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Chapter 3. Developer CLI (odo)

3.1. odo release notes

3.1.1. Notable changes and improvements in odo version 2.5.0

  • Creates unique routes for each component, using adler32 hashing
  • Supports additional fields in the devfile for assigning resources:

    • cpuRequest
    • cpuLimit
    • memoryRequest
    • memoryLimit
  • Adds the --deploy flag to the odo delete command, to remove components deployed using the odo deploy command:

    $ odo delete --deploy
  • Adds mapping support to the odo link command
  • Supports ephemeral volumes using the ephemeral field in volume components
  • Sets the default answer to yes when asking for telemetry opt-in
  • Improves metrics by sending additional telemetry data to the devfile registry
  • Updates the bootstrap image to registry.access.redhat.com/ocp-tools-4/odo-init-container-rhel8:1.1.11
  • The upstream repository is available at https://github.com/redhat-developer/odo

3.1.2. Bug fixes

  • Previously, odo deploy would fail if the .odo/env file did not exist. The command now creates the .odo/env file if required.
  • Previously, interactive component creation using the odo create command would fail if disconnect from the cluster. This issue is fixed in the latest release.

3.1.3. Getting support

For Product

If you find an error, encounter a bug, or have suggestions for improving the functionality of odo, file an issue in Bugzilla. Choose OpenShift Developer Tools and Services as a product type and odo as a component.

Provide as many details in the issue description as possible.

For Documentation

If you find an error or have suggestions for improving the documentation, file an issue in Bugzilla. Choose the OpenShift Container Platform product type and the Documentation component type.

3.2. Understanding odo

Red Hat OpenShift Developer CLI (odo) is a tool for creating applications on OpenShift Container Platform and Kubernetes. With odo, you can develop, test, debug, and deploy microservices-based applications on a Kubernetes cluster without having a deep understanding of the platform.

odo follows a create and push workflow. As a user, when you create, the information (or manifest) is stored in a configuration file. When you push, the corresponding resources are created on the Kubernetes cluster. All of this configuration is stored in the Kubernetes API for seamless accessibility and functionality.

odo uses service and link commands to link components and services together. odo achieves this by creating and deploying services based on Kubernetes Operators in the cluster. Services can be created using any of the Operators available on the Operator Hub. After linking a service, odo injects the service configuration into the component. Your application can then use this configuration to communicate with the Operator-backed service.

3.2.1. odo key features

odo is designed to be a developer-friendly interface to Kubernetes, with the ability to:

  • Quickly deploy applications on a Kubernetes cluster by creating a new manifest or using an existing one
  • Use commands to easily create and update the manifest, without the need to understand and maintain Kubernetes configuration files
  • Provide secure access to applications running on a Kubernetes cluster
  • Add and remove additional storage for applications on a Kubernetes cluster
  • Create Operator-backed services and link your application to them
  • Create a link between multiple microservices that are deployed as odo components
  • Remotely debug applications you deployed using odo in your IDE
  • Easily test applications deployed on Kubernetes using odo

3.2.2. odo core concepts

odo abstracts Kubernetes concepts into terminology that is familiar to developers:

Application

A typical application, developed with a cloud-native approach, that is used to perform a particular task.

Examples of applications include online video streaming, online shopping, and hotel reservation systems.

Component

A set of Kubernetes resources that can run and be deployed separately. A cloud-native application is a collection of small, independent, loosely coupled components.

Examples of components include an API back-end, a web interface, and a payment back-end.

Project
A single unit containing your source code, tests, and libraries.
Context
A directory that contains the source code, tests, libraries, and odo config files for a single component.
URL
A mechanism to expose a component for access from outside the cluster.
Storage
Persistent storage in the cluster. It persists the data across restarts and component rebuilds.
Service

An external application that provides additional functionality to a component.

Examples of services include PostgreSQL, MySQL, Redis, and RabbitMQ.

In odo, services are provisioned from the OpenShift Service Catalog and must be enabled within your cluster.

devfile

An open standard for defining containerized development environments that enables developer tools to simplify and accelerate workflows. For more information, see the documentation at https://devfile.io.

You can connect to publicly available devfile registries, or you can install a Secure Registry.

3.2.3. Listing components in odo

odo uses the portable devfile format to describe components and their related URLs, storage, and services. odo can connect to various devfile registries to download devfiles for different languages and frameworks. See the documentation for the odo registry command for more information on how to manage the registries used by odo to retrieve devfile information.

You can list all the devfiles available of the different registries with the odo catalog list components command.

Procedure

  1. Log in to the cluster with odo:

    $ odo login -u developer -p developer
  2. List the available odo components:

    $ odo catalog list components

    Example output

    Odo Devfile Components:
    NAME                             DESCRIPTION                                                         REGISTRY
    dotnet50                         Stack with .NET 5.0                                                 DefaultDevfileRegistry
    dotnet60                         Stack with .NET 6.0                                                 DefaultDevfileRegistry
    dotnetcore31                     Stack with .NET Core 3.1                                            DefaultDevfileRegistry
    go                               Stack with the latest Go version                                    DefaultDevfileRegistry
    java-maven                       Upstream Maven and OpenJDK 11                                       DefaultDevfileRegistry
    java-openliberty                 Java application Maven-built stack using the Open Liberty ru...     DefaultDevfileRegistry
    java-openliberty-gradle          Java application Gradle-built stack using the Open Liberty r...     DefaultDevfileRegistry
    java-quarkus                     Quarkus with Java                                                   DefaultDevfileRegistry
    java-springboot                  Spring Boot® using Java                                             DefaultDevfileRegistry
    java-vertx                       Upstream Vert.x using Java                                          DefaultDevfileRegistry
    java-websphereliberty            Java application Maven-built stack using the WebSphere Liber...     DefaultDevfileRegistry
    java-websphereliberty-gradle     Java application Gradle-built stack using the WebSphere Libe...     DefaultDevfileRegistry
    java-wildfly                     Upstream WildFly                                                    DefaultDevfileRegistry
    java-wildfly-bootable-jar        Java stack with WildFly in bootable Jar mode, OpenJDK 11 and...     DefaultDevfileRegistry
    nodejs                           Stack with Node.js 14                                               DefaultDevfileRegistry
    nodejs-angular                   Stack with Angular 12                                               DefaultDevfileRegistry
    nodejs-nextjs                    Stack with Next.js 11                                               DefaultDevfileRegistry
    nodejs-nuxtjs                    Stack with Nuxt.js 2                                                DefaultDevfileRegistry
    nodejs-react                     Stack with React 17                                                 DefaultDevfileRegistry
    nodejs-svelte                    Stack with Svelte 3                                                 DefaultDevfileRegistry
    nodejs-vue                       Stack with Vue 3                                                    DefaultDevfileRegistry
    php-laravel                      Stack with Laravel 8                                                DefaultDevfileRegistry
    python                           Python Stack with Python 3.7                                        DefaultDevfileRegistry
    python-django                    Python3.7 with Django                                               DefaultDevfileRegistry

3.2.4. Telemetry in odo

odo collects information about how it is being used, including metrics on the operating system, RAM, CPU, number of cores, odo version, errors, success/failures, and how long odo commands take to complete.

You can modify your telemetry consent by using the odo preference command:

  • odo preference set ConsentTelemetry true consents to telemetry.
  • odo preference unset ConsentTelemetry disables telemetry.
  • odo preference view shows the current preferences.

3.3. Installing odo

You can install the odo CLI on Linux, Windows, or macOS by downloading a binary. You can also install the OpenShift VS Code extension, which uses both the odo and the oc binaries to interact with your OpenShift Container Platform cluster. For Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL), you can install the odo CLI as an RPM.

Note

Currently, odo does not support installation in a restricted network environment.

3.3.1. Installing odo on Linux

The odo CLI is available to download as a binary and as a tarball for multiple operating systems and architectures including:

Operating SystemBinaryTarball

Linux

odo-linux-amd64

odo-linux-amd64.tar.gz

Linux on IBM Power

odo-linux-ppc64le

odo-linux-ppc64le.tar.gz

Linux on IBM Z and LinuxONE

odo-linux-s390x

odo-linux-s390x.tar.gz

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the content gateway and download the appropriate file for your operating system and architecture.

    • If you download the binary, rename it to odo:

      $ curl -L https://developers.redhat.com/content-gateway/rest/mirror/pub/openshift-v4/clients/odo/latest/odo-linux-amd64 -o odo
    • If you download the tarball, extract the binary:

      $ curl -L https://developers.redhat.com/content-gateway/rest/mirror/pub/openshift-v4/clients/odo/latest/odo-linux-amd64.tar.gz -o odo.tar.gz
      $ tar xvzf odo.tar.gz
  2. Change the permissions on the binary:

    $ chmod +x <filename>
  3. Place the odo binary in a directory that is on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, execute the following command:

    $ echo $PATH
  4. Verify that odo is now available on your system:

    $ odo version

3.3.2. Installing odo on Windows

The odo CLI for Windows is available to download as a binary and as an archive.

Operating SystemBinaryTarball

Windows

odo-windows-amd64.exe

odo-windows-amd64.exe.zip

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the content gateway and download the appropriate file:

    • If you download the binary, rename it to odo.exe.
    • If you download the archive, unzip the binary with a ZIP program and then rename it to odo.exe.
  2. Move the odo.exe binary to a directory that is on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, open the command prompt and execute the following command:

    C:\> path
  3. Verify that odo is now available on your system:

    C:\> odo version

3.3.3. Installing odo on macOS

The odo CLI for macOS is available to download as a binary and as a tarball.

Operating SystemBinaryTarball

macOS

odo-darwin-amd64

odo-darwin-amd64.tar.gz

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the content gateway and download the appropriate file:

    • If you download the binary, rename it to odo:

      $ curl -L https://developers.redhat.com/content-gateway/rest/mirror/pub/openshift-v4/clients/odo/latest/odo-darwin-amd64 -o odo
    • If you download the tarball, extract the binary:

      $ curl -L https://developers.redhat.com/content-gateway/rest/mirror/pub/openshift-v4/clients/odo/latest/odo-darwin-amd64.tar.gz -o odo.tar.gz
      $ tar xvzf odo.tar.gz
  2. Change the permissions on the binary:

    # chmod +x odo
  3. Place the odo binary in a directory that is on your PATH.

    To check your PATH, execute the following command:

    $ echo $PATH
  4. Verify that odo is now available on your system:

    $ odo version

3.3.4. Installing odo on VS Code

The OpenShift VS Code extension uses both odo and the oc binary to interact with your OpenShift Container Platform cluster. To work with these features, install the OpenShift VS Code extension on VS Code.

Prerequisites

  • You have installed VS Code.

Procedure

  1. Open VS Code.
  2. Launch VS Code Quick Open with Ctrl+P.
  3. Enter the following command:

    $ ext install redhat.vscode-openshift-connector

3.3.5. Installing odo on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) using an RPM

For Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL), you can install the odo CLI as an RPM.

Procedure

  1. Register with Red Hat Subscription Manager:

    # subscription-manager register
  2. Pull the latest subscription data:

    # subscription-manager refresh
  3. List the available subscriptions:

    # subscription-manager list --available --matches '*OpenShift Developer Tools and Services*'
  4. In the output of the previous command, find the Pool ID field for your OpenShift Container Platform subscription and attach the subscription to the registered system:

    # subscription-manager attach --pool=<pool_id>
  5. Enable the repositories required by odo:

    # subscription-manager repos --enable="ocp-tools-4.11-for-rhel-8-x86_64-rpms"
  6. Install the odo package:

    # yum install odo
  7. Verify that odo is now available on your system:

    $ odo version

3.4. Configuring the odo CLI

You can find the global settings for odo in the preference.yaml file which is located by default in your $HOME/.odo directory.

You can set a different location for the preference.yaml file by exporting the GLOBALODOCONFIG variable.

3.4.1. Viewing the current configuration

You can view the current odo CLI configuration by using the following command:

$ odo preference view

Example output

PARAMETER             CURRENT_VALUE
UpdateNotification
NamePrefix
Timeout
BuildTimeout
PushTimeout
Ephemeral
ConsentTelemetry      true

3.4.2. Setting a value

You can set a value for a preference key by using the following command:

$ odo preference set <key> <value>
Note

Preference keys are case-insensitive.

Example command

$ odo preference set updatenotification false

Example output

Global preference was successfully updated

3.4.3. Unsetting a value

You can unset a value for a preference key by using the following command:

$ odo preference unset <key>
Note

You can use the -f flag to skip the confirmation.

Example command

$ odo preference unset updatenotification
? Do you want to unset updatenotification in the preference (y/N) y

Example output

Global preference was successfully updated

3.4.4. Preference key table

The following table shows the available options for setting preference keys for the odo CLI:

Preference keyDescriptionDefault value

UpdateNotification

Control whether a notification to update odo is shown.

True

NamePrefix

Set a default name prefix for an odo resource. For example, component or storage.

Current directory name

Timeout

Timeout for the Kubernetes server connection check.

1 second

BuildTimeout

Timeout for waiting for a build of the git component to complete.

300 seconds

PushTimeout

Timeout for waiting for a component to start.

240 seconds

Ephemeral

Controls whether odo should create an emptyDir volume to store source code.

True

ConsentTelemetry

Controls whether odo can collect telemetry for the user’s odo usage.

False

3.4.5. Ignoring files or patterns

You can configure a list of files or patterns to ignore by modifying the .odoignore file in the root directory of your application. This applies to both odo push and odo watch.

If the .odoignore file does not exist, the .gitignore file is used instead for ignoring specific files and folders.

To ignore .git files, any files with the .js extension, and the folder tests, add the following to either the .odoignore or the .gitignore file:

.git
*.js
tests/

The .odoignore file allows any glob expressions.

3.5. odo CLI reference

3.5.1. odo build-images

odo can build container images based on Dockerfiles, and push these images to their registries.

When running the odo build-images command, odo searches for all components in the devfile.yaml with the image type, for example:

components:
- image:
    imageName: quay.io/myusername/myimage
    dockerfile:
      uri: ./Dockerfile 1
      buildContext: ${PROJECTS_ROOT} 2
  name: component-built-from-dockerfile
1
The uri field indicates the relative path of the Dockerfile to use, relative to the directory containing the devfile.yaml. The devfile specification indicates that uri could also be an HTTP URL, but this case is not supported by odo yet.
2
The buildContext indicates the directory used as build context. The default value is ${PROJECTS_ROOT}.

For each image component, odo executes either podman or docker (the first one found, in this order), to build the image with the specified Dockerfile, build context, and arguments.

If the --push flag is passed to the command, the images are pushed to their registries after they are built.

3.5.2. odo catalog

odo uses different catalogs to deploy components and services.

3.5.2.1. Components

odo uses the portable devfile format to describe the components. It can connect to various devfile registries to download devfiles for different languages and frameworks. See odo registry for more information.

3.5.2.1.1. Listing components

To list all the devfiles available on the different registries, run the command:

$ odo catalog list components

Example output

 NAME             DESCRIPTION                          REGISTRY
 go               Stack with the latest Go version     DefaultDevfileRegistry
 java-maven       Upstream Maven and OpenJDK 11        DefaultDevfileRegistry
 nodejs           Stack with Node.js 14                DefaultDevfileRegistry
 php-laravel      Stack with Laravel 8                 DefaultDevfileRegistry
 python           Python Stack with Python 3.7         DefaultDevfileRegistry
 [...]

3.5.2.1.2. Getting information about a component

To get more information about a specific component, run the command:

$ odo catalog describe component

For example, run the command:

$ odo catalog describe component nodejs

Example output

* Registry: DefaultDevfileRegistry 1

Starter Projects: 2
---
name: nodejs-starter
attributes: {}
description: ""
subdir: ""
projectsource:
  sourcetype: ""
  git:
    gitlikeprojectsource:
      commonprojectsource: {}
      checkoutfrom: null
      remotes:
        origin: https://github.com/odo-devfiles/nodejs-ex.git
  zip: null
  custom: null

1
Registry is the registry from which the devfile is retrieved.
2
Starter projects are sample projects in the same language and framework of the devfile, that can help you start a new project.

See odo create for more information on creating a project from a starter project.

3.5.2.2. Services

odo can deploy services with the help of Operators.

Only Operators deployed with the help of the Operator Lifecycle Manager are supported by odo.

3.5.2.2.1. Listing services

To list the available Operators and their associated services, run the command:

$ odo catalog list services

Example output

 Services available through Operators
 NAME                                 CRDs
 postgresql-operator.v0.1.1           Backup, Database
 redis-operator.v0.8.0                RedisCluster, Redis

In this example, two Operators are installed in the cluster. The postgresql-operator.v0.1.1 Operator deploys services related to PostgreSQL: Backup and Database. The redis-operator.v0.8.0 Operator deploys services related to Redis: RedisCluster and Redis.

Note

To get a list of all the available Operators, odo fetches the ClusterServiceVersion (CSV) resources of the current namespace that are in a Succeeded phase. For Operators that support cluster-wide access, when a new namespace is created, these resources are automatically added to it. However, it may take some time before they are in the Succeeded phase, and odo may return an empty list until the resources are ready.

3.5.2.2.2. Searching services

To search for a specific service by a keyword, run the command:

$ odo catalog search service

For example, to retrieve the PostgreSQL services, run the command:

$ odo catalog search service postgres

Example output

 Services available through Operators
 NAME                           CRDs
 postgresql-operator.v0.1.1     Backup, Database

You will see a list of Operators that contain the searched keyword in their name.

3.5.2.2.3. Getting information about a service

To get more information about a specific service, run the command:

$ odo catalog describe service

For example:

$ odo catalog describe service postgresql-operator.v0.1.1/Database

Example output

KIND:    Database
VERSION: v1alpha1

DESCRIPTION:
     Database is the Schema for the the Database Database API

FIELDS:
   awsAccessKeyId (string)
     AWS S3 accessKey/token ID

     Key ID of AWS S3 storage. Default Value: nil Required to create the Secret
     with the data to allow send the backup files to AWS S3 storage.
[...]

A service is represented in the cluster by a CustomResourceDefinition (CRD) resource. The previous command displays the details about the CRD such as kind, version, and the list of fields available to define an instance of this custom resource.

The list of fields is extracted from the OpenAPI schema included in the CRD. This information is optional in a CRD, and if it is not present, it is extracted from the ClusterServiceVersion (CSV) resource representing the service instead.

It is also possible to request the description of an Operator-backed service, without providing CRD type information. To describe the Redis Operator on a cluster, without CRD, run the following command:

$ odo catalog describe service redis-operator.v0.8.0

Example output

NAME:	redis-operator.v0.8.0
DESCRIPTION:

	A Golang based redis operator that will make/oversee Redis
	standalone/cluster mode setup on top of the Kubernetes. It can create a
	redis cluster setup with best practices on Cloud as well as the Bare metal
	environment. Also, it provides an in-built monitoring capability using

... (cut short for beverity)

	Logging Operator is licensed under [Apache License, Version
	2.0](https://github.com/OT-CONTAINER-KIT/redis-operator/blob/master/LICENSE)


CRDs:
	NAME           DESCRIPTION
	RedisCluster   Redis Cluster
	Redis          Redis

3.5.3. odo create

odo uses a devfile to store the configuration of a component and to describe the component’s resources such as storage and services. The odo create command generates this file.

3.5.3.1. Creating a component

To create a devfile for an existing project, run the odo create command with the name and type of your component (for example, nodejs or go):

odo create nodejs mynodejs

In the example, nodejs is the type of the component and mynodejs is the name of the component that odo creates for you.

Note

For a list of all the supported component types, run the command odo catalog list components.

If your source code exists outside the current directory, the --context flag can be used to specify the path. For example, if the source for the nodejs component is in a folder called node-backend relative to the current working directory, run the command:

odo create nodejs mynodejs --context ./node-backend

The --context flag supports relative and absolute paths.

To specify the project or app where your component will be deployed, use the --project and --app flags. For example, to create a component that is part of the myapp app inside the backend project, run the command:

odo create nodejs --app myapp --project backend
Note

If these flags are not specified, they will default to the active app and project.

3.5.3.2. Starter projects

Use the starter projects if you do not have existing source code but want to get up and running quickly to experiment with devfiles and components. To use a starter project, add the --starter flag to the odo create command.

To get a list of available starter projects for a component type, run the odo catalog describe component command. For example, to get all available starter projects for the nodejs component type, run the command:

odo catalog describe component nodejs

Then specify the desired project using the --starter flag on the odo create command:

odo create nodejs --starter nodejs-starter

This will download the example template corresponding to the chosen component type, in this instance, nodejs. The template is downloaded to your current directory, or to the location specified by the --context flag. If a starter project has its own devfile, then this devfile will be preserved.

3.5.3.3. Using an existing devfile

If you want to create a new component from an existing devfile, you can do so by specifying the path to the devfile using the --devfile flag. For example, to create a component called mynodejs, based on a devfile from GitHub, use the following command:

odo create mynodejs --devfile https://raw.githubusercontent.com/odo-devfiles/registry/master/devfiles/nodejs/devfile.yaml

3.5.3.4. Interactive creation

You can also run the odo create command interactively, to guide you through the steps needed to create a component:

$ odo create

? Which devfile component type do you wish to create go
? What do you wish to name the new devfile component go-api
? What project do you want the devfile component to be created in default
Devfile Object Validation
 ✓  Checking devfile existence [164258ns]
 ✓  Creating a devfile component from registry: DefaultDevfileRegistry [246051ns]
Validation
 ✓  Validating if devfile name is correct [92255ns]
? Do you want to download a starter project Yes

Starter Project
 ✓  Downloading starter project go-starter from https://github.com/devfile-samples/devfile-stack-go.git [429ms]

Please use odo push command to create the component with source deployed

You are prompted to choose the component type, name, and the project for the component. You can also choose whether or not to download a starter project. Once finished, a new devfile.yaml file is created in the working directory.

To deploy these resources to your cluster, run the command odo push.

3.5.4. odo delete

The odo delete command is useful for deleting resources that are managed by odo.

3.5.4.1. Deleting a component

To delete a devfile component, run the odo delete command:

$ odo delete

If the component has been pushed to the cluster, the component is deleted from the cluster, along with its dependent storage, URL, secrets, and other resources. If the component has not been pushed, the command exits with an error stating that it could not find the resources on the cluster.

Use the -f or --force flag to avoid the confirmation questions.

3.5.4.2. Undeploying devfile Kubernetes components

To undeploy the devfile Kubernetes components, that have been deployed with odo deploy, execute the odo delete command with the --deploy flag:

$ odo delete --deploy

Use the -f or --force flag to avoid the confirmation questions.

3.5.4.3. Delete all

To delete all artifacts including the following items, run the odo delete command with the --all flag :

  • devfile component
  • Devfile Kubernetes component that was deployed using the odo deploy command
  • Devfile
  • Local configuration
$ odo delete --all

3.5.4.4. Available flags

-f, --force
Use this flag to avoid the confirmation questions.
-w, --wait
Use this flag to wait for component deletion and any dependencies. This flag does not work when undeploying.

The documentation on Common Flags provides more information on the flags available for commands.

3.5.5. odo deploy

odo can be used to deploy components in a manner similar to how they would be deployed using a CI/CD system. First, odo builds the container images, and then it deploys the Kubernetes resources required to deploy the components.

When running the command odo deploy, odo searches for the default command of kind deploy in the devfile, and executes this command. The kind deploy is supported by the devfile format starting from version 2.2.0.

The deploy command is typically a composite command, composed of several apply commands:

  • A command referencing an image component that, when applied, will build the image of the container to deploy, and then push it to its registry.
  • A command referencing a Kubernetes component that, when applied, will create a Kubernetes resource in the cluster.

With the following example devfile.yaml file, a container image is built using the Dockerfile present in the directory. The image is pushed to its registry and then a Kubernetes Deployment resource is created in the cluster, using this freshly built image.

schemaVersion: 2.2.0
[...]
variables:
  CONTAINER_IMAGE: quay.io/phmartin/myimage
commands:
  - id: build-image
    apply:
      component: outerloop-build
  - id: deployk8s
    apply:
      component: outerloop-deploy
  - id: deploy
    composite:
      commands:
        - build-image
        - deployk8s
      group:
        kind: deploy
        isDefault: true
components:
  - name: outerloop-build
    image:
      imageName: "{{CONTAINER_IMAGE}}"
      dockerfile:
        uri: ./Dockerfile
        buildContext: ${PROJECTS_ROOT}
  - name: outerloop-deploy
    kubernetes:
      inlined: |
        kind: Deployment
        apiVersion: apps/v1
        metadata:
          name: my-component
        spec:
          replicas: 1
          selector:
            matchLabels:
              app: node-app
          template:
            metadata:
              labels:
                app: node-app
            spec:
              containers:
                - name: main
                  image: {{CONTAINER_IMAGE}}

3.5.7. odo registry

odo uses the portable devfile format to describe the components. odo can connect to various devfile registries, to download devfiles for different languages and frameworks.

You can connect to publicly available devfile registries, or you can install your own Secure Registry.

You can use the odo registry command to manage the registries that are used by odo to retrieve devfile information.

3.5.7.1. Listing the registries

To list the registries currently contacted by odo, run the command:

$ odo registry list

Example output:

NAME                       URL                             SECURE
DefaultDevfileRegistry     https://registry.devfile.io     No

DefaultDevfileRegistry is the default registry used by odo; it is provided by the devfile.io project.

3.5.7.2. Adding a registry

To add a registry, run the command:

$ odo registry add

Example output:

$ odo registry add StageRegistry https://registry.stage.devfile.io
New registry successfully added

If you are deploying your own Secure Registry, you can specify the personal access token to authenticate to the secure registry with the --token flag:

$ odo registry add MyRegistry https://myregistry.example.com --token <access_token>
New registry successfully added

3.5.7.3. Deleting a registry

To delete a registry, run the command:

$ odo registry delete

Example output:

$ odo registry delete StageRegistry
? Are you sure you want to delete registry "StageRegistry" Yes
Successfully deleted registry

Use the --force (or -f) flag to force the deletion of the registry without confirmation.

3.5.7.4. Updating a registry

To update the URL or the personal access token of a registry already registered, run the command:

$ odo registry update

Example output:

 $ odo registry update MyRegistry https://otherregistry.example.com --token <other_access_token>
 ? Are you sure you want to update registry "MyRegistry" Yes
 Successfully updated registry

Use the --force (or -f) flag to force the update of the registry without confirmation.

3.5.8. odo service

odo can deploy services with the help of Operators.

The list of available Operators and services available for installation can be found using the odo catalog command.

Services are created in the context of a component, so run the odo create command before you deploy services.

A service is deployed using two steps:

  1. Define the service and store its definition in the devfile.
  2. Deploy the defined service to the cluster, using the odo push command.

3.5.8.1. Creating a new service

To create a new service, run the command:

$ odo service create

For example, to create an instance of a Redis service named my-redis-service, you can run the following command:

Example output

$ odo catalog list services
Services available through Operators
NAME                      CRDs
redis-operator.v0.8.0     RedisCluster, Redis

$ odo service create redis-operator.v0.8.0/Redis my-redis-service
Successfully added service to the configuration; do 'odo push' to create service on the cluster

This command creates a Kubernetes manifest in the kubernetes/ directory, containing the definition of the service, and this file is referenced from the devfile.yaml file.

$ cat kubernetes/odo-service-my-redis-service.yaml

Example output

 apiVersion: redis.redis.opstreelabs.in/v1beta1
 kind: Redis
 metadata:
   name: my-redis-service
 spec:
   kubernetesConfig:
     image: quay.io/opstree/redis:v6.2.5
     imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
     resources:
       limits:
         cpu: 101m
         memory: 128Mi
       requests:
         cpu: 101m
         memory: 128Mi
     serviceType: ClusterIP
   redisExporter:
     enabled: false
     image: quay.io/opstree/redis-exporter:1.0
   storage:
     volumeClaimTemplate:
       spec:
         accessModes:
         - ReadWriteOnce
         resources:
           requests:
             storage: 1Gi

Example command

$ cat devfile.yaml

Example output

[...]
components:
- kubernetes:
    uri: kubernetes/odo-service-my-redis-service.yaml
  name: my-redis-service
[...]

Note that the name of the created instance is optional. If you do not provide a name, it will be the lowercase name of the service. For example, the following command creates an instance of a Redis service named redis:

$ odo service create redis-operator.v0.8.0/Redis
3.5.8.1.1. Inlining the manifest

By default, a new manifest is created in the kubernetes/ directory, referenced from the devfile.yaml file. It is possible to inline the manifest inside the devfile.yaml file using the --inlined flag:

$ odo service create redis-operator.v0.8.0/Redis my-redis-service --inlined
Successfully added service to the configuration; do 'odo push' to create service on the cluster

Example command

$ cat devfile.yaml

Example output

[...]
components:
- kubernetes:
    inlined: |
      apiVersion: redis.redis.opstreelabs.in/v1beta1
      kind: Redis
      metadata:
        name: my-redis-service
      spec:
        kubernetesConfig:
          image: quay.io/opstree/redis:v6.2.5
          imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
          resources:
            limits:
              cpu: 101m
              memory: 128Mi
            requests:
              cpu: 101m
              memory: 128Mi
          serviceType: ClusterIP
        redisExporter:
          enabled: false
          image: quay.io/opstree/redis-exporter:1.0
        storage:
          volumeClaimTemplate:
            spec:
              accessModes:
              - ReadWriteOnce
              resources:
                requests:
                  storage: 1Gi
  name: my-redis-service
[...]

3.5.8.1.2. Configuring the service

Without specific customization, the service will be created with a default configuration. You can use either command-line arguments or a file to specify your own configuration.

3.5.8.1.2.1. Using command-line arguments

Use the --parameters (or -p) flag to specify your own configuration.

The following example configures the Redis service with three parameters:

$ odo service create redis-operator.v0.8.0/Redis my-redis-service \
    -p kubernetesConfig.image=quay.io/opstree/redis:v6.2.5 \
    -p kubernetesConfig.serviceType=ClusterIP \
    -p redisExporter.image=quay.io/opstree/redis-exporter:1.0
Successfully added service to the configuration; do 'odo push' to create service on the cluster

Example command

$ cat kubernetes/odo-service-my-redis-service.yaml

Example output

apiVersion: redis.redis.opstreelabs.in/v1beta1
kind: Redis
metadata:
  name: my-redis-service
spec:
  kubernetesConfig:
    image: quay.io/opstree/redis:v6.2.5
    serviceType: ClusterIP
  redisExporter:
    image: quay.io/opstree/redis-exporter:1.0

You can obtain the possible parameters for a specific service using the odo catalog describe service command.

3.5.8.1.2.2. Using a file

Use a YAML manifest to configure your own specification. In the following example, the Redis service is configured with three parameters.

  1. Create a manifest:

    $ cat > my-redis.yaml <<EOF
    apiVersion: redis.redis.opstreelabs.in/v1beta1
    kind: Redis
    metadata:
      name: my-redis-service
    spec:
      kubernetesConfig:
        image: quay.io/opstree/redis:v6.2.5
        serviceType: ClusterIP
      redisExporter:
        image: quay.io/opstree/redis-exporter:1.0
    EOF
  2. Create the service from the manifest:

    $ odo service create --from-file my-redis.yaml
    Successfully added service to the configuration; do 'odo push' to create service on the cluster

3.5.8.2. Deleting a service

To delete a service, run the command:

$ odo service delete

Example output

$ odo service list
NAME                       MANAGED BY ODO     STATE               AGE
Redis/my-redis-service     Yes (api)          Deleted locally     5m39s

$ odo service delete Redis/my-redis-service
? Are you sure you want to delete Redis/my-redis-service Yes
Service "Redis/my-redis-service" has been successfully deleted; do 'odo push' to delete service from the cluster

Use the --force (or -f) flag to force the deletion of the service without confirmation.

3.5.8.3. Listing services

To list the services created for your component, run the command:

$ odo service list

Example output

$ odo service list
NAME                       MANAGED BY ODO     STATE             AGE
Redis/my-redis-service-1   Yes (api)          Not pushed
Redis/my-redis-service-2   Yes (api)          Pushed            52s
Redis/my-redis-service-3   Yes (api)          Deleted locally   1m22s

For each service, STATE indicates if the service has been pushed to the cluster using the odo push command, or if the service is still running on the cluster but removed from the devfile locally using the odo service delete command.

3.5.8.4. Getting information about a service

To get details of a service such as its kind, version, name, and list of configured parameters, run the command:

$ odo service describe

Example output

$ odo service describe Redis/my-redis-service
Version: redis.redis.opstreelabs.in/v1beta1
Kind: Redis
Name: my-redis-service
Parameters:
NAME                           VALUE
kubernetesConfig.image         quay.io/opstree/redis:v6.2.5
kubernetesConfig.serviceType   ClusterIP
redisExporter.image            quay.io/opstree/redis-exporter:1.0

3.5.9. odo storage

odo lets users manage storage volumes that are attached to the components. A storage volume can be either an ephemeral volume using an emptyDir Kubernetes volume, or a Persistent Volume Claim (PVC). A PVC allows users to claim a persistent volume (such as a GCE PersistentDisk or an iSCSI volume) without understanding the details of the particular cloud environment. The persistent storage volume can be used to persist data across restarts and rebuilds of the component.

3.5.9.1. Adding a storage volume

To add a storage volume to the cluster, run the command:

$ odo storage create

Example output:

$ odo storage create store --path /data --size 1Gi
✓  Added storage store to nodejs-project-ufyy

$ odo storage create tempdir --path /tmp --size 2Gi --ephemeral
✓  Added storage tempdir to nodejs-project-ufyy

Please use `odo push` command to make the storage accessible to the component

In the above example, the first storage volume has been mounted to the /data path and has a size of 1Gi, and the second volume has been mounted to /tmp and is ephemeral.

3.5.9.2. Listing the storage volumes

To check the storage volumes currently used by the component, run the command:

$ odo storage list

Example output:

$ odo storage list
The component 'nodejs-project-ufyy' has the following storage attached:
NAME      SIZE     PATH      STATE
store     1Gi      /data     Not Pushed
tempdir   2Gi      /tmp      Not Pushed

3.5.9.3. Deleting a storage volume

To delete a storage volume, run the command:

$ odo storage delete

Example output:

$ odo storage delete store -f
Deleted storage store from nodejs-project-ufyy

Please use `odo push` command to delete the storage from the cluster

In the above example, using the -f flag force deletes the storage without asking user permission.

3.5.9.4. Adding storage to specific container

If your devfile has multiple containers, you can specify which container you want the storage to attach to, using the --container flag in the odo storage create command.

The following example is an excerpt from a devfile with multiple containers :

components:
  - name: nodejs1
    container:
      image: registry.access.redhat.com/ubi8/nodejs-12:1-36
      memoryLimit: 1024Mi
      endpoints:
        - name: "3000-tcp"
          targetPort: 3000
      mountSources: true
  - name: nodejs2
    container:
      image: registry.access.redhat.com/ubi8/nodejs-12:1-36
      memoryLimit: 1024Mi

In the example, there are two containers,nodejs1 and nodejs2. To attach storage to the nodejs2 container, use the following command:

$ odo storage create --container

Example output:

$ odo storage create store --path /data --size 1Gi --container nodejs2
✓  Added storage store to nodejs-testing-xnfg

Please use `odo push` command to make the storage accessible to the component

You can list the storage resources, using the odo storage list command:

$ odo storage list

Example output:

The component 'nodejs-testing-xnfg' has the following storage attached:
NAME      SIZE     PATH      CONTAINER     STATE
store     1Gi      /data     nodejs2       Not Pushed

3.5.10. Common flags

The following flags are available with most odo commands:

Table 3.1. odo flags

CommandDescription

--context

Set the context directory where the component is defined.

--project

Set the project for the component. Defaults to the project defined in the local configuration. If none is available, then current project on the cluster.

--app

Set the application of the component. Defaults to the application defined in the local configuration. If none is available, then app.

--kubeconfig

Set the path to the kubeconfig value if not using the default configuration.

--show-log

Use this flag to see the logs.

-f, --force

Use this flag to tell the command not to prompt the user for confirmation.

-v, --v

Set the verbosity level. See Logging in odo for more information.

-h, --help

Output the help for a command.

Note

Some flags might not be available for some commands. Run the command with the --help flag to get a list of all the available flags.

3.5.11. JSON output

The odo commands that output content generally accept a -o json flag to output this content in JSON format, suitable for other programs to parse this output more easily.

The output structure is similar to Kubernetes resources, with the kind, apiVersion, metadata, spec, and status fields.

List commands return a List resource, containing an items (or similar) field listing the items of the list, with each item also being similar to Kubernetes resources.

Delete commands return a Status resource; see the Status Kubernetes resource.

Other commands return a resource associated with the command, for example, Application, Storage, URL, and so on.

The full list of commands currently accepting the -o json flag is:

CommandsKind (version)Kind (version) of list itemsComplete content?

odo application describe

Application (odo.dev/v1alpha1)

n/a

no

odo application list

List (odo.dev/v1alpha1)

Application (odo.dev/v1alpha1)

?

odo catalog list components

List (odo.dev/v1alpha1)

missing

yes

odo catalog list services

List (odo.dev/v1alpha1)

ClusterServiceVersion (operators.coreos.com/v1alpha1)

?

odo catalog describe component

missing

n/a

yes

odo catalog describe service

CRDDescription (odo.dev/v1alpha1)

n/a

yes

odo component create

Component (odo.dev/v1alpha1)

n/a

yes

odo component describe

Component (odo.dev/v1alpha1)

n/a

yes

odo component list

List (odo.dev/v1alpha1)

Component (odo.dev/v1alpha1)

yes

odo config view

DevfileConfiguration (odo.dev/v1alpha1)

n/a

yes

odo debug info

OdoDebugInfo (odo.dev/v1alpha1)

n/a

yes

odo env view

EnvInfo (odo.dev/v1alpha1)

n/a

yes

odo preference view

PreferenceList (odo.dev/v1alpha1)

n/a

yes

odo project create

Project (odo.dev/v1alpha1)

n/a

yes

odo project delete

Status (v1)

n/a

yes

odo project get

Project (odo.dev/v1alpha1)

n/a

yes

odo project list

List (odo.dev/v1alpha1)

Project (odo.dev/v1alpha1)

yes

odo registry list

List (odo.dev/v1alpha1)

missing

yes

odo service create

Service

n/a

yes

odo service describe

Service

n/a

yes

odo service list

List (odo.dev/v1alpha1)

Service

yes

odo storage create

Storage (odo.dev/v1alpha1)

n/a

yes

odo storage delete

Status (v1)

n/a

yes

odo storage list

List (odo.dev/v1alpha1)

Storage (odo.dev/v1alpha1)

yes

odo url list

List (odo.dev/v1alpha1)

URL (odo.dev/v1alpha1)

yes