backup
    starting restore-etcd static pod
    starting kube-apiserver-pod.yaml
    static-pod-resources/kube-apiserver-pod-7/kube-apiserver-pod.yaml
    starting kube-controller-manager-pod.yaml
    static-pod-resources/kube-controller-manager-pod-7/kube-controller-manager-pod.yaml
    starting kube-scheduler-pod.yaml
    static-pod-resources/kube-scheduler-pod-8/kube-scheduler-pod.yaml

    Note

    The restore process can cause nodes to enter the NotReady state if the node certificates were updated after the last etcd backup.

  9. Check the nodes to ensure they are in the Ready state.

    1. Run the following command:

      $ oc get nodes -w

      Sample output

      NAME                STATUS  ROLES          AGE     VERSION
      host-172-25-75-28   Ready   master         3d20h   v1.25.0
      host-172-25-75-38   Ready   infra,worker   3d20h   v1.25.0
      host-172-25-75-40   Ready   master         3d20h   v1.25.0
      host-172-25-75-65   Ready   master         3d20h   v1.25.0
      host-172-25-75-74   Ready   infra,worker   3d20h   v1.25.0
      host-172-25-75-79   Ready   worker         3d20h   v1.25.0
      host-172-25-75-86   Ready   worker         3d20h   v1.25.0
      host-172-25-75-98   Ready   infra,worker   3d20h   v1.25.0

      It can take several minutes for all nodes to report their state.

    2. If any nodes are in the NotReady state, log in to the nodes and remove all of the PEM files from the /var/lib/kubelet/pki directory on each node. You can SSH into the nodes or use the terminal window in the web console.

      $  ssh -i <ssh-key-path> core@<master-hostname>

      Sample pki directory

      sh-4.4# pwd
      /var/lib/kubelet/pki
      sh-4.4# ls
      kubelet-client-2022-04-28-11-24-09.pem  kubelet-server-2022-04-28-11-24-15.pem
      kubelet-client-current.pem              kubelet-server-current.pem

  10. Restart the kubelet service on all control plane hosts.

    1. From the recovery host, run the following command:

      $ sudo systemctl restart kubelet.service
    2. Repeat this step on all other control plane hosts.
  11. Approve the pending CSRs:

    Note

    Clusters with no worker nodes, such as single-node clusters or clusters consisting of three schedulable control plane nodes, will not have any pending CSRs to approve. You can skip all the commands listed in this step.

    1. Get the list of current CSRs:

      $ oc get csr

      Example output

      NAME        AGE    SIGNERNAME                                    REQUESTOR                                                                   CONDITION
      csr-2s94x   8m3s   kubernetes.io/kubelet-serving                 system:node:<node_name>                                                     Pending 1
      csr-4bd6t   8m3s   kubernetes.io/kubelet-serving                 system:node:<node_name>                                                     Pending 2
      csr-4hl85   13m    kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending 3
      csr-zhhhp   3m8s   kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending 4
      ...

      1 2
      A pending kubelet service CSR (for user-provisioned installations).
      3 4
      A pending node-bootstrapper CSR.
    2. Review the details of a CSR to verify that it is valid:

      $ oc describe csr <csr_name> 1
      1
      <csr_name> is the name of a CSR from the list of current CSRs.
    3. Approve each valid node-bootstrapper CSR:

      $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name>
    4. For user-provisioned installations, approve each valid kubelet service CSR:

      $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name>
  12. Verify that the single member control plane has started successfully.

    1. From the recovery host, verify that the etcd container is running.

      $ sudo crictl ps | grep etcd | egrep -v "operator|etcd-guard"

      Example output

      3ad41b7908e32       36f86e2eeaaffe662df0d21041eb22b8198e0e58abeeae8c743c3e6e977e8009                                                         About a minute ago   Running             etcd                                          0                   7c05f8af362f0

    2. From the recovery host, verify that the etcd pod is running.

      $ oc -n openshift-etcd get pods -l k8s-app=etcd

      Example output

      NAME                                             READY   STATUS      RESTARTS   AGE
      etcd-ip-10-0-143-125.ec2.internal                1/1     Running     1          2m47s

      If the status is Pending, or the output lists more than one running etcd pod, wait a few minutes and check again.

  13. If you are using the OVNKubernetes network plugin, delete the node objects that are associated with control plane hosts that are not the recovery control plane host.

    $ oc delete node <non-recovery-controlplane-host-1> <non-recovery-controlplane-host-2>
  14. Verify that the Cluster Network Operator (CNO) redeploys the OVN-Kubernetes control plane and that it no longer references the non-recovery controller IP addresses. To verify this result, regularly check the output of the following command. Wait until it returns an empty result before you proceed to restart the Open Virtual Network (OVN) Kubernetes pods on all of the hosts in the next step.

    $ oc -n openshift-ovn-kubernetes get ds/ovnkube-master -o yaml | grep -E '<non-recovery_controller_ip_1>|<non-recovery_controller_ip_2>'
    Note

    It can take at least 5-10 minutes for the OVN-Kubernetes control plane to be redeployed and the previous command to return empty output.

  15. If you are using the OVN-Kubernetes network plugin, restart the Open Virtual Network (OVN) Kubernetes pods on all of the hosts.

    Note

    Validating and mutating admission webhooks can reject pods. If you add any additional webhooks with the failurePolicy set to Fail, then they can reject pods and the restoration process can fail. You can avoid this by saving and deleting webhooks while restoring the cluster state. After the cluster state is restored successfully, you can enable the webhooks again.

    Alternatively, you can temporarily set the failurePolicy to Ignore while restoring the cluster state. After the cluster state is restored successfully, you can set the failurePolicy to Fail.

    1. Remove the northbound database (nbdb) and southbound database (sbdb). Access the recovery host and the remaining control plane nodes by using Secure Shell (SSH) and run the following command:

      $ sudo rm -f /var/lib/ovn/etc/*.db
    2. Delete all OVN-Kubernetes control plane pods by running the following command:

      $ oc delete pods -l app=ovnkube-master -n openshift-ovn-kubernetes
    3. Ensure that any OVN-Kubernetes control plane pods are deployed again and are in a Running state by running the following command:

      $ oc get pods -l app=ovnkube-master -n openshift-ovn-kubernetes

      Example output

      NAME                   READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
      ovnkube-master-nb24h   4/4     Running   0          48s

    4. Delete all ovnkube-node pods by running the following command:

      $ oc get pods -n openshift-ovn-kubernetes -o name | grep ovnkube-node | while read p ; do oc delete $p -n openshift-ovn-kubernetes ; done
    5. Ensure that all the ovnkube-node pods are deployed again and are in a Running state by running the following command:

      $ oc get  pods -n openshift-ovn-kubernetes | grep ovnkube-node
  16. Delete and re-create other non-recovery, control plane machines, one by one. After the machines are re-created, a new revision is forced and etcd automatically scales up.

    • If you use a user-provisioned bare metal installation, you can re-create a control plane machine by using the same method that you used to originally create it. For more information, see "Installing a user-provisioned cluster on bare metal".

      Warning

      Do not delete and re-create the machine for the recovery host.

    • If you are running installer-provisioned infrastructure, or you used the Machine API to create your machines, follow these steps:

      Warning

      Do not delete and re-create the machine for the recovery host.

      For bare metal installations on installer-provisioned infrastructure, control plane machines are not re-created. For more information, see "Replacing a bare-metal control plane node".

      1. Obtain the machine for one of the lost control plane hosts.

        In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

        $ oc get machines -n openshift-machine-api -o wide

        Example output:

        NAME                                        PHASE     TYPE        REGION      ZONE         AGE     NODE                           PROVIDERID                              STATE
        clustername-8qw5l-master-0                  Running   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1a   3h37m   ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1a/i-0ec2782f8287dfb7e   stopped 1
        clustername-8qw5l-master-1                  Running   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1b   3h37m   ip-10-0-143-125.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1b/i-096c349b700a19631   running
        clustername-8qw5l-master-2                  Running   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1c   3h37m   ip-10-0-154-194.ec2.internal    aws:///us-east-1c/i-02626f1dba9ed5bba  running
        clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1a-wbtgd   Running   m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1a   3h28m   ip-10-0-129-226.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1a/i-010ef6279b4662ced   running
        clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1b-lrdxb   Running   m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1b   3h28m   ip-10-0-144-248.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1b/i-0cb45ac45a166173b   running
        clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1c-pkg26   Running   m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1c   3h28m   ip-10-0-170-181.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1c/i-06861c00007751b0a   running
        1
        This is the control plane machine for the lost control plane host, ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal.
      2. Save the machine configuration to a file on your file system:

        $ oc get machine clustername-8qw5l-master-0 \ 1
            -n openshift-machine-api \
            -o yaml \
            > new-master-machine.yaml
        1
        Specify the name of the control plane machine for the lost control plane host.
      3. Edit the new-master-machine.yaml file that was created in the previous step to assign a new name and remove unnecessary fields.

        1. Remove the entire status section:

          status:
            addresses:
            - address: 10.0.131.183
              type: InternalIP
            - address: ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal
              type: InternalDNS
            - address: ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal
              type: Hostname
            lastUpdated: "2020-04-20T17:44:29Z"
            nodeRef:
              kind: Node
              name: ip-10-0-131-183.ec2.internal
              uid: acca4411-af0d-4387-b73e-52b2484295ad
            phase: Running
            providerStatus:
              apiVersion: awsproviderconfig.openshift.io/v1beta1
              conditions:
              - lastProbeTime: "2020-04-20T16:53:50Z"
                lastTransitionTime: "2020-04-20T16:53:50Z"
                message: machine successfully created
                reason: MachineCreationSucceeded
                status: "True"
                type: MachineCreation
              instanceId: i-0fdb85790d76d0c3f
              instanceState: stopped
              kind: AWSMachineProviderStatus
        2. Change the metadata.name field to a new name.

          It is recommended to keep the same base name as the old machine and change the ending number to the next available number. In this example, clustername-8qw5l-master-0 is changed to clustername-8qw5l-master-3:

          apiVersion: machine.openshift.io/v1beta1
          kind: Machine
          metadata:
            ...
            name: clustername-8qw5l-master-3
            ...
        3. Remove the spec.providerID field:

          providerID: aws:///us-east-1a/i-0fdb85790d76d0c3f
        4. Remove the metadata.annotations and metadata.generation fields:

          annotations:
            machine.openshift.io/instance-state: running
          ...
          generation: 2
        5. Remove the metadata.resourceVersion and metadata.uid fields:

          resourceVersion: "13291"
          uid: a282eb70-40a2-4e89-8009-d05dd420d31a
      4. Delete the machine of the lost control plane host:

        $ oc delete machine -n openshift-machine-api clustername-8qw5l-master-0 1
        1
        Specify the name of the control plane machine for the lost control plane host.
      5. Verify that the machine was deleted:

        $ oc get machines -n openshift-machine-api -o wide

        Example output:

        NAME                                        PHASE     TYPE        REGION      ZONE         AGE     NODE                           PROVIDERID                              STATE
        clustername-8qw5l-master-1                  Running   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1b   3h37m   ip-10-0-143-125.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1b/i-096c349b700a19631   running
        clustername-8qw5l-master-2                  Running   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1c   3h37m   ip-10-0-154-194.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1c/i-02626f1dba9ed5bba  running
        clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1a-wbtgd   Running   m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1a   3h28m   ip-10-0-129-226.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1a/i-010ef6279b4662ced   running
        clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1b-lrdxb   Running   m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1b   3h28m   ip-10-0-144-248.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1b/i-0cb45ac45a166173b   running
        clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1c-pkg26   Running   m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1c   3h28m   ip-10-0-170-181.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1c/i-06861c00007751b0a   running
      6. Create a machine by using the new-master-machine.yaml file:

        $ oc apply -f new-master-machine.yaml
      7. Verify that the new machine has been created:

        $ oc get machines -n openshift-machine-api -o wide

        Example output:

        NAME                                        PHASE          TYPE        REGION      ZONE         AGE     NODE                           PROVIDERID                              STATE
        clustername-8qw5l-master-1                  Running        m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1b   3h37m   ip-10-0-143-125.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1b/i-096c349b700a19631   running
        clustername-8qw5l-master-2                  Running        m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1c   3h37m   ip-10-0-154-194.ec2.internal    aws:///us-east-1c/i-02626f1dba9ed5bba  running
        clustername-8qw5l-master-3                  Provisioning   m4.xlarge   us-east-1   us-east-1a   85s     ip-10-0-173-171.ec2.internal    aws:///us-east-1a/i-015b0888fe17bc2c8  running 1
        clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1a-wbtgd   Running        m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1a   3h28m   ip-10-0-129-226.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1a/i-010ef6279b4662ced   running
        clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1b-lrdxb   Running        m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1b   3h28m   ip-10-0-144-248.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1b/i-0cb45ac45a166173b   running
        clustername-8qw5l-worker-us-east-1c-pkg26   Running        m4.large    us-east-1   us-east-1c   3h28m   ip-10-0-170-181.ec2.internal   aws:///us-east-1c/i-06861c00007751b0a   running
        1
        The new machine, clustername-8qw5l-master-3 is being created and is ready after the phase changes from Provisioning to Running.

        It might take a few minutes for the new machine to be created. The etcd cluster Operator will automatically sync when the machine or node returns to a healthy state.

      8. Repeat these steps for each lost control plane host that is not the recovery host.
  17. Turn off the quorum guard by entering the following command:

    $ oc patch etcd/cluster --type=merge -p '{"spec": {"unsupportedConfigOverrides": {"useUnsupportedUnsafeNonHANonProductionUnstableEtcd": true}}}'

    This command ensures that you can successfully re-create secrets and roll out the static pods.

  18. In a separate terminal window within the recovery host, export the recovery kubeconfig file by running the following command:

    $ export KUBECONFIG=/etc/kubernetes/static-pod-resources/kube-apiserver-certs/secrets/node-kubeconfigs/localhost-recovery.kubeconfig
  19. Force etcd redeployment.

    In the same terminal window where you exported the recovery kubeconfig file, run the following command:

    $ oc patch etcd cluster -p='{"spec": {"forceRedeploymentReason": "recovery-'"$( date --rfc-3339=ns )"'"}}' --type=merge 1
    1
    The forceRedeploymentReason value must be unique, which is why a timestamp is appended.

    When the etcd cluster Operator performs a redeployment, the existing nodes are started with new pods similar to the initial bootstrap scale up.

  20. Turn the quorum guard back on by entering the following command:

    $ oc patch etcd/cluster --type=merge -p '{"spec": {"unsupportedConfigOverrides": null}}'
  21. You can verify that the unsupportedConfigOverrides section is removed from the object by entering this command:

    $ oc get etcd/cluster -oyaml
  22. Verify all nodes are updated to the latest revision.

    In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

    $ oc get etcd -o=jsonpath='{range .items[0].status.conditions[?(@.type=="NodeInstallerProgressing")]}{.reason}{"\n"}{.message}{"\n"}'

    Review the NodeInstallerProgressing status condition for etcd to verify that all nodes are at the latest revision. The output shows AllNodesAtLatestRevision upon successful update:

    AllNodesAtLatestRevision
    3 nodes are at revision 7 1
    1
    In this example, the latest revision number is 7.

    If the output includes multiple revision numbers, such as 2 nodes are at revision 6; 1 nodes are at revision 7, this means that the update is still in progress. Wait a few minutes and try again.

  23. After etcd is redeployed, force new rollouts for the control plane. The Kubernetes API server will reinstall itself on the other nodes because the kubelet is connected to API servers using an internal load balancer.

    In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following commands.

    1. Force a new rollout for the Kubernetes API server:

      $ oc patch kubeapiserver cluster -p='{"spec": {"forceRedeploymentReason": "recovery-'"$( date --rfc-3339=ns )"'"}}' --type=merge

      Verify all nodes are updated to the latest revision.

      $ oc get kubeapiserver -o=jsonpath='{range .items[0].status.conditions[?(@.type=="NodeInstallerProgressing")]}{.reason}{"\n"}{.message}{"\n"}'

      Review the NodeInstallerProgressing status condition to verify that all nodes are at the latest revision. The output shows AllNodesAtLatestRevision upon successful update:

      AllNodesAtLatestRevision
      3 nodes are at revision 7 1
      1
      In this example, the latest revision number is 7.

      If the output includes multiple revision numbers, such as 2 nodes are at revision 6; 1 nodes are at revision 7, this means that the update is still in progress. Wait a few minutes and try again.

    2. Force a new rollout for the Kubernetes controller manager:

      $ oc patch kubecontrollermanager cluster -p='{"spec": {"forceRedeploymentReason": "recovery-'"$( date --rfc-3339=ns )"'"}}' --type=merge

      Verify all nodes are updated to the latest revision.

      $ oc get kubecontrollermanager -o=jsonpath='{range .items[0].status.conditions[?(@.type=="NodeInstallerProgressing")]}{.reason}{"\n"}{.message}{"\n"}'

      Review the NodeInstallerProgressing status condition to verify that all nodes are at the latest revision. The output shows AllNodesAtLatestRevision upon successful update:

      AllNodesAtLatestRevision
      3 nodes are at revision 7 1
      1
      In this example, the latest revision number is 7.

      If the output includes multiple revision numbers, such as 2 nodes are at revision 6; 1 nodes are at revision 7, this means that the update is still in progress. Wait a few minutes and try again.

    3. Force a new rollout for the Kubernetes scheduler:

      $ oc patch kubescheduler cluster -p='{"spec": {"forceRedeploymentReason": "recovery-'"$( date --rfc-3339=ns )"'"}}' --type=merge

      Verify all nodes are updated to the latest revision.

      $ oc get kubescheduler -o=jsonpath='{range .items[0].status.conditions[?(@.type=="NodeInstallerProgressing")]}{.reason}{"\n"}{.message}{"\n"}'

      Review the NodeInstallerProgressing status condition to verify that all nodes are at the latest revision. The output shows AllNodesAtLatestRevision upon successful update:

      AllNodesAtLatestRevision
      3 nodes are at revision 7 1
      1
      In this example, the latest revision number is 7.

      If the output includes multiple revision numbers, such as 2 nodes are at revision 6; 1 nodes are at revision 7, this means that the update is still in progress. Wait a few minutes and try again.

  24. Verify that all control plane hosts have started and joined the cluster.

    In a terminal that has access to the cluster as a cluster-admin user, run the following command:

    $ oc -n openshift-etcd get pods -l k8s-app=etcd

    Example output

    etcd-ip-10-0-143-125.ec2.internal                2/2     Running     0          9h
    etcd-ip-10-0-154-194.ec2.internal                2/2     Running     0          9h
    etcd-ip-10-0-173-171.ec2.internal                2/2     Running     0          9h

To ensure that all workloads return to normal operation following a recovery procedure, restart each pod that stores Kubernetes API information. This includes OpenShift Container Platform components such as routers, Operators, and third-party components.

Note

On completion of the previous procedural steps, you might need to wait a few minutes for all services to return to their restored state. For example, authentication by using oc login might not immediately work until the OAuth server pods are restarted.

Consider using the system:admin kubeconfig file for immediate authentication. This method basis its authentication on SSL/TLS client certificates as against OAuth tokens. You can authenticate with this file by issuing the following command:

$ export KUBECONFIG=<installation_directory>/auth/kubeconfig

Issue the following command to display your authenticated user name:

$ oc whoami

5.4.2.3. Additional resources

5.4.2.4. Issues and workarounds for restoring a persistent storage state

If your OpenShift Container Platform cluster uses persistent storage of any form, a state of the cluster is typically stored outside etcd. It might be an Elasticsearch cluster running in a pod or a database running in a StatefulSet object. When you restore from an etcd backup, the status of the workloads in OpenShift Container Platform is also restored. However, if the etcd snapshot is old, the status might be invalid or outdated.

Important

The contents of persistent volumes (PVs) are never part of the etcd snapshot. When you restore an OpenShift Container Platform cluster from an etcd snapshot, non-critical workloads might gain access to critical data, or vice-versa.

The following are some example scenarios that produce an out-of-date status:

  • MySQL database is running in a pod backed up by a PV object. Restoring OpenShift Container Platform from an etcd snapshot does not bring back the volume on the storage provider, and does not produce a running MySQL pod, despite the pod repeatedly attempting to start. You must manually restore this pod by restoring the volume on the storage provider, and then editing the PV to point to the new volume.
  • Pod P1 is using volume A, which is attached to node X. If the etcd snapshot is taken while another pod uses the same volume on node Y, then when the etcd restore is performed, pod P1 might not be able to start correctly due to the volume still being attached to node Y. OpenShift Container Platform is not aware of the attachment, and does not automatically detach it. When this occurs, the volume must be manually detached from node Y so that the volume can attach on node X, and then pod P1 can start.
  • Cloud provider or storage provider credentials were updated after the etcd snapshot was taken. This causes any CSI drivers or Operators that depend on the those credentials to not work. You might have to manually update the credentials required by those drivers or Operators.
  • A device is removed or renamed from OpenShift Container Platform nodes after the etcd snapshot is taken. The Local Storage Operator creates symlinks for each PV that it manages from /dev/disk/by-id or /dev directories. This situation might cause the local PVs to refer to devices that no longer exist.

    To fix this problem, an administrator must:

    1. Manually remove the PVs with invalid devices.
    2. Remove symlinks from respective nodes.
    3. Delete LocalVolume or LocalVolumeSet objects (see StorageConfiguring persistent storagePersistent storage using local volumesDeleting the Local Storage Operator Resources).

5.4.3. Recovering from expired control plane certificates

5.4.3.1. Recovering from expired control plane certificates

The cluster can automatically recover from expired control plane certificates.

However, you must manually approve the pending node-bootstrapper certificate signing requests (CSRs) to recover kubelet certificates. For user-provisioned installations, you might also need to approve pending kubelet serving CSRs.

Use the following steps to approve the pending CSRs:

Procedure

  1. Get the list of current CSRs:

    $ oc get csr

    Example output

    NAME        AGE    SIGNERNAME                                    REQUESTOR                                                                   CONDITION
    csr-2s94x   8m3s   kubernetes.io/kubelet-serving                 system:node:<node_name>                                                     Pending 1
    csr-4bd6t   8m3s   kubernetes.io/kubelet-serving                 system:node:<node_name>                                                     Pending
    csr-4hl85   13m    kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending 2
    csr-zhhhp   3m8s   kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   system:serviceaccount:openshift-machine-config-operator:node-bootstrapper   Pending
    ...

    1
    A pending kubelet service CSR (for user-provisioned installations).
    2
    A pending node-bootstrapper CSR.
  2. Review the details of a CSR to verify that it is valid:

    $ oc describe csr <csr_name> 1
    1
    <csr_name> is the name of a CSR from the list of current CSRs.
  3. Approve each valid node-bootstrapper CSR:

    $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name>
  4. For user-provisioned installations, approve each valid kubelet serving CSR:

    $ oc adm certificate approve <csr_name>

5.4.4. Disaster recovery for a hosted cluster within an AWS region

In a situation where you need disaster recovery (DR) for a hosted cluster, you can recover a hosted cluster to the same region within AWS. For example, you need DR when the upgrade of a management cluster fails and the hosted cluster is in a read-only state.

Important

Hosted control planes is a Technology Preview feature only. Technology Preview features are not supported with Red Hat production service level agreements (SLAs) and might not be functionally complete. Red Hat does not recommend using them in production. These features provide early access to upcoming product features, enabling customers to test functionality and provide feedback during the development process.

For more information about the support scope of Red Hat Technology Preview features, see Technology Preview Features Support Scope.

The DR process involves three main steps:

  1. Backing up the hosted cluster on the source management cluster
  2. Restoring the hosted cluster on a destination management cluster
  3. Deleting the hosted cluster from the source management cluster

Your workloads remain running during the process. The Cluster API might be unavailable for a period, but that will not affect the services that are running on the worker nodes.

Important

Both the source management cluster and the destination management cluster must have the --external-dns flags to maintain the API server URL, as shown in this example:

Example: External DNS flags

--external-dns-provider=aws \
--external-dns-credentials=<AWS Credentials location> \
--external-dns-domain-filter=<DNS Base Domain>

That way, the server URL ends with https://api-sample-hosted.sample-hosted.aws.openshift.com.

If you do not include the --external-dns flags to maintain the API server URL, the hosted cluster cannot be migrated.

5.4.4.1. Example environment and context

Consider an scenario where you have three clusters to restore. Two are management clusters, and one is a hosted cluster. You can restore either the control plane only or the control plane and the nodes. Before you begin, you need the following information:

  • Source MGMT Namespace: The source management namespace
  • Source MGMT ClusterName: The source management cluster name
  • Source MGMT Kubeconfig: The source management kubeconfig file
  • Destination MGMT Kubeconfig: The destination management kubeconfig file
  • HC Kubeconfig: The hosted cluster kubeconfig file
  • SSH key file: The SSH public key
  • Pull secret: The pull secret file to access the release images
  • AWS credentials
  • AWS region
  • Base domain: The DNS base domain to use as an external DNS
  • S3 bucket name: The bucket in the AWS region where you plan to upload the etcd backup

This information is shown in the following example environment variables.

Example environment variables

SSH_KEY_FILE=${HOME}/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
BASE_PATH=${HOME}/hypershift
BASE_DOMAIN="aws.sample.com"
PULL_SECRET_FILE="${HOME}/pull_secret.json"
AWS_CREDS="${HOME}/.aws/credentials"
AWS_ZONE_ID="Z02718293M33QHDEQBROL"

CONTROL_PLANE_AVAILABILITY_POLICY=SingleReplica
HYPERSHIFT_PATH=${BASE_PATH}/src/hypershift
HYPERSHIFT_CLI=${HYPERSHIFT_PATH}/bin/hypershift
HYPERSHIFT_IMAGE=${HYPERSHIFT_IMAGE:-"quay.io/${USER}/hypershift:latest"}
NODE_POOL_REPLICAS=${NODE_POOL_REPLICAS:-2}

# MGMT Context
MGMT_REGION=us-west-1
MGMT_CLUSTER_NAME="${USER}-dev"
MGMT_CLUSTER_NS=${USER}
MGMT_CLUSTER_DIR="${BASE_PATH}/hosted_clusters/${MGMT_CLUSTER_NS}-${MGMT_CLUSTER_NAME}"
MGMT_KUBECONFIG="${MGMT_CLUSTER_DIR}/kubeconfig"

# MGMT2 Context
MGMT2_CLUSTER_NAME="${USER}-dest"
MGMT2_CLUSTER_NS=${USER}
MGMT2_CLUSTER_DIR="${BASE_PATH}/hosted_clusters/${MGMT2_CLUSTER_NS}-${MGMT2_CLUSTER_NAME}"
MGMT2_KUBECONFIG="${MGMT2_CLUSTER_DIR}/kubeconfig"

# Hosted Cluster Context
HC_CLUSTER_NS=clusters
HC_REGION=us-west-1
HC_CLUSTER_NAME="${USER}-hosted"
HC_CLUSTER_DIR="${BASE_PATH}/hosted_clusters/${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME}"
HC_KUBECONFIG="${HC_CLUSTER_DIR}/kubeconfig"
BACKUP_DIR=${HC_CLUSTER_DIR}/backup

BUCKET_NAME="${USER}-hosted-${MGMT_REGION}"

# DNS
AWS_ZONE_ID="Z07342811SH9AA102K1AC"
EXTERNAL_DNS_DOMAIN="hc.jpdv.aws.kerbeross.com"

5.4.4.2. Overview of the backup and restore process

The backup and restore process works as follows:

  1. On management cluster 1, which you can think of as the source management cluster, the control plane and workers interact by using the external DNS API. The external DNS API is accessible, and a load balancer sits between the management clusters.

    Diagram that shows the workers accessing the external DNS API and the external DNS API pointing to the control plane through a load balancer
  2. You take a snapshot of the hosted cluster, which includes etcd, the control plane, and the worker nodes. During this process, the worker nodes continue to try to access the external DNS API even if it is not accessible, the workloads are running, the control plane is saved in a local manifest file, and etcd is backed up to an S3 bucket. The data plane is active and the control plane is paused.

    298 OpenShift Backup Restore 0123 01
  3. On management cluster 2, which you can think of as the destination management cluster, you restore etcd from the S3 bucket and restore the control plane from the local manifest file. During this process, the external DNS API is stopped, the hosted cluster API becomes inaccessible, and any workers that use the API are unable to update their manifest files, but the workloads are still running.

    298 OpenShift Backup Restore 0123 02
  4. The external DNS API is accessible again, and the worker nodes use it to move to management cluster 2. The external DNS API can access the load balancer that points to the control plane.

    298 OpenShift Backup Restore 0123 03
  5. On management cluster 2, the control plane and worker nodes interact by using the external DNS API. The resources are deleted from management cluster 1, except for the S3 backup of etcd. If you try to set up the hosted cluster again on mangagement cluster 1, it will not work.

    298 OpenShift Backup Restore 0123 04

You can manually back up and restore your hosted cluster, or you can run a script to complete the process. For more information about the script, see "Running a script to back up and restore a hosted cluster".

5.4.4.3. Backing up a hosted cluster

To recover your hosted cluster in your target management cluster, you first need to back up all of the relevant data.

Procedure

  1. Create a configmap file to declare the source management cluster by entering this command:

    $ oc create configmap mgmt-parent-cluster -n default --from-literal=from=${MGMT_CLUSTER_NAME}
  2. Shut down the reconciliation in the hosted cluster and in the node pools by entering these commands:

    PAUSED_UNTIL="true"
    oc patch -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS} hostedclusters/${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} -p '{"spec":{"pausedUntil":"'${PAUSED_UNTIL}'"}}' --type=merge
    oc scale deployment -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} --replicas=0 kube-apiserver openshift-apiserver openshift-oauth-apiserver control-plane-operator
    PAUSED_UNTIL="true"
    oc patch -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS} hostedclusters/${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} -p '{"spec":{"pausedUntil":"'${PAUSED_UNTIL}'"}}' --type=merge
    oc patch -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS} nodepools/${NODEPOOLS} -p '{"spec":{"pausedUntil":"'${PAUSED_UNTIL}'"}}' --type=merge
    oc scale deployment -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} --replicas=0 kube-apiserver openshift-apiserver openshift-oauth-apiserver control-plane-operator
  3. Back up etcd and upload the data to an S3 bucket by running this bash script:

    Tip

    Wrap this script in a function and call it from the main function.

    # ETCD Backup
    ETCD_PODS="etcd-0"
    if [ "${CONTROL_PLANE_AVAILABILITY_POLICY}" = "HighlyAvailable" ]; then
      ETCD_PODS="etcd-0 etcd-1 etcd-2"
    fi
    
    for POD in ${ETCD_PODS}; do
      # Create an etcd snapshot
      oc exec -it ${POD} -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} -- env ETCDCTL_API=3 /usr/bin/etcdctl --cacert /etc/etcd/tls/client/etcd-client-ca.crt --cert /etc/etcd/tls/client/etcd-client.crt --key /etc/etcd/tls/client/etcd-client.key --endpoints=localhost:2379 snapshot save /var/lib/data/snapshot.db
      oc exec -it ${POD} -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} -- env ETCDCTL_API=3 /usr/bin/etcdctl -w table snapshot status /var/lib/data/snapshot.db
    
      FILEPATH="/${BUCKET_NAME}/${HC_CLUSTER_NAME}-${POD}-snapshot.db"
      CONTENT_TYPE="application/x-compressed-tar"
      DATE_VALUE=`date -R`
      SIGNATURE_STRING="PUT\n\n${CONTENT_TYPE}\n${DATE_VALUE}\n${FILEPATH}"
    
      set +x
      ACCESS_KEY=$(grep aws_access_key_id ${AWS_CREDS} | head -n1 | cut -d= -f2 | sed "s/ //g")
      SECRET_KEY=$(grep aws_secret_access_key ${AWS_CREDS} | head -n1 | cut -d= -f2 | sed "s/ //g")
      SIGNATURE_HASH=$(echo -en ${SIGNATURE_STRING} | openssl sha1 -hmac "${SECRET_KEY}" -binary | base64)
      set -x
    
      # FIXME: this is pushing to the OIDC bucket
      oc exec -it etcd-0 -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} -- curl -X PUT -T "/var/lib/data/snapshot.db" \
        -H "Host: ${BUCKET_NAME}.s3.amazonaws.com" \
        -H "Date: ${DATE_VALUE}" \
        -H "Content-Type: ${CONTENT_TYPE}" \
        -H "Authorization: AWS ${ACCESS_KEY}:${SIGNATURE_HASH}" \
        https://${BUCKET_NAME}.s3.amazonaws.com/${HC_CLUSTER_NAME}-${POD}-snapshot.db
    done

    For more information about backing up etcd, see "Backing up and restoring etcd on a hosted cluster".

  4. Back up Kubernetes and OpenShift Container Platform objects by entering the following commands. You need to back up the following objects:

    • HostedCluster and NodePool objects from the HostedCluster namespace
    • HostedCluster secrets from the HostedCluster namespace
    • HostedControlPlane from the Hosted Control Plane namespace
    • Cluster from the Hosted Control Plane namespace
    • AWSCluster, AWSMachineTemplate, and AWSMachine from the Hosted Control Plane namespace
    • MachineDeployments, MachineSets, and Machines from the Hosted Control Plane namespace
    • ControlPlane secrets from the Hosted Control Plane namespace

      mkdir -p ${BACKUP_DIR}/namespaces/${HC_CLUSTER_NS} ${BACKUP_DIR}/namespaces/${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME}
      chmod 700 ${BACKUP_DIR}/namespaces/
      
      # HostedCluster
      echo "Backing Up HostedCluster Objects:"
      oc get hc ${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS} -o yaml > ${BACKUP_DIR}/namespaces/${HC_CLUSTER_NS}/hc-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME}.yaml
      echo "--> HostedCluster"
      sed -i '' -e '/^status:$/,$d' ${BACKUP_DIR}/namespaces/${HC_CLUSTER_NS}/hc-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME}.yaml
      
      # NodePool
      oc get np ${NODEPOOLS} -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS} -o yaml > ${BACKUP_DIR}/namespaces/${HC_CLUSTER_NS}/np-${NODEPOOLS}.yaml
      echo "--> NodePool"
      sed -i '' -e '/^status:$/,$ d' ${BACKUP_DIR}/namespaces/${HC_CLUSTER_NS}/np-${NODEPOOLS}.yaml
      
      # Secrets in the HC Namespace
      echo "--> HostedCluster Secrets:"
      for s in $(oc get secret -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS} | grep "^${HC_CLUSTER_NAME}" | awk '{print $1}'); do
          oc get secret -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS} $s -o yaml > ${BACKUP_DIR}/namespaces/${HC_CLUSTER_NS}/secret-${s}.yaml
      done
      
      # Secrets in the HC Control Plane Namespace
      echo "--> HostedCluster ControlPlane Secrets:"
      for s in $(oc get secret -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} | egrep -v "docker|service-account-token|oauth-openshift|NAME|token-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME}" | awk '{print $1}'); do
          oc get secret -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} $s -o yaml > ${BACKUP_DIR}/namespaces/${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME}/secret-${s}.yaml
      done
      
      # Hosted Control Plane
      echo "--> HostedControlPlane:"
      oc get hcp ${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} -o yaml > ${BACKUP_DIR}/namespaces/${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME}/hcp-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME}.yaml
      
      # Cluster
      echo "--> Cluster:"
      CL_NAME=$(oc get hcp ${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} -o jsonpath={.metadata.labels.\*} | grep ${HC_CLUSTER_NAME})
      oc get cluster ${CL_NAME} -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} -o yaml > ${BACKUP_DIR}/namespaces/${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME}/cl-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME}.yaml
      
      # AWS Cluster
      echo "--> AWS Cluster:"
      oc get awscluster ${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} -o yaml > ${BACKUP_DIR}/namespaces/${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME}/awscl-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME}.yaml
      
      # AWS MachineTemplate
      echo "--> AWS Machine Template:"
      oc get awsmachinetemplate ${NODEPOOLS} -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} -o yaml > ${BACKUP_DIR}/namespaces/${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME}/awsmt-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME}.yaml
      
      # AWS Machines
      echo "--> AWS Machine:"
      CL_NAME=$(oc get hcp ${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} -o jsonpath={.metadata.labels.\*} | grep ${HC_CLUSTER_NAME})
      for s in $(oc get awsmachines -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} --no-headers | grep ${CL_NAME} | cut -f1 -d\ ); do
          oc get -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} awsmachines $s -o yaml > ${BACKUP_DIR}/namespaces/${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME}/awsm-${s}.yaml
      done
      
      # MachineDeployments
      echo "--> HostedCluster MachineDeployments:"
      for s in $(oc get machinedeployment -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} -o name); do
          mdp_name=$(echo ${s} | cut -f 2 -d /)
          oc get -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} $s -o yaml > ${BACKUP_DIR}/namespaces/${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME}/machinedeployment-${mdp_name}.yaml
      done
      
      # MachineSets
      echo "--> HostedCluster MachineSets:"
      for s in $(oc get machineset -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} -o name); do
          ms_name=$(echo ${s} | cut -f 2 -d /)
          oc get -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} $s -o yaml > ${BACKUP_DIR}/namespaces/${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME}/machineset-${ms_name}.yaml
      done
      
      # Machines
      echo "--> HostedCluster Machine:"
      for s in $(oc get machine -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} -o name); do
          m_name=$(echo ${s} | cut -f 2 -d /)
          oc get -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} $s -o yaml > ${BACKUP_DIR}/namespaces/${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME}/machine-${m_name}.yaml
      done
  5. Clean up the ControlPlane routes by entering this command:

    $ oc delete routes -n ${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME} --all

    By entering that command, you enable the ExternalDNS Operator to delete the Route53 entries.

  6. Verify that the Route53 entries are clean by running this script:

    function clean_routes() {
    
        if [[ -z "${1}" ]];then
            echo "Give me the NS where to clean the routes"
            exit 1
        fi
    
        # Constants
        if [[ -z "${2}" ]];then
            echo "Give me the Route53 zone ID"
            exit 1
        fi
    
        ZONE_ID=${2}
        ROUTES=10
        timeout=40
        count=0
    
        # This allows us to remove the ownership in the AWS for the API route
        oc delete route -n ${1} --all
    
        while [ ${ROUTES} -gt 2 ]
        do
            echo "Waiting for ExternalDNS Operator to clean the DNS Records in AWS Route53 where the zone id is: ${ZONE_ID}..."
            echo "Try: (${count}/${timeout})"
            sleep 10
            if [[ $count -eq timeout ]];then
                echo "Timeout waiting for cleaning the Route53 DNS records"
                exit 1
            fi
            count=$((count+1))
            ROUTES=$(aws route53 list-resource-record-sets --hosted-zone-id ${ZONE_ID} --max-items 10000 --output json | grep -c ${EXTERNAL_DNS_DOMAIN})
        done
    }
    
    # SAMPLE: clean_routes "<HC ControlPlane Namespace>" "<AWS_ZONE_ID>"
    clean_routes "${HC_CLUSTER_NS}-${HC_CLUSTER_NAME}" "${AWS_ZONE_ID}"

Verification

Check all of the OpenShift Container Platform objects and the S3 bucket to verify that everything looks as expected.

Next steps

Restore your hosted cluster.

5.4.4.4. Restoring a hosted cluster

Gather all of the objects that you backed up and restore them in your destination management cluster.

Prerequisites

You backed up the data from your source management cluster.

Tip

Ensure that the kubeconfig