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Operators

OpenShift Container Platform 4.11

Working with Operators in OpenShift Container Platform

Red Hat OpenShift Documentation Team

Abstract

This document provides information for working with Operators in OpenShift Container Platform. This includes instructions for cluster administrators on how to install and manage Operators, as well as information for developers on how to create applications from installed Operators. This also contains guidance on building your own Operator using the Operator SDK.

Chapter 1. Operators overview

Operators are among the most important components of OpenShift Container Platform. Operators are the preferred method of packaging, deploying, and managing services on the control plane. They can also provide advantages to applications that users run.

Operators integrate with Kubernetes APIs and CLI tools such as kubectl and oc commands. They provide the means of monitoring applications, performing health checks, managing over-the-air (OTA) updates, and ensuring that applications remain in your specified state.

While both follow similar Operator concepts and goals, Operators in OpenShift Container Platform are managed by two different systems, depending on their purpose:

  • Cluster Operators, which are managed by the Cluster Version Operator (CVO), are installed by default to perform cluster functions.
  • Optional add-on Operators, which are managed by Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM), can be made accessible for users to run in their applications.

With Operators, you can create applications to monitor the running services in the cluster. Operators are designed specifically for your applications. Operators implement and automate the common Day 1 operations such as installation and configuration as well as Day 2 operations such as autoscaling up and down and creating backups. All these activities are in a piece of software running inside your cluster.

1.1. For developers

As a developer, you can perform the following Operator tasks:

1.2. For administrators

As a cluster administrator, you can perform the following Operator tasks:

To know all about the cluster Operators that Red Hat provides, see Cluster Operators reference.

1.3. Next steps

To understand more about Operators, see What are Operators?

Chapter 2. Understanding Operators

2.1. What are Operators?

Conceptually, Operators take human operational knowledge and encode it into software that is more easily shared with consumers.

Operators are pieces of software that ease the operational complexity of running another piece of software. They act like an extension of the software vendor’s engineering team, monitoring a Kubernetes environment (such as OpenShift Container Platform) and using its current state to make decisions in real time. Advanced Operators are designed to handle upgrades seamlessly, react to failures automatically, and not take shortcuts, like skipping a software backup process to save time.

More technically, Operators are a method of packaging, deploying, and managing a Kubernetes application.

A Kubernetes application is an app that is both deployed on Kubernetes and managed using the Kubernetes APIs and kubectl or oc tooling. To be able to make the most of Kubernetes, you require a set of cohesive APIs to extend in order to service and manage your apps that run on Kubernetes. Think of Operators as the runtime that manages this type of app on Kubernetes.

2.1.1. Why use Operators?

Operators provide:

  • Repeatability of installation and upgrade.
  • Constant health checks of every system component.
  • Over-the-air (OTA) updates for OpenShift components and ISV content.
  • A place to encapsulate knowledge from field engineers and spread it to all users, not just one or two.
Why deploy on Kubernetes?
Kubernetes (and by extension, OpenShift Container Platform) contains all of the primitives needed to build complex distributed systems – secret handling, load balancing, service discovery, autoscaling – that work across on-premises and cloud providers.
Why manage your app with Kubernetes APIs and kubectl tooling?
These APIs are feature rich, have clients for all platforms and plug into the cluster’s access control/auditing. An Operator uses the Kubernetes extension mechanism, custom resource definitions (CRDs), so your custom object, for example MongoDB, looks and acts just like the built-in, native Kubernetes objects.
How do Operators compare with service brokers?
A service broker is a step towards programmatic discovery and deployment of an app. However, because it is not a long running process, it cannot execute Day 2 operations like upgrade, failover, or scaling. Customizations and parameterization of tunables are provided at install time, versus an Operator that is constantly watching the current state of your cluster. Off-cluster services are a good match for a service broker, although Operators exist for these as well.

2.1.2. Operator Framework

The Operator Framework is a family of tools and capabilities to deliver on the customer experience described above. It is not just about writing code; testing, delivering, and updating Operators is just as important. The Operator Framework components consist of open source tools to tackle these problems:

Operator SDK
The Operator SDK assists Operator authors in bootstrapping, building, testing, and packaging their own Operator based on their expertise without requiring knowledge of Kubernetes API complexities.
Operator Lifecycle Manager
Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) controls the installation, upgrade, and role-based access control (RBAC) of Operators in a cluster. Deployed by default in OpenShift Container Platform 4.11.
Operator Registry
The Operator Registry stores cluster service versions (CSVs) and custom resource definitions (CRDs) for creation in a cluster and stores Operator metadata about packages and channels. It runs in a Kubernetes or OpenShift cluster to provide this Operator catalog data to OLM.
OperatorHub
OperatorHub is a web console for cluster administrators to discover and select Operators to install on their cluster. It is deployed by default in OpenShift Container Platform.

These tools are designed to be composable, so you can use any that are useful to you.

2.1.3. Operator maturity model

The level of sophistication of the management logic encapsulated within an Operator can vary. This logic is also in general highly dependent on the type of the service represented by the Operator.

One can however generalize the scale of the maturity of the encapsulated operations of an Operator for certain set of capabilities that most Operators can include. To this end, the following Operator maturity model defines five phases of maturity for generic day two operations of an Operator:

Figure 2.1. Operator maturity model

operator maturity model

The above model also shows how these capabilities can best be developed through the Helm, Go, and Ansible capabilities of the Operator SDK.

2.2. Operator Framework packaging format

This guide outlines the packaging format for Operators supported by Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) in OpenShift Container Platform.

Note

Support for the legacy package manifest format for Operators is removed in OpenShift Container Platform 4.8 and later. Existing Operator projects in the package manifest format can be migrated to the bundle format by using the Operator SDK pkgman-to-bundle command. See Migrating package manifest projects to bundle format for more details.

2.2.1. Bundle format

The bundle format for Operators is a packaging format introduced by the Operator Framework. To improve scalability and to better enable upstream users hosting their own catalogs, the bundle format specification simplifies the distribution of Operator metadata.

An Operator bundle represents a single version of an Operator. On-disk bundle manifests are containerized and shipped as a bundle image, which is a non-runnable container image that stores the Kubernetes manifests and Operator metadata. Storage and distribution of the bundle image is then managed using existing container tools like podman and docker and container registries such as Quay.

Operator metadata can include:

  • Information that identifies the Operator, for example its name and version.
  • Additional information that drives the UI, for example its icon and some example custom resources (CRs).
  • Required and provided APIs.
  • Related images.

When loading manifests into the Operator Registry database, the following requirements are validated:

  • The bundle must have at least one channel defined in the annotations.
  • Every bundle has exactly one cluster service version (CSV).
  • If a CSV owns a custom resource definition (CRD), that CRD must exist in the bundle.

2.2.1.1. Manifests

Bundle manifests refer to a set of Kubernetes manifests that define the deployment and RBAC model of the Operator.

A bundle includes one CSV per directory and typically the CRDs that define the owned APIs of the CSV in its /manifests directory.

Example bundle format layout

etcd
├── manifests
│   ├── etcdcluster.crd.yaml
│   └── etcdoperator.clusterserviceversion.yaml
│   └── secret.yaml
│   └── configmap.yaml
└── metadata
    └── annotations.yaml
    └── dependencies.yaml

Additionally supported objects

The following object types can also be optionally included in the /manifests directory of a bundle:

Supported optional object types

  • ClusterRole
  • ClusterRoleBinding
  • ConfigMap
  • ConsoleCLIDownload
  • ConsoleLink
  • ConsoleQuickStart
  • ConsoleYamlSample
  • PodDisruptionBudget
  • PriorityClass
  • PrometheusRule
  • Role
  • RoleBinding
  • Secret
  • Service
  • ServiceAccount
  • ServiceMonitor
  • VerticalPodAutoscaler

When these optional objects are included in a bundle, Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) can create them from the bundle and manage their lifecycle along with the CSV:

Lifecycle for optional objects

  • When the CSV is deleted, OLM deletes the optional object.
  • When the CSV is upgraded:

    • If the name of the optional object is the same, OLM updates it in place.
    • If the name of the optional object has changed between versions, OLM deletes and recreates it.

2.2.1.2. Annotations

A bundle also includes an annotations.yaml file in its /metadata directory. This file defines higher level aggregate data that helps describe the format and package information about how the bundle should be added into an index of bundles:

Example annotations.yaml

annotations:
  operators.operatorframework.io.bundle.mediatype.v1: "registry+v1" 1
  operators.operatorframework.io.bundle.manifests.v1: "manifests/" 2
  operators.operatorframework.io.bundle.metadata.v1: "metadata/" 3
  operators.operatorframework.io.bundle.package.v1: "test-operator" 4
  operators.operatorframework.io.bundle.channels.v1: "beta,stable" 5
  operators.operatorframework.io.bundle.channel.default.v1: "stable" 6

1
The media type or format of the Operator bundle. The registry+v1 format means it contains a CSV and its associated Kubernetes objects.
2
The path in the image to the directory that contains the Operator manifests. This label is reserved for future use and currently defaults to manifests/. The value manifests.v1 implies that the bundle contains Operator manifests.
3
The path in the image to the directory that contains metadata files about the bundle. This label is reserved for future use and currently defaults to metadata/. The value metadata.v1 implies that this bundle has Operator metadata.
4
The package name of the bundle.
5
The list of channels the bundle is subscribing to when added into an Operator Registry.
6
The default channel an Operator should be subscribed to when installed from a registry.
Note

In case of a mismatch, the annotations.yaml file is authoritative because the on-cluster Operator Registry that relies on these annotations only has access to this file.

2.2.1.3. Dependencies

The dependencies of an Operator are listed in a dependencies.yaml file in the metadata/ folder of a bundle. This file is optional and currently only used to specify explicit Operator-version dependencies.

The dependency list contains a type field for each item to specify what kind of dependency this is. The following types of Operator dependencies are supported:

olm.package
This type indicates a dependency for a specific Operator version. The dependency information must include the package name and the version of the package in semver format. For example, you can specify an exact version such as 0.5.2 or a range of versions such as >0.5.1.
olm.gvk
With this type, the author can specify a dependency with group/version/kind (GVK) information, similar to existing CRD and API-based usage in a CSV. This is a path to enable Operator authors to consolidate all dependencies, API or explicit versions, to be in the same place.
olm.constraint
This type declares generic constraints on arbitrary Operator properties.

In the following example, dependencies are specified for a Prometheus Operator and etcd CRDs:

Example dependencies.yaml file

dependencies:
  - type: olm.package
    value:
      packageName: prometheus
      version: ">0.27.0"
  - type: olm.gvk
    value:
      group: etcd.database.coreos.com
      kind: EtcdCluster
      version: v1beta2

2.2.1.4. About the opm CLI

The opm CLI tool is provided by the Operator Framework for use with the Operator bundle format. This tool allows you to create and maintain catalogs of Operators from a list of Operator bundles that are similar to software repositories. The result is a container image which can be stored in a container registry and then installed on a cluster.

A catalog contains a database of pointers to Operator manifest content that can be queried through an included API that is served when the container image is run. On OpenShift Container Platform, Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) can reference the image in a catalog source, defined by a CatalogSource object, which polls the image at regular intervals to enable frequent updates to installed Operators on the cluster.

  • See CLI tools for steps on installing the opm CLI.

2.2.2. File-based catalogs

File-based catalogs are the latest iteration of the catalog format in Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM). It is a plain text-based (JSON or YAML) and declarative config evolution of the earlier SQLite database format, and it is fully backwards compatible. The goal of this format is to enable Operator catalog editing, composability, and extensibility.

Editing

With file-based catalogs, users interacting with the contents of a catalog are able to make direct changes to the format and verify that their changes are valid. Because this format is plain text JSON or YAML, catalog maintainers can easily manipulate catalog metadata by hand or with widely known and supported JSON or YAML tooling, such as the jq CLI.

This editability enables the following features and user-defined extensions:

  • Promoting an existing bundle to a new channel
  • Changing the default channel of a package
  • Custom algorithms for adding, updating, and removing upgrade edges
Composability

File-based catalogs are stored in an arbitrary directory hierarchy, which enables catalog composition. For example, consider two separate file-based catalog directories: catalogA and catalogB. A catalog maintainer can create a new combined catalog by making a new directory catalogC and copying catalogA and catalogB into it.

This composability enables decentralized catalogs. The format permits Operator authors to maintain Operator-specific catalogs, and it permits maintainers to trivially build a catalog composed of individual Operator catalogs. File-based catalogs can be composed by combining multiple other catalogs, by extracting subsets of one catalog, or a combination of both of these.

Note

Duplicate packages and duplicate bundles within a package are not permitted. The opm validate command returns an error if any duplicates are found.

Because Operator authors are most familiar with their Operator, its dependencies, and its upgrade compatibility, they are able to maintain their own Operator-specific catalog and have direct control over its contents. With file-based catalogs, Operator authors own the task of building and maintaining their packages in a catalog. Composite catalog maintainers, however, only own the task of curating the packages in their catalog and publishing the catalog to users.

Extensibility

The file-based catalog specification is a low-level representation of a catalog. While it can be maintained directly in its low-level form, catalog maintainers can build interesting extensions on top that can be used by their own custom tooling to make any number of mutations.

For example, a tool could translate a high-level API, such as (mode=semver), down to the low-level, file-based catalog format for upgrade edges. Or a catalog maintainer might need to customize all of the bundle metadata by adding a new property to bundles that meet a certain criteria.

While this extensibility allows for additional official tooling to be developed on top of the low-level APIs for future OpenShift Container Platform releases, the major benefit is that catalog maintainers have this capability as well.

Important

As of OpenShift Container Platform 4.11, the default Red Hat-provided Operator catalog releases in the file-based catalog format. The default Red Hat-provided Operator catalogs for OpenShift Container Platform 4.6 through 4.10 released in the deprecated SQLite database format.

The opm subcommands, flags, and functionality related to the SQLite database format are also deprecated and will be removed in a future release. The features are still supported and must be used for catalogs that use the deprecated SQLite database format.

Many of the opm subcommands and flags for working with the SQLite database format, such as opm index prune, do not work with the file-based catalog format. For more information about working with file-based catalogs, see Managing custom catalogs and Mirroring images for a disconnected installation using the oc-mirror plug-in.

2.2.2.1. Directory structure

File-based catalogs can be stored and loaded from directory-based file systems. The opm CLI loads the catalog by walking the root directory and recursing into subdirectories. The CLI attempts to load every file it finds and fails if any errors occur.

Non-catalog files can be ignored using .indexignore files, which have the same rules for patterns and precedence as .gitignore files.

Example .indexignore file

# Ignore everything except non-object .json and .yaml files
**/*
!*.json
!*.yaml
**/objects/*.json
**/objects/*.yaml

Catalog maintainers have the flexibility to choose their desired layout, but it is recommended to store each package’s file-based catalog blobs in separate subdirectories. Each individual file can be either JSON or YAML; it is not necessary for every file in a catalog to use the same format.

Basic recommended structure

catalog
├── packageA
│   └── index.yaml
├── packageB
│   ├── .indexignore
│   ├── index.yaml
│   └── objects
│       └── packageB.v0.1.0.clusterserviceversion.yaml
└── packageC
    └── index.json

This recommended structure has the property that each subdirectory in the directory hierarchy is a self-contained catalog, which makes catalog composition, discovery, and navigation trivial file system operations. The catalog could also be included in a parent catalog by copying it into the parent catalog’s root directory.

2.2.2.2. Schemas

File-based catalogs use a format, based on the CUE language specification, that can be extended with arbitrary schemas. The following _Meta CUE schema defines the format that all file-based catalog blobs must adhere to:

_Meta schema

_Meta: {
  // schema is required and must be a non-empty string
  schema: string & !=""

  // package is optional, but if it's defined, it must be a non-empty string
  package?: string & !=""

  // properties is optional, but if it's defined, it must be a list of 0 or more properties
  properties?: [... #Property]
}

#Property: {
  // type is required
  type: string & !=""

  // value is required, and it must not be null
  value: !=null
}

Note

No CUE schemas listed in this specification should be considered exhaustive. The opm validate command has additional validations that are difficult or impossible to express concisely in CUE.

An Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) catalog currently uses three schemas (olm.package, olm.channel, and olm.bundle), which correspond to OLM’s existing package and bundle concepts.

Each Operator package in a catalog requires exactly one olm.package blob, at least one olm.channel blob, and one or more olm.bundle blobs.

Note

All olm.* schemas are reserved for OLM-defined schemas. Custom schemas must use a unique prefix, such as a domain that you own.

2.2.2.2.1. olm.package schema

The olm.package schema defines package-level metadata for an Operator. This includes its name, description, default channel, and icon.

Example 2.1. olm.package schema

#Package: {
  schema: "olm.package"

  // Package name
  name: string & !=""

  // A description of the package
  description?: string

  // The package's default channel
  defaultChannel: string & !=""

  // An optional icon
  icon?: {
    base64data: string
    mediatype:  string
  }
}
2.2.2.2.2. olm.channel schema

The olm.channel schema defines a channel within a package, the bundle entries that are members of the channel, and the upgrade edges for those bundles.

A bundle can included as an entry in multiple olm.channel blobs, but it can have only one entry per channel.

It is valid for an entry’s replaces value to reference another bundle name that cannot be found in this catalog or another catalog. However, all other channel invariants must hold true, such as a channel not having multiple heads.

Example 2.2. olm.channel schema

#Channel: {
  schema: "olm.channel"
  package: string & !=""
  name: string & !=""
  entries: [...#ChannelEntry]
}

#ChannelEntry: {
  // name is required. It is the name of an `olm.bundle` that
  // is present in the channel.
  name: string & !=""

  // replaces is optional. It is the name of bundle that is replaced
  // by this entry. It does not have to be present in the entry list.
  replaces?: string & !=""

  // skips is optional. It is a list of bundle names that are skipped by
  // this entry. The skipped bundles do not have to be present in the
  // entry list.
  skips?: [...string & !=""]

  // skipRange is optional. It is the semver range of bundle versions
  // that are skipped by this entry.
  skipRange?: string & !=""
}
2.2.2.2.3. olm.bundle schema

Example 2.3. olm.bundle schema

#Bundle: {
  schema: "olm.bundle"
  package: string & !=""
  name: string & !=""
  image: string & !=""
  properties: [...#Property]
  relatedImages?: [...#RelatedImage]
}

#Property: {
  // type is required
  type: string & !=""

  // value is required, and it must not be null
  value: !=null
}

#RelatedImage: {
  // image is the image reference
  image: string & !=""

  // name is an optional descriptive name for an image that
  // helps identify its purpose in the context of the bundle
  name?: string & !=""
}

2.2.2.3. Properties

Properties are arbitrary pieces of metadata that can be attached to file-based catalog schemas. The type field is a string that effectively specifies the semantic and syntactic meaning of the value field. The value can be any arbitrary JSON or YAML.

OLM defines a handful of property types, again using the reserved olm.* prefix.

2.2.2.3.1. olm.package property

The olm.package property defines the package name and version. This is a required property on bundles, and there must be exactly one of these properties. The packageName field must match the bundle’s first-class package field, and the version field must be a valid semantic version.

Example 2.4. olm.package property

#PropertyPackage: {
  type: "olm.package"
  value: {
    packageName: string & !=""
    version: string & !=""
  }
}
2.2.2.3.2. olm.gvk property

The olm.gvk property defines the group/version/kind (GVK) of a Kubernetes API that is provided by this bundle. This property is used by OLM to resolve a bundle with this property as a dependency for other bundles that list the same GVK as a required API. The GVK must adhere to Kubernetes GVK validations.

Example 2.5. olm.gvk property

#PropertyGVK: {
  type: "olm.gvk"
  value: {
    group: string & !=""
    version: string & !=""
    kind: string & !=""
  }
}
2.2.2.3.3. olm.package.required

The olm.package.required property defines the package name and version range of another package that this bundle requires. For every required package property a bundle lists, OLM ensures there is an Operator installed on the cluster for the listed package and in the required version range. The versionRange field must be a valid semantic version (semver) range.

Example 2.6. olm.package.required property

#PropertyPackageRequired: {
  type: "olm.package.required"
  value: {
    packageName: string & !=""
    versionRange: string & !=""
  }
}
2.2.2.3.4. olm.gvk.required

The olm.gvk.required property defines the group/version/kind (GVK) of a Kubernetes API that this bundle requires. For every required GVK property a bundle lists, OLM ensures there is an Operator installed on the cluster that provides it. The GVK must adhere to Kubernetes GVK validations.

Example 2.7. olm.gvk.required property

#PropertyGVKRequired: {
  type: "olm.gvk.required"
  value: {
    group: string & !=""
    version: string & !=""
    kind: string & !=""
  }
}

2.2.2.4. Example catalog

With file-based catalogs, catalog maintainers can focus on Operator curation and compatibility. Because Operator authors have already produced Operator-specific catalogs for their Operators, catalog maintainers can build their catalog by rendering each Operator catalog into a subdirectory of the catalog’s root directory.

There are many possible ways to build a file-based catalog; the following steps outline a simple approach:

  1. Maintain a single configuration file for the catalog, containing image references for each Operator in the catalog:

    Example catalog configuration file

    name: community-operators
    repo: quay.io/community-operators/catalog
    tag: latest
    references:
    - name: etcd-operator
      image: quay.io/etcd-operator/index@sha256:5891b5b522d5df086d0ff0b110fbd9d21bb4fc7163af34d08286a2e846f6be03
    - name: prometheus-operator
      image: quay.io/prometheus-operator/index@sha256:e258d248fda94c63753607f7c4494ee0fcbe92f1a76bfdac795c9d84101eb317

  2. Run a script that parses the configuration file and creates a new catalog from its references:

    Example script

    name=$(yq eval '.name' catalog.yaml)
    mkdir "$name"
    yq eval '.name + "/" + .references[].name' catalog.yaml | xargs mkdir
    for l in $(yq e '.name as $catalog | .references[] | .image + "|" + $catalog + "/" + .name + "/index.yaml"' catalog.yaml); do
      image=$(echo $l | cut -d'|' -f1)
      file=$(echo $l | cut -d'|' -f2)
      opm render "$image" > "$file"
    done
    opm alpha generate dockerfile "$name"
    indexImage=$(yq eval '.repo + ":" + .tag' catalog.yaml)
    docker build -t "$indexImage" -f "$name.Dockerfile" .
    docker push "$indexImage"

2.2.2.5. Guidelines

Consider the following guidelines when maintaining file-based catalogs.

2.2.2.5.1. Immutable bundles

The general advice with Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) is that bundle images and their metadata should be treated as immutable.

If a broken bundle has been pushed to a catalog, you must assume that at least one of your users has upgraded to that bundle. Based on that assumption, you must release another bundle with an upgrade edge from the broken bundle to ensure users with the broken bundle installed receive an upgrade. OLM will not reinstall an installed bundle if the contents of that bundle are updated in the catalog.

However, there are some cases where a change in the catalog metadata is preferred:

  • Channel promotion: If you already released a bundle and later decide that you would like to add it to another channel, you can add an entry for your bundle in another olm.channel blob.
  • New upgrade edges: If you release a new 1.2.z bundle version, for example 1.2.4, but 1.3.0 is already released, you can update the catalog metadata for 1.3.0 to skip 1.2.4.
2.2.2.5.2. Source control

Catalog metadata should be stored in source control and treated as the source of truth. Updates to catalog images should include the following steps:

  1. Update the source-controlled catalog directory with a new commit.
  2. Build and push the catalog image. Use a consistent tagging taxonomy, such as :latest or :<target_cluster_version>, so that users can receive updates to a catalog as they become available.

2.2.2.6. CLI usage

For instructions about creating file-based catalogs by using the opm CLI, see Managing custom catalogs.

For reference documentation about the opm CLI commands related to managing file-based catalogs, see CLI tools.

2.2.2.7. Automation

Operator authors and catalog maintainers are encouraged to automate their catalog maintenance with CI/CD workflows. Catalog maintainers can further improve on this by building GitOps automation to accomplish the following tasks:

  • Check that pull request (PR) authors are permitted to make the requested changes, for example by updating their package’s image reference.
  • Check that the catalog updates pass the opm validate command.
  • Check that the updated bundle or catalog image references exist, the catalog images run successfully in a cluster, and Operators from that package can be successfully installed.
  • Automatically merge PRs that pass the previous checks.
  • Automatically rebuild and republish the catalog image.

2.3. Operator Framework glossary of common terms

This topic provides a glossary of common terms related to the Operator Framework, including Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) and the Operator SDK.

2.3.1. Common Operator Framework terms

2.3.1.1. Bundle

In the bundle format, a bundle is a collection of an Operator CSV, manifests, and metadata. Together, they form a unique version of an Operator that can be installed onto the cluster.

2.3.1.2. Bundle image

In the bundle format, a bundle image is a container image that is built from Operator manifests and that contains one bundle. Bundle images are stored and distributed by Open Container Initiative (OCI) spec container registries, such as Quay.io or DockerHub.

2.3.1.3. Catalog source

A catalog source is a repository of CSVs, CRDs, and packages that define an application.

2.3.1.4. Channel

A channel defines a stream of updates for an Operator and is used to roll out updates for subscribers. The head points to the latest version of that channel. For example, a stable channel would have all stable versions of an Operator arranged from the earliest to the latest.

An Operator can have several channels, and a subscription binding to a certain channel would only look for updates in that channel.

2.3.1.5. Channel head

A channel head refers to the latest known update in a particular channel.

2.3.1.6. Cluster service version

A cluster service version (CSV) is a YAML manifest created from Operator metadata that assists OLM in running the Operator in a cluster. It is the metadata that accompanies an Operator container image, used to populate user interfaces with information such as its logo, description, and version.

It is also a source of technical information that is required to run the Operator, like the RBAC rules it requires and which custom resources (CRs) it manages or depends on.

2.3.1.7. Dependency

An Operator may have a dependency on another Operator being present in the cluster. For example, the Vault Operator has a dependency on the etcd Operator for its data persistence layer.

OLM resolves dependencies by ensuring that all specified versions of Operators and CRDs are installed on the cluster during the installation phase. This dependency is resolved by finding and installing an Operator in a catalog that satisfies the required CRD API, and is not related to packages or bundles.

2.3.1.8. Index image

In the bundle format, an index image refers to an image of a database (a database snapshot) that contains information about Operator bundles including CSVs and CRDs of all versions. This index can host a history of Operators on a cluster and be maintained by adding or removing Operators using the opm CLI tool.

2.3.1.9. Install plan

An install plan is a calculated list of resources to be created to automatically install or upgrade a CSV.

2.3.1.10. Operator group

An Operator group configures all Operators deployed in the same namespace as the OperatorGroup object to watch for their CR in a list of namespaces or cluster-wide.

2.3.1.11. Package

In the bundle format, a package is a directory that encloses all released history of an Operator with each version. A released version of an Operator is described in a CSV manifest alongside the CRDs.

2.3.1.12. Registry

A registry is a database that stores bundle images of Operators, each with all of its latest and historical versions in all channels.

2.3.1.13. Subscription

A subscription keeps CSVs up to date by tracking a channel in a package.

2.3.1.14. Update graph

An update graph links versions of CSVs together, similar to the update graph of any other packaged software. Operators can be installed sequentially, or certain versions can be skipped. The update graph is expected to grow only at the head with newer versions being added.

2.4. Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM)

2.4.1. Operator Lifecycle Manager concepts and resources

This guide provides an overview of the concepts that drive Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) in OpenShift Container Platform.

2.4.1.1. What is Operator Lifecycle Manager?

Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) helps users install, update, and manage the lifecycle of Kubernetes native applications (Operators) and their associated services running across their OpenShift Container Platform clusters. It is part of the Operator Framework, an open source toolkit designed to manage Operators in an effective, automated, and scalable way.

Figure 2.2. Operator Lifecycle Manager workflow

olm workflow

OLM runs by default in OpenShift Container Platform 4.11, which aids cluster administrators in installing, upgrading, and granting access to Operators running on their cluster. The OpenShift Container Platform web console provides management screens for cluster administrators to install Operators, as well as grant specific projects access to use the catalog of Operators available on the cluster.

For developers, a self-service experience allows provisioning and configuring instances of databases, monitoring, and big data services without having to be subject matter experts, because the Operator has that knowledge baked into it.

2.4.1.2. OLM resources

The following custom resource definitions (CRDs) are defined and managed by Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM):

Table 2.1. CRDs managed by OLM and Catalog Operators

ResourceShort nameDescription

ClusterServiceVersion (CSV)

csv

Application metadata. For example: name, version, icon, required resources.

CatalogSource

catsrc

A repository of CSVs, CRDs, and packages that define an application.

Subscription

sub

Keeps CSVs up to date by tracking a channel in a package.

InstallPlan

ip

Calculated list of resources to be created to automatically install or upgrade a CSV.

OperatorGroup

og

Configures all Operators deployed in the same namespace as the OperatorGroup object to watch for their custom resource (CR) in a list of namespaces or cluster-wide.

OperatorConditions

-

Creates a communication channel between OLM and an Operator it manages. Operators can write to the Status.Conditions array to communicate complex states to OLM.

2.4.1.2.1. Cluster service version

A cluster service version (CSV) represents a specific version of a running Operator on an OpenShift Container Platform cluster. It is a YAML manifest created from Operator metadata that assists Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) in running the Operator in the cluster.

OLM requires this metadata about an Operator to ensure that it can be kept running safely on a cluster, and to provide information about how updates should be applied as new versions of the Operator are published. This is similar to packaging software for a traditional operating system; think of the packaging step for OLM as the stage at which you make your rpm, deb, or apk bundle.

A CSV includes the metadata that accompanies an Operator container image, used to populate user interfaces with information such as its name, version, description, labels, repository link, and logo.

A CSV is also a source of technical information required to run the Operator, such as which custom resources (CRs) it manages or depends on, RBAC rules, cluster requirements, and install strategies. This information tells OLM how to create required resources and set up the Operator as a deployment.

2.4.1.2.2. Catalog source

A catalog source represents a store of metadata, typically by referencing an index image stored in a container registry. Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) queries catalog sources to discover and install Operators and their dependencies. OperatorHub in the OpenShift Container Platform web console also displays the Operators provided by catalog sources.

Tip

Cluster administrators can view the full list of Operators provided by an enabled catalog source on a cluster by using the AdministrationCluster SettingsConfigurationOperatorHub page in the web console.

The spec of a CatalogSource object indicates how to construct a pod or how to communicate with a service that serves the Operator Registry gRPC API.

Example 2.8. Example CatalogSource object

apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1alpha1
kind: CatalogSource
metadata:
  generation: 1
  name: example-catalog 1
  namespace: openshift-marketplace 2
  annotations:
    olm.catalogImageTemplate: 3
      "quay.io/example-org/example-catalog:v{kube_major_version}.{kube_minor_version}.{kube_patch_version}"
spec:
  displayName: Example Catalog 4
  image: quay.io/example-org/example-catalog:v1 5
  priority: -400 6
  publisher: Example Org
  sourceType: grpc 7
  updateStrategy:
    registryPoll: 8
      interval: 30m0s
status:
  connectionState:
    address: example-catalog.openshift-marketplace.svc:50051
    lastConnect: 2021-08-26T18:14:31Z
    lastObservedState: READY 9
  latestImageRegistryPoll: 2021-08-26T18:46:25Z 10
  registryService: 11
    createdAt: 2021-08-26T16:16:37Z
    port: 50051
    protocol: grpc
    serviceName: example-catalog
    serviceNamespace: openshift-marketplace
1
Name for the CatalogSource object. This value is also used as part of the name for the related pod that is created in the requested namespace.
2
Namespace to create the catalog in. To make the catalog available cluster-wide in all namespaces, set this value to openshift-marketplace. The default Red Hat-provided catalog sources also use the openshift-marketplace namespace. Otherwise, set the value to a specific namespace to make the Operator only available in that namespace.
3
Optional: To avoid cluster upgrades potentially leaving Operator installations in an unsupported state or without a continued update path, you can enable automatically changing your Operator catalog’s index image version as part of cluster upgrades.

Set the olm.catalogImageTemplate annotation to your index image name and use one or more of the Kubernetes cluster version variables as shown when constructing the template for the image tag. The annotation overwrites the spec.image field at run time. See the "Image template for custom catalog sources" section for more details.

4
Display name for the catalog in the web console and CLI.
5
Index image for the catalog. Optionally, can be omitted when using the olm.catalogImageTemplate annotation, which sets the pull spec at run time.
6
Weight for the catalog source. OLM uses the weight for prioritization during dependency resolution. A higher weight indicates the catalog is preferred over lower-weighted catalogs.
7
Source types include the following:
  • grpc with an image reference: OLM pulls the image and runs the pod, which is expected to serve a compliant API.
  • grpc with an address field: OLM attempts to contact the gRPC API at the given address. This should not be used in most cases.
  • configmap: OLM parses config map data and runs a pod that can serve the gRPC API over it.
8
Automatically check for new versions at a given interval to stay up-to-date.
9
Last observed state of the catalog connection. For example:
  • READY: A connection is successfully established.
  • CONNECTING: A connection is attempting to establish.
  • TRANSIENT_FAILURE: A temporary problem has occurred while attempting to establish a connection, such as a timeout. The state will eventually switch back to CONNECTING and try again.

See States of Connectivity in the gRPC documentation for more details.

10
Latest time the container registry storing the catalog image was polled to ensure the image is up-to-date.
11
Status information for the catalog’s Operator Registry service.

Referencing the name of a CatalogSource object in a subscription instructs OLM where to search to find a requested Operator:

Example 2.9. Example Subscription object referencing a catalog source

apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1alpha1
kind: Subscription
metadata:
  name: example-operator
  namespace: example-namespace
spec:
  channel: stable
  name: example-operator
  source: example-catalog
  sourceNamespace: openshift-marketplace
2.4.1.2.2.1. Image template for custom catalog sources

Operator compatibility with the underlying cluster can be expressed by a catalog source in various ways. One way, which is used for the default Red Hat-provided catalog sources, is to identify image tags for index images that are specifically created for a particular platform release, for example OpenShift Container Platform 4.11.

During a cluster upgrade, the index image tag for the default Red Hat-provided catalog sources are updated automatically by the Cluster Version Operator (CVO) so that Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) pulls the updated version of the catalog. For example during an upgrade from OpenShift Container Platform 4.10 to 4.11, the spec.image field in the CatalogSource object for the redhat-operators catalog is updated from:

registry.redhat.io/redhat/redhat-operator-index:v4.10

to:

registry.redhat.io/redhat/redhat-operator-index:v4.11

However, the CVO does not automatically update image tags for custom catalogs. To ensure users are left with a compatible and supported Operator installation after a cluster upgrade, custom catalogs should also be kept updated to reference an updated index image.

Starting in OpenShift Container Platform 4.9, cluster administrators can add the olm.catalogImageTemplate annotation in the CatalogSource object for custom catalogs to an image reference that includes a template. The following Kubernetes version variables are supported for use in the template:

  • kube_major_version
  • kube_minor_version
  • kube_patch_version
Note

You must specify the Kubernetes cluster version and not an OpenShift Container Platform cluster version, as the latter is not currently available for templating.

Provided that you have created and pushed an index image with a tag specifying the updated Kubernetes version, setting this annotation enables the index image versions in custom catalogs to be automatically changed after a cluster upgrade. The annotation value is used to set or update the image reference in the spec.image field of the CatalogSource object. This helps avoid cluster upgrades leaving Operator installations in unsupported states or without a continued update path.

Important

You must ensure that the index image with the updated tag, in whichever registry it is stored in, is accessible by the cluster at the time of the cluster upgrade.

Example 2.10. Example catalog source with an image template

apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1alpha1
kind: CatalogSource
metadata:
  generation: 1
  name: example-catalog
  namespace: openshift-marketplace
  annotations:
    olm.catalogImageTemplate:
      "quay.io/example-org/example-catalog:v{kube_major_version}.{kube_minor_version}"
spec:
  displayName: Example Catalog
  image: quay.io/example-org/example-catalog:v1.24
  priority: -400
  publisher: Example Org
Note

If the spec.image field and the olm.catalogImageTemplate annotation are both set, the spec.image field is overwritten by the resolved value from the annotation. If the annotation does not resolve to a usable pull spec, the catalog source falls back to the set spec.image value.

If the spec.image field is not set and the annotation does not resolve to a usable pull spec, OLM stops reconciliation of the catalog source and sets it into a human-readable error condition.

For an OpenShift Container Platform 4.11 cluster, which uses Kubernetes 1.24, the olm.catalogImageTemplate annotation in the preceding example resolves to the following image reference:

quay.io/example-org/example-catalog:v1.24

For future releases of OpenShift Container Platform, you can create updated index images for your custom catalogs that target the later Kubernetes version that is used by the later OpenShift Container Platform version. With the olm.catalogImageTemplate annotation set before the upgrade, upgrading the cluster to the later OpenShift Container Platform version would then automatically update the catalog’s index image as well.

2.4.1.2.3. Subscription

A subscription, defined by a Subscription object, represents an intention to install an Operator. It is the custom resource that relates an Operator to a catalog source.

Subscriptions describe which channel of an Operator package to subscribe to, and whether to perform updates automatically or manually. If set to automatic, the subscription ensures Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) manages and upgrades the Operator to ensure that the latest version is always running in the cluster.

Example Subscription object

apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1alpha1
kind: Subscription
metadata:
  name: example-operator
  namespace: example-namespace
spec:
  channel: stable
  name: example-operator
  source: example-catalog
  sourceNamespace: openshift-marketplace

This Subscription object defines the name and namespace of the Operator, as well as the catalog from which the Operator data can be found. The channel, such as alpha, beta, or stable, helps determine which Operator stream should be installed from the catalog source.

The names of channels in a subscription can differ between Operators, but the naming scheme should follow a common convention within a given Operator. For example, channel names might follow a minor release update stream for the application provided by the Operator (1.2, 1.3) or a release frequency (stable, fast).

In addition to being easily visible from the OpenShift Container Platform web console, it is possible to identify when there is a newer version of an Operator available by inspecting the status of the related subscription. The value associated with the currentCSV field is the newest version that is known to OLM, and installedCSV is the version that is installed on the cluster.

2.4.1.2.4. Install plan

An install plan, defined by an InstallPlan object, describes a set of resources that Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) creates to install or upgrade to a specific version of an Operator. The version is defined by a cluster service version (CSV).

To install an Operator, a cluster administrator, or a user who has been granted Operator installation permissions, must first create a Subscription object. A subscription represents the intent to subscribe to a stream of available versions of an Operator from a catalog source. The subscription then creates an InstallPlan object to facilitate the installation of the resources for the Operator.

The install plan must then be approved according to one of the following approval strategies:

  • If the subscription’s spec.installPlanApproval field is set to Automatic, the install plan is approved automatically.
  • If the subscription’s spec.installPlanApproval field is set to Manual, the install plan must be manually approved by a cluster administrator or user with proper permissions.

After the install plan is approved, OLM creates the specified resources and installs the Operator in the namespace that is specified by the subscription.

Example 2.11. Example InstallPlan object

apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1alpha1
kind: InstallPlan
metadata:
  name: install-abcde
  namespace: operators
spec:
  approval: Automatic
  approved: true
  clusterServiceVersionNames:
    - my-operator.v1.0.1
  generation: 1
status:
  ...
  catalogSources: []
  conditions:
    - lastTransitionTime: '2021-01-01T20:17:27Z'
      lastUpdateTime: '2021-01-01T20:17:27Z'
      status: 'True'
      type: Installed
  phase: Complete
  plan:
    - resolving: my-operator.v1.0.1
      resource:
        group: operators.coreos.com
        kind: ClusterServiceVersion
        manifest: >-
        ...
        name: my-operator.v1.0.1
        sourceName: redhat-operators
        sourceNamespace: openshift-marketplace
        version: v1alpha1
      status: Created
    - resolving: my-operator.v1.0.1
      resource:
        group: apiextensions.k8s.io
        kind: CustomResourceDefinition
        manifest: >-
        ...
        name: webservers.web.servers.org
        sourceName: redhat-operators
        sourceNamespace: openshift-marketplace
        version: v1beta1
      status: Created
    - resolving: my-operator.v1.0.1
      resource:
        group: ''
        kind: ServiceAccount
        manifest: >-
        ...
        name: my-operator
        sourceName: redhat-operators
        sourceNamespace: openshift-marketplace
        version: v1
      status: Created
    - resolving: my-operator.v1.0.1
      resource:
        group: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
        kind: Role
        manifest: >-
        ...
        name: my-operator.v1.0.1-my-operator-6d7cbc6f57
        sourceName: redhat-operators
        sourceNamespace: openshift-marketplace
        version: v1
      status: Created
    - resolving: my-operator.v1.0.1
      resource:
        group: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
        kind: RoleBinding
        manifest: >-
        ...
        name: my-operator.v1.0.1-my-operator-6d7cbc6f57
        sourceName: redhat-operators
        sourceNamespace: openshift-marketplace
        version: v1
      status: Created
      ...
2.4.1.2.5. Operator groups

An Operator group, defined by the OperatorGroup resource, provides multitenant configuration to OLM-installed Operators. An Operator group selects target namespaces in which to generate required RBAC access for its member Operators.

The set of target namespaces is provided by a comma-delimited string stored in the olm.targetNamespaces annotation of a cluster service version (CSV). This annotation is applied to the CSV instances of member Operators and is projected into their deployments.

Additional resources

2.4.1.2.6. Operator conditions

As part of its role in managing the lifecycle of an Operator, Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) infers the state of an Operator from the state of Kubernetes resources that define the Operator. While this approach provides some level of assurance that an Operator is in a given state, there are many instances where an Operator might need to communicate information to OLM that could not be inferred otherwise. This information can then be used by OLM to better manage the lifecycle of the Operator.

OLM provides a custom resource definition (CRD) called OperatorCondition that allows Operators to communicate conditions to OLM. There are a set of supported conditions that influence management of the Operator by OLM when present in the Spec.Conditions array of an OperatorCondition resource.

Note

By default, the Spec.Conditions array is not present in an OperatorCondition object until it is either added by a user or as a result of custom Operator logic.

Additional resources

2.4.2. Operator Lifecycle Manager architecture

This guide outlines the component architecture of Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) in OpenShift Container Platform.

2.4.2.1. Component responsibilities

Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) is composed of two Operators: the OLM Operator and the Catalog Operator.

Each of these Operators is responsible for managing the custom resource definitions (CRDs) that are the basis for the OLM framework:

Table 2.2. CRDs managed by OLM and Catalog Operators

ResourceShort nameOwnerDescription

ClusterServiceVersion (CSV)

csv

OLM

Application metadata: name, version, icon, required resources, installation, and so on.

InstallPlan

ip

Catalog

Calculated list of resources to be created to automatically install or upgrade a CSV.

CatalogSource

catsrc

Catalog

A repository of CSVs, CRDs, and packages that define an application.

Subscription

sub

Catalog

Used to keep CSVs up to date by tracking a channel in a package.

OperatorGroup

og

OLM

Configures all Operators deployed in the same namespace as the OperatorGroup object to watch for their custom resource (CR) in a list of namespaces or cluster-wide.

Each of these Operators is also responsible for creating the following resources:

Table 2.3. Resources created by OLM and Catalog Operators

ResourceOwner

Deployments

OLM

ServiceAccounts

(Cluster)Roles

(Cluster)RoleBindings

CustomResourceDefinitions (CRDs)

Catalog

ClusterServiceVersions

2.4.2.2. OLM Operator

The OLM Operator is responsible for deploying applications defined by CSV resources after the required resources specified in the CSV are present in the cluster.

The OLM Operator is not concerned with the creation of the required resources; you can choose to manually create these resources using the CLI or using the Catalog Operator. This separation of concern allows users incremental buy-in in terms of how much of the OLM framework they choose to leverage for their application.

The OLM Operator uses the following workflow:

  1. Watch for cluster service versions (CSVs) in a namespace and check that requirements are met.
  2. If requirements are met, run the install strategy for the CSV.

    Note

    A CSV must be an active member of an Operator group for the install strategy to run.

2.4.2.3. Catalog Operator

The Catalog Operator is responsible for resolving and installing cluster service versions (CSVs) and the required resources they specify. It is also responsible for watching catalog sources for updates to packages in channels and upgrading them, automatically if desired, to the latest available versions.

To track a package in a channel, you can create a Subscription object configuring the desired package, channel, and the CatalogSource object you want to use for pulling updates. When updates are found, an appropriate InstallPlan object is written into the namespace on behalf of the user.

The Catalog Operator uses the following workflow:

  1. Connect to each catalog source in the cluster.
  2. Watch for unresolved install plans created by a user, and if found:

    1. Find the CSV matching the name requested and add the CSV as a resolved resource.
    2. For each managed or required CRD, add the CRD as a resolved resource.
    3. For each required CRD, find the CSV that manages it.
  3. Watch for resolved install plans and create all of the discovered resources for it, if approved by a user or automatically.
  4. Watch for catalog sources and subscriptions and create install plans based on them.

2.4.2.4. Catalog Registry

The Catalog Registry stores CSVs and CRDs for creation in a cluster and stores metadata about packages and channels.

A package manifest is an entry in the Catalog Registry that associates a package identity with sets of CSVs. Within a package, channels point to a particular CSV. Because CSVs explicitly reference the CSV that they replace, a package manifest provides the Catalog Operator with all of the information that is required to update a CSV to the latest version in a channel, stepping through each intermediate version.

2.4.3. Operator Lifecycle Manager workflow

This guide outlines the workflow of Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) in OpenShift Container Platform.

2.4.3.1. Operator installation and upgrade workflow in OLM

In the Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) ecosystem, the following resources are used to resolve Operator installations and upgrades:

  • ClusterServiceVersion (CSV)
  • CatalogSource
  • Subscription

Operator metadata, defined in CSVs, can be stored in a collection called a catalog source. OLM uses catalog sources, which use the Operator Registry API, to query for available Operators as well as upgrades for installed Operators.

Figure 2.3. Catalog source overview

olm catalogsource

Within a catalog source, Operators are organized into packages and streams of updates called channels, which should be a familiar update pattern from OpenShift Container Platform or other software on a continuous release cycle like web browsers.

Figure 2.4. Packages and channels in a Catalog source

olm channels

A user indicates a particular package and channel in a particular catalog source in a subscription, for example an etcd package and its alpha channel. If a subscription is made to a package that has not yet been installed in the namespace, the latest Operator for that package is installed.

Note

OLM deliberately avoids version comparisons, so the "latest" or "newest" Operator available from a given catalogchannelpackage path does not necessarily need to be the highest version number. It should be thought of more as the head reference of a channel, similar to a Git repository.

Each CSV has a replaces parameter that indicates which Operator it replaces. This builds a graph of CSVs that can be queried by OLM, and updates can be shared between channels. Channels can be thought of as entry points into the graph of updates:

Figure 2.5. OLM graph of available channel updates

olm replaces

Example channels in a package

packageName: example
channels:
- name: alpha
  currentCSV: example.v0.1.2
- name: beta
  currentCSV: example.v0.1.3
defaultChannel: alpha

For OLM to successfully query for updates, given a catalog source, package, channel, and CSV, a catalog must be able to return, unambiguously and deterministically, a single CSV that replaces the input CSV.

2.4.3.1.1. Example upgrade path

For an example upgrade scenario, consider an installed Operator corresponding to CSV version 0.1.1. OLM queries the catalog source and detects an upgrade in the subscribed channel with new CSV version 0.1.3 that replaces an older but not-installed CSV version 0.1.2, which in turn replaces the older and installed CSV version 0.1.1.

OLM walks back from the channel head to previous versions via the replaces field specified in the CSVs to determine the upgrade path 0.1.30.1.20.1.1; the direction of the arrow indicates that the former replaces the latter. OLM upgrades the Operator one version at the time until it reaches the channel head.

For this given scenario, OLM installs Operator version 0.1.2 to replace the existing Operator version 0.1.1. Then, it installs Operator version 0.1.3 to replace the previously installed Operator version 0.1.2. At this point, the installed operator version 0.1.3 matches the channel head and the upgrade is completed.

2.4.3.1.2. Skipping upgrades

The basic path for upgrades in OLM is:

  • A catalog source is updated with one or more updates to an Operator.
  • OLM traverses every version of the Operator until reaching the latest version the catalog source contains.

However, sometimes this is not a safe operation to perform. There will be cases where a published version of an Operator should never be installed on a cluster if it has not already, for example because a version introduces a serious vulnerability.

In those cases, OLM must consider two cluster states and provide an update graph that supports both:

  • The "bad" intermediate Operator has been seen by the cluster and installed.
  • The "bad" intermediate Operator has not yet been installed onto the cluster.

By shipping a new catalog and adding a skipped release, OLM is ensured that it can always get a single unique update regardless of the cluster state and whether it has seen the bad update yet.

Example CSV with skipped release

apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1alpha1
kind: ClusterServiceVersion
metadata:
  name: etcdoperator.v0.9.2
  namespace: placeholder
  annotations:
spec:
    displayName: etcd
    description: Etcd Operator
    replaces: etcdoperator.v0.9.0
    skips:
    - etcdoperator.v0.9.1

Consider the following example of Old CatalogSource and New CatalogSource.

Figure 2.6. Skipping updates

olm skipping updates

This graph maintains that:

  • Any Operator found in Old CatalogSource has a single replacement in New CatalogSource.
  • Any Operator found in New CatalogSource has a single replacement in New CatalogSource.
  • If the bad update has not yet been installed, it will never be.
2.4.3.1.3. Replacing multiple Operators

Creating New CatalogSource as described requires publishing CSVs that replace one Operator, but can skip several. This can be accomplished using the skipRange annotation:

olm.skipRange: <semver_range>

where <semver_range> has the version range format supported by the semver library.

When searching catalogs for updates, if the head of a channel has a skipRange annotation and the currently installed Operator has a version field that falls in the range, OLM updates to the latest entry in the channel.

The order of precedence is:

  1. Channel head in the source specified by sourceName on the subscription, if the other criteria for skipping are met.
  2. The next Operator that replaces the current one, in the source specified by sourceName.
  3. Channel head in another source that is visible to the subscription, if the other criteria for skipping are met.
  4. The next Operator that replaces the current one in any source visible to the subscription.

Example CSV with skipRange

apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1alpha1
kind: ClusterServiceVersion
metadata:
    name: elasticsearch-operator.v4.1.2
    namespace: <namespace>
    annotations:
        olm.skipRange: '>=4.1.0 <4.1.2'

2.4.3.1.4. Z-stream support

A z-stream, or patch release, must replace all previous z-stream releases for the same minor version. OLM does not consider major, minor, or patch versions, it just needs to build the correct graph in a catalog.

In other words, OLM must be able to take a graph as in Old CatalogSource and, similar to before, generate a graph as in New CatalogSource:

Figure 2.7. Replacing several Operators

olm z stream

This graph maintains that:

  • Any Operator found in Old CatalogSource has a single replacement in New CatalogSource.
  • Any Operator found in New CatalogSource has a single replacement in New CatalogSource.
  • Any z-stream release in Old CatalogSource will update to the latest z-stream release in New CatalogSource.
  • Unavailable releases can be considered "virtual" graph nodes; their content does not need to exist, the registry just needs to respond as if the graph looks like this.

2.4.4. Operator Lifecycle Manager dependency resolution

This guide outlines dependency resolution and custom resource definition (CRD) upgrade lifecycles with Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) in OpenShift Container Platform.

2.4.4.1. About dependency resolution

Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) manages the dependency resolution and upgrade lifecycle of running Operators. In many ways, the problems OLM faces are similar to other system or language package managers, such as yum and rpm.

However, there is one constraint that similar systems do not generally have that OLM does: because Operators are always running, OLM attempts to ensure that you are never left with a set of Operators that do not work with each other.

As a result, OLM must never create the following scenarios:

  • Install a set of Operators that require APIs that cannot be provided
  • Update an Operator in a way that breaks another that depends upon it

This is made possible with two types of data:

Properties

Typed metadata about the Operator that constitutes the public interface for it in the dependency resolver. Examples include the group/version/kind (GVK) of the APIs provided by the Operator and the semantic version (semver) of the Operator.

Constraints or dependencies

An Operator’s requirements that should be satisfied by other Operators that might or might not have already been installed on the target cluster. These act as queries or filters over all available Operators and constrain the selection during dependency resolution and installation. Examples include requiring a specific API to be available on the cluster or expecting a particular Operator with a particular version to be installed.

OLM converts these properties and constraints into a system of Boolean formulas and passes them to a SAT solver, a program that establishes Boolean satisfiability, which does the work of determining what Operators should be installed.

2.4.4.2. Operator properties

All Operators in a catalog have the following properties:

olm.package
Includes the name of the package and the version of the Operator
olm.gvk
A single property for each provided API from the cluster service version (CSV)

Additional properties can also be directly declared by an Operator author by including a properties.yaml file in the metadata/ directory of the Operator bundle.

Example arbitrary property

properties:
- type: olm.kubeversion
  value:
    version: "1.16.0"

2.4.4.2.1. Arbitrary properties

Operator authors can declare arbitrary properties in a properties.yaml file in the metadata/ directory of the Operator bundle. These properties are translated into a map data structure that is used as an input to the Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) resolver at runtime.

These properties are opaque to the resolver as it does not understand the properties, but it can evaluate the generic constraints against those properties to determine if the constraints can be satisfied given the properties list.

Example arbitrary properties

properties:
  - property:
      type: color
      value: red
  - property:
      type: shape
      value: square
  - property:
      type: olm.gvk
      value:
        group: olm.coreos.io
        version: v1alpha1
        kind: myresource

This structure can be used to construct a Common Expression Language (CEL) expression for generic constraints.

2.4.4.3. Operator dependencies

The dependencies of an Operator are listed in a dependencies.yaml file in the metadata/ folder of a bundle. This file is optional and currently only used to specify explicit Operator-version dependencies.

The dependency list contains a type field for each item to specify what kind of dependency this is. The following types of Operator dependencies are supported:

olm.package
This type indicates a dependency for a specific Operator version. The dependency information must include the package name and the version of the package in semver format. For example, you can specify an exact version such as 0.5.2 or a range of versions such as >0.5.1.
olm.gvk
With this type, the author can specify a dependency with group/version/kind (GVK) information, similar to existing CRD and API-based usage in a CSV. This is a path to enable Operator authors to consolidate all dependencies, API or explicit versions, to be in the same place.
olm.constraint
This type declares generic constraints on arbitrary Operator properties.

In the following example, dependencies are specified for a Prometheus Operator and etcd CRDs:

Example dependencies.yaml file

dependencies:
  - type: olm.package
    value:
      packageName: prometheus
      version: ">0.27.0"
  - type: olm.gvk
    value:
      group: etcd.database.coreos.com
      kind: EtcdCluster
      version: v1beta2

2.4.4.4. Generic constraints

An olm.constraint property declares a dependency constraint of a particular type, differentiating non-constraint and constraint properties. Its value field is an object containing a failureMessage field holding a string-representation of the constraint message. This message is surfaced as an informative comment to users if the constraint is not satisfiable at runtime.

The following keys denote the available constraint types:

gvk
Type whose value and interpretation is identical to the olm.gvk type
package
Type whose value and interpretation is identical to the olm.package type
cel
A Common Expression Language (CEL) expression evaluated at runtime by the Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) resolver over arbitrary bundle properties and cluster information
all, any, not
Conjunction, disjunction, and negation constraints, respectively, containing one or more concrete constraints, such as gvk or a nested compound constraint
2.4.4.4.1. Common Expression Language (CEL) constraints

The cel constraint type supports Common Expression Language (CEL) as the expression language. The cel struct has a rule field which contains the CEL expression string that is evaluated against Operator properties at runtime to determine if the Operator satisfies the constraint.

Example cel constraint

type: olm.constraint
value:
  failureMessage: 'require to have "certified"'
  cel:
    rule: 'properties.exists(p, p.type == "certified")'

The CEL syntax supports a wide range of logical operators, such as AND and OR. As a result, a single CEL expression can have multiple rules for multiple conditions that are linked together by these logical operators. These rules are evaluated against a dataset of multiple different properties from a bundle or any given source, and the output is solved into a single bundle or Operator that satisfies all of those rules within a single constraint.

Example cel constraint with multiple rules

type: olm.constraint
value:
  failureMessage: 'require to have "certified" and "stable" properties'
  cel:
    rule: 'properties.exists(p, p.type == "certified") && properties.exists(p, p.type == "stable")'

2.4.4.4.2. Compound constraints (all, any, not)

Compound constraint types are evaluated following their logical definitions.

The following is an example of a conjunctive constraint (all) of two packages and one GVK. That is, they must all be satisfied by installed bundles:

Example all constraint

schema: olm.bundle
name: red.v1.0.0
properties:
- type: olm.constraint
  value:
    failureMessage: All are required for Red because...
    all:
      constraints:
      - failureMessage: Package blue is needed for...
        package:
          name: blue
          versionRange: '>=1.0.0'
      - failureMessage: GVK Green/v1 is needed for...
        gvk:
          group: greens.example.com
          version: v1
          kind: Green

The following is an example of a disjunctive constraint (any) of three versions of the same GVK. That is, at least one must be satisfied by installed bundles:

Example any constraint

schema: olm.bundle
name: red.v1.0.0
properties:
- type: olm.constraint
  value:
    failureMessage: Any are required for Red because...
    any:
      constraints:
      - gvk:
          group: blues.example.com
          version: v1beta1
          kind: Blue
      - gvk:
          group: blues.example.com
          version: v1beta2
          kind: Blue
      - gvk:
          group: blues.example.com
          version: v1
          kind: Blue

The following is an example of a negation constraint (not) of one version of a GVK. That is, this GVK cannot be provided by any bundle in the result set:

Example not constraint

schema: olm.bundle
name: red.v1.0.0
properties:
- type: olm.constraint
  value:
  all:
    constraints:
    - failureMessage: Package blue is needed for...
      package:
        name: blue
        versionRange: '>=1.0.0'
    - failureMessage: Cannot be required for Red because...
      not:
        constraints:
        - gvk:
            group: greens.example.com
            version: v1alpha1
            kind: greens

The negation semantics might appear unclear in the not constraint context. To clarify, the negation is really instructing the resolver to remove any possible solution that includes a particular GVK, package at a version, or satisfies some child compound constraint from the result set.

As a corollary, the not compound constraint should only be used within all or any constraints, because negating without first selecting a possible set of dependencies does not make sense.

2.4.4.4.3. Nested compound constraints

A nested compound constraint, one that contains at least one child compound constraint along with zero or more simple constraints, is evaluated from the bottom up following the procedures for each previously described constraint type.

The following is an example of a disjunction of conjunctions, where one, the other, or both can satisfy the constraint:

Example nested compound constraint

schema: olm.bundle
name: red.v1.0.0
properties:
- type: olm.constraint
  value:
    failureMessage: Required for Red because...
    any:
      constraints:
      - all:
          constraints:
          - package:
              name: blue
              versionRange: '>=1.0.0'
          - gvk:
              group: blues.example.com
              version: v1
              kind: Blue
      - all:
          constraints:
          - package:
              name: blue
              versionRange: '<1.0.0'
          - gvk:
              group: blues.example.com
              version: v1beta1
              kind: Blue

Note

The maximum raw size of an olm.constraint type is 64KB to limit resource exhaustion attacks.

2.4.4.5. Dependency preferences

There can be many options that equally satisfy a dependency of an Operator. The dependency resolver in Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) determines which option best fits the requirements of the requested Operator. As an Operator author or user, it can be important to understand how these choices are made so that dependency resolution is clear.

2.4.4.5.1. Catalog priority

On OpenShift Container Platform cluster, OLM reads catalog sources to know which Operators are available for installation.

Example CatalogSource object

apiVersion: "operators.coreos.com/v1alpha1"
kind: "CatalogSource"
metadata:
  name: "my-operators"
  namespace: "operators"
spec:
  sourceType: grpc
  image: example.com/my/operator-index:v1
  displayName: "My Operators"
  priority: 100

A CatalogSource object has a priority field, which is used by the resolver to know how to prefer options for a dependency.

There are two rules that govern catalog preference:

  • Options in higher-priority catalogs are preferred to options in lower-priority catalogs.
  • Options in the same catalog as the dependent are preferred to any other catalogs.
2.4.4.5.2. Channel ordering

An Operator package in a catalog is a collection of update channels that a user can subscribe to in an OpenShift Container Platform cluster. Channels can be used to provide a particular stream of updates for a minor release (1.2, 1.3) or a release frequency (stable, fast).

It is likely that a dependency might be satisfied by Operators in the same package, but different channels. For example, version 1.2 of an Operator might exist in both the stable and fast channels.

Each package has a default channel, which is always preferred to non-default channels. If no option in the default channel can satisfy a dependency, options are considered from the remaining channels in lexicographic order of the channel name.

2.4.4.5.3. Order within a channel

There are almost always multiple options to satisfy a dependency within a single channel. For example, Operators in one package and channel provide the same set of APIs.

When a user creates a subscription, they indicate which channel to receive updates from. This immediately reduces the search to just that one channel. But within the channel, it is likely that many Operators satisfy a dependency.

Within a channel, newer Operators that are higher up in the update graph are preferred. If the head of a channel satisfies a dependency, it will be tried first.

2.4.4.5.4. Other constraints

In addition to the constraints supplied by package dependencies, OLM includes additional constraints to represent the desired user state and enforce resolution invariants.

2.4.4.5.4.1. Subscription constraint

A subscription constraint filters the set of Operators that can satisfy a subscription. Subscriptions are user-supplied constraints for the dependency resolver. They declare the intent to either install a new Operator if it is not already on the cluster, or to keep an existing Operator updated.

2.4.4.5.4.2. Package constraint

Within a namespace, no two Operators may come from the same package.

2.4.4.6. CRD upgrades

OLM upgrades a custom resource definition (CRD) immediately if it is owned by a singular cluster service version (CSV). If a CRD is owned by multiple CSVs, then the CRD is upgraded when it has satisfied all of the following backward compatible conditions:

  • All existing serving versions in the current CRD are present in the new CRD.
  • All existing instances, or custom resources, that are associated with the serving versions of the CRD are valid when validated against the validation schema of the new CRD.

2.4.4.7. Dependency best practices

When specifying dependencies, there are best practices you should consider.

Depend on APIs or a specific version range of Operators
Operators can add or remove APIs at any time; always specify an olm.gvk dependency on any APIs your Operators requires. The exception to this is if you are specifying olm.package constraints instead.
Set a minimum version

The Kubernetes documentation on API changes describes what changes are allowed for Kubernetes-style Operators. These versioning conventions allow an Operator to update an API without bumping the API version, as long as the API is backwards-compatible.

For Operator dependencies, this means that knowing the API version of a dependency might not be enough to ensure the dependent Operator works as intended.

For example:

  • TestOperator v1.0.0 provides v1alpha1 API version of the MyObject resource.
  • TestOperator v1.0.1 adds a new field spec.newfield to MyObject, but still at v1alpha1.

Your Operator might require the ability to write spec.newfield into the MyObject resource. An olm.gvk constraint alone is not enough for OLM to determine that you need TestOperator v1.0.1 and not TestOperator v1.0.0.

Whenever possible, if a specific Operator that provides an API is known ahead of time, specify an additional olm.package constraint to set a minimum.

Omit a maximum version or allow a very wide range

Because Operators provide cluster-scoped resources such as API services and CRDs, an Operator that specifies a small window for a dependency might unnecessarily constrain updates for other consumers of that dependency.

Whenever possible, do not set a maximum version. Alternatively, set a very wide semantic range to prevent conflicts with other Operators. For example, >1.0.0 <2.0.0.

Unlike with conventional package managers, Operator authors explicitly encode that updates are safe through channels in OLM. If an update is available for an existing subscription, it is assumed that the Operator author is indicating that it can update from the previous version. Setting a maximum version for a dependency overrides the update stream of the author by unnecessarily truncating it at a particular upper bound.

Note

Cluster administrators cannot override dependencies set by an Operator author.

However, maximum versions can and should be set if there are known incompatibilities that must be avoided. Specific versions can be omitted with the version range syntax, for example > 1.0.0 !1.2.1.

Additional resources

2.4.4.8. Dependency caveats

When specifying dependencies, there are caveats you should consider.

No compound constraints (AND)

There is currently no method for specifying an AND relationship between constraints. In other words, there is no way to specify that one Operator depends on another Operator that both provides a given API and has version >1.1.0.

This means that when specifying a dependency such as:

dependencies:
- type: olm.package
  value:
    packageName: etcd
    version: ">3.1.0"
- type: olm.gvk
  value:
    group: etcd.database.coreos.com
    kind: EtcdCluster
    version: v1beta2

It would be possible for OLM to satisfy this with two Operators: one that provides EtcdCluster and one that has version >3.1.0. Whether that happens, or whether an Operator is selected that satisfies both constraints, depends on the ordering that potential options are visited. Dependency preferences and ordering options are well-defined and can be reasoned about, but to exercise caution, Operators should stick to one mechanism or the other.

Cross-namespace compatibility
OLM performs dependency resolution at the namespace scope. It is possible to get into an update deadlock if updating an Operator in one namespace would be an issue for an Operator in another namespace, and vice-versa.

2.4.4.9. Example dependency resolution scenarios

In the following examples, a provider is an Operator which "owns" a CRD or API service.

Example: Deprecating dependent APIs

A and B are APIs (CRDs):

  • The provider of A depends on B.
  • The provider of B has a subscription.
  • The provider of B updates to provide C but deprecates B.

This results in:

  • B no longer has a provider.
  • A no longer works.

This is a case OLM prevents with its upgrade strategy.

Example: Version deadlock

A and B are APIs:

  • The provider of A requires B.
  • The provider of B requires A.
  • The provider of A updates to (provide A2, require B2) and deprecate A.
  • The provider of B updates to (provide B2, require A2) and deprecate B.

If OLM attempts to update A without simultaneously updating B, or vice-versa, it is unable to progress to new versions of the Operators, even though a new compatible set can be found.

This is another case OLM prevents with its upgrade strategy.

2.4.5. Operator groups

This guide outlines the use of Operator groups with Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) in OpenShift Container Platform.

2.4.5.1. About Operator groups

An Operator group, defined by the OperatorGroup resource, provides multitenant configuration to OLM-installed Operators. An Operator group selects target namespaces in which to generate required RBAC access for its member Operators.

The set of target namespaces is provided by a comma-delimited string stored in the olm.targetNamespaces annotation of a cluster service version (CSV). This annotation is applied to the CSV instances of member Operators and is projected into their deployments.

2.4.5.2. Operator group membership

An Operator is considered a member of an Operator group if the following conditions are true:

  • The CSV of the Operator exists in the same namespace as the Operator group.
  • The install modes in the CSV of the Operator support the set of namespaces targeted by the Operator group.

An install mode in a CSV consists of an InstallModeType field and a boolean Supported field. The spec of a CSV can contain a set of install modes of four distinct InstallModeTypes:

Table 2.4. Install modes and supported Operator groups

InstallModeTypeDescription

OwnNamespace

The Operator can be a member of an Operator group that selects its own namespace.

SingleNamespace

The Operator can be a member of an Operator group that selects one namespace.

MultiNamespace

The Operator can be a member of an Operator group that selects more than one namespace.

AllNamespaces

The Operator can be a member of an Operator group that selects all namespaces (target namespace set is the empty string "").

Note

If the spec of a CSV omits an entry of InstallModeType, then that type is considered unsupported unless support can be inferred by an existing entry that implicitly supports it.

2.4.5.3. Target namespace selection

You can explicitly name the target namespace for an Operator group using the spec.targetNamespaces parameter:

apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1
kind: OperatorGroup
metadata:
  name: my-group
  namespace: my-namespace
spec:
  targetNamespaces:
  - my-namespace

You can alternatively specify a namespace using a label selector with the spec.selector parameter:

apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1
kind: OperatorGroup
metadata:
  name: my-group
  namespace: my-namespace
spec:
  selector:
    cool.io/prod: "true"
Important

Listing multiple namespaces via spec.targetNamespaces or use of a label selector via spec.selector is not recommended, as the support for more than one target namespace in an Operator group will likely be removed in a future release.

If both spec.targetNamespaces and spec.selector are defined, spec.selector is ignored. Alternatively, you can omit both spec.selector and spec.targetNamespaces to specify a global Operator group, which selects all namespaces:

apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1
kind: OperatorGroup
metadata:
  name: my-group
  namespace: my-namespace

The resolved set of selected namespaces is shown in the status.namespaces parameter of an Opeator group. The status.namespace of a global Operator group contains the empty string (""), which signals to a consuming Operator that it should watch all namespaces.

2.4.5.4. Operator group CSV annotations

Member CSVs of an Operator group have the following annotations:

AnnotationDescription

olm.operatorGroup=<group_name>

Contains the name of the Operator group.

olm.operatorNamespace=<group_namespace>

Contains the namespace of the Operator group.

olm.targetNamespaces=<target_namespaces>

Contains a comma-delimited string that lists the target namespace selection of the Operator group.

Note

All annotations except olm.targetNamespaces are included with copied CSVs. Omitting the olm.targetNamespaces annotation on copied CSVs prevents the duplication of target namespaces between tenants.

2.4.5.5. Provided APIs annotation

A group/version/kind (GVK) is a unique identifier for a Kubernetes API. Information about what GVKs are provided by an Operator group are shown in an olm.providedAPIs annotation. The value of the annotation is a string consisting of <kind>.<version>.<group> delimited with commas. The GVKs of CRDs and API services provided by all active member CSVs of an Operator group are included.

Review the following example of an OperatorGroup object with a single active member CSV that provides the PackageManifest resource:

apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1
kind: OperatorGroup
metadata:
  annotations:
    olm.providedAPIs: PackageManifest.v1alpha1.packages.apps.redhat.com
  name: olm-operators
  namespace: local
  ...
spec:
  selector: {}
  serviceAccount:
    metadata:
      creationTimestamp: null
  targetNamespaces:
  - local
status:
  lastUpdated: 2019-02-19T16:18:28Z
  namespaces:
  - local

2.4.5.6. Role-based access control

When an Operator group is created, three cluster roles are generated. Each contains a single aggregation rule with a cluster role selector set to match a label, as shown below:

Cluster roleLabel to match

<operatorgroup_name>-admin

olm.opgroup.permissions/aggregate-to-admin: <operatorgroup_name>

<operatorgroup_name>-edit

olm.opgroup.permissions/aggregate-to-edit: <operatorgroup_name>

<operatorgroup_name>-view

olm.opgroup.permissions/aggregate-to-view: <operatorgroup_name>

The following RBAC resources are generated when a CSV becomes an active member of an Operator group, as long as the CSV is watching all namespaces with the AllNamespaces install mode and is not in a failed state with reason InterOperatorGroupOwnerConflict:

  • Cluster roles for each API resource from a CRD
  • Cluster roles for each API resource from an API service
  • Additional roles and role bindings

Table 2.5. Cluster roles generated for each API resource from a CRD

Cluster roleSettings

<kind>.<group>-<version>-admin

Verbs on <kind>:

  • *

Aggregation labels:

  • rbac.authorization.k8s.io/aggregate-to-admin: true
  • olm.opgroup.permissions/aggregate-to-admin: <operatorgroup_name>

<kind>.<group>-<version>-edit

Verbs on <kind>:

  • create
  • update
  • patch
  • delete

Aggregation labels:

  • rbac.authorization.k8s.io/aggregate-to-edit: true
  • olm.opgroup.permissions/aggregate-to-edit: <operatorgroup_name>

<kind>.<group>-<version>-view

Verbs on <kind>:

  • get
  • list
  • watch

Aggregation labels:

  • rbac.authorization.k8s.io/aggregate-to-view: true
  • olm.opgroup.permissions/aggregate-to-view: <operatorgroup_name>

<kind>.<group>-<version>-view-crdview

Verbs on apiextensions.k8s.io customresourcedefinitions <crd-name>:

  • get

Aggregation labels:

  • rbac.authorization.k8s.io/aggregate-to-view: true
  • olm.opgroup.permissions/aggregate-to-view: <operatorgroup_name>

Table 2.6. Cluster roles generated for each API resource from an API service

Cluster roleSettings

<kind>.<group>-<version>-admin

Verbs on <kind>:

  • *

Aggregation labels:

  • rbac.authorization.k8s.io/aggregate-to-admin: true
  • olm.opgroup.permissions/aggregate-to-admin: <operatorgroup_name>

<kind>.<group>-<version>-edit

Verbs on <kind>:

  • create
  • update
  • patch
  • delete

Aggregation labels:

  • rbac.authorization.k8s.io/aggregate-to-edit: true
  • olm.opgroup.permissions/aggregate-to-edit: <operatorgroup_name>

<kind>.<group>-<version>-view

Verbs on <kind>:

  • get
  • list
  • watch

Aggregation labels:

  • rbac.authorization.k8s.io/aggregate-to-view: true
  • olm.opgroup.permissions/aggregate-to-view: <operatorgroup_name>

Additional roles and role bindings

  • If the CSV defines exactly one target namespace that contains *, then a cluster role and corresponding cluster role binding are generated for each permission defined in the permissions field of the CSV. All resources generated are given the olm.owner: <csv_name> and olm.owner.namespace: <csv_namespace> labels.
  • If the CSV does not define exactly one target namespace that contains *, then all roles and role bindings in the Operator namespace with the olm.owner: <csv_name> and olm.owner.namespace: <csv_namespace> labels are copied into the target namespace.

2.4.5.7. Copied CSVs

OLM creates copies of all active member CSVs of an Operator group in each of the target namespaces of that Operator group. The purpose of a copied CSV is to tell users of a target namespace that a specific Operator is configured to watch resources created there.

Copied CSVs have a status reason Copied and are updated to match the status of their source CSV. The olm.targetNamespaces annotation is stripped from copied CSVs before they are created on the cluster. Omitting the target namespace selection avoids the duplication of target namespaces between tenants.

Copied CSVs are deleted when their source CSV no longer exists or the Operator group that their source CSV belongs to no longer targets the namespace of the copied CSV.

Note

By default, the disableCopiedCSVs field is disabled. After enabling a disableCopiedCSVs field, the OLM deletes existing copied CSVs on a cluster. When a disableCopiedCSVs field is disabled, the OLM adds copied CSVs again.

  • Disable the disableCopiedCSVs field:

    $ cat << EOF | oc apply -f -
    apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1
    kind: OLMConfig
    metadata:
      name: cluster
    spec:
      features:
        disableCopiedCSVs: false
    EOF
  • Enable the disableCopiedCSVs field:

    $ cat << EOF | oc apply -f -
    apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1
    kind: OLMConfig
    metadata:
      name: cluster
    spec:
      features:
        disableCopiedCSVs: true
    EOF

2.4.5.8. Static Operator groups

An Operator group is static if its spec.staticProvidedAPIs field is set to true. As a result, OLM does not modify the olm.providedAPIs annotation of an Operator group, which means that it can be set in advance. This is useful when a user wants to use an Operator group to prevent resource contention in a set of namespaces but does not have active member CSVs that provide the APIs for those resources.

Below is an example of an Operator group that protects Prometheus resources in all namespaces with the something.cool.io/cluster-monitoring: "true" annotation:

apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1
kind: OperatorGroup
metadata:
  name: cluster-monitoring
  namespace: cluster-monitoring
  annotations:
    olm.providedAPIs: Alertmanager.v1.monitoring.coreos.com,Prometheus.v1.monitoring.coreos.com,PrometheusRule.v1.monitoring.coreos.com,ServiceMonitor.v1.monitoring.coreos.com
spec:
  staticProvidedAPIs: true
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      something.cool.io/cluster-monitoring: "true"

2.4.5.9. Operator group intersection

Two Operator groups are said to have intersecting provided APIs if the intersection of their target namespace sets is not an empty set and the intersection of their provided API sets, defined by olm.providedAPIs annotations, is not an empty set.

A potential issue is that Operator groups with intersecting provided APIs can compete for the same resources in the set of intersecting namespaces.

Note

When checking intersection rules, an Operator group namespace is always included as part of its selected target namespaces.

Rules for intersection

Each time an active member CSV synchronizes, OLM queries the cluster for the set of intersecting provided APIs between the Operator group of the CSV and all others. OLM then checks if that set is an empty set:

  • If true and the CSV’s provided APIs are a subset of the Operator group’s:

    • Continue transitioning.
  • If true and the CSV’s provided APIs are not a subset of the Operator group’s:

    • If the Operator group is static:

      • Clean up any deployments that belong to the CSV.
      • Transition the CSV to a failed state with status reason CannotModifyStaticOperatorGroupProvidedAPIs.
    • If the Operator group is not static:

      • Replace the Operator group’s olm.providedAPIs annotation with the union of itself and the CSV’s provided APIs.
  • If false and the CSV’s provided APIs are not a subset of the Operator group’s:

    • Clean up any deployments that belong to the CSV.
    • Transition the CSV to a failed state with status reason InterOperatorGroupOwnerConflict.
  • If false and the CSV’s provided APIs are a subset of the Operator group’s:

    • If the Operator group is static:

      • Clean up any deployments that belong to the CSV.
      • Transition the CSV to a failed state with status reason CannotModifyStaticOperatorGroupProvidedAPIs.
    • If the Operator group is not static:

      • Replace the Operator group’s olm.providedAPIs annotation with the difference between itself and the CSV’s provided APIs.
Note

Failure states caused by Operator groups are non-terminal.

The following actions are performed each time an Operator group synchronizes:

  • The set of provided APIs from active member CSVs is calculated from the cluster. Note that copied CSVs are ignored.
  • The cluster set is compared to olm.providedAPIs, and if olm.providedAPIs contains any extra APIs, then those APIs are pruned.
  • All CSVs that provide the same APIs across all namespaces are requeued. This notifies conflicting CSVs in intersecting groups that their conflict has possibly been resolved, either through resizing or through deletion of the conflicting CSV.

2.4.5.10. Limitations for multi-tenant Operator management

OpenShift Container Platform provides limited support for simultaneously installing different variations of an Operator on a cluster. Operators are control plane extensions. All tenants, or namespaces, share the same control plane of a cluster. Therefore, tenants in a multi-tenant environment also have to share Operators.

The Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) installs Operators multiple times in different namespaces. One constraint of this is that the Operator’s API versions must be the same.

Different major versions of an Operator often have incompatible custom resource definitions (CRDs). This makes it difficult to quickly verify OLMs.

2.4.5.10.1. Additional resources

2.4.5.11. Troubleshooting Operator groups

Membership
  • An install plan’s namespace must contain only one Operator group. When attempting to generate a cluster service version (CSV) in a namespace, an install plan considers an Operator group invalid in the following scenarios:

    • No Operator groups exist in the install plan’s namespace.
    • Multiple Operator groups exist in the install plan’s namespace.
    • An incorrect or non-existent service account name is specified in the Operator group.

    If an install plan encounters an invalid Operator group, the CSV is not generated and the InstallPlan resource fails with a relevant message. For example, the following message is provided if more than one Operator group exists in the same namespace:

    attenuated service account query failed - more than one operator group(s) are managing this namespace count=2

    where count= specifies the number of Operator groups in the namespace.

  • If the install modes of a CSV do not support the target namespace selection of the Operator group in its namespace, the CSV transitions to a failure state with the reason UnsupportedOperatorGroup. CSVs in a failed state for this reason transition to pending after either the target namespace selection of the Operator group changes to a supported configuration, or the install modes of the CSV are modified to support the target namespace selection.

2.4.6. Operator conditions

This guide outlines how Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) uses Operator conditions.

2.4.6.1. About Operator conditions

As part of its role in managing the lifecycle of an Operator, Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) infers the state of an Operator from the state of Kubernetes resources that define the Operator. While this approach provides some level of assurance that an Operator is in a given state, there are many instances where an Operator might need to communicate information to OLM that could not be inferred otherwise. This information can then be used by OLM to better manage the lifecycle of the Operator.

OLM provides a custom resource definition (CRD) called OperatorCondition that allows Operators to communicate conditions to OLM. There are a set of supported conditions that influence management of the Operator by OLM when present in the Spec.Conditions array of an OperatorCondition resource.

Note

By default, the Spec.Conditions array is not present in an OperatorCondition object until it is either added by a user or as a result of custom Operator logic.

2.4.6.2. Supported conditions

Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) supports the following Operator conditions.

2.4.6.2.1. Upgradeable condition

The Upgradeable Operator condition prevents an existing cluster service version (CSV) from being replaced by a newer version of the CSV. This condition is useful when:

  • An Operator is about to start a critical process and should not be upgraded until the process is completed.
  • An Operator is performing a migration of custom resources (CRs) that must be completed before the Operator is ready to be upgraded.

Example Upgradeable Operator condition

apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1
kind: OperatorCondition
metadata:
  name: my-operator
  namespace: operators
spec:
  conditions:
  - type: Upgradeable 1
    status: "False" 2
    reason: "migration"
    message: "The Operator is performing a migration."
    lastTransitionTime: "2020-08-24T23:15:55Z"

1
Name of the condition.
2
A False value indicates the Operator is not ready to be upgraded. OLM prevents a CSV that replaces the existing CSV of the Operator from leaving the Pending phase.

2.4.6.3. Additional resources

2.4.7. Operator Lifecycle Manager metrics

2.4.7.1. Exposed metrics

Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) exposes certain OLM-specific resources for use by the Prometheus-based OpenShift Container Platform cluster monitoring stack.

Table 2.7. Metrics exposed by OLM

NameDescription

catalog_source_count

Number of catalog sources.

csv_abnormal

When reconciling a cluster service version (CSV), present whenever a CSV version is in any state other than Succeeded, for example when it is not installed. Includes the name, namespace, phase, reason, and version labels. A Prometheus alert is created when this metric is present.

csv_count

Number of CSVs successfully registered.

csv_succeeded

When reconciling a CSV, represents whether a CSV version is in a Succeeded state (value 1) or not (value 0). Includes the name, namespace, and version labels.

csv_upgrade_count

Monotonic count of CSV upgrades.

install_plan_count

Number of install plans.

subscription_count

Number of subscriptions.

subscription_sync_total

Monotonic count of subscription syncs. Includes the channel, installed CSV, and subscription name labels.

2.4.8. Webhook management in Operator Lifecycle Manager

Webhooks allow Operator authors to intercept, modify, and accept or reject resources before they are saved to the object store and handled by the Operator controller. Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) can manage the lifecycle of these webhooks when they are shipped alongside your Operator.

See Defining cluster service versions (CSVs) for details on how an Operator developer can define webhooks for their Operator, as well as considerations when running on OLM.

2.4.8.1. Additional resources

2.5. Understanding OperatorHub

2.5.1. About OperatorHub

OperatorHub is the web console interface in OpenShift Container Platform that cluster administrators use to discover and install Operators. With one click, an Operator can be pulled from its off-cluster source, installed and subscribed on the cluster, and made ready for engineering teams to self-service manage the product across deployment environments using Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM).

Cluster administrators can choose from catalogs grouped into the following categories:

CategoryDescription

Red Hat Operators

Red Hat products packaged and shipped by Red Hat. Supported by Red Hat.

Certified Operators

Products from leading independent software vendors (ISVs). Red Hat partners with ISVs to package and ship. Supported by the ISV.

Red Hat Marketplace

Certified software that can be purchased from Red Hat Marketplace.

Community Operators

Optionally-visible software maintained by relevant representatives in the operator-framework/community-operators GitHub repository. No official support.

Custom Operators

Operators you add to the cluster yourself. If you have not added any custom Operators, the Custom category does not appear in the web console on your OperatorHub.

Operators on OperatorHub are packaged to run on OLM. This includes a YAML file called a cluster service version (CSV) containing all of the CRDs, RBAC rules, deployments, and container images required to install and securely run the Operator. It also contains user-visible information like a description of its features and supported Kubernetes versions.

The Operator SDK can be used to assist developers packaging their Operators for use on OLM and OperatorHub. If you have a commercial application that you want to make accessible to your customers, get it included using the certification workflow provided on the Red Hat Partner Connect portal at connect.redhat.com.

2.5.2. OperatorHub architecture

The OperatorHub UI component is driven by the Marketplace Operator by default on OpenShift Container Platform in the openshift-marketplace namespace.

2.5.2.1. OperatorHub custom resource

The Marketplace Operator manages an OperatorHub custom resource (CR) named cluster that manages the default CatalogSource objects provided with OperatorHub. You can modify this resource to enable or disable the default catalogs, which is useful when configuring OpenShift Container Platform in restricted network environments.

Example OperatorHub custom resource

apiVersion: config.openshift.io/v1
kind: OperatorHub
metadata:
  name: cluster
spec:
  disableAllDefaultSources: true 1
  sources: [ 2
    {
      name: "community-operators",
      disabled: false
    }
  ]

1
disableAllDefaultSources is an override that controls availability of all default catalogs that are configured by default during an OpenShift Container Platform installation.
2
Disable default catalogs individually by changing the disabled parameter value per source.

2.5.3. Additional resources

2.6. Red Hat-provided Operator catalogs

Red Hat provides several Operator catalogs that are included with OpenShift Container Platform by default.

Important

As of OpenShift Container Platform 4.11, the default Red Hat-provided Operator catalog releases in the file-based catalog format. The default Red Hat-provided Operator catalogs for OpenShift Container Platform 4.6 through 4.10 released in the deprecated SQLite database format.

The opm subcommands, flags, and functionality related to the SQLite database format are also deprecated and will be removed in a future release. The features are still supported and must be used for catalogs that use the deprecated SQLite database format.

Many of the opm subcommands and flags for working with the SQLite database format, such as opm index prune, do not work with the file-based catalog format. For more information about working with file-based catalogs, see Managing custom catalogs, Operator Framework packaging format, and Mirroring images for a disconnected installation using the oc-mirror plug-in.

2.6.1. About Operator catalogs

An Operator catalog is a repository of metadata that Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) can query to discover and install Operators and their dependencies on a cluster. OLM always installs Operators from the latest version of a catalog.

An index image, based on the Operator bundle format, is a containerized snapshot of a catalog. It is an immutable artifact that contains the database of pointers to a set of Operator manifest content. A catalog can reference an index image to source its content for OLM on the cluster.

As catalogs are updated, the latest versions of Operators change, and older versions may be removed or altered. In addition, when OLM runs on an OpenShift Container Platform cluster in a restricted network environment, it is unable to access the catalogs directly from the internet to pull the latest content.

As a cluster administrator, you can create your own custom index image, either based on a Red Hat-provided catalog or from scratch, which can be used to source the catalog content on the cluster. Creating and updating your own index image provides a method for customizing the set of Operators available on the cluster, while also avoiding the aforementioned restricted network environment issues.

Important

Kubernetes periodically deprecates certain APIs that are removed in subsequent releases. As a result, Operators are unable to use removed APIs starting with the version of OpenShift Container Platform that uses the Kubernetes version that removed the API.

If your cluster is using custom catalogs, see Controlling Operator compatibility with OpenShift Container Platform versions for more details about how Operator authors can update their projects to help avoid workload issues and prevent incompatible upgrades.

Note

Support for the legacy package manifest format for Operators, including custom catalogs that were using the legacy format, is removed in OpenShift Container Platform 4.8 and later.

When creating custom catalog images, previous versions of OpenShift Container Platform 4 required using the oc adm catalog build command, which was deprecated for several releases and is now removed. With the availability of Red Hat-provided index images starting in OpenShift Container Platform 4.6, catalog builders must use the opm index command to manage index images.

2.6.2. About Red Hat-provided Operator catalogs

The Red Hat-provided catalog sources are installed by default in the openshift-marketplace namespace, which makes the catalogs available cluster-wide in all namespaces.

The following Operator catalogs are distributed by Red Hat:

CatalogIndex imageDescription

redhat-operators

registry.redhat.io/redhat/redhat-operator-index:v4.11

Red Hat products packaged and shipped by Red Hat. Supported by Red Hat.

certified-operators

registry.redhat.io/redhat/certified-operator-index:v4.11

Products from leading independent software vendors (ISVs). Red Hat partners with ISVs to package and ship. Supported by the ISV.

redhat-marketplace

registry.redhat.io/redhat/redhat-marketplace-index:v4.11

Certified software that can be purchased from Red Hat Marketplace.

community-operators

registry.redhat.io/redhat/community-operator-index:v4.11

Software maintained by relevant representatives in the operator-framework/community-operators GitHub repository. No official support.

During a cluster upgrade, the index image tag for the default Red Hat-provided catalog sources are updated automatically by the Cluster Version Operator (CVO) so that Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) pulls the updated version of the catalog. For example during an upgrade from OpenShift Container Platform 4.8 to 4.9, the spec.image field in the CatalogSource object for the redhat-operators catalog is updated from:

registry.redhat.io/redhat/redhat-operator-index:v4.8

to:

registry.redhat.io/redhat/redhat-operator-index:v4.9

2.7. CRDs

2.7.1. Extending the Kubernetes API with custom resource definitions

Operators use the Kubernetes extension mechanism, custom resource definitions (CRDs), so that custom objects managed by the Operator look and act just like the built-in, native Kubernetes objects. This guide describes how cluster administrators can extend their OpenShift Container Platform cluster by creating and managing CRDs.

2.7.1.1. Custom resource definitions

In the Kubernetes API, a resource is an endpoint that stores a collection of API objects of a certain kind. For example, the built-in Pods resource contains a collection of Pod objects.

A custom resource definition (CRD) object defines a new, unique object type, called a kind, in the cluster and lets the Kubernetes API server handle its entire lifecycle.

Custom resource (CR) objects are created from CRDs that have been added to the cluster by a cluster administrator, allowing all cluster users to add the new resource type into projects.

When a cluster administrator adds a new CRD to the cluster, the Kubernetes API server reacts by creating a new RESTful resource path that can be accessed by the entire cluster or a single project (namespace) and begins serving the specified CR.

Cluster administrators that want to grant access to the CRD to other users can use cluster role aggregation to grant access to users with the admin, edit, or view default cluster roles. Cluster role aggregation allows the insertion of custom policy rules into these cluster roles. This behavior integrates the new resource into the RBAC policy of the cluster as if it was a built-in resource.

Operators in particular make use of CRDs by packaging them with any required RBAC policy and other software-specific logic. Cluster administrators can also add CRDs manually to the cluster outside of the lifecycle of an Operator, making them available to all users.

Note

While only cluster administrators can create CRDs, developers can create the CR from an existing CRD if they have read and write permission to it.

2.7.1.2. Creating a custom resource definition

To create custom resource (CR) objects, cluster administrators must first create a custom resource definition (CRD).

Prerequisites

  • Access to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster with cluster-admin user privileges.

Procedure

To create a CRD:

  1. Create a YAML file that contains the following field types:

    Example YAML file for a CRD

    apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1 1
    kind: CustomResourceDefinition
    metadata:
      name: crontabs.stable.example.com 2
    spec:
      group: stable.example.com 3
      versions:
        name: v1 4
      scope: Namespaced 5
      names:
        plural: crontabs 6
        singular: crontab 7
        kind: CronTab 8
        shortNames:
        - ct 9

    1
    Use the apiextensions.k8s.io/v1 API.
    2
    Specify a name for the definition. This must be in the <plural-name>.<group> format using the values from the group and plural fields.
    3
    Specify a group name for the API. An API group is a collection of objects that are logically related. For example, all batch objects like Job or ScheduledJob could be in the batch API group (such as batch.api.example.com). A good practice is to use a fully-qualified-domain name (FQDN) of your organization.
    4
    Specify a version name to be used in the URL. Each API group can exist in multiple versions, for example v1alpha, v1beta, v1.
    5
    Specify whether the custom objects are available to a project (Namespaced) or all projects in the cluster (Cluster).
    6
    Specify the plural name to use in the URL. The plural field is the same as a resource in an API URL.
    7
    Specify a singular name to use as an alias on the CLI and for display.
    8
    Specify the kind of objects that can be created. The type can be in CamelCase.
    9
    Specify a shorter string to match your resource on the CLI.
    Note

    By default, a CRD is cluster-scoped and available to all projects.

  2. Create the CRD object:

    $ oc create -f <file_name>.yaml

    A new RESTful API endpoint is created at:

    /apis/<spec:group>/<spec:version>/<scope>/*/<names-plural>/...

    For example, using the example file, the following endpoint is created:

    /apis/stable.example.com/v1/namespaces/*/crontabs/...

    You can now use this endpoint URL to create and manage CRs. The object kind is based on the spec.kind field of the CRD object you created.

2.7.1.3. Creating cluster roles for custom resource definitions

Cluster administrators can grant permissions to existing cluster-scoped custom resource definitions (CRDs). If you use the admin, edit, and view default cluster roles, you can take advantage of cluster role aggregation for their rules.

Important

You must explicitly assign permissions to each of these roles. The roles with more permissions do not inherit rules from roles with fewer permissions. If you assign a rule to a role, you must also assign that verb to roles that have more permissions. For example, if you grant the get crontabs permission to the view role, you must also grant it to the edit and admin roles. The admin or edit role is usually assigned to the user that created a project through the project template.

Prerequisites

  • Create a CRD.

Procedure

  1. Create a cluster role definition file for the CRD. The cluster role definition is a YAML file that contains the rules that apply to each cluster role. An OpenShift Container Platform controller adds the rules that you specify to the default cluster roles.

    Example YAML file for a cluster role definition

    kind: ClusterRole
    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1 1
    metadata:
      name: aggregate-cron-tabs-admin-edit 2
      labels:
        rbac.authorization.k8s.io/aggregate-to-admin: "true" 3
        rbac.authorization.k8s.io/aggregate-to-edit: "true" 4
    rules:
    - apiGroups: ["stable.example.com"] 5
      resources: ["crontabs"] 6
      verbs: ["get", "list", "watch", "create", "update", "patch", "delete", "deletecollection"] 7
    ---
    kind: ClusterRole
    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
    metadata:
      name: aggregate-cron-tabs-view 8
      labels:
        # Add these permissions to the "view" default role.
        rbac.authorization.k8s.io/aggregate-to-view: "true" 9
        rbac.authorization.k8s.io/aggregate-to-cluster-reader: "true" 10
    rules:
    - apiGroups: ["stable.example.com"] 11
      resources: ["crontabs"] 12
      verbs: ["get", "list", "watch"] 13

    1
    Use the rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1 API.
    2 8
    Specify a name for the definition.
    3
    Specify this label to grant permissions to the admin default role.
    4
    Specify this label to grant permissions to the edit default role.
    5 11
    Specify the group name of the CRD.
    6 12
    Specify the plural name of the CRD that these rules apply to.
    7 13
    Specify the verbs that represent the permissions that are granted to the role. For example, apply read and write permissions to the admin and edit roles and only read permission to the view role.
    9
    Specify this label to grant permissions to the view default role.
    10
    Specify this label to grant permissions to the cluster-reader default role.
  2. Create the cluster role:

    $ oc create -f <file_name>.yaml

2.7.1.4. Creating custom resources from a file

After a custom resource definitions (CRD) has been added to the cluster, custom resources (CRs) can be created with the CLI from a file using the CR specification.

Prerequisites

  • CRD added to the cluster by a cluster administrator.

Procedure

  1. Create a YAML file for the CR. In the following example definition, the cronSpec and image custom fields are set in a CR of Kind: CronTab. The Kind comes from the spec.kind field of the CRD object:

    Example YAML file for a CR

    apiVersion: "stable.example.com/v1" 1
    kind: CronTab 2
    metadata:
      name: my-new-cron-object 3
      finalizers: 4
      - finalizer.stable.example.com
    spec: 5
      cronSpec: "* * * * /5"
      image: my-awesome-cron-image

    1
    Specify the group name and API version (name/version) from the CRD.
    2
    Specify the type in the CRD.
    3
    Specify a name for the object.
    4
    Specify the finalizers for the object, if any. Finalizers allow controllers to implement conditions that must be completed before the object can be deleted.
    5
    Specify conditions specific to the type of object.
  2. After you create the file, create the object:

    $ oc create -f <file_name>.yaml

2.7.1.5. Inspecting custom resources

You can inspect custom resource (CR) objects that exist in your cluster using the CLI.

Prerequisites

  • A CR object exists in a namespace to which you have access.

Procedure

  1. To get information on a specific kind of a CR, run:

    $ oc get <kind>

    For example:

    $ oc get crontab

    Example output

    NAME                 KIND
    my-new-cron-object   CronTab.v1.stable.example.com

    Resource names are not case-sensitive, and you can use either the singular or plural forms defined in the CRD, as well as any short name. For example:

    $ oc get crontabs
    $ oc get crontab
    $ oc get ct
  2. You can also view the raw YAML data for a CR:

    $ oc get <kind> -o yaml

    For example:

    $ oc get ct -o yaml

    Example output

    apiVersion: v1
    items:
    - apiVersion: stable.example.com/v1
      kind: CronTab
      metadata:
        clusterName: ""
        creationTimestamp: 2017-05-31T12:56:35Z
        deletionGracePeriodSeconds: null
        deletionTimestamp: null
        name: my-new-cron-object
        namespace: default
        resourceVersion: "285"
        selfLink: /apis/stable.example.com/v1/namespaces/default/crontabs/my-new-cron-object
        uid: 9423255b-4600-11e7-af6a-28d2447dc82b
      spec:
        cronSpec: '* * * * /5' 1
        image: my-awesome-cron-image 2

    1 2
    Custom data from the YAML that you used to create the object displays.

2.7.2. Managing resources from custom resource definitions

This guide describes how developers can manage custom resources (CRs) that come from custom resource definitions (CRDs).

2.7.2.1. Custom resource definitions

In the Kubernetes API, a resource is an endpoint that stores a collection of API objects of a certain kind. For example, the built-in Pods resource contains a collection of Pod objects.

A custom resource definition (CRD) object defines a new, unique object type, called a kind, in the cluster and lets the Kubernetes API server handle its entire lifecycle.

Custom resource (CR) objects are created from CRDs that have been added to the cluster by a cluster administrator, allowing all cluster users to add the new resource type into projects.

Operators in particular make use of CRDs by packaging them with any required RBAC policy and other software-specific logic. Cluster administrators can also add CRDs manually to the cluster outside of the lifecycle of an Operator, making them available to all users.

Note

While only cluster administrators can create CRDs, developers can create the CR from an existing CRD if they have read and write permission to it.

2.7.2.2. Creating custom resources from a file

After a custom resource definitions (CRD) has been added to the cluster, custom resources (CRs) can be created with the CLI from a file using the CR specification.

Prerequisites

  • CRD added to the cluster by a cluster administrator.

Procedure

  1. Create a YAML file for the CR. In the following example definition, the cronSpec and image custom fields are set in a CR of Kind: CronTab. The Kind comes from the spec.kind field of the CRD object:

    Example YAML file for a CR

    apiVersion: "stable.example.com/v1" 1
    kind: CronTab 2
    metadata:
      name: my-new-cron-object 3
      finalizers: 4
      - finalizer.stable.example.com
    spec: 5
      cronSpec: "* * * * /5"
      image: my-awesome-cron-image

    1
    Specify the group name and API version (name/version) from the CRD.
    2
    Specify the type in the CRD.
    3
    Specify a name for the object.
    4
    Specify the finalizers for the object, if any. Finalizers allow controllers to implement conditions that must be completed before the object can be deleted.
    5
    Specify conditions specific to the type of object.
  2. After you create the file, create the object:

    $ oc create -f <file_name>.yaml

2.7.2.3. Inspecting custom resources

You can inspect custom resource (CR) objects that exist in your cluster using the CLI.

Prerequisites

  • A CR object exists in a namespace to which you have access.

Procedure

  1. To get information on a specific kind of a CR, run:

    $ oc get <kind>

    For example:

    $ oc get crontab

    Example output

    NAME                 KIND
    my-new-cron-object   CronTab.v1.stable.example.com

    Resource names are not case-sensitive, and you can use either the singular or plural forms defined in the CRD, as well as any short name. For example:

    $ oc get crontabs
    $ oc get crontab
    $ oc get ct
  2. You can also view the raw YAML data for a CR:

    $ oc get <kind> -o yaml

    For example:

    $ oc get ct -o yaml

    Example output

    apiVersion: v1
    items:
    - apiVersion: stable.example.com/v1
      kind: CronTab
      metadata:
        clusterName: ""
        creationTimestamp: 2017-05-31T12:56:35Z
        deletionGracePeriodSeconds: null
        deletionTimestamp: null
        name: my-new-cron-object
        namespace: default
        resourceVersion: "285"
        selfLink: /apis/stable.example.com/v1/namespaces/default/crontabs/my-new-cron-object
        uid: 9423255b-4600-11e7-af6a-28d2447dc82b
      spec:
        cronSpec: '* * * * /5' 1
        image: my-awesome-cron-image 2

    1 2
    Custom data from the YAML that you used to create the object displays.

Chapter 3. User tasks

3.1. Creating applications from installed Operators

This guide walks developers through an example of creating applications from an installed Operator using the OpenShift Container Platform web console.

3.1.1. Creating an etcd cluster using an Operator

This procedure walks through creating a new etcd cluster using the etcd Operator, managed by Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM).

Prerequisites

  • Access to an OpenShift Container Platform 4.11 cluster.
  • The etcd Operator already installed cluster-wide by an administrator.

Procedure

  1. Create a new project in the OpenShift Container Platform web console for this procedure. This example uses a project called my-etcd.
  2. Navigate to the Operators → Installed Operators page. The Operators that have been installed to the cluster by the cluster administrator and are available for use are shown here as a list of cluster service versions (CSVs). CSVs are used to launch and manage the software provided by the Operator.

    Tip

    You can get this list from the CLI using:

    $ oc get csv
  3. On the Installed Operators page, click the etcd Operator to view more details and available actions.

    As shown under Provided APIs, this Operator makes available three new resource types, including one for an etcd Cluster (the EtcdCluster resource). These objects work similar to the built-in native Kubernetes ones, such as Deployment or ReplicaSet, but contain logic specific to managing etcd.

  4. Create a new etcd cluster:

    1. In the etcd Cluster API box, click Create instance.
    2. The next screen allows you to make any modifications to the minimal starting template of an EtcdCluster object, such as the size of the cluster. For now, click Create to finalize. This triggers the Operator to start up the pods, services, and other components of the new etcd cluster.
  5. Click on the example etcd cluster, then click the Resources tab to see that your project now contains a number of resources created and configured automatically by the Operator.

    Verify that a Kubernetes service has been created that allows you to access the database from other pods in your project.

  6. All users with the edit role in a given project can create, manage, and delete application instances (an etcd cluster, in this example) managed by Operators that have already been created in the project, in a self-service manner, just like a cloud service. If you want to enable additional users with this ability, project administrators can add the role using the following command:

    $ oc policy add-role-to-user edit <user> -n <target_project>

You now have an etcd cluster that will react to failures and rebalance data as pods become unhealthy or are migrated between nodes in the cluster. Most importantly, cluster administrators or developers with proper access can now easily use the database with their applications.

3.2. Installing Operators in your namespace

If a cluster administrator has delegated Operator installation permissions to your account, you can install and subscribe an Operator to your namespace in a self-service manner.

3.2.1. Prerequisites

3.2.2. About Operator installation with OperatorHub

OperatorHub is a user interface for discovering Operators; it works in conjunction with Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM), which installs and manages Operators on a cluster.

As a user with the proper permissions, you can install an Operator from OperatorHub using the OpenShift Container Platform web console or CLI.

During installation, you must determine the following initial settings for the Operator:

Installation Mode
Choose a specific namespace in which to install the Operator.
Update Channel
If an Operator is available through multiple channels, you can choose which channel you want to subscribe to. For example, to deploy from the stable channel, if available, select it from the list.
Approval Strategy

You can choose automatic or manual updates.

If you choose automatic updates for an installed Operator, when a new version of that Operator is available in the selected channel, Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) automatically upgrades the running instance of your Operator without human intervention.

If you select manual updates, when a newer version of an Operator is available, OLM creates an update request. As a cluster administrator, you must then manually approve that update request to have the Operator updated to the new version.

3.2.3. Installing from OperatorHub using the web console

You can install and subscribe to an Operator from OperatorHub using the OpenShift Container Platform web console.

Prerequisites

  • Access to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster using an account with Operator installation permissions.

Procedure

  1. Navigate in the web console to the Operators → OperatorHub page.
  2. Scroll or type a keyword into the Filter by keyword box to find the Operator you want. For example, type advanced to find the Advanced Cluster Management for Kubernetes Operator.

    You can also filter options by Infrastructure Features. For example, select Disconnected if you want to see Operators that work in disconnected environments, also known as restricted network environments.

  3. Select the Operator to display additional information.

    Note

    Choosing a Community Operator warns that Red Hat does not certify Community Operators; you must acknowledge the warning before continuing.

  4. Read the information about the Operator and click Install.
  5. On the Install Operator page:

    1. Choose a specific, single namespace in which to install the Operator. The Operator will only watch and be made available for use in this single namespace.
    2. Select an Update Channel (if more than one is available).
    3. Select Automatic or Manual approval strategy, as described earlier.
  6. Click Install to make the Operator available to the selected namespaces on this OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

    1. If you selected a Manual approval strategy, the upgrade status of the subscription remains Upgrading until you review and approve the install plan.

      After approving on the Install Plan page, the subscription upgrade status moves to Up to date.

    2. If you selected an Automatic approval strategy, the upgrade status should resolve to Up to date without intervention.
  7. After the upgrade status of the subscription is Up to date, select Operators → Installed Operators to verify that the cluster service version (CSV) of the installed Operator eventually shows up. The Status should ultimately resolve to InstallSucceeded in the relevant namespace.

    Note

    For the All namespaces…​ installation mode, the status resolves to InstallSucceeded in the openshift-operators namespace, but the status is Copied if you check in other namespaces.

    If it does not:

    1. Check the logs in any pods in the openshift-operators project (or other relevant namespace if A specific namespace…​ installation mode was selected) on the Workloads → Pods page that are reporting issues to troubleshoot further.

3.2.4. Installing from OperatorHub using the CLI

Instead of using the OpenShift Container Platform web console, you can install an Operator from OperatorHub using the CLI. Use the oc command to create or update a Subscription object.

Prerequisites

  • Access to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster using an account with Operator installation permissions.
  • Install the oc command to your local system.

Procedure

  1. View the list of Operators available to the cluster from OperatorHub:

    $ oc get packagemanifests -n openshift-marketplace

    Example output

    NAME                               CATALOG               AGE
    3scale-operator                    Red Hat Operators     91m
    advanced-cluster-management        Red Hat Operators     91m
    amq7-cert-manager                  Red Hat Operators     91m
    ...
    couchbase-enterprise-certified     Certified Operators   91m
    crunchy-postgres-operator          Certified Operators   91m
    mongodb-enterprise                 Certified Operators   91m
    ...
    etcd                               Community Operators   91m
    jaeger                             Community Operators   91m
    kubefed                            Community Operators   91m
    ...

    Note the catalog for your desired Operator.

  2. Inspect your desired Operator to verify its supported install modes and available channels:

    $ oc describe packagemanifests <operator_name> -n openshift-marketplace
  3. An Operator group, defined by an OperatorGroup object, selects target namespaces in which to generate required RBAC access for all Operators in the same namespace as the Operator group.

    The namespace to which you subscribe the Operator must have an Operator group that matches the install mode of the Operator, either the AllNamespaces or SingleNamespace mode. If the Operator you intend to install uses the AllNamespaces, then the openshift-operators namespace already has an appropriate Operator group in place.

    However, if the Operator uses the SingleNamespace mode and you do not already have an appropriate Operator group in place, you must create one.

    Note

    The web console version of this procedure handles the creation of the OperatorGroup and Subscription objects automatically behind the scenes for you when choosing SingleNamespace mode.

    1. Create an OperatorGroup object YAML file, for example operatorgroup.yaml:

      Example OperatorGroup object

      apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1
      kind: OperatorGroup
      metadata:
        name: <operatorgroup_name>
        namespace: <namespace>
      spec:
        targetNamespaces:
        - <namespace>

    2. Create the OperatorGroup object:

      $ oc apply -f operatorgroup.yaml
  4. Create a Subscription object YAML file to subscribe a namespace to an Operator, for example sub.yaml:

    Example Subscription object

    apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1alpha1
    kind: Subscription
    metadata:
      name: <subscription_name>
      namespace: openshift-operators 1
    spec:
      channel: <channel_name> 2
      name: <operator_name> 3
      source: redhat-operators 4
      sourceNamespace: openshift-marketplace 5
      config:
        env: 6
        - name: ARGS
          value: "-v=10"
        envFrom: 7
        - secretRef:
            name: license-secret
        volumes: 8
        - name: <volume_name>
          configMap:
            name: <configmap_name>
        volumeMounts: 9
        - mountPath: <directory_name>
          name: <volume_name>
        tolerations: 10
        - operator: "Exists"
        resources: 11
          requests:
            memory: "64Mi"
            cpu: "250m"
          limits:
            memory: "128Mi"
            cpu: "500m"
        nodeSelector: 12
          foo: bar

    1
    For AllNamespaces install mode usage, specify the openshift-operators namespace. Otherwise, specify the relevant single namespace for SingleNamespace install mode usage.
    2
    Name of the channel to subscribe to.
    3
    Name of the Operator to subscribe to.
    4
    Name of the catalog source that provides the Operator.
    5
    Namespace of the catalog source. Use openshift-marketplace for the default OperatorHub catalog sources.
    6
    The env parameter defines a list of Environment Variables that must exist in all containers in the pod created by OLM.
    7
    The envFrom parameter defines a list of sources to populate Environment Variables in the container.
    8
    The volumes parameter defines a list of Volumes that must exist on the pod created by OLM.
    9
    The volumeMounts parameter defines a list of VolumeMounts that must exist in all containers in the pod created by OLM. If a volumeMount references a volume that does not exist, OLM fails to deploy the Operator.
    10
    The tolerations parameter defines a list of Tolerations for the pod created by OLM.
    11
    The resources parameter defines resource constraints for all the containers in the pod created by OLM.
    12
    The nodeSelector parameter defines a NodeSelector for the pod created by OLM.
  5. Create the Subscription object:

    $ oc apply -f sub.yaml

    At this point, OLM is now aware of the selected Operator. A cluster service version (CSV) for the Operator should appear in the target namespace, and APIs provided by the Operator should be available for creation.

Additional resources

3.2.5. Installing a specific version of an Operator

You can install a specific version of an Operator by setting the cluster service version (CSV) in a Subscription object.

Prerequisites

  • Access to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster using an account with Operator installation permissions
  • OpenShift CLI (oc) installed

Procedure

  1. Create a Subscription object YAML file that subscribes a namespace to an Operator with a specific version by setting the startingCSV field. Set the installPlanApproval field to Manual to prevent the Operator from automatically upgrading if a later version exists in the catalog.

    For example, the following sub.yaml file can be used to install the Red Hat Quay Operator specifically to version 3.4.0:

    Subscription with a specific starting Operator version

    apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1alpha1
    kind: Subscription
    metadata:
      name: quay-operator
      namespace: quay
    spec:
      channel: quay-v3.4
      installPlanApproval: Manual 1
      name: quay-operator
      source: redhat-operators
      sourceNamespace: openshift-marketplace
      startingCSV: quay-operator.v3.4.0 2

    1
    Set the approval strategy to Manual in case your specified version is superseded by a later version in the catalog. This plan prevents an automatic upgrade to a later version and requires manual approval before the starting CSV can complete the installation.
    2
    Set a specific version of an Operator CSV.
  2. Create the Subscription object:

    $ oc apply -f sub.yaml
  3. Manually approve the pending install plan to complete the Operator installation.

Chapter 4. Administrator tasks

4.1. Adding Operators to a cluster

Cluster administrators can install Operators to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster by subscribing Operators to namespaces with OperatorHub.

4.1.1. About Operator installation with OperatorHub

OperatorHub is a user interface for discovering Operators; it works in conjunction with Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM), which installs and manages Operators on a cluster.

As a user with the proper permissions, you can install an Operator from OperatorHub using the OpenShift Container Platform web console or CLI.

During installation, you must determine the following initial settings for the Operator:

Installation Mode
Choose a specific namespace in which to install the Operator.
Update Channel
If an Operator is available through multiple channels, you can choose which channel you want to subscribe to. For example, to deploy from the stable channel, if available, select it from the list.
Approval Strategy

You can choose automatic or manual updates.

If you choose automatic updates for an installed Operator, when a new version of that Operator is available in the selected channel, Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) automatically upgrades the running instance of your Operator without human intervention.

If you select manual updates, when a newer version of an Operator is available, OLM creates an update request. As a cluster administrator, you must then manually approve that update request to have the Operator updated to the new version.

4.1.2. Installing from OperatorHub using the web console

You can install and subscribe to an Operator from OperatorHub using the OpenShift Container Platform web console.

Prerequisites

  • Access to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster using an account with cluster-admin permissions.
  • Access to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster using an account with Operator installation permissions.

Procedure

  1. Navigate in the web console to the Operators → OperatorHub page.
  2. Scroll or type a keyword into the Filter by keyword box to find the Operator you want. For example, type advanced to find the Advanced Cluster Management for Kubernetes Operator.

    You can also filter options by Infrastructure Features. For example, select Disconnected if you want to see Operators that work in disconnected environments, also known as restricted network environments.

  3. Select the Operator to display additional information.

    Note

    Choosing a Community Operator warns that Red Hat does not certify Community Operators; you must acknowledge the warning before continuing.

  4. Read the information about the Operator and click Install.
  5. On the Install Operator page:

    1. Select one of the following:

      • All namespaces on the cluster (default) installs the Operator in the default openshift-operators namespace to watch and be made available to all namespaces in the cluster. This option is not always available.
      • A specific namespace on the cluster allows you to choose a specific, single namespace in which to install the Operator. The Operator will only watch and be made available for use in this single namespace.
    2. Choose a specific, single namespace in which to install the Operator. The Operator will only watch and be made available for use in this single namespace.
    3. Select an Update Channel (if more than one is available).
    4. Select Automatic or Manual approval strategy, as described earlier.
  6. Click Install to make the Operator available to the selected namespaces on this OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

    1. If you selected a Manual approval strategy, the upgrade status of the subscription remains Upgrading until you review and approve the install plan.

      After approving on the Install Plan page, the subscription upgrade status moves to Up to date.

    2. If you selected an Automatic approval strategy, the upgrade status should resolve to Up to date without intervention.
  7. After the upgrade status of the subscription is Up to date, select Operators → Installed Operators to verify that the cluster service version (CSV) of the installed Operator eventually shows up. The Status should ultimately resolve to InstallSucceeded in the relevant namespace.

    Note

    For the All namespaces…​ installation mode, the status resolves to InstallSucceeded in the openshift-operators namespace, but the status is Copied if you check in other namespaces.

    If it does not:

    1. Check the logs in any pods in the openshift-operators project (or other relevant namespace if A specific namespace…​ installation mode was selected) on the Workloads → Pods page that are reporting issues to troubleshoot further.

4.1.3. Installing from OperatorHub using the CLI

Instead of using the OpenShift Container Platform web console, you can install an Operator from OperatorHub using the CLI. Use the oc command to create or update a Subscription object.

Prerequisites

  • Access to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster using an account with Operator installation permissions.
  • Install the oc command to your local system.

Procedure

  1. View the list of Operators available to the cluster from OperatorHub:

    $ oc get packagemanifests -n openshift-marketplace

    Example output

    NAME                               CATALOG               AGE
    3scale-operator                    Red Hat Operators     91m
    advanced-cluster-management        Red Hat Operators     91m
    amq7-cert-manager                  Red Hat Operators     91m
    ...
    couchbase-enterprise-certified     Certified Operators   91m
    crunchy-postgres-operator          Certified Operators   91m
    mongodb-enterprise                 Certified Operators   91m
    ...
    etcd                               Community Operators   91m
    jaeger                             Community Operators   91m
    kubefed                            Community Operators   91m
    ...

    Note the catalog for your desired Operator.

  2. Inspect your desired Operator to verify its supported install modes and available channels:

    $ oc describe packagemanifests <operator_name> -n openshift-marketplace
  3. An Operator group, defined by an OperatorGroup object, selects target namespaces in which to generate required RBAC access for all Operators in the same namespace as the Operator group.

    The namespace to which you subscribe the Operator must have an Operator group that matches the install mode of the Operator, either the AllNamespaces or SingleNamespace mode. If the Operator you intend to install uses the AllNamespaces, then the openshift-operators namespace already has an appropriate Operator group in place.

    However, if the Operator uses the SingleNamespace mode and you do not already have an appropriate Operator group in place, you must create one.

    Note

    The web console version of this procedure handles the creation of the OperatorGroup and Subscription objects automatically behind the scenes for you when choosing SingleNamespace mode.

    1. Create an OperatorGroup object YAML file, for example operatorgroup.yaml:

      Example OperatorGroup object

      apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1
      kind: OperatorGroup
      metadata:
        name: <operatorgroup_name>
        namespace: <namespace>
      spec:
        targetNamespaces:
        - <namespace>

    2. Create the OperatorGroup object:

      $ oc apply -f operatorgroup.yaml
  4. Create a Subscription object YAML file to subscribe a namespace to an Operator, for example sub.yaml:

    Example Subscription object

    apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1alpha1
    kind: Subscription
    metadata:
      name: <subscription_name>
      namespace: openshift-operators 1
    spec:
      channel: <channel_name> 2
      name: <operator_name> 3
      source: redhat-operators 4
      sourceNamespace: openshift-marketplace 5
      config:
        env: 6
        - name: ARGS
          value: "-v=10"
        envFrom: 7
        - secretRef:
            name: license-secret
        volumes: 8
        - name: <volume_name>
          configMap:
            name: <configmap_name>
        volumeMounts: 9
        - mountPath: <directory_name>
          name: <volume_name>
        tolerations: 10
        - operator: "Exists"
        resources: 11
          requests:
            memory: "64Mi"
            cpu: "250m"
          limits:
            memory: "128Mi"
            cpu: "500m"
        nodeSelector: 12
          foo: bar

    1
    For AllNamespaces install mode usage, specify the openshift-operators namespace. Otherwise, specify the relevant single namespace for SingleNamespace install mode usage.
    2
    Name of the channel to subscribe to.
    3
    Name of the Operator to subscribe to.
    4
    Name of the catalog source that provides the Operator.
    5
    Namespace of the catalog source. Use openshift-marketplace for the default OperatorHub catalog sources.
    6
    The env parameter defines a list of Environment Variables that must exist in all containers in the pod created by OLM.
    7
    The envFrom parameter defines a list of sources to populate Environment Variables in the container.
    8
    The volumes parameter defines a list of Volumes that must exist on the pod created by OLM.
    9
    The volumeMounts parameter defines a list of VolumeMounts that must exist in all containers in the pod created by OLM. If a volumeMount references a volume that does not exist, OLM fails to deploy the Operator.
    10
    The tolerations parameter defines a list of Tolerations for the pod created by OLM.
    11
    The resources parameter defines resource constraints for all the containers in the pod created by OLM.
    12
    The nodeSelector parameter defines a NodeSelector for the pod created by OLM.
  5. Create the Subscription object:

    $ oc apply -f sub.yaml

    At this point, OLM is now aware of the selected Operator. A cluster service version (CSV) for the Operator should appear in the target namespace, and APIs provided by the Operator should be available for creation.

Additional resources

4.1.4. Installing a specific version of an Operator

You can install a specific version of an Operator by setting the cluster service version (CSV) in a Subscription object.

Prerequisites

  • Access to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster using an account with Operator installation permissions
  • OpenShift CLI (oc) installed

Procedure

  1. Create a Subscription object YAML file that subscribes a namespace to an Operator with a specific version by setting the startingCSV field. Set the installPlanApproval field to Manual to prevent the Operator from automatically upgrading if a later version exists in the catalog.

    For example, the following sub.yaml file can be used to install the Red Hat Quay Operator specifically to version 3.4.0:

    Subscription with a specific starting Operator version

    apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1alpha1
    kind: Subscription
    metadata:
      name: quay-operator
      namespace: quay
    spec:
      channel: quay-v3.4
      installPlanApproval: Manual 1
      name: quay-operator
      source: redhat-operators
      sourceNamespace: openshift-marketplace
      startingCSV: quay-operator.v3.4.0 2

    1
    Set the approval strategy to Manual in case your specified version is superseded by a later version in the catalog. This plan prevents an automatic upgrade to a later version and requires manual approval before the starting CSV can complete the installation.
    2
    Set a specific version of an Operator CSV.
  2. Create the Subscription object:

    $ oc apply -f sub.yaml
  3. Manually approve the pending install plan to complete the Operator installation.

4.1.5. Pod placement of Operator workloads

By default, Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) places pods on arbitrary worker nodes when installing an Operator or deploying Operand workloads. As an administrator, you can use projects with a combination of node selectors, taints, and tolerations to control the placement of Operators and Operands to specific nodes.

Controlling pod placement of Operator and Operand workloads has the following prerequisites:

  1. Determine a node or set of nodes to target for the pods per your requirements. If available, note an existing label, such as node-role.kubernetes.io/app, that identifies the node or nodes. Otherwise, add a label, such as myoperator, by using a machine set or editing the node directly. You will use this label in a later step as the node selector on your project.
  2. If you want to ensure that only pods with a certain label are allowed to run on the nodes, while steering unrelated workloads to other nodes, add a taint to the node or nodes by using a machine set or editing the node directly. Use an effect that ensures that new pods that do not match the taint cannot be scheduled on the nodes. For example, a myoperator:NoSchedule taint ensures that new pods that do not match the taint are not scheduled onto that node, but existing pods on the node are allowed to remain.
  3. Create a project that is configured with a default node selector and, if you added a taint, a matching toleration.

At this point, the project you created can be used to steer pods towards the specified nodes in the following scenarios:

For Operator pods
Administrators can create a Subscription object in the project. As a result, the Operator pods are placed on the specified nodes.
For Operand pods
Using an installed Operator, users can create an application in the project, which places the custom resource (CR) owned by the Operator in the project. As a result, the Operand pods are placed on the specified nodes, unless the Operator is deploying cluster-wide objects or resources in other namespaces, in which case this customized pod placement does not apply.

4.2. Upgrading installed Operators

As a cluster administrator, you can upgrade Operators that have been previously installed using Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) on your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

4.2.1. Changing the update channel for an Operator

The subscription of an installed Operator specifies an update channel, which is used to track and receive updates for the Operator. To upgrade the Operator to start tracking and receiving updates from a newer channel, you can change the update channel in the subscription.

The names of update channels in a subscription can differ between Operators, but the naming scheme should follow a common convention within a given Operator. For example, channel names might follow a minor release update stream for the application provided by the Operator (1.2, 1.3) or a release frequency (stable, fast).

Note

Installed Operators cannot change to a channel that is older than the current channel.

If the approval strategy in the subscription is set to Automatic, the upgrade process initiates as soon as a new Operator version is available in the selected channel. If the approval strategy is set to Manual, you must manually approve pending upgrades.

Prerequisites

  • An Operator previously installed using Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM).

Procedure

  1. In the Administrator perspective of the OpenShift Container Platform web console, navigate to Operators → Installed Operators.
  2. Click the name of the Operator you want to change the update channel for.
  3. Click the Subscription tab.
  4. Click the name of the update channel under Channel.
  5. Click the newer update channel that you want to change to, then click Save.
  6. For subscriptions with an Automatic approval strategy, the upgrade begins automatically. Navigate back to the Operators → Installed Operators page to monitor the progress of the upgrade. When complete, the status changes to Succeeded and Up to date.

    For subscriptions with a Manual approval strategy, you can manually approve the upgrade from the Subscription tab.

4.2.2. Manually approving a pending Operator upgrade

If an installed Operator has the approval strategy in its subscription set to Manual, when new updates are released in its current update channel, the update must be manually approved before installation can begin.

Prerequisites

  • An Operator previously installed using Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM).

Procedure

  1. In the Administrator perspective of the OpenShift Container Platform web console, navigate to Operators → Installed Operators.
  2. Operators that have a pending upgrade display a status with Upgrade available. Click the name of the Operator you want to upgrade.
  3. Click the Subscription tab. Any upgrades requiring approval are displayed next to Upgrade Status. For example, it might display 1 requires approval.
  4. Click 1 requires approval, then click Preview Install Plan.
  5. Review the resources that are listed as available for upgrade. When satisfied, click Approve.
  6. Navigate back to the Operators → Installed Operators page to monitor the progress of the upgrade. When complete, the status changes to Succeeded and Up to date.

4.3. Deleting Operators from a cluster

The following describes how to delete Operators that were previously installed using Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) on your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

4.3.1. Deleting Operators from a cluster using the web console

Cluster administrators can delete installed Operators from a selected namespace by using the web console.

Prerequisites

  • Access to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster web console using an account with cluster-admin permissions.

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the OperatorsInstalled Operators page.
  2. Scroll or enter a keyword into the Filter by name field to find the Operator that you want to remove. Then, click on it.
  3. On the right side of the Operator Details page, select Uninstall Operator from the Actions list.

    An Uninstall Operator? dialog box is displayed.

  4. Select Uninstall to remove the Operator, Operator deployments, and pods. Following this action, the Operator stops running and no longer receives updates.

    Note

    This action does not remove resources managed by the Operator, including custom resource definitions (CRDs) and custom resources (CRs). Dashboards and navigation items enabled by the web console and off-cluster resources that continue to run might need manual clean up. To remove these after uninstalling the Operator, you might need to manually delete the Operator CRDs.

4.3.2. Deleting Operators from a cluster using the CLI

Cluster administrators can delete installed Operators from a selected namespace by using the CLI.

Prerequisites

  • Access to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster using an account with cluster-admin permissions.
  • oc command installed on workstation.

Procedure

  1. Check the current version of the subscribed Operator (for example, jaeger) in the currentCSV field:

    $ oc get subscription jaeger -n openshift-operators -o yaml | grep currentCSV

    Example output

      currentCSV: jaeger-operator.v1.8.2

  2. Delete the subscription (for example, jaeger):

    $ oc delete subscription jaeger -n openshift-operators

    Example output

    subscription.operators.coreos.com "jaeger" deleted

  3. Delete the CSV for the Operator in the target namespace using the currentCSV value from the previous step:

    $ oc delete clusterserviceversion jaeger-operator.v1.8.2 -n openshift-operators

    Example output

    clusterserviceversion.operators.coreos.com "jaeger-operator.v1.8.2" deleted

4.3.3. Refreshing failing subscriptions

In Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM), if you subscribe to an Operator that references images that are not accessible on your network, you can find jobs in the openshift-marketplace namespace that are failing with the following errors:

Example output

ImagePullBackOff for
Back-off pulling image "example.com/openshift4/ose-elasticsearch-operator-bundle@sha256:6d2587129c846ec28d384540322b40b05833e7e00b25cca584e004af9a1d292e"

Example output

rpc error: code = Unknown desc = error pinging docker registry example.com: Get "https://example.com/v2/": dial tcp: lookup example.com on 10.0.0.1:53: no such host

As a result, the subscription is stuck in this failing state and the Operator is unable to install or upgrade.

You can refresh a failing subscription by deleting the subscription, cluster service version (CSV), and other related objects. After recreating the subscription, OLM then reinstalls the correct version of the Operator.

Prerequisites

  • You have a failing subscription that is unable to pull an inaccessible bundle image.
  • You have confirmed that the correct bundle image is accessible.

Procedure

  1. Get the names of the Subscription and ClusterServiceVersion objects from the namespace where the Operator is installed:

    $ oc get sub,csv -n <namespace>

    Example output

    NAME                                                       PACKAGE                  SOURCE             CHANNEL
    subscription.operators.coreos.com/elasticsearch-operator   elasticsearch-operator   redhat-operators   5.0
    
    NAME                                                                         DISPLAY                            VERSION    REPLACES   PHASE
    clusterserviceversion.operators.coreos.com/elasticsearch-operator.5.0.0-65   OpenShift Elasticsearch Operator   5.0.0-65              Succeeded

  2. Delete the subscription:

    $ oc delete subscription <subscription_name> -n <namespace>
  3. Delete the cluster service version:

    $ oc delete csv <csv_name> -n <namespace>
  4. Get the names of any failing jobs and related config maps in the openshift-marketplace namespace:

    $ oc get job,configmap -n openshift-marketplace

    Example output

    NAME                                                                        COMPLETIONS   DURATION   AGE
    job.batch/1de9443b6324e629ddf31fed0a853a121275806170e34c926d69e53a7fcbccb   1/1           26s        9m30s
    
    NAME                                                                        DATA   AGE
    configmap/1de9443b6324e629ddf31fed0a853a121275806170e34c926d69e53a7fcbccb   3      9m30s

  5. Delete the job:

    $ oc delete job <job_name> -n openshift-marketplace

    This ensures pods that try to pull the inaccessible image are not recreated.

  6. Delete the config map:

    $ oc delete configmap <configmap_name> -n openshift-marketplace
  7. Reinstall the Operator using OperatorHub in the web console.

Verification

  • Check that the Operator has been reinstalled successfully:

    $ oc get sub,csv,installplan -n <namespace>

4.4. Configuring Operator Lifecycle Manager features

The Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) controller is configured by an OLMConfig custom resource (CR) named cluster. Cluster administrators can modify this resource to enable or disable certain features.

This document outlines the features currently supported by OLM that are configured by the OLMConfig resource.

4.4.1. Disabling copied CSVs

When an Operator is installed by Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM), a simplified copy of its cluster service version (CSV) is created in every namespace that the Operator is configured to watch. These CSVs are known as copied CSVs and communicate to users which controllers are actively reconciling resource events in a given namespace.

When Operators are configured to use the AllNamespaces install mode, versus targeting a single or specified set of namespaces, a copied CSV is created in every namespace on the cluster. On especially large clusters, with namespaces and installed Operators potentially in the hundreds or thousands, copied CSVs consume an untenable amount of resources, such as OLM’s memory usage, cluster etcd limits, and networking.

To support these larger clusters, cluster administrators can disable copied CSVs for Operators installed with the AllNamespaces mode.

Procedure

  • Edit the OLMConfig object named cluster and set the spec.features.disableCopiedCSVs field to true:

    $ oc apply -f - <<EOF
    apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1
    kind: OLMConfig
    metadata:
      name: cluster
    spec:
      features:
        disableCopiedCSVs: true 1
    EOF
    1
    Disabled copied CSVs for AllNamespaces install mode Operators

Verification

  • When copied CSVs are disabled, OLM captures this information in an event in the Operator’s namespace:

    $ oc get events

    Example output

    LAST SEEN   TYPE      REASON               OBJECT                                MESSAGE
    85s         Warning   DisabledCopiedCSVs   clusterserviceversion/my-csv.v1.0.0   CSV copying disabled for operators/my-csv.v1.0.0

    When the spec.features.disableCopiedCSVs field is missing or set to false, OLM recreates the copied CSVs for all Operators installed with the AllNamespaces mode and deletes the previously mentioned events.

Additional resources

4.5. Configuring proxy support in Operator Lifecycle Manager

If a global proxy is configured on the OpenShift Container Platform cluster, Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) automatically configures Operators that it manages with the cluster-wide proxy. However, you can also configure installed Operators to override the global proxy or inject a custom CA certificate.

Additional resources

4.5.1. Overriding proxy settings of an Operator

If a cluster-wide egress proxy is configured, Operators running with Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) inherit the cluster-wide proxy settings on their deployments. Cluster administrators can also override these proxy settings by configuring the subscription of an Operator.

Important

Operators must handle setting environment variables for proxy settings in the pods for any managed Operands.

Prerequisites

  • Access to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster using an account with cluster-admin permissions.

Procedure

  1. Navigate in the web console to the Operators → OperatorHub page.
  2. Select the Operator and click Install.
  3. On the Install Operator page, modify the Subscription object to include one or more of the following environment variables in the spec section:

    • HTTP_PROXY
    • HTTPS_PROXY
    • NO_PROXY

    For example:

    Subscription object with proxy setting overrides

    apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1alpha1
    kind: Subscription
    metadata:
      name: etcd-config-test
      namespace: openshift-operators
    spec:
      config:
        env:
        - name: HTTP_PROXY
          value: test_http
        - name: HTTPS_PROXY
          value: test_https
        - name: NO_PROXY
          value: test
      channel: clusterwide-alpha
      installPlanApproval: Automatic
      name: etcd
      source: community-operators
      sourceNamespace: openshift-marketplace
      startingCSV: etcdoperator.v0.9.4-clusterwide

    Note

    These environment variables can also be unset using an empty value to remove any previously set cluster-wide or custom proxy settings.

    OLM handles these environment variables as a unit; if at least one of them is set, all three are considered overridden and the cluster-wide defaults are not used for the deployments of the subscribed Operator.

  4. Click Install to make the Operator available to the selected namespaces.
  5. After the CSV for the Operator appears in the relevant namespace, you can verify that custom proxy environment variables are set in the deployment. For example, using the CLI:

    $ oc get deployment -n openshift-operators \
        etcd-operator -o yaml \
        | grep -i "PROXY" -A 2

    Example output

            - name: HTTP_PROXY
              value: test_http
            - name: HTTPS_PROXY
              value: test_https
            - name: NO_PROXY
              value: test
            image: quay.io/coreos/etcd-operator@sha256:66a37fd61a06a43969854ee6d3e21088a98b93838e284a6086b13917f96b0d9c
    ...

4.5.2. Injecting a custom CA certificate

When a cluster administrator adds a custom CA certificate to a cluster using a config map, the Cluster Network Operator merges the user-provided certificates and system CA certificates into a single bundle. You can inject this merged bundle into your Operator running on Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM), which is useful if you have a man-in-the-middle HTTPS proxy.

Prerequisites

  • Access to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster using an account with cluster-admin permissions.
  • Custom CA certificate added to the cluster using a config map.
  • Desired Operator installed and running on OLM.

Procedure

  1. Create an empty config map in the namespace where the subscription for your Operator exists and include the following label:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: ConfigMap
    metadata:
      name: trusted-ca 1
      labels:
        config.openshift.io/inject-trusted-cabundle: "true" 2
    1
    Name of the config map.
    2
    Requests the Cluster Network Operator to inject the merged bundle.

    After creating this config map, it is immediately populated with the certificate contents of the merged bundle.

  2. Update your the Subscription object to include a spec.config section that mounts the trusted-ca config map as a volume to each container within a pod that requires a custom CA:

    apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1alpha1
    kind: Subscription
    metadata:
      name: my-operator
    spec:
      package: etcd
      channel: alpha
      config: 1
        selector:
          matchLabels:
            <labels_for_pods> 2
        volumes: 3
        - name: trusted-ca
          configMap:
            name: trusted-ca
            items:
              - key: ca-bundle.crt 4
                path: tls-ca-bundle.pem 5
        volumeMounts: 6
        - name: trusted-ca
          mountPath: /etc/pki/ca-trust/extracted/pem
          readOnly: true
    1
    Add a config section if it does not exist.
    2
    Specify labels to match pods that are owned by the Operator.
    3
    Create a trusted-ca volume.
    4
    ca-bundle.crt is required as the config map key.
    5
    tls-ca-bundle.pem is required as the config map path.
    6
    Create a trusted-ca volume mount.

4.6. Viewing Operator status

Understanding the state of the system in Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) is important for making decisions about and debugging problems with installed Operators. OLM provides insight into subscriptions and related catalog sources regarding their state and actions performed. This helps users better understand the healthiness of their Operators.

4.6.1. Operator subscription condition types

Subscriptions can report the following condition types:

Table 4.1. Subscription condition types

ConditionDescription

CatalogSourcesUnhealthy

Some or all of the catalog sources to be used in resolution are unhealthy.

InstallPlanMissing

An install plan for a subscription is missing.

InstallPlanPending

An install plan for a subscription is pending installation.

InstallPlanFailed

An install plan for a subscription has failed.

ResolutionFailed

The dependency resolution for a subscription has failed.

Note

Default OpenShift Container Platform cluster Operators are managed by the Cluster Version Operator (CVO) and they do not have a Subscription object. Application Operators are managed by Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) and they have a Subscription object.

Additional resources

4.6.2. Viewing Operator subscription status by using the CLI

You can view Operator subscription status by using the CLI.

Prerequisites

  • You have access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.
  • You have installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).

Procedure

  1. List Operator subscriptions:

    $ oc get subs -n <operator_namespace>
  2. Use the oc describe command to inspect a Subscription resource:

    $ oc describe sub <subscription_name> -n <operator_namespace>
  3. In the command output, find the Conditions section for the status of Operator subscription condition types. In the following example, the CatalogSourcesUnhealthy condition type has a status of false because all available catalog sources are healthy:

    Example output

    Conditions:
       Last Transition Time:  2019-07-29T13:42:57Z
       Message:               all available catalogsources are healthy
       Reason:                AllCatalogSourcesHealthy
       Status:                False
       Type:                  CatalogSourcesUnhealthy

Note

Default OpenShift Container Platform cluster Operators are managed by the Cluster Version Operator (CVO) and they do not have a Subscription object. Application Operators are managed by Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) and they have a Subscription object.

4.6.3. Viewing Operator catalog source status by using the CLI

You can view the status of an Operator catalog source by using the CLI.

Prerequisites

  • You have access to the cluster as a user with the cluster-admin role.
  • You have installed the OpenShift CLI (oc).

Procedure

  1. List the catalog sources in a namespace. For example, you can check the openshift-marketplace namespace, which is used for cluster-wide catalog sources:

    $ oc get catalogsources -n openshift-marketplace

    Example output

    NAME                  DISPLAY               TYPE   PUBLISHER   AGE
    certified-operators   Certified Operators   grpc   Red Hat     55m
    community-operators   Community Operators   grpc   Red Hat     55m
    example-catalog       Example Catalog       grpc   Example Org 2m25s
    redhat-marketplace    Red Hat Marketplace   grpc   Red Hat     55m
    redhat-operators      Red Hat Operators     grpc   Red Hat     55m

  2. Use the oc describe command to get more details and status about a catalog source:

    $ oc describe catalogsource example-catalog -n openshift-marketplace

    Example output

    Name:         example-catalog
    Namespace:    openshift-marketplace
    ...
    Status:
      Connection State:
        Address:              example-catalog.openshift-marketplace.svc:50051
        Last Connect:         2021-09-09T17:07:35Z
        Last Observed State:  TRANSIENT_FAILURE
      Registry Service:
        Created At:         2021-09-09T17:05:45Z
        Port:               50051
        Protocol:           grpc
        Service Name:       example-catalog
        Service Namespace:  openshift-marketplace

    In the preceding example output, the last observed state is TRANSIENT_FAILURE. This state indicates that there is a problem establishing a connection for the catalog source.

  3. List the pods in the namespace where your catalog source was created:

    $ oc get pods -n openshift-marketplace

    Example output

    NAME                                    READY   STATUS             RESTARTS   AGE
    certified-operators-cv9nn               1/1     Running            0          36m
    community-operators-6v8lp               1/1     Running            0          36m
    marketplace-operator-86bfc75f9b-jkgbc   1/1     Running            0          42m
    example-catalog-bwt8z                   0/1     ImagePullBackOff   0          3m55s
    redhat-marketplace-57p8c                1/1     Running            0          36m
    redhat-operators-smxx8                  1/1     Running            0          36m

    When a catalog source is created in a namespace, a pod for the catalog source is created in that namespace. In the preceding example output, the status for the example-catalog-bwt8z pod is ImagePullBackOff. This status indicates that there is an issue pulling the catalog source’s index image.

  4. Use the oc describe command to inspect a pod for more detailed information:

    $ oc describe pod example-catalog-bwt8z -n openshift-marketplace

    Example output

    Name:         example-catalog-bwt8z
    Namespace:    openshift-marketplace
    Priority:     0
    Node:         ci-ln-jyryyg2-f76d1-ggdbq-worker-b-vsxjd/10.0.128.2
    ...
    Events:
      Type     Reason          Age                From               Message
      ----     ------          ----               ----               -------
      Normal   Scheduled       48s                default-scheduler  Successfully assigned openshift-marketplace/example-catalog-bwt8z to ci-ln-jyryyf2-f76d1-fgdbq-worker-b-vsxjd
      Normal   AddedInterface  47s                multus             Add eth0 [10.131.0.40/23] from openshift-sdn
      Normal   BackOff         20s (x2 over 46s)  kubelet            Back-off pulling image "quay.io/example-org/example-catalog:v1"
      Warning  Failed          20s (x2 over 46s)  kubelet            Error: ImagePullBackOff
      Normal   Pulling         8s (x3 over 47s)   kubelet            Pulling image "quay.io/example-org/example-catalog:v1"
      Warning  Failed          8s (x3 over 47s)   kubelet            Failed to pull image "quay.io/example-org/example-catalog:v1": rpc error: code = Unknown desc = reading manifest v1 in quay.io/example-org/example-catalog: unauthorized: access to the requested resource is not authorized
      Warning  Failed          8s (x3 over 47s)   kubelet            Error: ErrImagePull

    In the preceding example output, the error messages indicate that the catalog source’s index image is failing to pull successfully because of an authorization issue. For example, the index image might be stored in a registry that requires login credentials.

4.7. Managing Operator conditions

As a cluster administrator, you can manage Operator conditions by using Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM).

4.7.1. Overriding Operator conditions

As a cluster administrator, you might want to ignore a supported Operator condition reported by an Operator. When present, Operator conditions in the Spec.Overrides array override the conditions in the Spec.Conditions array, allowing cluster administrators to deal with situations where an Operator is incorrectly reporting a state to Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM).

Note

By default, the Spec.Overrides array is not present in an OperatorCondition object until it is added by a cluster administrator. The Spec.Conditions array is also not present until it is either added by a user or as a result of custom Operator logic.

For example, consider a known version of an Operator that always communicates that it is not upgradeable. In this instance, you might want to upgrade the Operator despite the Operator communicating that it is not upgradeable. This could be accomplished by overriding the Operator condition by adding the condition type and status to the Spec.Overrides array in the OperatorCondition object.

Prerequisites

  • An Operator with an OperatorCondition object, installed using OLM.

Procedure

  1. Edit the OperatorCondition object for the Operator:

    $ oc edit operatorcondition <name>
  2. Add a Spec.Overrides array to the object:

    Example Operator condition override

    apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1
    kind: OperatorCondition
    metadata:
      name: my-operator
      namespace: operators
    spec:
      overrides:
      - type: Upgradeable 1
        status: "True"
        reason: "upgradeIsSafe"
        message: "This is a known issue with the Operator where it always reports that it cannot be upgraded."
      conditions:
      - type: Upgradeable
        status: "False"
        reason: "migration"
        message: "The operator is performing a migration."
        lastTransitionTime: "2020-08-24T23:15:55Z"

    1
    Allows the cluster administrator to change the upgrade readiness to True.

4.7.2. Updating your Operator to use Operator conditions

Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) automatically creates an OperatorCondition resource for each ClusterServiceVersion resource that it reconciles. All service accounts in the CSV are granted the RBAC to interact with the OperatorCondition owned by the Operator.

An Operator author can develop their Operator to use the operator-lib library such that, after the Operator has been deployed by OLM, it can set its own conditions. For more on writing logic to set Operator conditions as an Operator author, see the Operator SDK documentation.

4.7.2.1. Setting defaults

In an effort to remain backwards compatible, OLM treats the absence of an OperatorCondition resource as opting out of the condition. Therefore, an Operator that opts in to using Operator conditions should set default conditions before the ready probe for the pod is set to true. This provides the Operator with a grace period to update the condition to the correct state.

4.7.3. Additional resources

4.8. Allowing non-cluster administrators to install Operators

Cluster administrators can use Operator groups to allow regular users to install Operators.

Additional resources

4.8.1. Understanding Operator installation policy

Operators can require wide privileges to run, and the required privileges can change between versions. Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) runs with cluster-admin privileges. By default, Operator authors can specify any set of permissions in the cluster service version (CSV), and OLM consequently grants it to the Operator.

To ensure that an Operator cannot achieve cluster-scoped privileges and that users cannot escalate privileges using OLM, Cluster administrators can manually audit Operators before they are added to the cluster. Cluster administrators are also provided tools for determining and constraining which actions are allowed during an Operator installation or upgrade using service accounts.

Cluster administrators can associate an Operator group with a service account that has a set of privileges granted to it. The service account sets policy on Operators to ensure they only run within predetermined boundaries by using role-based access control (RBAC) rules. As a result, the Operator is unable to do anything that is not explicitly permitted by those rules.

By employing Operator groups, users with enough privileges can install Operators with a limited scope. As a result, more of the Operator Framework tools can safely be made available to more users, providing a richer experience for building applications with Operators.

Note

Role-based access control (RBAC) for Subscription objects is automatically granted to every user with the edit or admin role in a namespace. However, RBAC does not exist on OperatorGroup objects; this absence is what prevents regular users from installing Operators. Pre-installing Operator groups is effectively what gives installation privileges.

Keep the following points in mind when associating an Operator group with a service account:

  • The APIService and CustomResourceDefinition resources are always created by OLM using the cluster-admin role. A service account associated with an Operator group should never be granted privileges to write these resources.
  • Any Operator tied to this Operator group is now confined to the permissions granted to the specified service account. If the Operator asks for permissions that are outside the scope of the service account, the install fails with appropriate errors so the cluster administrator can troubleshoot and resolve the issue.

4.8.1.1. Installation scenarios

When determining whether an Operator can be installed or upgraded on a cluster, Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) considers the following scenarios:

  • A cluster administrator creates a new Operator group and specifies a service account. All Operator(s) associated with this Operator group are installed and run against the privileges granted to the service account.
  • A cluster administrator creates a new Operator group and does not specify any service account. OpenShift Container Platform maintains backward compatibility, so the default behavior remains and Operator installs and upgrades are permitted.
  • For existing Operator groups that do not specify a service account, the default behavior remains and Operator installs and upgrades are permitted.
  • A cluster administrator updates an existing Operator group and specifies a service account. OLM allows the existing Operator to continue to run with their current privileges. When such an existing Operator is going through an upgrade, it is reinstalled and run against the privileges granted to the service account like any new Operator.
  • A service account specified by an Operator group changes by adding or removing permissions, or the existing service account is swapped with a new one. When existing Operators go through an upgrade, it is reinstalled and run against the privileges granted to the updated service account like any new Operator.
  • A cluster administrator removes the service account from an Operator group. The default behavior remains and Operator installs and upgrades are permitted.

4.8.1.2. Installation workflow

When an Operator group is tied to a service account and an Operator is installed or upgraded, Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) uses the following workflow:

  1. The given Subscription object is picked up by OLM.
  2. OLM fetches the Operator group tied to this subscription.
  3. OLM determines that the Operator group has a service account specified.
  4. OLM creates a client scoped to the service account and uses the scoped client to install the Operator. This ensures that any permission requested by the Operator is always confined to that of the service account in the Operator group.
  5. OLM creates a new service account with the set of permissions specified in the CSV and assigns it to the Operator. The Operator runs as the assigned service account.

4.8.2. Scoping Operator installations

To provide scoping rules to Operator installations and upgrades on Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM), associate a service account with an Operator group.

Using this example, a cluster administrator can confine a set of Operators to a designated namespace.

Procedure

  1. Create a new namespace:

    $ cat <<EOF | oc create -f -
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Namespace
    metadata:
      name: scoped
    EOF
  2. Allocate permissions that you want the Operator(s) to be confined to. This involves creating a new service account, relevant role(s), and role binding(s).

    $ cat <<EOF | oc create -f -
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: ServiceAccount
    metadata:
      name: scoped
      namespace: scoped
    EOF

    The following example grants the service account permissions to do anything in the designated namespace for simplicity. In a production environment, you should create a more fine-grained set of permissions:

    $ cat <<EOF | oc create -f -
    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
    kind: Role
    metadata:
      name: scoped
      namespace: scoped
    rules:
    - apiGroups: ["*"]
      resources: ["*"]
      verbs: ["*"]
    ---
    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
    kind: RoleBinding
    metadata:
      name: scoped-bindings
      namespace: scoped
    roleRef:
      apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
      kind: Role
      name: scoped
    subjects:
    - kind: ServiceAccount
      name: scoped
      namespace: scoped
    EOF
  3. Create an OperatorGroup object in the designated namespace. This Operator group targets the designated namespace to ensure that its tenancy is confined to it.

    In addition, Operator groups allow a user to specify a service account. Specify the service account created in the previous step:

    $ cat <<EOF | oc create -f -
    apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1
    kind: OperatorGroup
    metadata:
      name: scoped
      namespace: scoped
    spec:
      serviceAccountName: scoped
      targetNamespaces:
      - scoped
    EOF

    Any Operator installed in the designated namespace is tied to this Operator group and therefore to the service account specified.

  4. Create a Subscription object in the designated namespace to install an Operator:

    $ cat <<EOF | oc create -f -
    apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1alpha1
    kind: Subscription
    metadata:
      name: etcd
      namespace: scoped
    spec:
      channel: singlenamespace-alpha
      name: etcd
      source: <catalog_source_name> 1
      sourceNamespace: <catalog_source_namespace> 2
    EOF
    1
    Specify a catalog source that already exists in the designated namespace or one that is in the global catalog namespace.
    2
    Specify a namespace where the catalog source was created.

    Any Operator tied to this Operator group is confined to the permissions granted to the specified service account. If the Operator requests permissions that are outside the scope of the service account, the installation fails with relevant errors.

4.8.2.1. Fine-grained permissions

Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) uses the service account specified in an Operator group to create or update the following resources related to the Operator being installed:

  • ClusterServiceVersion
  • Subscription
  • Secret
  • ServiceAccount
  • Service
  • ClusterRole and ClusterRoleBinding
  • Role and RoleBinding

To confine Operators to a designated namespace, cluster administrators can start by granting the following permissions to the service account:

Note

The following role is a generic example and additional rules might be required based on the specific Operator.

kind: Role
rules:
- apiGroups: ["operators.coreos.com"]
  resources: ["subscriptions", "clusterserviceversions"]
  verbs: ["get", "create", "update", "patch"]
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: ["services", "serviceaccounts"]
  verbs: ["get", "create", "update", "patch"]
- apiGroups: ["rbac.authorization.k8s.io"]
  resources: ["roles", "rolebindings"]
  verbs: ["get", "create", "update", "patch"]
- apiGroups: ["apps"] 1
  resources: ["deployments"]
  verbs: ["list", "watch", "get", "create", "update", "patch", "delete"]
- apiGroups: [""] 2
  resources: ["pods"]
  verbs: ["list", "watch", "get", "create", "update", "patch", "delete"]
1 2
Add permissions to create other resources, such as deployments and pods shown here.

In addition, if any Operator specifies a pull secret, the following permissions must also be added:

kind: ClusterRole 1
rules:
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: ["secrets"]
  verbs: ["get"]
---
kind: Role
rules:
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: ["secrets"]
  verbs: ["create", "update", "patch"]
1
Required to get the secret from the OLM namespace.

4.8.3. Operator catalog access control

When an Operator catalog is created in the global catalog namespace openshift-marketplace, the catalog’s Operators are made available cluster-wide to all namespaces. A catalog created in other namespaces only makes its Operators available in that same namespace of the catalog.

On clusters where non-cluster administrator users have been delegated Operator installation privileges, cluster administrators might want to further control or restrict the set of Operators those users are allowed to install. This can be achieved with the following actions:

  1. Disable all of the default global catalogs.
  2. Enable custom, curated catalogs in the same namespace where the relevant Operator groups have been pre-installed.

4.8.4. Troubleshooting permission failures

If an Operator installation fails due to lack of permissions, identify the errors using the following procedure.

Procedure

  1. Review the Subscription object. Its status has an object reference installPlanRef that points to the InstallPlan object that attempted to create the necessary [Cluster]Role[Binding] object(s) for the Operator:

    apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1
    kind: Subscription
    metadata:
      name: etcd
      namespace: scoped
    status:
      installPlanRef:
        apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1
        kind: InstallPlan
        name: install-4plp8
        namespace: scoped
        resourceVersion: "117359"
        uid: 2c1df80e-afea-11e9-bce3-5254009c9c23
  2. Check the status of the InstallPlan object for any errors:

    apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1
    kind: InstallPlan
    status:
      conditions:
      - lastTransitionTime: "2019-07-26T21:13:10Z"
        lastUpdateTime: "2019-07-26T21:13:10Z"
        message: 'error creating clusterrole etcdoperator.v0.9.4-clusterwide-dsfx4: clusterroles.rbac.authorization.k8s.io
          is forbidden: User "system:serviceaccount:scoped:scoped" cannot create resource
          "clusterroles" in API group "rbac.authorization.k8s.io" at the cluster scope'
        reason: InstallComponentFailed
        status: "False"
        type: Installed
      phase: Failed

    The error message tells you:

    • The type of resource it failed to create, including the API group of the resource. In this case, it was clusterroles in the rbac.authorization.k8s.io group.
    • The name of the resource.
    • The type of error: is forbidden tells you that the user does not have enough permission to do the operation.
    • The name of the user who attempted to create or update the resource. In this case, it refers to the service account specified in the Operator group.
    • The scope of the operation: cluster scope or not.

      The user can add the missing permission to the service account and then iterate.

      Note

      Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) does not currently provide the complete list of errors on the first try.

4.9. Managing custom catalogs

Cluster administrators and Operator catalog maintainers can create and managing custom catalogs packaged using the bundle format on Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) in OpenShift Container Platform.

Important

Kubernetes periodically deprecates certain APIs that are removed in subsequent releases. As a result, Operators are unable to use removed APIs starting with the version of OpenShift Container Platform that uses the Kubernetes version that removed the API.

If your cluster is using custom catalogs, see Controlling Operator compatibility with OpenShift Container Platform versions for more details about how Operator authors can update their projects to help avoid workload issues and prevent incompatible upgrades.

4.9.1. Prerequisites

4.9.2. File-based catalogs

File-based catalogs are the latest iteration of the catalog format in Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM). It is a plain text-based (JSON or YAML) and declarative config evolution of the earlier SQLite database format, and it is fully backwards compatible.

Important

As of OpenShift Container Platform 4.11, the default Red Hat-provided Operator catalog releases in the file-based catalog format. The default Red Hat-provided Operator catalogs for OpenShift Container Platform 4.6 through 4.10 released in the deprecated SQLite database format.

The opm subcommands, flags, and functionality related to the SQLite database format are also deprecated and will be removed in a future release. The features are still supported and must be used for catalogs that use the deprecated SQLite database format.

Many of the opm subcommands and flags for working with the SQLite database format, such as opm index prune, do not work with the file-based catalog format. For more information about working with file-based catalogs, see Operator Framework packaging format and Mirroring images for a disconnected installation using the oc-mirror plug-in.

4.9.2.1. Creating a file-based catalog image

You can create a catalog image that uses the plain text file-based catalog format (JSON or YAML), which replaces the deprecated SQLite database format. The opm CLI provides tooling that helps initialize a catalog in the file-based format, render new records into it, and validate that the catalog is valid.

Prerequisites

  • opm
  • podman version 1.9.3+
  • A bundle image built and pushed to a registry that supports Docker v2-2

Procedure

  1. Initialize a catalog for a file-based catalog:

    1. Create a directory for the catalog:

      $ mkdir <operator_name>-index
    2. Create a Dockerfile that can build a catalog image:

      Example <operator_name>-index.Dockerfile

      # The base image is expected to contain
      # /bin/opm (with a serve subcommand) and /bin/grpc_health_probe
      FROM registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-operator-registry:v4.9
      
      # Configure the entrypoint and command
      ENTRYPOINT ["/bin/opm"]
      CMD ["serve", "/configs"]
      
      # Copy declarative config root into image at /configs
      ADD <operator_name>-index /configs
      
      # Set DC-specific label for the location of the DC root directory
      # in the image
      LABEL operators.operatorframework.io.index.configs.v1=/configs

      The Dockerfile must be in the same parent directory as the catalog directory that you created in the previous step:

      Example directory structure

      .
      ├── <operator_name>-index
      └── <operator_name>-index.Dockerfile

    3. Populate the catalog with your package definition:

      $ opm init <operator_name> \ 1
          --default-channel=preview \ 2
          --description=./README.md \ 3
          --icon=./operator-icon.svg \ 4
          --output yaml \ 5
          > <operator_name>-index/index.yaml 6
      1
      Operator, or package, name.
      2
      Channel that subscription will default to if unspecified.
      3
      Path to the Operator’s README.md or other documentation.
      4
      Path to the Operator’s icon.
      5
      Output format: JSON or YAML.
      6
      Path for creating the catalog configuration file.

      This command generates an olm.package declarative config blob in the specified catalog configuration file.

  2. Add a bundle to the catalog:

    $ opm render <registry>/<namespace>/<bundle_image_name>:<tag> \ 1
        --output=yaml \
        >> <operator_name>-index/index.yaml 2
    1
    Pull spec for the bundle image.
    2
    Path to the catalog configuration file.

    The opm render command generates a declarative config blob from the provided catalog images and bundle images.

    Note

    Channels must contain at least one bundle.

  3. Add a channel entry for the bundle. For example, modify the following example to your specifications, and add it to your <operator_name>-index/index.yaml file:

    Example channel entry

    ---
    schema: olm.channel
    package: <operator_name>
    name: preview
    entries:
      - name: <operator_name>.v0.1.0 1

    1
    Ensure that you include the period (.) after <operator_name> but before the v in the version. Otherwise, the entry will fail to pass the opm validate command.
  4. Validate the file-based catalog:

    1. Run the opm validate command against the catalog directory:

      $ opm validate <operator_name>-index
    2. Check that the error code is 0:

      $ echo $?

      Example output

      0

  5. Build the catalog image:

    $ podman build . \
        -f <operator_name>-index.Dockerfile \
        -t <registry>/<namespace>/<catalog_image_name>:<tag>
  6. Push the catalog image to a registry:

    1. If required, authenticate with your target registry:

      $ podman login <registry>
    2. Push the catalog image:

      $ podman push <registry>/<namespace>/<catalog_image_name>:<tag>

4.9.3. SQLite-based catalogs

Important

The SQLite database format for Operator catalogs is a deprecated feature. Deprecated functionality is still included in OpenShift Container Platform and continues to be supported; however, it will be removed in a future release of this product and is not recommended for new deployments.

For the most recent list of major functionality that has been deprecated or removed within OpenShift Container Platform, refer to the Deprecated and removed features section of the OpenShift Container Platform release notes.

4.9.3.1. Creating a SQLite-based index image

You can create an index image based on the SQLite database format by using the opm CLI.

Prerequisites

  • opm
  • podman version 1.9.3+
  • A bundle image built and pushed to a registry that supports Docker v2-2

Procedure

  1. Start a new index:

    $ opm index add \
        --bundles <registry>/<namespace>/<bundle_image_name>:<tag> \1
        --tag <registry>/<namespace>/<index_image_name>:<tag> \2
        [--binary-image <registry_base_image>] 3
    1
    Comma-separated list of bundle images to add to the index.
    2
    The image tag that you want the index image to have.
    3
    Optional: An alternative registry base image to use for serving the catalog.
  2. Push the index image to a registry.

    1. If required, authenticate with your target registry:

      $ podman login <registry>
    2. Push the index image:

      $ podman push <registry>/<namespace>/<index_image_name>:<tag>

4.9.3.2. Updating a SQLite-based index image

After configuring OperatorHub to use a catalog source that references a custom index image, cluster administrators can keep the available Operators on their cluster up to date by adding bundle images to the index image.

You can update an existing index image using the opm index add command.

Prerequisites

  • opm
  • podman version 1.9.3+
  • An index image built and pushed to a registry.
  • An existing catalog source referencing the index image.

Procedure

  1. Update the existing index by adding bundle images:

    $ opm index add \
        --bundles <registry>/<namespace>/<new_bundle_image>@sha256:<digest> \1
        --from-index <registry>/<namespace>/<existing_index_image>:<existing_tag> \2
        --tag <registry>/<namespace>/<existing_index_image>:<updated_tag> \3
        --pull-tool podman 4
    1
    The --bundles flag specifies a comma-separated list of additional bundle images to add to the index.
    2
    The --from-index flag specifies the previously pushed index.
    3
    The --tag flag specifies the image tag to apply to the updated index image.
    4
    The --pull-tool flag specifies the tool used to pull container images.

    where:

    <registry>
    Specifies the hostname of the registry, such as quay.io or mirror.example.com.
    <namespace>
    Specifies the namespace of the registry, such as ocs-dev or abc.
    <new_bundle_image>
    Specifies the new bundle image to add to the registry, such as ocs-operator.
    <digest>
    Specifies the SHA image ID, or digest, of the bundle image, such as c7f11097a628f092d8bad148406aa0e0951094a03445fd4bc0775431ef683a41.
    <existing_index_image>
    Specifies the previously pushed image, such as abc-redhat-operator-index.
    <existing_tag>
    Specifies a previously pushed image tag, such as 4.11.
    <updated_tag>
    Specifies the image tag to apply to the updated index image, such as 4.11.1.

    Example command

    $ opm index add \
        --bundles quay.io/ocs-dev/ocs-operator@sha256:c7f11097a628f092d8bad148406aa0e0951094a03445fd4bc0775431ef683a41 \
        --from-index mirror.example.com/abc/abc-redhat-operator-index:4.11 \
        --tag mirror.example.com/abc/abc-redhat-operator-index:4.11.1 \
        --pull-tool podman

  2. Push the updated index image:

    $ podman push <registry>/<namespace>/<existing_index_image>:<updated_tag>
  3. After Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) automatically polls the index image referenced in the catalog source at its regular interval, verify that the new packages are successfully added:

    $ oc get packagemanifests -n openshift-marketplace

4.9.3.3. Filtering a SQLite-based index image

An index image, based on the Operator bundle format, is a containerized snapshot of an Operator catalog. You can filter, or prune, an index of all but a specified list of packages, which creates a copy of the source index containing only the Operators that you want.

Prerequisites

  • podman version 1.9.3+
  • grpcurl (third-party command-line tool)
  • opm
  • Access to a registry that supports Docker v2-2

Procedure

  1. Authenticate with your target registry:

    $ podman login <target_registry>
  2. Determine the list of packages you want to include in your pruned index.

    1. Run the source index image that you want to prune in a container. For example:

      $ podman run -p50051:50051 \
          -it registry.redhat.io/redhat/redhat-operator-index:v4.11

      Example output

      Trying to pull registry.redhat.io/redhat/redhat-operator-index:v4.11...
      Getting image source signatures
      Copying blob ae8a0c23f5b1 done
      ...
      INFO[0000] serving registry                              database=/database/index.db port=50051

    2. In a separate terminal session, use the grpcurl command to get a list of the packages provided by the index:

      $ grpcurl -plaintext localhost:50051 api.Registry/ListPackages > packages.out
    3. Inspect the packages.out file and identify which package names from this list you want to keep in your pruned index. For example:

      Example snippets of packages list

      ...
      {
        "name": "advanced-cluster-management"
      }
      ...
      {
        "name": "jaeger-product"
      }
      ...
      {
      {
        "name": "quay-operator"
      }
      ...

    4. In the terminal session where you executed the podman run command, press Ctrl and C to stop the container process.
  3. Run the following command to prune the source index of all but the specified packages:

    $ opm index prune \
        -f registry.redhat.io/redhat/redhat-operator-index:v4.11 \1
        -p advanced-cluster-management,jaeger-product,quay-operator \2
        [-i registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-operator-registry:v4.9] \3
        -t <target_registry>:<port>/<namespace>/redhat-operator-index:v4.11 4
    1
    Index to prune.
    2
    Comma-separated list of packages to keep.
    3
    Required only for IBM Power and IBM Z images: Operator Registry base image with the tag that matches the target OpenShift Container Platform cluster major and minor version.
    4
    Custom tag for new index image being built.
  4. Run the following command to push the new index image to your target registry:

    $ podman push <target_registry>:<port>/<namespace>/redhat-operator-index:v4.11

    where <namespace> is any existing namespace on the registry.

4.9.4. Adding a catalog source to a cluster

Adding a catalog source to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster enables the discovery and installation of Operators for users. Cluster administrators can create a CatalogSource object that references an index image. OperatorHub uses catalog sources to populate the user interface.

Prerequisites

  • An index image built and pushed to a registry.

Procedure

  1. Create a CatalogSource object that references your index image.

    1. Modify the following to your specifications and save it as a catalogSource.yaml file:

      apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1alpha1
      kind: CatalogSource
      metadata:
        name: my-operator-catalog
        namespace: openshift-marketplace 1
        annotations:
          olm.catalogImageTemplate: 2
            "<registry>/<namespace>/<index_image_name>:v{kube_major_version}.{kube_minor_version}.{kube_patch_version}"
      spec:
        sourceType: grpc
        image: <registry>/<namespace>/<index_image_name>:<tag> 3
        displayName: My Operator Catalog
        publisher: <publisher_name> 4
        updateStrategy:
          registryPoll: 5
            interval: 30m
      1
      If you want the catalog source to be available globally to users in all namespaces, specify the openshift-marketplace namespace. Otherwise, you can specify a different namespace for the catalog to be scoped and available only for that namespace.
      2
      Optional: Set the olm.catalogImageTemplate annotation to your index image name and use one or more of the Kubernetes cluster version variables as shown when constructing the template for the image tag.
      3
      Specify your index image.
      4
      Specify your name or an organization name publishing the catalog.
      5
      Catalog sources can automatically check for new versions to keep up to date.
    2. Use the file to create the CatalogSource object:

      $ oc apply -f catalogSource.yaml
  2. Verify the following resources are created successfully.

    1. Check the pods:

      $ oc get pods -n openshift-marketplace

      Example output

      NAME                                    READY   STATUS    RESTARTS  AGE
      my-operator-catalog-6njx6               1/1     Running   0         28s
      marketplace-operator-d9f549946-96sgr    1/1     Running   0         26h

    2. Check the catalog source:

      $ oc get catalogsource -n openshift-marketplace

      Example output

      NAME                  DISPLAY               TYPE PUBLISHER  AGE
      my-operator-catalog   My Operator Catalog   grpc            5s

    3. Check the package manifest:

      $ oc get packagemanifest -n openshift-marketplace

      Example output

      NAME                          CATALOG               AGE
      jaeger-product                My Operator Catalog   93s

You can now install the Operators from the OperatorHub page on your OpenShift Container Platform web console.

Additional resources

4.9.5. Accessing images for Operators from private registries

If certain images relevant to Operators managed by Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) are hosted in an authenticated container image registry, also known as a private registry, OLM and OperatorHub are unable to pull the images by default. To enable access, you can create a pull secret that contains the authentication credentials for the registry. By referencing one or more pull secrets in a catalog source, OLM can handle placing the secrets in the Operator and catalog namespace to allow installation.

Other images required by an Operator or its Operands might require access to private registries as well. OLM does not handle placing the secrets in target tenant namespaces for this scenario, but authentication credentials can be added to the global cluster pull secret or individual namespace service accounts to enable the required access.

The following types of images should be considered when determining whether Operators managed by OLM have appropriate pull access:

Index images
A CatalogSource object can reference an index image, which use the Operator bundle format and are catalog sources packaged as container images hosted in images registries. If an index image is hosted in a private registry, a secret can be used to enable pull access.
Bundle images
Operator bundle images are metadata and manifests packaged as container images that represent a unique version of an Operator. If any bundle images referenced in a catalog source are hosted in one or more private registries, a secret can be used to enable pull access.
Operator and Operand images

If an Operator installed from a catalog source uses a private image, either for the Operator image itself or one of the Operand images it watches, the Operator will fail to install because the deployment will not have access to the required registry authentication. Referencing secrets in a catalog source does not enable OLM to place the secrets in target tenant namespaces in which Operands are installed.

Instead, the authentication details can be added to the global cluster pull secret in the openshift-config namespace, which provides access to all namespaces on the cluster. Alternatively, if providing access to the entire cluster is not permissible, the pull secret can be added to the default service accounts of the target tenant namespaces.

Prerequisites

  • At least one of the following hosted in a private registry:

    • An index image or catalog image.
    • An Operator bundle image.
    • An Operator or Operand image.

Procedure

  1. Create a secret for each required private registry.

    1. Log in to the private registry to create or update your registry credentials file:

      $ podman login <registry>:<port>
      Note

      The file path of your registry credentials can be different depending on the container tool used to log in to the registry. For the podman CLI, the default location is ${XDG_RUNTIME_DIR}/containers/auth.json. For the docker CLI, the default location is /root/.docker/config.json.

    2. It is recommended to include credentials for only one registry per secret, and manage credentials for multiple registries in separate secrets. Multiple secrets can be included in a CatalogSource object in later steps, and OpenShift Container Platform will merge the secrets into a single virtual credentials file for use during an image pull.

      A registry credentials file can, by default, store details for more than one registry or for multiple repositories in one registry. Verify the current contents of your file. For example:

      File storing credentials for multiple registries

      {
          "auths": {
              "registry.redhat.io": {
                  "auth": "FrNHNydQXdzclNqdg=="
              },
              "quay.io": {
                  "auth": "fegdsRib21iMQ=="
              },
              "https://quay.io/my-namespace/my-user/my-image": {
                  "auth": "eWfjwsDdfsa221=="
              },
              "https://quay.io/my-namespace/my-user": {
                  "auth": "feFweDdscw34rR=="
              },
              "https://quay.io/my-namespace": {
                  "auth": "frwEews4fescyq=="
              }
          }
      }

      Because this file is used to create secrets in later steps, ensure that you are storing details for only one registry per file. This can be accomplished by using either of the following methods:

      • Use the podman logout <registry> command to remove credentials for additional registries until only the one registry you want remains.
      • Edit your registry credentials file and separate the registry details to be stored in multiple files. For example:

        File storing credentials for one registry

        {
                "auths": {
                        "registry.redhat.io": {
                                "auth": "FrNHNydQXdzclNqdg=="
                        }
                }
        }

        File storing credentials for another registry

        {
                "auths": {
                        "quay.io": {
                                "auth": "Xd2lhdsbnRib21iMQ=="
                        }
                }
        }

    3. Create a secret in the openshift-marketplace namespace that contains the authentication credentials for a private registry:

      $ oc create secret generic <secret_name> \
          -n openshift-marketplace \
          --from-file=.dockerconfigjson=<path/to/registry/credentials> \
          --type=kubernetes.io/dockerconfigjson

      Repeat this step to create additional secrets for any other required private registries, updating the --from-file flag to specify another registry credentials file path.

  2. Create or update an existing CatalogSource object to reference one or more secrets:

    apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1alpha1
    kind: CatalogSource
    metadata:
      name: my-operator-catalog
      namespace: openshift-marketplace
    spec:
      sourceType: grpc
      secrets: 1
      - "<secret_name_1>"
      - "<secret_name_2>"
      image: <registry>:<port>/<namespace>/<image>:<tag>
      displayName: My Operator Catalog
      publisher: <publisher_name>
      updateStrategy:
        registryPoll:
          interval: 30m
    1
    Add a spec.secrets section and specify any required secrets.
  3. If any Operator or Operand images that are referenced by a subscribed Operator require access to a private registry, you can either provide access to all namespaces in the cluster, or individual target tenant namespaces.

    • To provide access to all namespaces in the cluster, add authentication details to the global cluster pull secret in the openshift-config namespace.

      Warning

      Cluster resources must adjust to the new global pull secret, which can temporarily limit the usability of the cluster.

      1. Extract the .dockerconfigjson file from the global pull secret:

        $ oc extract secret/pull-secret -n openshift-config --confirm
      2. Update the .dockerconfigjson file with your authentication credentials for the required private registry or registries and save it as a new file:

        $ cat .dockerconfigjson | \
            jq --compact-output '.auths["<registry>:<port>/<namespace>/"] |= . + {"auth":"<token>"}' \1
            > new_dockerconfigjson
        1
        Replace <registry>:<port>/<namespace> with the private registry details and <token> with your authentication credentials.
      3. Update the global pull secret with the new file:

        $ oc set data secret/pull-secret -n openshift-config \
            --from-file=.dockerconfigjson=new_dockerconfigjson
    • To update an individual namespace, add a pull secret to the service account for the Operator that requires access in the target tenant namespace.

      1. Recreate the secret that you created for the openshift-marketplace in the tenant namespace:

        $ oc create secret generic <secret_name> \
            -n <tenant_namespace> \
            --from-file=.dockerconfigjson=<path/to/registry/credentials> \
            --type=kubernetes.io/dockerconfigjson
      2. Verify the name of the service account for the Operator by searching the tenant namespace:

        $ oc get sa -n <tenant_namespace> 1
        1
        If the Operator was installed in an individual namespace, search that namespace. If the Operator was installed for all namespaces, search the openshift-operators namespace.

        Example output

        NAME            SECRETS   AGE
        builder         2         6m1s
        default         2         6m1s
        deployer        2         6m1s
        etcd-operator   2         5m18s 1

        1
        Service account for an installed etcd Operator.
      3. Link the secret to the service account for the Operator:

        $ oc secrets link <operator_sa> \
            -n <tenant_namespace> \
             <secret_name> \
            --for=pull

Additional resources

4.9.6. Disabling the default OperatorHub sources

Operator catalogs that source content provided by Red Hat and community projects are configured for OperatorHub by default during an OpenShift Container Platform installation. As a cluster administrator, you can disable the set of default catalogs.

Procedure

  • Disable the sources for the default catalogs by adding disableAllDefaultSources: true to the OperatorHub object:

    $ oc patch OperatorHub cluster --type json \
        -p '[{"op": "add", "path": "/spec/disableAllDefaultSources", "value": true}]'
Tip

Alternatively, you can use the web console to manage catalog sources. From the AdministrationCluster SettingsConfigurationOperatorHub page, click the Sources tab, where you can create, delete, disable, and enable individual sources.

4.9.7. Removing custom catalogs

As a cluster administrator, you can remove custom Operator catalogs that have been previously added to your cluster by deleting the related catalog source.

Procedure

  1. In the Administrator perspective of the web console, navigate to AdministrationCluster Settings.
  2. Click the Configuration tab, and then click OperatorHub.
  3. Click the Sources tab.
  4. Select the Options menu kebab for the catalog that you want to remove, and then click Delete CatalogSource.

4.10. Using Operator Lifecycle Manager on restricted networks

For OpenShift Container Platform clusters that are installed on restricted networks, also known as disconnected clusters, Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) by default cannot access the Red Hat-provided OperatorHub sources hosted on remote registries because those remote sources require full internet connectivity.

However, as a cluster administrator you can still enable your cluster to use OLM in a restricted network if you have a workstation that has full internet access. The workstation, which requires full internet access to pull the remote OperatorHub content, is used to prepare local mirrors of the remote sources, and push the content to a mirror registry.

The mirror registry can be located on a bastion host, which requires connectivity to both your workstation and the disconnected cluster, or a completely disconnected, or airgapped, host, which requires removable media to physically move the mirrored content to the disconnected environment.

This guide describes the following process that is required to enable OLM in restricted networks:

  • Disable the default remote OperatorHub sources for OLM.
  • Use a workstation with full internet access to create and push local mirrors of the OperatorHub content to a mirror registry.
  • Configure OLM to install and manage Operators from local sources on the mirror registry instead of the default remote sources.

After enabling OLM in a restricted network, you can continue to use your unrestricted workstation to keep your local OperatorHub sources updated as newer versions of Operators are released.

Important

While OLM can manage Operators from local sources, the ability for a given Operator to run successfully in a restricted network still depends on the Operator itself. The Operator must:

  • List any related images, or other container images that the Operator might require to perform their functions, in the relatedImages parameter of its ClusterServiceVersion (CSV) object.
  • Reference all specified images by a digest (SHA) and not by a tag.

You can search on the Red Hat Ecosystem Catalog for a list of Red Hat Operators that support running in disconnected mode by selecting the Disconnected filter under Infrastucture Features:

https://catalog.redhat.com/software/operators/search

4.10.1. Prerequisites

  • Log in to your OpenShift Container Platform cluster as a user with cluster-admin privileges.
  • If you want to prune the default catalog and selectively mirror only a subset of Operators, install the opm CLI.
Note

If you are using OLM in a restricted network on IBM Z, you must have at least 12 GB allocated to the directory where you place your registry.

4.10.2. Disabling the default OperatorHub sources

Operator catalogs that source content provided by Red Hat and community projects are configured for OperatorHub by default during an OpenShift Container Platform installation. In a restricted network environment, you must disable the default catalogs as a cluster administrator. You can then configure OperatorHub to use local catalog sources.

Procedure

  • Disable the sources for the default catalogs by adding disableAllDefaultSources: true to the OperatorHub object:

    $ oc patch OperatorHub cluster --type json \
        -p '[{"op": "add", "path": "/spec/disableAllDefaultSources", "value": true}]'
Tip

Alternatively, you can use the web console to manage catalog sources. From the AdministrationCluster SettingsConfigurationOperatorHub page, click the Sources tab, where you can create, delete, disable, and enable individual sources.

4.10.3. Filtering a SQLite-based index image

An index image, based on the Operator bundle format, is a containerized snapshot of an Operator catalog. You can filter, or prune, an index of all but a specified list of packages, which creates a copy of the source index containing only the Operators that you want.

When configuring Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) to use mirrored content on restricted network OpenShift Container Platform clusters, use this pruning method if you want to only mirror a subset of Operators from the default catalogs.

For the steps in this procedure, the target registry is an existing mirror registry that is accessible by your workstation with unrestricted network access. This example also shows pruning the index image for the default redhat-operators catalog, but the process is the same for any index image.

Prerequisites

  • Workstation with unrestricted network access
  • podman version 1.9.3+
  • grpcurl (third-party command-line tool)
  • opm
  • Access to a registry that supports Docker v2-2

Procedure

  1. Authenticate with registry.redhat.io:

    $ podman login registry.redhat.io
  2. Authenticate with your target registry:

    $ podman login <target_registry>
  3. Determine the list of packages you want to include in your pruned index.

    1. Run the source index image that you want to prune in a container. For example:

      $ podman run -p50051:50051 \
          -it registry.redhat.io/redhat/redhat-operator-index:v4.11

      Example output

      Trying to pull registry.redhat.io/redhat/redhat-operator-index:v4.11...
      Getting image source signatures
      Copying blob ae8a0c23f5b1 done
      ...
      INFO[0000] serving registry                              database=/database/index.db port=50051

    2. In a separate terminal session, use the grpcurl command to get a list of the packages provided by the index:

      $ grpcurl -plaintext localhost:50051 api.Registry/ListPackages > packages.out
    3. Inspect the packages.out file and identify which package names from this list you want to keep in your pruned index. For example:

      Example snippets of packages list

      ...
      {
        "name": "advanced-cluster-management"
      }
      ...
      {
        "name": "jaeger-product"
      }
      ...
      {
      {
        "name": "quay-operator"
      }
      ...

    4. In the terminal session where you executed the podman run command, press Ctrl and C to stop the container process.
  4. Run the following command to prune the source index of all but the specified packages:

    $ opm index prune \
        -f registry.redhat.io/redhat/redhat-operator-index:v4.11 \1
        -p advanced-cluster-management,jaeger-product,quay-operator \2
        [-i registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-operator-registry:v4.9] \3
        -t <target_registry>:<port>/<namespace>/redhat-operator-index:v4.11 4
    1
    Index to prune.
    2
    Comma-separated list of packages to keep.
    3
    Required only for IBM Power and IBM Z images: Operator Registry base image with the tag that matches the target OpenShift Container Platform cluster major and minor version.
    4
    Custom tag for new index image being built.
  5. Run the following command to push the new index image to your target registry:

    $ podman push <target_registry>:<port>/<namespace>/redhat-operator-index:v4.11

    where <namespace> is any existing namespace on the registry. For example, you might create an olm-mirror namespace to push all mirrored content to.

4.10.4. Mirroring an Operator catalog

For instructions about mirroring Operator catalogs for use with disconnected clusters, see Installing → Mirroring images for a disconnected installation.

Important

As of OpenShift Container Platform 4.11, the default Red Hat-provided Operator catalog releases in the file-based catalog format. The default Red Hat-provided Operator catalogs for OpenShift Container Platform 4.6 through 4.10 released in the deprecated SQLite database format.

The opm subcommands, flags, and functionality related to the SQLite database format are also deprecated and will be removed in a future release. The features are still supported and must be used for catalogs that use the deprecated SQLite database format.

Many of the opm subcommands and flags for working with the SQLite database format, such as opm index prune, do not work with the file-based catalog format. For more information about working with file-based catalogs, see Operator Framework packaging format, Managing custom catalogs, and Mirroring images for a disconnected installation using the oc-mirror plug-in.

4.10.5. Adding a catalog source to a cluster

Adding a catalog source to an OpenShift Container Platform cluster enables the discovery and installation of Operators for users. Cluster administrators can create a CatalogSource object that references an index image. OperatorHub uses catalog sources to populate the user interface.

Prerequisites

  • An index image built and pushed to a registry.

Procedure

  1. Create a CatalogSource object that references your index image. If you used the oc adm catalog mirror command to mirror your catalog to a target registry, you can use the generated catalogSource.yaml file in your manifests directory as a starting point.

    1. Modify the following to your specifications and save it as a catalogSource.yaml file:

      apiVersion: operators.coreos.com/v1alpha1
      kind: CatalogSource
      metadata:
        name: my-operator-catalog 1
        namespace: openshift-marketplace 2
      spec:
        sourceType: grpc
        image: <registry>/<namespace>/redhat-operator-index:v4.11 3
        displayName: My Operator Catalog
        publisher: <publisher_name> 4
        updateStrategy:
          registryPoll: 5
            interval: 30m
      1
      If you mirrored content to local files before uploading to a registry, remove any backslash (/) characters from the metadata.name field to avoid an "invalid resource name" error when you create the object.
      2
      If you want the catalog source to be available globally to users in all namespaces, specify the openshift-marketplace namespace. Otherwise, you can specify a different namespace for the catalog to be scoped and available only for that namespace.
      3
      Specify your index image.
      4
      Specify your name or an organization name publishing the catalog.
      5
      Catalog sources can automatically check for new versions to keep up to date.
    2. Use the file to create the CatalogSource object:

      $ oc apply -f catalogSource.yaml
  2. Verify the following resources are created successfully.

    1. Check the pods:

      $ oc get pods -n openshift-marketplace

      Example output

      NAME                                    READY   STATUS    RESTARTS  AGE
      my-operator-catalog-6njx6               1/1     Running   0         28s
      marketplace-operator-d9f549946-96sgr    1/1     Running   0         26h

    2. Check the catalog source:

      $ oc get catalogsource -n openshift-marketplace

      Example output

      NAME                  DISPLAY               TYPE PUBLISHER  AGE
      my-operator-catalog   My Operator Catalog   grpc            5s

    3. Check the package manifest:

      $ oc get packagemanifest -n openshift-marketplace

      Example output

      NAME                          CATALOG               AGE
      jaeger-product                My Operator Catalog   93s

You can now install the Operators from the OperatorHub page on your OpenShift Container Platform web console.

Additional resources

4.10.6. Updating a SQLite-based index image

After configuring OperatorHub to use a catalog source that references a custom index image, cluster administrators can keep the available Operators on their cluster up to date by adding bundle images to the index image.

You can update an existing index image using the opm index add command. For restricted networks, the updated content must also be mirrored again to the cluster.

Prerequisites

  • opm
  • podman version 1.9.3+
  • An index image built and pushed to a registry.
  • An existing catalog source referencing the index image.

Procedure

  1. Update the existing index by adding bundle images:

    $ opm index add \
        --bundles <registry>/<namespace>/<new_bundle_image>@sha256:<digest> \1
        --from-index <registry>/<namespace>/<existing_index_image>:<existing_tag> \2
        --tag <registry>/<namespace>/<existing_index_image>:<updated_tag> \3
        --pull-tool podman 4
    1
    The --bundles flag specifies a comma-separated list of additional bundle images to add to the index.
    2
    The --from-index flag specifies the previously pushed index.
    3
    The --tag flag specifies the image tag to apply to the updated index image.
    4
    The --pull-tool flag specifies the tool used to pull container images.

    where:

    <registry>
    Specifies the hostname of the registry, such as quay.io or mirror.example.com.
    <namespace>
    Specifies the namespace of the registry, such as ocs-dev or abc.
    <new_bundle_image>
    Specifies the new bundle image to add to the registry, such as ocs-operator.
    <digest>
    Specifies the SHA image ID, or digest, of the bundle image, such as c7f11097a628f092d8bad148406aa0e0951094a03445fd4bc0775431ef683a41.
    <existing_index_image>
    Specifies the previously pushed image, such as abc-redhat-operator-index.
    <existing_tag>
    Specifies a previously pushed image tag, such as 4.11.
    <updated_tag>
    Specifies the image tag to apply to the updated index image, such as 4.11.1.

    Example command

    $ opm index add \
        --bundles quay.io/ocs-dev/ocs-operator@sha256:c7f11097a628f092d8bad148406aa0e0951094a03445fd4bc0775431ef683a41 \
        --from-index mirror.example.com/abc/abc-redhat-operator-index:4.11 \
        --tag mirror.example.com/abc/abc-redhat-operator-index:4.11.1 \
        --pull-tool podman

  2. Push the updated index image:

    $ podman push <registry>/<namespace>/<existing_index_image>:<updated_tag>
  3. Follow the steps in the Mirroring an Operator catalog procedure again to mirror the updated content. However, when you get to the step about creating the ImageContentSourcePolicy (ICSP) object, use the oc replace command instead of the oc create command. For example:

    $ oc replace -f ./manifests-redhat-operator-index-<random_number>/imageContentSourcePolicy.yaml

    This change is required because the object already exists and must be updated.

    Note

    Normally, the oc apply command can be used to update existing objects that were previously created using oc apply. However, due to a known issue regarding the size of the metadata.annotations field in ICSP objects, the oc replace command must be used for this step currently.

  4. After Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) automatically polls the index image referenced in the catalog source at its regular interval, verify that the new packages are successfully added:

    $ oc get packagemanifests -n openshift-marketplace

Additional resources

Chapter 5. Developing Operators

5.1. About the Operator SDK

The Operator Framework is an open source toolkit to manage Kubernetes native applications, called Operators, in an effective, automated, and scalable way. Operators take advantage of Kubernetes extensibility to deliver the automation advantages of cloud services, like provisioning, scaling, and backup and restore, while being able to run anywhere that Kubernetes can run.

Operators make it easy to manage complex, stateful applications on top of Kubernetes. However, writing an Operator today can be difficult because of challenges such as using low-level APIs, writing boilerplate, and a lack of modularity, which leads to duplication.

The Operator SDK, a component of the Operator Framework, provides a command-line interface (CLI) tool that Operator developers can use to build, test, and deploy an Operator.

Why use the Operator SDK?

The Operator SDK simplifies this process of building Kubernetes-native applications, which can require deep, application-specific operational knowledge. The Operator SDK not only lowers that barrier, but it also helps reduce the amount of boilerplate code required for many common management capabilities, such as metering or monitoring.

The Operator SDK is a framework that uses the controller-runtime library to make writing Operators easier by providing the following features:

  • High-level APIs and abstractions to write the operational logic more intuitively
  • Tools for scaffolding and code generation to quickly bootstrap a new project
  • Integration with Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) to streamline packaging, installing, and running Operators on a cluster
  • Extensions to cover common Operator use cases
  • Metrics set up automatically in any generated Go-based Operator for use on clusters where the Prometheus Operator is deployed

Operator authors with cluster administrator access to a Kubernetes-based cluster (such as OpenShift Container Platform) can use the Operator SDK CLI to develop their own Operators based on Go, Ansible, or Helm. Kubebuilder is embedded into the Operator SDK as the scaffolding solution for Go-based Operators, which means existing Kubebuilder projects can be used as is with the Operator SDK and continue to work.

Note

OpenShift Container Platform 4.11 supports Operator SDK v1.22.0 or later.

5.1.1. What are Operators?

For an overview about basic Operator concepts and terminology, see Understanding Operators.

5.1.2. Development workflow

The Operator SDK provides the following workflow to develop a new Operator:

  1. Create an Operator project by using the Operator SDK command-line interface (CLI).
  2. Define new resource APIs by adding custom resource definitions (CRDs).
  3. Specify resources to watch by using the Operator SDK API.
  4. Define the Operator reconciling logic in a designated handler and use the Operator SDK API to interact with resources.
  5. Use the Operator SDK CLI to build and generate the Operator deployment manifests.

Figure 5.1. Operator SDK workflow

osdk workflow

At a high level, an Operator that uses the Operator SDK processes events for watched resources in an Operator author-defined handler and takes actions to reconcile the state of the application.

5.1.3. Additional resources

5.2. Installing the Operator SDK CLI

The Operator SDK provides a command-line interface (CLI) tool that Operator developers can use to build, test, and deploy an Operator. You can install the Operator SDK CLI on your workstation so that you are prepared to start authoring your own Operators.

Operator authors with cluster administrator access to a Kubernetes-based cluster, such as OpenShift Container Platform, can use the Operator SDK CLI to develop their own Operators based on Go, Ansible, or Helm. Kubebuilder is embedded into the Operator SDK as the scaffolding solution for Go-based Operators, which means existing Kubebuilder projects can be used as is with the Operator SDK and continue to work.

Note

OpenShift Container Platform 4.11 supports Operator SDK v1.22.0.

5.2.1. Installing the Operator SDK CLI

You can install the OpenShift SDK CLI tool on Linux.

Prerequisites

  • Go v1.18+
  • docker v17.03+, podman v1.9.3+, or buildah v1.7+

Procedure

  1. Navigate to the OpenShift mirror site.
  2. From the latest 4.11 directory, download the latest version of the tarball for Linux.
  3. Unpack the archive:

    $ tar xvf operator-sdk-v1.22.0-ocp-linux-x86_64.tar.gz
  4. Make the file executable:

    $ chmod +x operator-sdk
  5. Move the extracted operator-sdk binary to a directory that is on your PATH.

    Tip

    To check your PATH:

    $ echo $PATH
    $ sudo mv ./operator-sdk /usr/local/bin/operator-sdk

Verification

  • After you install the Operator SDK CLI, verify that it is available:

    $ operator-sdk version

    Example output

    operator-sdk version: "v1.22.0-ocp", ...

5.3. Go-based Operators

5.3.1. Getting started with Operator SDK for Go-based Operators

To demonstrate the basics of setting up and running a Go-based Operator using tools and libraries provided by the Operator SDK, Operator developers can build an example Go-based Operator for Memcached, a distributed key-value store, and deploy it to a cluster.

5.3.1.1. Prerequisites

  • Operator SDK CLI installed
  • OpenShift CLI (oc) v4.11+ installed
  • Go v1.18+
  • Logged into an OpenShift Container Platform 4.11 cluster with oc with an account that has cluster-admin permissions
  • To allow the cluster to pull the image, the repository where you push your image must be set as public, or you must configure an image pull secret

5.3.1.2. Creating and deploying Go-based Operators

You can build and deploy a simple Go-based Operator for Memcached by using the Operator SDK.

Procedure

  1. Create a project.

    1. Create your project directory:

      $ mkdir memcached-operator
    2. Change into the project directory:

      $ cd memcached-operator
    3. Run the operator-sdk init command to initialize the project:

      $ operator-sdk init \
          --domain=example.com \
          --repo=github.com/example-inc/memcached-operator

      The command uses the Go plug-in by default.

  2. Create an API.

    Create a simple Memcached API:

    $ operator-sdk create api \
        --resource=true \
        --controller=true \
        --group cache \
        --version v1 \
        --kind Memcached
  3. Build and push the Operator image.

    Use the default Makefile targets to build and push your Operator. Set IMG with a pull spec for your image that uses a registry you can push to:

    $ make docker-build docker-push IMG=<registry>/<user>/<image_name>:<tag>
  4. Run the Operator.

    1. Install the CRD:

      $ make install
    2. Deploy the project to the cluster. Set IMG to the image that you pushed:

      $ make deploy IMG=<registry>/<user>/<image_name>:<tag>
  5. Create a sample custom resource (CR).

    1. Create a sample CR:

      $ oc apply -f config/samples/cache_v1_memcached.yaml \
          -n memcached-operator-system
    2. Watch for the CR to reconcile the Operator:

      $ oc logs deployment.apps/memcached-operator-controller-manager \
          -c manager \
          -n memcached-operator-system
  6. Clean up.

    Run the following command to clean up the resources that have been created as part of this procedure:

    $ make undeploy

5.3.1.3. Next steps

5.3.2. Operator SDK tutorial for Go-based Operators

Operator developers can take advantage of Go programming language support in the Operator SDK to build an example Go-based Operator for Memcached, a distributed key-value store, and manage its lifecycle.

This process is accomplished using two centerpieces of the Operator Framework:

Operator SDK
The operator-sdk CLI tool and controller-runtime library API
Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM)
Installation, upgrade, and role-based access control (RBAC) of Operators on a cluster
Note

This tutorial goes into greater detail than Getting started with Operator SDK for Go-based Operators.

5.3.2.1. Prerequisites

  • Operator SDK CLI installed
  • OpenShift CLI (oc) v4.11+ installed
  • Go v1.18+
  • Logged into an OpenShift Container Platform 4.11 cluster with oc with an account that has cluster-admin permissions
  • To allow the cluster to pull the image, the repository where you push your image must be set as public, or you must configure an image pull secret

5.3.2.2. Creating a project

Use the Operator SDK CLI to create a project called memcached-operator.

Procedure

  1. Create a directory for the project:

    $ mkdir -p $HOME/projects/memcached-operator
  2. Change to the directory:

    $ cd $HOME/projects/memcached-operator
  3. Activate support for Go modules:

    $ export GO111MODULE=on
  4. Run the operator-sdk init command to initialize the project:

    $ operator-sdk init \
        --domain=example.com \
        --repo=github.com/example-inc/memcached-operator
    Note

    The operator-sdk init command uses the Go plug-in by default.

    The operator-sdk init command generates a go.mod file to be used with Go modules. The --repo flag is required when creating a project outside of $GOPATH/src/, because generated files require a valid module path.

5.3.2.2.1. PROJECT file

Among the files generated by the operator-sdk init command is a Kubebuilder PROJECT file. Subsequent operator-sdk commands, as well as help output, that are run from the project root read this file and are aware that the project type is Go. For example:

domain: example.com
layout: go.kubebuilder.io/v3
projectName: memcached-operator
repo: github.com/example-inc/memcached-operator
version: 3
plugins:
  manifests.sdk.operatorframework.io/v2: {}
  scorecard.sdk.operatorframework.io/v2: {}
5.3.2.2.2. About the Manager

The main program for the Operator is the main.go file, which initializes and runs the Manager. The Manager automatically registers the Scheme for all custom resource (CR) API definitions and sets up and runs controllers and webhooks.

The Manager can restrict the namespace that all controllers watch for resources:

mgr, err := ctrl.NewManager(cfg, manager.Options{Namespace: namespace})

By default, the Manager watches the namespace where the Operator runs. To watch all namespaces, you can leave the namespace option empty:

mgr, err := ctrl.NewManager(cfg, manager.Options{Namespace: ""})

You can also use the MultiNamespacedCacheBuilder function to watch a specific set of namespaces:

var namespaces []string 1
mgr, err := ctrl.NewManager(cfg, manager.Options{ 2
   NewCache: cache.MultiNamespacedCacheBuilder(namespaces),
})
1
List of namespaces.
2
Creates a Cmd struct to provide shared dependencies and start components.
5.3.2.2.3. About multi-group APIs

Before you create an API and controller, consider whether your Operator requires multiple API groups. This tutorial covers the default case of a single group API, but to change the layout of your project to support multi-group APIs, you can run the following command:

$ operator-sdk edit --multigroup=true

This command updates the PROJECT file, which should look like the following example:

domain: example.com
layout: go.kubebuilder.io/v3
multigroup: true
...

For multi-group projects, the API Go type files are created in the apis/<group>/<version>/ directory, and the controllers are created in the controllers/<group>/ directory. The Dockerfile is then updated accordingly.

Additional resource

5.3.2.3. Creating an API and controller

Use the Operator SDK CLI to create a custom resource definition (CRD) API and controller.

Procedure

  1. Run the following command to create an API with group cache, version, v1, and kind Memcached:

    $ operator-sdk create api \
        --group=cache \
        --version=v1 \
        --kind=Memcached
  2. When prompted, enter y for creating both the resource and controller:

    Create Resource [y/n]
    y
    Create Controller [y/n]
    y

    Example output

    Writing scaffold for you to edit...
    api/v1/memcached_types.go
    controllers/memcached_controller.go
    ...

This process generates the Memcached resource API at api/v1/memcached_types.go and the controller at controllers/memcached_controller.go.

5.3.2.3.1. Defining the API

Define the API for the Memcached custom resource (CR).

Procedure

  1. Modify the Go type definitions at api/v1/memcached_types.go to have the following spec and status:

    // MemcachedSpec defines the desired state of Memcached
    type MemcachedSpec struct {
    	// +kubebuilder:validation:Minimum=0
    	// Size is the size of the memcached deployment
    	Size int32 `json:"size"`
    }
    
    // MemcachedStatus defines the observed state of Memcached
    type MemcachedStatus struct {
    	// Nodes are the names of the memcached pods
    	Nodes []string `json:"nodes"`
    }
  2. Update the generated code for the resource type:

    $ make generate
    Tip

    After you modify a *_types.go file, you must run the make generate command to update the generated code for that resource type.

    The above Makefile target invokes the controller-gen utility to update the api/v1/zz_generated.deepcopy.go file. This ensures your API Go type definitions implement the runtime.Object interface that all Kind types must implement.

5.3.2.3.2. Generating CRD manifests

After the API is defined with spec and status fields and custom resource definition (CRD) validation markers, you can generate CRD manifests.

Procedure

  • Run the following command to generate and update CRD manifests:

    $ make manifests

    This Makefile target invokes the controller-gen utility to generate the CRD manifests in the config/crd/bases/cache.example.com_memcacheds.yaml file.

5.3.2.3.2.1. About OpenAPI validation

OpenAPIv3 schemas are added to CRD manifests in the spec.validation block when the manifests are generated. This validation block allows Kubernetes to validate the properties in a Memcached custom resource (CR) when it is created or updated.

Markers, or annotations, are available to configure validations for your API. These markers always have a +kubebuilder:validation prefix.

Additional resources

5.3.2.4. Implementing the controller

After creating a new API and controller, you can implement the controller logic.

Procedure

  • For this example, replace the generated controller file controllers/memcached_controller.go with following example implementation:

    Example 5.1. Example memcached_controller.go

    /*
    Copyright 2020.
    
    Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
    you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
    You may obtain a copy of the License at
    
        http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
    
    Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
    distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
    WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
    See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
    limitations under the License.
    */
    
    package controllers
    
    import (
    	appsv1 "k8s.io/api/apps/v1"
    	corev1 "k8s.io/api/core/v1"
    	"k8s.io/apimachinery/pkg/api/errors"
    	metav1 "k8s.io/apimachinery/pkg/apis/meta/v1"
    	"k8s.io/apimachinery/pkg/types"
    	"reflect"
    
    	"context"
    
    	"github.com/go-logr/logr"
    	"k8s.io/apimachinery/pkg/runtime"
    	ctrl "sigs.k8s.io/controller-runtime"
    	"sigs.k8s.io/controller-runtime/pkg/client"
    
    	cachev1alpha1 "github.com/example/memcached-operator/api/v1alpha1"
    )
    
    // MemcachedReconciler reconciles a Memcached object
    type MemcachedReconciler struct {
    	client.Client
    	Log    logr.Logger
    	Scheme *runtime.Scheme
    }
    
    // +kubebuilder:rbac:groups=cache.example.com,resources=memcacheds,verbs=get;list;watch;create;update;patch;delete
    // +kubebuilder:rbac:groups=cache.example.com,resources=memcacheds/status,verbs=get;update;patch
    // +kubebuilder:rbac:groups=cache.example.com,resources=memcacheds/finalizers,verbs=update
    // +kubebuilder:rbac:groups=apps,resources=deployments,verbs=get;list;watch;create;update;patch;delete
    // +kubebuilder:rbac:groups=core,resources=pods,verbs=get;list;
    
    // Reconcile is part of the main kubernetes reconciliation loop which aims to
    // move the current state of the cluster closer to the desired state.
    // TODO(user): Modify the Reconcile function to compare the state specified by
    // the Memcached object against the actual cluster state, and then
    // perform operations to make the cluster state reflect the state specified by
    // the user.
    //
    // For more details, check Reconcile and its Result here:
    // - https://pkg.go.dev/sigs.k8s.io/controller-runtime@v0.7.0/pkg/reconcile
    func (r *MemcachedReconciler) Reconcile(ctx context.Context, req ctrl.Request) (ctrl.Result, error) {
    	log := r.Log.WithValues("memcached", req.NamespacedName)
    
    	// Fetch the Memcached instance
    	memcached := &cachev1alpha1.Memcached{}
    	err := r.Get(ctx, req.NamespacedName, memcached)
    	if err != nil {
    		if errors.IsNotFound(err) {
    			// Request object not found, could have been deleted after reconcile request.
    			// Owned objects are automatically garbage collected. For additional cleanup logic use finalizers.
    			// Return and don't requeue
    			log.Info("Memcached resource not found. Ignoring since object must be deleted")
    			return ctrl.Result{}, nil
    		}
    		// Error reading the object - requeue the request.
    		log.Error(err, "Failed to get Memcached")
    		return ctrl.Result{}, err
    	}
    
    	// Check if the deployment already exists, if not create a new one
    	found := &appsv1.Deployment{}
    	err = r.Get(ctx, types.NamespacedName{Name: memcached.Name, Namespace: memcached.Namespace}, found)
    	if err != nil && errors.IsNotFound(err) {
    		// Define a new deployment
    		dep := r.deploymentForMemcached(memcached)
    		log.Info("Creating a new Deployment", "Deployment.Namespace", dep.Namespace, "Deployment.Name", dep.Name)
    		err = r.Create(ctx, dep)
    		if err != nil {
    			log.Error(err, "Failed to create new Deployment", "Deployment.Namespace", dep.Namespace, "Deployment.Name", dep.Name)
    			return ctrl.Result{}, err
    		}
    		// Deployment created successfully - return and requeue
    		return ctrl.Result{Requeue: true}, nil
    	} else if err != nil {
    		log.Error(err, "Failed to get Deployment")
    		return ctrl.Result{}, err
    	}
    
    	// Ensure the deployment size is the same as the spec
    	size := memcached.Spec.Size
    	if *found.Spec.Replicas != size {
    		found.Spec.Replicas = &size
    		err = r.Update(ctx, found)
    		if err != nil {
    			log.Error(err, "Failed to update Deployment", "Deployment.Namespace", found.Namespace, "Deployment.Name", found.Name)
    			return ctrl.Result{}, err
    		}
    		// Spec updated - return and requeue
    		return ctrl.Result{Requeue: true}, nil
    	}
    
    	// Update the Memcached status with the pod names
    	// List the pods for this memcached's deployment
    	podList := &corev1.PodList{}
    	listOpts := []client.ListOption{
    		client.InNamespace(memcached.Namespace),
    		client.MatchingLabels(labelsForMemcached(memcached.Name)),
    	}
    	if err = r.List(ctx, podList, listOpts...); err != nil {
    		log.Error(err, "Failed to list pods", "Memcached.Namespace", memcached.Namespace, "Memcached.Name", memcached.Name)
    		return ctrl.Result{}, err
    	}
    	podNames := getPodNames(podList.Items)
    
    	// Update status.Nodes if needed
    	if !reflect.DeepEqual(podNames, memcached.Status.Nodes) {
    		memcached.Status.Nodes = podNames
    		err := r.Status().Update(ctx, memcached)
    		if err != nil {
    			log.Error(err, "Failed to update Memcached status")
    			return ctrl.Result{}, err
    		}
    	}
    
    	return ctrl.Result{}, nil
    }
    
    // deploymentForMemcached returns a memcached Deployment object
    func (r *MemcachedReconciler) deploymentForMemcached(m *cachev1alpha1.Memcached) *appsv1.Deployment {
    	ls := labelsForMemcached(m.Name)
    	replicas := m.Spec.Size
    
    	dep := &appsv1.Deployment{
    		ObjectMeta: metav1.ObjectMeta{
    			Name:      m.Name,
    			Namespace: m.Namespace,
    		},
    		Spec: appsv1.DeploymentSpec{
    			Replicas: &replicas,
    			Selector: &metav1.LabelSelector{
    				MatchLabels: ls,
    			},
    			Template: corev1.PodTemplateSpec{
    				ObjectMeta: metav1.ObjectMeta{
    					Labels: ls,
    				},
    				Spec: corev1.PodSpec{
    					Containers: []corev1.Container{{
    						Image:   "memcached:1.4.36-alpine",
    						Name:    "memcached",
    						Command: []string{"memcached", "-m=64", "-o", "modern", "-v"},
    						Ports: []corev1.ContainerPort{{
    							ContainerPort: 11211,
    							Name:          "memcached",
    						}},
    					}},
    				},
    			},
    		},
    	}
    	// Set Memcached instance as the owner and controller
    	ctrl.SetControllerReference(m, dep, r.Scheme)
    	return dep
    }
    
    // labelsForMemcached returns the labels for selecting the resources
    // belonging to the given memcached CR name.
    func labelsForMemcached(name string) map[string]string {
    	return map[string]string{"app": "memcached", "memcached_cr": name}
    }
    
    // getPodNames returns the pod names of the array of pods passed in
    func getPodNames(pods []corev1.Pod) []string {
    	var podNames []string
    	for _, pod := range pods {
    		podNames = append(podNames, pod.Name)
    	}
    	return podNames
    }
    
    // SetupWithManager sets up the controller with the Manager.
    func (r *MemcachedReconciler) SetupWithManager(mgr ctrl.Manager) error {
    	return ctrl.NewControllerManagedBy(mgr).
    		For(&cachev1alpha1.Memcached{}).
    		Owns(&appsv1.Deployment{}).
    		Complete(r)
    }

    The example controller runs the following reconciliation logic for each Memcached custom resource (CR):

    • Create a Memcached deployment if it does not exist.
    • Ensure that the deployment size is the same as specified by the Memcached CR spec.
    • Update the Memcached CR status with the names of the memcached pods.

The next subsections explain how the controller in the example implementation watches resources and how the reconcile loop is triggered. You can skip these subsections to go directly to Running the Operator.

5.3.2.4.1. Resources watched by the controller

The SetupWithManager() function in controllers/memcached_controller.go specifies how the controller is built to watch a CR and other resources that are owned and managed by that controller.

import (
	...
	appsv1 "k8s.io/api/apps/v1"
	...
)

func (r *MemcachedReconciler) SetupWithManager(mgr ctrl.Manager) error {
	return ctrl.NewControllerManagedBy(mgr).
		For(&cachev1.Memcached{}).
		Owns(&appsv1.Deployment{}).
		Complete(r)
}

NewControllerManagedBy() provides a controller builder that allows various controller configurations.

For(&cachev1.Memcached{}) specifies the Memcached type as the primary resource to watch. For each Add, Update, or Delete event for a Memcached type, the reconcile loop is sent a reconcile Request argument, which consists of a namespace and name key, for that Memcached object.

Owns(&appsv1.Deployment{}) specifies the Deployment type as the secondary resource to watch. For each Deployment type Add, Update, or Delete event, the event handler maps each event to a reconcile request for the owner of the deployment. In this case, the owner is the Memcached object for which the deployment was created.

5.3.2.4.2. Controller configurations

You can initialize a controller by using many other useful configurations. For example:

  • Set the maximum number of concurrent reconciles for the controller by using the MaxConcurrentReconciles option, which defaults to 1:

    func (r *MemcachedReconciler) SetupWithManager(mgr ctrl.Manager) error {
        return ctrl.NewControllerManagedBy(mgr).
            For(&cachev1.Memcached{}).
            Owns(&appsv1.Deployment{}).
            WithOptions(controller.Options{
                MaxConcurrentReconciles: 2,
            }).
            Complete(r)
    }
  • Filter watch events using predicates.
  • Choose the type of EventHandler to change how a watch event translates to reconcile requests for the reconcile loop. For Operator relationships that are more complex than primary and secondary resources, you can use the EnqueueRequestsFromMapFunc handler to transform a watch event into an arbitrary set of reconcile requests.

For more details on these and other configurations, see the upstream Builder and Controller GoDocs.

5.3.2.4.3. Reconcile loop

Every controller has a reconciler object with a Reconcile() method that implements the reconcile loop. The reconcile loop is passed the Request argument, which is a namespace and name key used to find the primary resource object, Memcached, from the cache:

import (
	ctrl "sigs.k8s.io/controller-runtime"

	cachev1 "github.com/example-inc/memcached-operator/api/v1"
	...
)

func (r *MemcachedReconciler) Reconcile(ctx context.Context, req ctrl.Request) (ctrl.Result, error) {
  // Lookup the Memcached instance for this reconcile request
  memcached := &cachev1.Memcached{}
  err := r.Get(ctx, req.NamespacedName, memcached)
  ...
}

Based on the return values, result, and error, the request might be requeued and the reconcile loop might be triggered again:

// Reconcile successful - don't requeue
return ctrl.Result{}, nil
// Reconcile failed due to error - requeue
return ctrl.Result{}, err
// Requeue for any reason other than an error
return ctrl.Result{Requeue: true}, nil

You can set the Result.RequeueAfter to requeue the request after a grace period as well:

import "time"

// Reconcile for any reason other than an error after 5 seconds
return ctrl.Result{RequeueAfter: time.Second*5}, nil
Note

You can return Result with RequeueAfter set to periodically reconcile a CR.

For more on reconcilers, clients, and interacting with resource events, see the Controller Runtime Client API documentation.

5.3.2.4.4. Permissions and RBAC manifests

The controller requires certain RBAC permissions to interact with the resources it manages. These are specified using RBAC markers, such as the following:

// +kubebuilder:rbac:groups=cache.example.com,resources=memcacheds,verbs=get;list;watch;create;update;patch;delete
// +kubebuilder:rbac:groups=cache.example.com,resources=memcacheds/status,verbs=get;update;patch
// +kubebuilder:rbac:groups=cache.example.com,resources=memcacheds/finalizers,verbs=update
// +kubebuilder:rbac:groups=apps,resources=deployments,verbs=get;list;watch;create;update;patch;delete
// +kubebuilder:rbac:groups=core,resources=pods,verbs=get;list;

func (r *MemcachedReconciler) Reconcile(ctx context.Context, req ctrl.Request) (ctrl.Result, error) {
  ...
}

The ClusterRole object manifest at config/rbac/role.yaml is generated from the previous markers by using the controller-gen utility whenever the make manifests command is run.

5.3.2.5. Enabling proxy support

Operator authors can develop Operators that support network proxies. Cluster administrators configure proxy support for the environment variables that are handled by Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM). To support proxied clusters, your Operator must inspect the environment for the following standard proxy variables and pass the values to Operands:

  • HTTP_PROXY
  • HTTPS_PROXY
  • NO_PROXY
Note

This tutorial uses HTTP_PROXY as an example environment variable.

Prerequisites

  • A cluster with cluster-wide egress proxy enabled.

Procedure

  1. Edit the controllers/memcached_controller.go file to include the following:

    1. Import the proxy package from the operator-lib library:

      import (
        ...
         "github.com/operator-framework/operator-lib/proxy"
      )
    2. Add the proxy.ReadProxyVarsFromEnv helper function to the reconcile loop and append the results to the Operand environments:

      for i, container := range dep.Spec.Template.Spec.Containers {
      		dep.Spec.Template.Spec.Containers[i].Env = append(container.Env, proxy.ReadProxyVarsFromEnv()...)
      }
      ...
  2. Set the environment variable on the Operator deployment by adding the following to the config/manager/manager.yaml file:

    containers:
     - args:
       - --leader-elect
       - --leader-election-id=ansible-proxy-demo
       image: controller:latest
       name: manager
       env:
         - name: "HTTP_PROXY"
           value: "http_proxy_test"

5.3.2.6. Running the Operator

There are three ways you can use the Operator SDK CLI to build and run your Operator:

  • Run locally outside the cluster as a Go program.
  • Run as a deployment on the cluster.
  • Bundle your Operator and use Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) to deploy on the cluster.
Note

Before running your Go-based Operator as either a deployment on OpenShift Container Platform or as a bundle that uses OLM, ensure that your project has been updated to use supported images.

5.3.2.6.1. Running locally outside the cluster

You can run your Operator project as a Go program outside of the cluster. This is useful for development purposes to speed up deployment and testing.

Procedure

  • Run the following command to install the custom resource definitions (CRDs) in the cluster configured in your ~/.kube/config file and run the Operator locally:

    $ make install run

    Example output

    ...
    2021-01-10T21:09:29.016-0700	INFO	controller-runtime.metrics	metrics server is starting to listen	{"addr": ":8080"}
    2021-01-10T21:09:29.017-0700	INFO	setup	starting manager
    2021-01-10T21:09:29.017-0700	INFO	controller-runtime.manager	starting metrics server	{"path": "/metrics"}
    2021-01-10T21:09:29.018-0700	INFO	controller-runtime.manager.controller.memcached	Starting EventSource	{"reconciler group": "cache.example.com", "reconciler kind": "Memcached", "source": "kind source: /, Kind="}
    2021-01-10T21:09:29.218-0700	INFO	controller-runtime.manager.controller.memcached	Starting Controller	{"reconciler group": "cache.example.com", "reconciler kind": "Memcached"}
    2021-01-10T21:09:29.218-0700	INFO	controller-runtime.manager.controller.memcached	Starting workers	{"reconciler group": "cache.example.com", "reconciler kind": "Memcached", "worker count": 1}

5.3.2.6.2. Running as a deployment on the cluster

You can run your Operator project as a deployment on your cluster.

Prerequisites

  • Prepared your Go-based Operator to run on OpenShift Container Platform by updating the project to use supported images

Procedure

  1. Run the following make commands to build and push the Operator image. Modify the IMG argument in the following steps to reference a repository that you have access to. You can obtain an account for storing containers at repository sites such as Quay.io.

    1. Build the image:

      $ make docker-build IMG=<registry>/<user>/<image_name>:<tag>
      Note

      The Dockerfile generated by the SDK for the Operator explicitly references GOARCH=amd64 for go build. This can be amended to GOARCH=$TARGETARCH for non-AMD64 architectures. Docker will automatically set the environment variable to the value specified by –platform. With Buildah, the –build-arg will need to be used for the purpose. For more information, see Multiple Architectures.

    2. Push the image to a repository:

      $ make docker-push IMG=<registry>/<user>/<image_name>:<tag>
      Note

      The name and tag of the image, for example IMG=<registry>/<user>/<image_name>:<tag>, in both the commands can also be set in your Makefile. Modify the IMG ?= controller:latest value to set your default image name.

  2. Run the following command to deploy the Operator:

    $ make deploy IMG=<registry>/<user>/<image_name>:<tag>

    By default, this command creates a namespace with the name of your Operator project in the form <project_name>-system and is used for the deployment. This command also installs the RBAC manifests from config/rbac.

  3. Run the following command to verify that the Operator is running:

    $ oc get deployment -n <project_name>-system

    Example output

    NAME                                    READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
    <project_name>-controller-manager       1/1     1            1           8m

5.3.2.6.3. Bundling an Operator and deploying with Operator Lifecycle Manager
5.3.2.6.3.1. Bundling an Operator

The Operator bundle format is the default packaging method for Operator SDK and Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM). You can get your Operator ready for use on OLM by using the Operator SDK to build and push your Operator project as a bundle image.

Prerequisites

  • Operator SDK CLI installed on a development workstation
  • OpenShift CLI (oc) v4.11+ installed
  • Operator project initialized by using the Operator SDK
  • If your Operator is Go-based, your project must be updated to use supported images for running on OpenShift Container Platform

Procedure

  1. Run the following make commands in your Operator project directory to build and push your Operator image. Modify the IMG argument in the following steps to reference a repository that you have access to. You can obtain an account for storing containers at repository sites such as Quay.io.

    1. Build the image:

      $ make docker-build IMG=<registry>/<user>/<operator_image_name>:<tag>
      Note

      The Dockerfile generated by the SDK for the Operator explicitly references GOARCH=amd64 for go build. This can be amended to GOARCH=$TARGETARCH for non-AMD64 architectures. Docker will automatically set the environment variable to the value specified by –platform. With Buildah, the –build-arg will need to be used for the purpose. For more information, see Multiple Architectures.

    2. Push the image to a repository:

      $ make docker-push IMG=<registry>/<user>/<operator_image_name>:<tag>
  2. Create your Operator bundle manifest by running the make bundle command, which invokes several commands, including the Operator SDK generate bundle and bundle validate subcommands:

    $ make bundle IMG=<registry>/<user>/<operator_image_name>:<tag>

    Bundle manifests for an Operator describe how to display, create, and manage an application. The make bundle command creates the following files and directories in your Operator project:

    • A bundle manifests directory named bundle/manifests that contains a ClusterServiceVersion object
    • A bundle metadata directory named bundle/metadata
    • All custom resource definitions (CRDs) in a config/crd directory
    • A Dockerfile bundle.Dockerfile

    These files are then automatically validated by using operator-sdk bundle validate to ensure the on-disk bundle representation is correct.

  3. Build and push your bundle image by running the following commands. OLM consumes Operator bundles using an index image, which reference one or more bundle images.

    1. Build the bundle image. Set BUNDLE_IMG with the details for the registry, user namespace, and image tag where you intend to push the image:

      $ make bundle-build BUNDLE_IMG=<registry>/<user>/<bundle_image_name>:<tag>
    2. Push the bundle image:

      $ docker push <registry>/<user>/<bundle_image_name>:<tag>
5.3.2.6.3.2. Deploying an Operator with Operator Lifecycle Manager

Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) helps you to install, update, and manage the lifecycle of Operators and their associated services on a Kubernetes cluster. OLM is installed by default on OpenShift Container Platform and runs as a Kubernetes extension so that you can use the web console and the OpenShift CLI (oc) for all Operator lifecycle management functions without any additional tools.

The Operator bundle format is the default packaging method for Operator SDK and OLM. You can use the Operator SDK to quickly run a bundle image on OLM to ensure that it runs properly.

Prerequisites

  • Operator SDK CLI installed on a development workstation
  • Operator bundle image built and pushed to a registry
  • OLM installed on a Kubernetes-based cluster (v1.16.0 or later if you use apiextensions.k8s.io/v1 CRDs, for example OpenShift Container Platform 4.11)
  • Logged in to the cluster with oc using an account with cluster-admin permissions
  • If your Operator is Go-based, your project must be updated to use supported images for running on OpenShift Container Platform

Procedure

  1. Enter the following command to run the Operator on the cluster:

    $ operator-sdk run bundle \1
        -n <namespace> \2
        <registry>/<user>/<bundle_image_name>:<tag> 3
    1
    The run bundle command creates a valid file-based catalog and installs the Operator bundle on your cluster using OLM.
    2
    Optional: By default, the command installs the Operator in the currently active project in your ~/.kube/config file. You can add the -n flag to set a different namespace scope for the installation.
    3
    If you do not specify an image, the command uses quay.io/operator-framework/opm:latest as the default index image. If you specify an image, the command uses the bundle image itself as the index image.
    Important

    As of OpenShift Container Platform 4.11, the run bundle command supports the file-based catalog format for Operator catalogs by default. The deprecated SQLite database format for Operator catalogs continues to be supported; however, it will be removed in a future release. It is recommended that Operator authors migrate their workflows to the file-based catalog format.

    This command performs the following actions:

    • Create an index image referencing your bundle image. The index image is opaque and ephemeral, but accurately reflects how a bundle would be added to a catalog in production.
    • Create a catalog source that points to your new index image, which enables OperatorHub to discover your Operator.
    • Deploy your Operator to your cluster by creating an OperatorGroup, Subscription, InstallPlan, and all other required resources, including RBAC.

5.3.2.7. Creating a custom resource

After your Operator is installed, you can test it by creating a custom resource (CR) that is now provided on the cluster by the Operator.

Prerequisites

  • Example Memcached Operator, which provides the Memcached CR, installed on a cluster

Procedure

  1. Change to the namespace where your Operator is installed. For example, if you deployed the Operator using the make deploy command:

    $ oc project memcached-operator-system
  2. Edit the sample Memcached CR manifest at config/samples/cache_v1_memcached.yaml to contain the following specification:

    apiVersion: cache.example.com/v1
    kind: Memcached
    metadata:
      name: memcached-sample
    ...
    spec:
    ...
      size: 3
  3. Create the CR:

    $ oc apply -f config/samples/cache_v1_memcached.yaml
  4. Ensure that the Memcached Operator creates the deployment for the sample CR with the correct size:

    $ oc get deployments

    Example output

    NAME                                    READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
    memcached-operator-controller-manager   1/1     1            1           8m
    memcached-sample                        3/3     3            3           1m

  5. Check the pods and CR status to confirm the status is updated with the Memcached pod names.

    1. Check the pods:

      $ oc get pods

      Example output

      NAME                                  READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
      memcached-sample-6fd7c98d8-7dqdr      1/1       Running   0          1m
      memcached-sample-6fd7c98d8-g5k7v      1/1       Running   0          1m
      memcached-sample-6fd7c98d8-m7vn7      1/1       Running   0          1m

    2. Check the CR status:

      $ oc get memcached/memcached-sample -o yaml

      Example output

      apiVersion: cache.example.com/v1
      kind: Memcached
      metadata:
      ...
        name: memcached-sample
      ...
      spec:
        size: 3
      status:
        nodes:
        - memcached-sample-6fd7c98d8-7dqdr
        - memcached-sample-6fd7c98d8-g5k7v
        - memcached-sample-6fd7c98d8-m7vn7

  6. Update the deployment size.

    1. Update config/samples/cache_v1_memcached.yaml file to change the spec.size field in the Memcached CR from 3 to 5:

      $ oc patch memcached memcached-sample \
          -p '{"spec":{"size": 5}}' \
          --type=merge
    2. Confirm that the Operator changes the deployment size:

      $ oc get deployments

      Example output

      NAME                                    READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
      memcached-operator-controller-manager   1/1     1            1           10m
      memcached-sample                        5/5     5            5           3m

  7. Clean up the resources that have been created as part of this tutorial.

    • If you used the make deploy command to test the Operator, run the following command:

      $ make undeploy
    • If you used the operator-sdk run bundle command to test the Operator, run the following command:

      $ operator-sdk cleanup <project_name>

5.3.2.8. Additional resources

5.3.3. Project layout for Go-based Operators

The operator-sdk CLI can generate, or scaffold, a number of packages and files for each Operator project.

5.3.3.1. Go-based project layout

Go-based Operator projects, the default type, generated using the operator-sdk init command contain the following files and directories:

File or directoryPurpose

main.go

Main program of the Operator. This instantiates a new manager that registers all custom resource definitions (CRDs) in the apis/ directory and starts all controllers in the controllers/ directory.

apis/

Directory tree that defines the APIs of the CRDs. You must edit the apis/<version>/<kind>_types.go files to define the API for each resource type and import these packages in your controllers to watch for these resource types.

controllers/

Controller implementations. Edit the controller/<kind>_controller.go files to define the reconcile logic of the controller for handling a resource type of the specified kind.

config/

Kubernetes manifests used to deploy your controller on a cluster, including CRDs, RBAC, and certificates.

Makefile

Targets used to build and deploy your controller.

Dockerfile

Instructions used by a container engine to build your Operator.

manifests/

Kubernetes manifests for registering CRDs, setting up RBAC, and deploying the Operator as a deployment.

5.3.4. Updating Go-based Operator projects for newer Operator SDK versions

OpenShift Container Platform 4.11 supports Operator SDK 1.22.0. If you already have the 1.16.0 CLI installed on your workstation, you can update the CLI to 1.22.0 by installing the latest version.

However, to ensure your existing Operator projects maintain compatibility with Operator SDK 1.22.0, update steps are required for the associated breaking changes introduced since 1.16.0. You must perform the update steps manually in any of your Operator projects that were previously created or maintained with 1.16.0.

5.3.4.1. Updating Go-based Operator projects for Operator SDK 1.22.0

The following procedure updates an existing Go-based Operator project for compatibility with 1.22.0.

Prerequisites

  • Operator SDK 1.22.0 installed.
  • An Operator project created or maintained with Operator SDK 1.16.0.

Procedure

  1. Make the following changes to the config/default/manager_auth_proxy_patch.yaml file:

    ...
    spec:
      template:
        spec:
          containers:
          - name: kube-rbac-proxy
            image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-kube-rbac-proxy:v4.11 1
            args:
            - "--secure-listen-address=0.0.0.0:8443"
            - "--upstream=http://127.0.0.1:8080/"
            - "--logtostderr=true"
            - "--v=0" 2
    ...
    resources:
      limits:
        cpu: 500m
        memory: 128Mi
      requests:
        cpu: 5m
        memory: 64Mi 3
    1
    Update the tag version from v4.10 to v4.11.
    2
    Reduce the debugging log level from --v=10 to --v=0.
    3
    Add resource requests and limits.
  2. Make the following changes to your Makefile:

    1. Enable support for image digests by adding the following environment variables to your Makefile:

      Old Makefile

      BUNDLE_IMG ?= $(IMAGE_TAG_BASE)-bundle:v$(VERSION)
      ...

      New Makefile

      BUNDLE_IMG ?= $(IMAGE_TAG_BASE)-bundle:v$(VERSION)
      
      # BUNDLE_GEN_FLAGS are the flags passed to the operator-sdk generate bundle command
      BUNDLE_GEN_FLAGS ?= -q --overwrite --version $(VERSION) $(BUNDLE_METADATA_OPTS)
      
      # USE_IMAGE_DIGESTS defines if images are resolved via tags or digests
      # You can enable this value if you would like to use SHA Based Digests
      # To enable set flag to true
      USE_IMAGE_DIGESTS ?= false
      ifeq ($(USE_IMAGE_DIGESTS), true)
      	BUNDLE_GEN_FLAGS += --use-image-digests
      endif

    2. Edit your Makefile to replace the bundle target with the BUNDLE_GEN_FLAGS environment variable:

      Old Makefile

      $(KUSTOMIZE) build config/manifests | operator-sdk generate bundle -q --overwrite --version $(VERSION) $(BUNDLE_METADATA_OPTS)

      New Makefile

      $(KUSTOMIZE) build config/manifests | operator-sdk generate bundle $(BUNDLE_GEN_FLAGS)

    3. Edit your Makefile to update opm to version 1.23.0:

      .PHONY: opm
      OPM = ./bin/opm
      opm: ## Download opm locally if necessary.
      ifeq (,$(wildcard $(OPM)))
      ifeq (,$(shell which opm 2>/dev/null))
      	@{ \
      	set -e ;\
      	mkdir -p $(dir $(OPM)) ;\
      	OS=$(shell go env GOOS) && ARCH=$(shell go env GOARCH) && \
      	curl -sSLo $(OPM) https://github.com/operator-framework/operator-registry/releases/download/v1.23.0/$${OS}-$${ARCH}-opm ;\ 1
      	chmod +x $(OPM) ;\
      	}
      else
      OPM = $(shell which opm)
      endif
      endif
      1
      Replace v1.19.1 with v1.23.0.
    4. Edit your Makefile to replace the go get targets with go install targets:

      Old Makefile

      CONTROLLER_GEN = $(shell pwd)/bin/controller-gen
      .PHONY: controller-gen
      controller-gen: ## Download controller-gen locally if necessary.
      	$(call go-get-tool,$(CONTROLLER_GEN),sigs.k8s.io/controller-tools/cmd/controller-gen@v0.8.0)
      
      KUSTOMIZE = $(shell pwd)/bin/kustomize
      .PHONY: kustomize
      kustomize: ## Download kustomize locally if necessary.
      	$(call go-get-tool,$(KUSTOMIZE),sigs.k8s.io/kustomize/kustomize/v3@v3.8.7)
      
      ENVTEST = $(shell pwd)/bin/setup-envtest
      .PHONY: envtest
      envtest: ## Download envtest-setup locally if necessary.
      	$(call go-get-tool,$(ENVTEST),sigs.k8s.io/controller-runtime/tools/setup-envtest@latest)
      
      # go-get-tool will 'go get' any package $2 and install it to $1.
      PROJECT_DIR := $(shell dirname $(abspath $(lastword $(MAKEFILE_LIST))))
      define go-get-tool
      @[ -f $(1) ] || { \
      set -e ;\
      TMP_DIR=$$(mktemp -d) ;\
      cd $$TMP_DIR ;\
      go mod init tmp ;\
      echo "Downloading $(2)" ;\
      GOBIN=$(PROJECT_DIR)/bin go get $(2) ;\
      rm -rf $$TMP_DIR ;\
      }
      endef

      New Makefile

      ##@ Build Dependencies
      
      ## Location to install dependencies to
      LOCALBIN ?= $(shell pwd)/bin
      $(LOCALBIN):
      	mkdir -p $(LOCALBIN)
      
      ## Tool Binaries
      KUSTOMIZE ?= $(LOCALBIN)/kustomize
      CONTROLLER_GEN ?= $(LOCALBIN)/controller-gen
      ENVTEST ?= $(LOCALBIN)/setup-envtest
      
      ## Tool Versions
      KUSTOMIZE_VERSION ?= v3.8.7
      CONTROLLER_TOOLS_VERSION ?= v0.8.0
      
      KUSTOMIZE_INSTALL_SCRIPT ?= "https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes-sigs/kustomize/master/hack/install_kustomize.sh"
      .PHONY: kustomize
      kustomize: $(KUSTOMIZE) ## Download kustomize locally if necessary.
      $(KUSTOMIZE): $(LOCALBIN)
      	curl -s $(KUSTOMIZE_INSTALL_SCRIPT) | bash -s -- $(subst v,,$(KUSTOMIZE_VERSION)) $(LOCALBIN)
      
      .PHONY: controller-gen
      controller-gen: $(CONTROLLER_GEN) ## Download controller-gen locally if necessary.
      $(CONTROLLER_GEN): $(LOCALBIN)
      	GOBIN=$(LOCALBIN) go install sigs.k8s.io/controller-tools/cmd/controller-gen@$(CONTROLLER_TOOLS_VERSION)
      
      .PHONY: envtest
      envtest: $(ENVTEST) ## Download envtest-setup locally if necessary.
      $(ENVTEST): $(LOCALBIN)
      	GOBIN=$(LOCALBIN) go install sigs.k8s.io/controller-runtime/tools/setup-envtest@latest

    5. Update ENVTEST_K8S_VERSION and controller-gen fields in your Makefile to support Kubernetes 1.24:

      ...
      ENVTEST_K8S_VERSION = 1.24 1
      ...
      sigs.k8s.io/controller-tools/cmd/controller-gen@v0.9.0 2
      1
      Update version 1.22 to 1.24.
      2
      Update version 0.7.0 to 0.9.0.
    6. Apply the changes to your Makefile and rebuild your Operator by entering the following command:

      $ make
  3. Make the following changes to the go.mod file to update Go and its dependencies:

    go 1.18 1
    
    require (
      github.com/onsi/ginkgo v1.16.5 2
      github.com/onsi/gomega v1.18.1 3
      k8s.io/api v0.24.0 4
      k8s.io/apimachinery v0.24.0 5
      k8s.io/client-go v0.24.0 6
      sigs.k8s.io/controller-runtime v0.12.1 7
    )
    1
    Update version 1.16 to 1.18.
    2
    Update version v1.16.4 to v1.16.5.
    3
    Update version v1.15.0 to v1.18.1.
    4 5 6
    Update version v0.22.1 to v0.24.0.
    7
    Update version v0.10.0 to v0.12.1.
  4. Download and clean up the dependencies by entering the following command:

    $ go mod tidy
  5. If you use the api/webhook_suitetest.go and controllers/suite_test.go suite test files, make the following changes:

    Old suite test file

    cfg, err := testEnv.Start()

    New suite test file

    var err error
    // cfg is defined in this file globally.
    cfg, err = testEnv.Start()

  6. If you use the Kubernetes declarative plug-in, update your Dockerfile with the following changes:

    1. Add the following changes below the line that begins COPY controllers/ controllers/:

      # https://github.com/kubernetes-sigs/kubebuilder-declarative-pattern/blob/master/docs/addon/walkthrough/README.md#adding-a-manifest
      # Stage channels and make readable
      COPY channels/ /channels/
      RUN chmod -R a+rx /channels/
    2. Add the following changes below the line that begins COPY --from=builder /workspace/manager .:

      # copy channels
      COPY --from=builder /channels /channels

5.3.4.2. Additional resources

5.4. Ansible-based Operators

5.4.1. Getting started with Operator SDK for Ansible-based Operators

The Operator SDK includes options for generating an Operator project that leverages existing Ansible playbooks and modules to deploy Kubernetes resources as a unified application, without having to write any Go code.

To demonstrate the basics of setting up and running an Ansible-based Operator using tools and libraries provided by the Operator SDK, Operator developers can build an example Ansible-based Operator for Memcached, a distributed key-value store, and deploy it to a cluster.

5.4.1.1. Prerequisites

  • Operator SDK CLI installed
  • OpenShift CLI (oc) v4.11+ installed
  • Ansible v2.9.0
  • Ansible Runner v2.0.2+
  • Ansible Runner HTTP Event Emitter plug-in v1.0.0+
  • Python 3.8.6+
  • OpenShift Python client v0.12.0+
  • Logged into an OpenShift Container Platform 4.11 cluster with oc with an account that has cluster-admin permissions
  • To allow the cluster to pull the image, the repository where you push your image must be set as public, or you must configure an image pull secret

5.4.1.2. Creating and deploying Ansible-based Operators

You can build and deploy a simple Ansible-based Operator for Memcached by using the Operator SDK.

Procedure

  1. Create a project.

    1. Create your project directory:

      $ mkdir memcached-operator
    2. Change into the project directory:

      $ cd memcached-operator
    3. Run the operator-sdk init command with the ansible plug-in to initialize the project:

      $ operator-sdk init \
          --plugins=ansible \
          --domain=example.com
  2. Create an API.

    Create a simple Memcached API:

    $ operator-sdk create api \
        --group cache \
        --version v1 \
        --kind Memcached \
        --generate-role 1
    1
    Generates an Ansible role for the API.
  3. Build and push the Operator image.

    Use the default Makefile targets to build and push your Operator. Set IMG with a pull spec for your image that uses a registry you can push to:

    $ make docker-build docker-push IMG=<registry>/<user>/<image_name>:<tag>
  4. Run the Operator.

    1. Install the CRD:

      $ make install
    2. Deploy the project to the cluster. Set IMG to the image that you pushed:

      $ make deploy IMG=<registry>/<user>/<image_name>:<tag>
  5. Create a sample custom resource (CR).

    1. Create a sample CR:

      $ oc apply -f config/samples/cache_v1_memcached.yaml \
          -n memcached-operator-system
    2. Watch for the CR to reconcile the Operator:

      $ oc logs deployment.apps/memcached-operator-controller-manager \
          -c manager \
          -n memcached-operator-system

      Example output

      ...
      I0205 17:48:45.881666       7 leaderelection.go:253] successfully acquired lease memcached-operator-system/memcached-operator
      {"level":"info","ts":1612547325.8819902,"logger":"controller-runtime.manager.controller.memcached-controller","msg":"Starting EventSource","source":"kind source: cache.example.com/v1, Kind=Memcached"}
      {"level":"info","ts":1612547325.98242,"logger":"controller-runtime.manager.controller.memcached-controller","msg":"Starting Controller"}
      {"level":"info","ts":1612547325.9824686,"logger":"controller-runtime.manager.controller.memcached-controller","msg":"Starting workers","worker count":4}
      {"level":"info","ts":1612547348.8311093,"logger":"runner","msg":"Ansible-runner exited successfully","job":"4037200794235010051","name":"memcached-sample","namespace":"memcached-operator-system"}

  6. Clean up.

    Run the following command to clean up the resources that have been created as part of this procedure:

    $ make undeploy

5.4.1.3. Next steps

5.4.2. Operator SDK tutorial for Ansible-based Operators

Operator developers can take advantage of Ansible support in the Operator SDK to build an example Ansible-based Operator for Memcached, a distributed key-value store, and manage its lifecycle. This tutorial walks through the following process:

  • Create a Memcached deployment
  • Ensure that the deployment size is the same as specified by the Memcached custom resource (CR) spec
  • Update the Memcached CR status using the status writer with the names of the memcached pods

This process is accomplished by using two centerpieces of the Operator Framework:

Operator SDK
The operator-sdk CLI tool and controller-runtime library API
Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM)
Installation, upgrade, and role-based access control (RBAC) of Operators on a cluster
Note

This tutorial goes into greater detail than Getting started with Operator SDK for Ansible-based Operators.

5.4.2.1. Prerequisites

  • Operator SDK CLI installed
  • OpenShift CLI (oc) v4.11+ installed
  • Ansible v2.9.0
  • Ansible Runner v2.0.2+
  • Ansible Runner HTTP Event Emitter plug-in v1.0.0+
  • Python 3.8.6+
  • OpenShift Python client v0.12.0+
  • Logged into an OpenShift Container Platform 4.11 cluster with oc with an account that has cluster-admin permissions
  • To allow the cluster to pull the image, the repository where you push your image must be set as public, or you must configure an image pull secret

5.4.2.2. Creating a project

Use the Operator SDK CLI to create a project called memcached-operator.

Procedure

  1. Create a directory for the project:

    $ mkdir -p $HOME/projects/memcached-operator
  2. Change to the directory:

    $ cd $HOME/projects/memcached-operator
  3. Run the operator-sdk init command with the ansible plug-in to initialize the project:

    $ operator-sdk init \
        --plugins=ansible \
        --domain=example.com
5.4.2.2.1. PROJECT file

Among the files generated by the operator-sdk init command is a Kubebuilder PROJECT file. Subsequent operator-sdk commands, as well as help output, that are run from the project root read this file and are aware that the project type is Ansible. For example:

domain: example.com
layout: ansible.sdk.operatorframework.io/v1
projectName: memcached-operator
version: 3

5.4.2.3. Creating an API

Use the Operator SDK CLI to create a Memcached API.

Procedure

  • Run the following command to create an API with group cache, version, v1, and kind Memcached:

    $ operator-sdk create api \
        --group cache \
        --version v1 \
        --kind Memcached \
        --generate-role 1
    1
    Generates an Ansible role for the API.

After creating the API, your Operator project updates with the following structure:

Memcached CRD
Includes a sample Memcached resource
Manager

Program that reconciles the state of the cluster to the desired state by using:

  • A reconciler, either an Ansible role or playbook
  • A watches.yaml file, which connects the Memcached resource to the memcached Ansible role

5.4.2.4. Modifying the manager

Update your Operator project to provide the reconcile logic, in the form of an Ansible role, which runs every time a Memcached resource is created, updated, or deleted.

Procedure

  1. Update the roles/memcached/tasks/main.yml file with the following structure:

    ---
    - name: start memcached
      community.kubernetes.k8s:
        definition:
          kind: Deployment
          apiVersion: apps/v1
          metadata:
            name: '{{ ansible_operator_meta.name }}-memcached'
            namespace: '{{ ansible_operator_meta.namespace }}'
          spec:
            replicas: "{{size}}"
            selector:
              matchLabels:
                app: memcached
            template:
              metadata:
                labels:
                  app: memcached
              spec:
                containers:
                - name: memcached
                  command:
                  - memcached
                  - -m=64
                  - -o
                  - modern
                  - -v
                  image: "docker.io/memcached:1.4.36-alpine"
                  ports:
                    - containerPort: 11211

    This memcached role ensures a memcached deployment exist and sets the deployment size.

  2. Set default values for variables used in your Ansible role by editing the roles/memcached/defaults/main.yml file:

    ---
    # defaults file for Memcached
    size: 1
  3. Update the Memcached sample resource in the config/samples/cache_v1_memcached.yaml file with the following structure:

    apiVersion: cache.example.com/v1
    kind: Memcached
    metadata:
      name: memcached-sample
    spec:
      size: 3

    The key-value pairs in the custom resource (CR) spec are passed to Ansible as extra variables.

Note

The names of all variables in the spec field are converted to snake case, meaning lowercase with an underscore, by the Operator before running Ansible. For example, serviceAccount in the spec becomes service_account in Ansible.

You can disable this case conversion by setting the snakeCaseParameters option to false in your watches.yaml file. It is recommended that you perform some type validation in Ansible on the variables to ensure that your application is receiving expected input.

5.4.2.5. Enabling proxy support

Operator authors can develop Operators that support network proxies. Cluster administrators configure proxy support for the environment variables that are handled by Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM). To support proxied clusters, your Operator must inspect the environment for the following standard proxy variables and pass the values to Operands:

  • HTTP_PROXY
  • HTTPS_PROXY
  • NO_PROXY
Note

This tutorial uses HTTP_PROXY as an example environment variable.

Prerequisites

  • A cluster with cluster-wide egress proxy enabled.

Procedure

  1. Add the environment variables to the deployment by updating the roles/memcached/tasks/main.yml file with the following:

    ...
    env:
       - name: HTTP_PROXY
         value: '{{ lookup("env", "HTTP_PROXY") | default("", True) }}'
       - name: http_proxy
         value: '{{ lookup("env", "HTTP_PROXY") | default("", True) }}'
    ...
  2. Set the environment variable on the Operator deployment by adding the following to the config/manager/manager.yaml file:

    containers:
     - args:
       - --leader-elect
       - --leader-election-id=ansible-proxy-demo
       image: controller:latest
       name: manager
       env:
         - name: "HTTP_PROXY"
           value: "http_proxy_test"

5.4.2.6. Running the Operator

There are three ways you can use the Operator SDK CLI to build and run your Operator:

  • Run locally outside the cluster as a Go program.
  • Run as a deployment on the cluster.
  • Bundle your Operator and use Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) to deploy on the cluster.
5.4.2.6.1. Running locally outside the cluster

You can run your Operator project as a Go program outside of the cluster. This is useful for development purposes to speed up deployment and testing.

Procedure

  • Run the following command to install the custom resource definitions (CRDs) in the cluster configured in your ~/.kube/config file and run the Operator locally:

    $ make install run

    Example output

    ...
    {"level":"info","ts":1612589622.7888272,"logger":"ansible-controller","msg":"Watching resource","Options.Group":"cache.example.com","Options.Version":"v1","Options.Kind":"Memcached"}
    {"level":"info","ts":1612589622.7897573,"logger":"proxy","msg":"Starting to serve","Address":"127.0.0.1:8888"}
    {"level":"info","ts":1612589622.789971,"logger":"controller-runtime.manager","msg":"starting metrics server","path":"/metrics"}
    {"level":"info","ts":1612589622.7899997,"logger":"controller-runtime.manager.controller.memcached-controller","msg":"Starting EventSource","source":"kind source: cache.example.com/v1, Kind=Memcached"}
    {"level":"info","ts":1612589622.8904517,"logger":"controller-runtime.manager.controller.memcached-controller","msg":"Starting Controller"}
    {"level":"info","ts":1612589622.8905244,"logger":"controller-runtime.manager.controller.memcached-controller","msg":"Starting workers","worker count":8}

5.4.2.6.2. Running as a deployment on the cluster

You can run your Operator project as a deployment on your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Run the following make commands to build and push the Operator image. Modify the IMG argument in the following steps to reference a repository that you have access to. You can obtain an account for storing containers at repository sites such as Quay.io.

    1. Build the image:

      $ make docker-build IMG=<registry>/<user>/<image_name>:<tag>
      Note

      The Dockerfile generated by the SDK for the Operator explicitly references GOARCH=amd64 for go build. This can be amended to GOARCH=$TARGETARCH for non-AMD64 architectures. Docker will automatically set the environment variable to the value specified by –platform. With Buildah, the –build-arg will need to be used for the purpose. For more information, see Multiple Architectures.

    2. Push the image to a repository:

      $ make docker-push IMG=<registry>/<user>/<image_name>:<tag>
      Note

      The name and tag of the image, for example IMG=<registry>/<user>/<image_name>:<tag>, in both the commands can also be set in your Makefile. Modify the IMG ?= controller:latest value to set your default image name.

  2. Run the following command to deploy the Operator:

    $ make deploy IMG=<registry>/<user>/<image_name>:<tag>

    By default, this command creates a namespace with the name of your Operator project in the form <project_name>-system and is used for the deployment. This command also installs the RBAC manifests from config/rbac.

  3. Run the following command to verify that the Operator is running:

    $ oc get deployment -n <project_name>-system

    Example output

    NAME                                    READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
    <project_name>-controller-manager       1/1     1            1           8m

5.4.2.6.3. Bundling an Operator and deploying with Operator Lifecycle Manager
5.4.2.6.3.1. Bundling an Operator

The Operator bundle format is the default packaging method for Operator SDK and Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM). You can get your Operator ready for use on OLM by using the Operator SDK to build and push your Operator project as a bundle image.

Prerequisites

  • Operator SDK CLI installed on a development workstation
  • OpenShift CLI (oc) v4.11+ installed
  • Operator project initialized by using the Operator SDK

Procedure

  1. Run the following make commands in your Operator project directory to build and push your Operator image. Modify the IMG argument in the following steps to reference a repository that you have access to. You can obtain an account for storing containers at repository sites such as Quay.io.

    1. Build the image:

      $ make docker-build IMG=<registry>/<user>/<operator_image_name>:<tag>
      Note

      The Dockerfile generated by the SDK for the Operator explicitly references GOARCH=amd64 for go build. This can be amended to GOARCH=$TARGETARCH for non-AMD64 architectures. Docker will automatically set the environment variable to the value specified by –platform. With Buildah, the –build-arg will need to be used for the purpose. For more information, see Multiple Architectures.

    2. Push the image to a repository:

      $ make docker-push IMG=<registry>/<user>/<operator_image_name>:<tag>
  2. Create your Operator bundle manifest by running the make bundle command, which invokes several commands, including the Operator SDK generate bundle and bundle validate subcommands:

    $ make bundle IMG=<registry>/<user>/<operator_image_name>:<tag>

    Bundle manifests for an Operator describe how to display, create, and manage an application. The make bundle command creates the following files and directories in your Operator project:

    • A bundle manifests directory named bundle/manifests that contains a ClusterServiceVersion object
    • A bundle metadata directory named bundle/metadata
    • All custom resource definitions (CRDs) in a config/crd directory
    • A Dockerfile bundle.Dockerfile

    These files are then automatically validated by using operator-sdk bundle validate to ensure the on-disk bundle representation is correct.

  3. Build and push your bundle image by running the following commands. OLM consumes Operator bundles using an index image, which reference one or more bundle images.

    1. Build the bundle image. Set BUNDLE_IMG with the details for the registry, user namespace, and image tag where you intend to push the image:

      $ make bundle-build BUNDLE_IMG=<registry>/<user>/<bundle_image_name>:<tag>
    2. Push the bundle image:

      $ docker push <registry>/<user>/<bundle_image_name>:<tag>
5.4.2.6.3.2. Deploying an Operator with Operator Lifecycle Manager

Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) helps you to install, update, and manage the lifecycle of Operators and their associated services on a Kubernetes cluster. OLM is installed by default on OpenShift Container Platform and runs as a Kubernetes extension so that you can use the web console and the OpenShift CLI (oc) for all Operator lifecycle management functions without any additional tools.

The Operator bundle format is the default packaging method for Operator SDK and OLM. You can use the Operator SDK to quickly run a bundle image on OLM to ensure that it runs properly.

Prerequisites

  • Operator SDK CLI installed on a development workstation
  • Operator bundle image built and pushed to a registry
  • OLM installed on a Kubernetes-based cluster (v1.16.0 or later if you use apiextensions.k8s.io/v1 CRDs, for example OpenShift Container Platform 4.11)
  • Logged in to the cluster with oc using an account with cluster-admin permissions

Procedure

  1. Enter the following command to run the Operator on the cluster:

    $ operator-sdk run bundle \1
        -n <namespace> \2
        <registry>/<user>/<bundle_image_name>:<tag> 3
    1
    The run bundle command creates a valid file-based catalog and installs the Operator bundle on your cluster using OLM.
    2
    Optional: By default, the command installs the Operator in the currently active project in your ~/.kube/config file. You can add the -n flag to set a different namespace scope for the installation.
    3
    If you do not specify an image, the command uses quay.io/operator-framework/opm:latest as the default index image. If you specify an image, the command uses the bundle image itself as the index image.
    Important

    As of OpenShift Container Platform 4.11, the run bundle command supports the file-based catalog format for Operator catalogs by default. The deprecated SQLite database format for Operator catalogs continues to be supported; however, it will be removed in a future release. It is recommended that Operator authors migrate their workflows to the file-based catalog format.

    This command performs the following actions:

    • Create an index image referencing your bundle image. The index image is opaque and ephemeral, but accurately reflects how a bundle would be added to a catalog in production.
    • Create a catalog source that points to your new index image, which enables OperatorHub to discover your Operator.
    • Deploy your Operator to your cluster by creating an OperatorGroup, Subscription, InstallPlan, and all other required resources, including RBAC.

5.4.2.7. Creating a custom resource

After your Operator is installed, you can test it by creating a custom resource (CR) that is now provided on the cluster by the Operator.

Prerequisites

  • Example Memcached Operator, which provides the Memcached CR, installed on a cluster

Procedure

  1. Change to the namespace where your Operator is installed. For example, if you deployed the Operator using the make deploy command:

    $ oc project memcached-operator-system
  2. Edit the sample Memcached CR manifest at config/samples/cache_v1_memcached.yaml to contain the following specification:

    apiVersion: cache.example.com/v1
    kind: Memcached
    metadata:
      name: memcached-sample
    ...
    spec:
    ...
      size: 3
  3. Create the CR:

    $ oc apply -f config/samples/cache_v1_memcached.yaml
  4. Ensure that the Memcached Operator creates the deployment for the sample CR with the correct size:

    $ oc get deployments

    Example output

    NAME                                    READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
    memcached-operator-controller-manager   1/1     1            1           8m
    memcached-sample                        3/3     3            3           1m

  5. Check the pods and CR status to confirm the status is updated with the Memcached pod names.

    1. Check the pods:

      $ oc get pods

      Example output

      NAME                                  READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
      memcached-sample-6fd7c98d8-7dqdr      1/1       Running   0          1m
      memcached-sample-6fd7c98d8-g5k7v      1/1       Running   0          1m
      memcached-sample-6fd7c98d8-m7vn7      1/1       Running   0          1m

    2. Check the CR status:

      $ oc get memcached/memcached-sample -o yaml

      Example output

      apiVersion: cache.example.com/v1
      kind: Memcached
      metadata:
      ...
        name: memcached-sample
      ...
      spec:
        size: 3
      status:
        nodes:
        - memcached-sample-6fd7c98d8-7dqdr
        - memcached-sample-6fd7c98d8-g5k7v
        - memcached-sample-6fd7c98d8-m7vn7

  6. Update the deployment size.

    1. Update config/samples/cache_v1_memcached.yaml file to change the spec.size field in the Memcached CR from 3 to 5:

      $ oc patch memcached memcached-sample \
          -p '{"spec":{"size": 5}}' \
          --type=merge
    2. Confirm that the Operator changes the deployment size:

      $ oc get deployments

      Example output

      NAME                                    READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
      memcached-operator-controller-manager   1/1     1            1           10m
      memcached-sample                        5/5     5            5           3m

  7. Clean up the resources that have been created as part of this tutorial.

    • If you used the make deploy command to test the Operator, run the following command:

      $ make undeploy
    • If you used the operator-sdk run bundle command to test the Operator, run the following command:

      $ operator-sdk cleanup <project_name>

5.4.2.8. Additional resources

5.4.3. Project layout for Ansible-based Operators

The operator-sdk CLI can generate, or scaffold, a number of packages and files for each Operator project.

5.4.3.1. Ansible-based project layout

Ansible-based Operator projects generated using the operator-sdk init --plugins ansible command contain the following directories and files:

File or directoryPurpose

Dockerfile

Dockerfile for building the container image for the Operator.

Makefile

Targets for building, publishing, deploying the container image that wraps the Operator binary, and targets for installing and uninstalling the custom resource definition (CRD).

PROJECT

YAML file containing metadata information for the Operator.

config/crd

Base CRD files and the kustomization.yaml file settings.

config/default

Collects all Operator manifests for deployment. Use by the make deploy command.

config/manager

Controller manager deployment.

config/prometheus

ServiceMonitor resource for monitoring the Operator.

config/rbac

Role and role binding for leader election and authentication proxy.

config/samples

Sample resources created for the CRDs.

config/testing

Sample configurations for testing.

playbooks/

A subdirectory for the playbooks to run.

roles/

Subdirectory for the roles tree to run.

watches.yaml

Group/version/kind (GVK) of the resources to watch, and the Ansible invocation method. New entries are added by using the create api command.

requirements.yml

YAML file containing the Ansible collections and role dependencies to install during a build.

molecule/

Molecule scenarios for end-to-end testing of your role and Operator.

5.4.4. Updating projects for newer Operator SDK versions

OpenShift Container Platform 4.11 supports Operator SDK 1.22.0. If you already have the 1.16.0 CLI installed on your workstation, you can update the CLI to 1.22.0 by installing the latest version.

However, to ensure your existing Operator projects maintain compatibility with Operator SDK 1.22.0, update steps are required for the associated breaking changes introduced since 1.16.0. You must perform the update steps manually in any of your Operator projects that were previously created or maintained with 1.16.0.

5.4.4.1. Updating Ansible-based Operator projects for Operator SDK 1.22.0

The following procedure updates an existing Ansible-based Operator project for compatibility with 1.22.0.

Prerequisites

  • Operator SDK 1.22.0 installed.
  • An Operator project created or maintained with Operator SDK 1.16.0.

Procedure

  1. Make the following changes to the config/default/manager_auth_proxy_patch.yaml file:

    ...
    spec:
      template:
        spec:
          containers:
          - name: kube-rbac-proxy
            image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-kube-rbac-proxy:v4.11 1
            args:
            - "--secure-listen-address=0.0.0.0:8443"
            - "--upstream=http://127.0.0.1:8080/"
            - "--logtostderr=true"
            - "--v=0" 2
    ...
    resources:
      limits:
        cpu: 500m
        memory: 128Mi
      requests:
        cpu: 5m
        memory: 64Mi 3
    1
    Update the tag version from v4.10 to v4.11.
    2
    Reduce the debugging log level from --v=10 to --v=0.
    3
    Add resource requests and limits.
  2. Make the following changes to your Makefile:

    1. Enable support for image digests by adding the following environment variables to your Makefile:

      Old Makefile

      BUNDLE_IMG ?= $(IMAGE_TAG_BASE)-bundle:v$(VERSION)
      ...

      New Makefile

      BUNDLE_IMG ?= $(IMAGE_TAG_BASE)-bundle:v$(VERSION)
      
      # BUNDLE_GEN_FLAGS are the flags passed to the operator-sdk generate bundle command
      BUNDLE_GEN_FLAGS ?= -q --overwrite --version $(VERSION) $(BUNDLE_METADATA_OPTS)
      
      # USE_IMAGE_DIGESTS defines if images are resolved via tags or digests
      # You can enable this value if you would like to use SHA Based Digests
      # To enable set flag to true
      USE_IMAGE_DIGESTS ?= false
      ifeq ($(USE_IMAGE_DIGESTS), true)
      	BUNDLE_GEN_FLAGS += --use-image-digests
      endif

    2. Edit your Makefile to replace the bundle target with the BUNDLE_GEN_FLAGS environment variable:

      Old Makefile

      $(KUSTOMIZE) build config/manifests | operator-sdk generate bundle -q --overwrite --version $(VERSION) $(BUNDLE_METADATA_OPTS)

      New Makefile

      $(KUSTOMIZE) build config/manifests | operator-sdk generate bundle $(BUNDLE_GEN_FLAGS)

    3. Edit your Makefile to update opm to version 1.23.0:

      .PHONY: opm
      OPM = ./bin/opm
      opm: ## Download opm locally if necessary.
      ifeq (,$(wildcard $(OPM)))
      ifeq (,$(shell which opm 2>/dev/null))
      	@{ \
      	set -e ;\
      	mkdir -p $(dir $(OPM)) ;\
      	OS=$(shell go env GOOS) && ARCH=$(shell go env GOARCH) && \
      	curl -sSLo $(OPM) https://github.com/operator-framework/operator-registry/releases/download/v1.23.0/$${OS}-$${ARCH}-opm ;\ 1
      	chmod +x $(OPM) ;\
      	}
      else
      OPM = $(shell which opm)
      endif
      endif
      1
      Replace v1.19.1 with v1.23.0.
    4. Apply the changes to your Makefile and rebuild your Operator by entering the following command:

      $ make
  3. Update your requirements.yml file as shown in the following example:

    collections:
      - name: community.kubernetes
        version: "2.0.1" 1
      - name: operator_sdk.util
        version: "0.4.0" 2
      - name: kubernetes.core
        version: "2.3.1" 3
      - name: cloud.common 4
        version: "2.1.1"
    1
    Update version 1.2.1 to 2.0.1.
    2
    Update version 0.3.1 to 0.4.0.
    3
    Update version 2.2.0 to 2.3.1.
    4
    Add support for the Operator Ansible SDK by adding the cloud.common collection.
    Important

    As of version 2.0.0, the community.kubernetes collection was renamed to kubernetes.core. The community.kubernetes collection has been replaced by deprecated redirects to kubernetes.core. If you use fully qualified collection names (FQCNs) that begin with community.kubernetes, you must update the FQCNs to use kubernetes.core.

5.4.4.2. Additional resources

5.4.5. Ansible support in Operator SDK

5.4.5.1. Custom resource files

Operators use the Kubernetes extension mechanism, custom resource definitions (CRDs), so your custom resource (CR) looks and acts just like the built-in, native Kubernetes objects.

The CR file format is a Kubernetes resource file. The object has mandatory and optional fields:

Table 5.1. Custom resource fields

FieldDescription

apiVersion

Version of the CR to be created.

kind

Kind of the CR to be created.

metadata

Kubernetes-specific metadata to be created.

spec (optional)

Key-value list of variables which are passed to Ansible. This field is empty by default.

status

Summarizes the current state of the object. For Ansible-based Operators, the status subresource is enabled for CRDs and managed by the operator_sdk.util.k8s_status Ansible module by default, which includes condition information to the CR status.

annotations

Kubernetes-specific annotations to be appended to the CR.

The following list of CR annotations modify the behavior of the Operator:

Table 5.2. Ansible-based Operator annotations

AnnotationDescription

ansible.operator-sdk/reconcile-period

Specifies the reconciliation interval for the CR. This value is parsed using the standard Golang package time. Specifically, ParseDuration is used which applies the default suffix of s, giving the value in seconds.

Example Ansible-based Operator annotation

apiVersion: "test1.example.com/v1alpha1"
kind: "Test1"
metadata:
  name: "example"
annotations:
  ansible.operator-sdk/reconcile-period: "30s"

5.4.5.2. watches.yaml file

A group/version/kind (GVK) is a unique identifier for a Kubernetes API. The watches.yaml file contains a list of mappings from custom resources (CRs), identified by its GVK, to an Ansible role or playbook. The Operator expects this mapping file in a predefined location at /opt/ansible/watches.yaml.

Table 5.3. watches.yaml file mappings

FieldDescription

group

Group of CR to watch.

version

Version of CR to watch.

kind

Kind of CR to watch

role (default)

Path to the Ansible role added to the container. For example, if your roles directory is at /opt/ansible/roles/ and your role is named busybox, this value would be /opt/ansible/roles/busybox. This field is mutually exclusive with the playbook field.

playbook

Path to the Ansible playbook added to the container. This playbook is expected to be a way to call roles. This field is mutually exclusive with the role field.

reconcilePeriod (optional)

The reconciliation interval, how often the role or playbook is run, for a given CR.

manageStatus (optional)

When set to true (default), the Operator manages the status of the CR generically. When set to false, the status of the CR is managed elsewhere, by the specified role or playbook or in a separate controller.

Example watches.yaml file

- version: v1alpha1 1
  group: test1.example.com
  kind: Test1
  role: /opt/ansible/roles/Test1

- version: v1alpha1 2
  group: test2.example.com
  kind: Test2
  playbook: /opt/ansible/playbook.yml

- version: v1alpha1 3
  group: test3.example.com
  kind: Test3
  playbook: /opt/ansible/test3.yml
  reconcilePeriod: 0
  manageStatus: false

1
Simple example mapping Test1 to the test1 role.
2
Simple example mapping Test2 to a playbook.
3
More complex example for the Test3 kind. Disables re-queuing and managing the CR status in the playbook.
5.4.5.2.1. Advanced options

Advanced features can be enabled by adding them to your watches.yaml file per GVK. They can go below the group, version, kind and playbook or role fields.

Some features can be overridden per resource using an annotation on that CR. The options that can be overridden have the annotation specified below.

Table 5.4. Advanced watches.yaml file options

FeatureYAML keyDescriptionAnnotation for overrideDefault value

Reconcile period

reconcilePeriod

Time between reconcile runs for a particular CR.

ansible.operator-sdk/reconcile-period

1m

Manage status

manageStatus

Allows the Operator to manage the conditions section of each CR status section.

 

true

Watch dependent resources

watchDependentResources

Allows the Operator to dynamically watch resources that are created by Ansible.

 

true

Watch cluster-scoped resources

watchClusterScopedResources

Allows the Operator to watch cluster-scoped resources that are created by Ansible.

 

false

Max runner artifacts

maxRunnerArtifacts

Manages the number of artifact directories that Ansible Runner keeps in the Operator container for each individual resource.

ansible.operator-sdk/max-runner-artifacts

20

Example watches.yml file with advanced options

- version: v1alpha1
  group: app.example.com
  kind: AppService
  playbook: /opt/ansible/playbook.yml
  maxRunnerArtifacts: 30
  reconcilePeriod: 5s
  manageStatus: False
  watchDependentResources: False

5.4.5.3. Extra variables sent to Ansible

Extra variables can be sent to Ansible, which are then managed by the Operator. The spec section of the custom resource (CR) passes along the key-value pairs as extra variables. This is equivalent to extra variables passed in to the ansible-playbook command.

The Operator also passes along additional variables under the meta field for the name of the CR and the namespace of the CR.

For the following CR example:

apiVersion: "app.example.com/v1alpha1"
kind: "Database"
metadata:
  name: "example"
spec:
  message: "Hello world 2"
  newParameter: "newParam"

The structure passed to Ansible as extra variables is:

{ "meta": {
        "name": "<cr_name>",
        "namespace": "<cr_namespace>",
  },
  "message": "Hello world 2",
  "new_parameter": "newParam",
  "_app_example_com_database": {
     <full_crd>
   },
}

The message and newParameter fields are set in the top level as extra variables, and meta provides the relevant metadata for the CR as defined in the Operator. The meta fields can be accessed using dot notation in Ansible, for example:

---
- debug:
    msg: "name: {{ ansible_operator_meta.name }}, {{ ansible_operator_meta.namespace }}"

5.4.5.4. Ansible Runner directory

Ansible Runner keeps information about Ansible runs in the container. This is located at /tmp/ansible-operator/runner/<group>/<version>/<kind>/<namespace>/<name>.

Additional resources

5.4.6. Kubernetes Collection for Ansible

To manage the lifecycle of your application on Kubernetes using Ansible, you can use the Kubernetes Collection for Ansible. This collection of Ansible modules allows a developer to either leverage their existing Kubernetes resource files written in YAML or express the lifecycle management in native Ansible.

One of the biggest benefits of using Ansible in conjunction with existing Kubernetes resource files is the ability to use Jinja templating so that you can customize resources with the simplicity of a few variables in Ansible.

This section goes into detail on usage of the Kubernetes Collection. To get started, install the collection on your local workstation and test it using a playbook before moving on to using it within an Operator.

5.4.6.1. Installing the Kubernetes Collection for Ansible

You can install the Kubernetes Collection for Ansible on your local workstation.

Procedure

  1. Install Ansible 2.9+:

    $ sudo dnf install ansible
  2. Install the OpenShift python client package:

    $ pip3 install openshift
  3. Install the Kubernetes Collection using one of the following methods:

    • You can install the collection directly from Ansible Galaxy:

      $ ansible-galaxy collection install community.kubernetes
    • If you have already initialized your Operator, you might have a requirements.yml file at the top level of your project. This file specifies Ansible dependencies that must be installed for your Operator to function. By default, this file installs the community.kubernetes collection as well as the operator_sdk.util collection, which provides modules and plug-ins for Operator-specific fuctions.

      To install the dependent modules from the requirements.yml file:

      $ ansible-galaxy collection install -r requirements.yml

5.4.6.2. Testing the Kubernetes Collection locally

Operator developers can run the Ansible code from their local machine as opposed to running and rebuilding the Operator each time.

Prerequisites

  • Initialize an Ansible-based Operator project and create an API that has a generated Ansible role by using the Operator SDK
  • Install the Kubernetes Collection for Ansible

Procedure

  1. In your Ansible-based Operator project directory, modify the roles/<kind>/tasks/main.yml file with the Ansible logic that you want. The roles/<kind>/ directory is created when you use the --generate-role flag while creating an API. The <kind> replaceable matches the kind that you specified for the API.

    The following example creates and deletes a config map based on the value of a variable named state:

    ---
    - name: set ConfigMap example-config to {{ state }}
      community.kubernetes.k8s:
        api_version: v1
        kind: ConfigMap
        name: example-config
        namespace: default 1
        state: "{{ state }}"
      ignore_errors: true 2
    1
    Change this value if you want the config map to be created in a different namespace from default.
    2
    Setting ignore_errors: true ensures that deleting a nonexistent config map does not fail.
  2. Modify the roles/<kind>/defaults/main.yml file to set state to present by default:

    ---
    state: present
  3. Create an Ansible playbook by creating a playbook.yml file in the top-level of your project directory, and include your <kind> role:

    ---
    - hosts: localhost
      roles:
        - <kind>
  4. Run the playbook:

    $ ansible-playbook playbook.yml

    Example output

    [WARNING]: provided hosts list is empty, only localhost is available. Note that the implicit localhost does not match 'all'
    
    PLAY [localhost] ********************************************************************************
    
    TASK [Gathering Facts] ********************************************************************************
    ok: [localhost]
    
    TASK [memcached : set ConfigMap example-config to present] ********************************************************************************
    changed: [localhost]
    
    PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************************
    localhost                  : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0    ignored=0

  5. Verify that the config map was created:

    $ oc get configmaps

    Example output

    NAME               DATA   AGE
    example-config     0      2m1s

  6. Rerun the playbook setting state to absent:

    $ ansible-playbook playbook.yml --extra-vars state=absent

    Example output

    [WARNING]: provided hosts list is empty, only localhost is available. Note that the implicit localhost does not match 'all'
    
    PLAY [localhost] ********************************************************************************
    
    TASK [Gathering Facts] ********************************************************************************
    ok: [localhost]
    
    TASK [memcached : set ConfigMap example-config to absent] ********************************************************************************
    changed: [localhost]
    
    PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************************
    localhost                  : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0    ignored=0

  7. Verify that the config map was deleted:

    $ oc get configmaps

5.4.6.3. Next steps

5.4.7. Using Ansible inside an Operator

After you are familiar with using the Kubernetes Collection for Ansible locally, you can trigger the same Ansible logic inside of an Operator when a custom resource (CR) changes. This example maps an Ansible role to a specific Kubernetes resource that the Operator watches. This mapping is done in the watches.yaml file.

5.4.7.1. Custom resource files

Operators use the Kubernetes extension mechanism, custom resource definitions (CRDs), so your custom resource (CR) looks and acts just like the built-in, native Kubernetes objects.

The CR file format is a Kubernetes resource file. The object has mandatory and optional fields:

Table 5.5. Custom resource fields

FieldDescription

apiVersion

Version of the CR to be created.

kind

Kind of the CR to be created.

metadata

Kubernetes-specific metadata to be created.

spec (optional)

Key-value list of variables which are passed to Ansible. This field is empty by default.

status

Summarizes the current state of the object. For Ansible-based Operators, the status subresource is enabled for CRDs and managed by the operator_sdk.util.k8s_status Ansible module by default, which includes condition information to the CR status.

annotations

Kubernetes-specific annotations to be appended to the CR.

The following list of CR annotations modify the behavior of the Operator:

Table 5.6. Ansible-based Operator annotations

AnnotationDescription

ansible.operator-sdk/reconcile-period

Specifies the reconciliation interval for the CR. This value is parsed using the standard Golang package time. Specifically, ParseDuration is used which applies the default suffix of s, giving the value in seconds.

Example Ansible-based Operator annotation

apiVersion: "test1.example.com/v1alpha1"
kind: "Test1"
metadata:
  name: "example"
annotations:
  ansible.operator-sdk/reconcile-period: "30s"

5.4.7.2. Testing an Ansible-based Operator locally

You can test the logic inside of an Ansible-based Operator running locally by using the make run command from the top-level directory of your Operator project. The make run Makefile target runs the ansible-operator binary locally, which reads from the watches.yaml file and uses your ~/.kube/config file to communicate with a Kubernetes cluster just as the k8s modules do.

Note

You can customize the roles path by setting the environment variable ANSIBLE_ROLES_PATH or by using the ansible-roles-path flag. If the role is not found in the ANSIBLE_ROLES_PATH value, the Operator looks for it in {{current directory}}/roles.

Prerequisites

Procedure

  1. Install your custom resource definition (CRD) and proper role-based access control (RBAC) definitions for your custom resource (CR):

    $ make install

    Example output

    /usr/bin/kustomize build config/crd | kubectl apply -f -
    customresourcedefinition.apiextensions.k8s.io/memcacheds.cache.example.com created

  2. Run the make run command:

    $ make run

    Example output

    /home/user/memcached-operator/bin/ansible-operator run
    {"level":"info","ts":1612739145.2871568,"logger":"cmd","msg":"Version","Go Version":"go1.15.5","GOOS":"linux","GOARCH":"amd64","ansible-operator":"v1.10.1","commit":"1abf57985b43bf6a59dcd18147b3c574fa57d3f6"}
    ...
    {"level":"info","ts":1612739148.347306,"logger":"controller-runtime.metrics","msg":"metrics server is starting to listen","addr":":8080"}
    {"level":"info","ts":1612739148.3488882,"logger":"watches","msg":"Environment variable not set; using default value","envVar":"ANSIBLE_VERBOSITY_MEMCACHED_CACHE_EXAMPLE_COM","default":2}
    {"level":"info","ts":1612739148.3490262,"logger":"cmd","msg":"Environment variable not set; using default value","Namespace":"","envVar":"ANSIBLE_DEBUG_LOGS","ANSIBLE_DEBUG_LOGS":false}
    {"level":"info","ts":1612739148.3490646,"logger":"ansible-controller","msg":"Watching resource","Options.Group":"cache.example.com","Options.Version":"v1","Options.Kind":"Memcached"}
    {"level":"info","ts":1612739148.350217,"logger":"proxy","msg":"Starting to serve","Address":"127.0.0.1:8888"}
    {"level":"info","ts":1612739148.3506632,"logger":"controller-runtime.manager","msg":"starting metrics server","path":"/metrics"}
    {"level":"info","ts":1612739148.350784,"logger":"controller-runtime.manager.controller.memcached-controller","msg":"Starting EventSource","source":"kind source: cache.example.com/v1, Kind=Memcached"}
    {"level":"info","ts":1612739148.5511978,"logger":"controller-runtime.manager.controller.memcached-controller","msg":"Starting Controller"}
    {"level":"info","ts":1612739148.5512562,"logger":"controller-runtime.manager.controller.memcached-controller","msg":"Starting workers","worker count":8}

    With the Operator now watching your CR for events, the creation of a CR will trigger your Ansible role to run.

    Note

    Consider an example config/samples/<gvk>.yaml CR manifest:

    apiVersion: <group>.example.com/v1alpha1
    kind: <kind>
    metadata:
      name: "<kind>-sample"

    Because the spec field is not set, Ansible is invoked with no extra variables. Passing extra variables from a CR to Ansible is covered in another section. It is important to set reasonable defaults for the Operator.

  3. Create an instance of your CR with the default variable state set to present:

    $ oc apply -f config/samples/<gvk>.yaml
  4. Check that the example-config config map was created:

    $ oc get configmaps

    Example output

    NAME                    STATUS    AGE
    example-config          Active    3s

  5. Modify your config/samples/<gvk>.yaml file to set the state field to absent. For example:

    apiVersion: cache.example.com/v1
    kind: Memcached
    metadata:
      name: memcached-sample
    spec:
      state: absent
  6. Apply the changes:

    $ oc apply -f config/samples/<gvk>.yaml
  7. Confirm that the config map is deleted:

    $ oc get configmap

5.4.7.3. Testing an Ansible-based Operator on the cluster

After you have tested your custom Ansible logic locally inside of an Operator, you can test the Operator inside of a pod on an OpenShift Container Platform cluster, which is prefered for production use.

You can run your Operator project as a deployment on your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Run the following make commands to build and push the Operator image. Modify the IMG argument in the following steps to reference a repository that you have access to. You can obtain an account for storing containers at repository sites such as Quay.io.

    1. Build the image:

      $ make docker-build IMG=<registry>/<user>/<image_name>:<tag>
      Note

      The Dockerfile generated by the SDK for the Operator explicitly references GOARCH=amd64 for go build. This can be amended to GOARCH=$TARGETARCH for non-AMD64 architectures. Docker will automatically set the environment variable to the value specified by –platform. With Buildah, the –build-arg will need to be used for the purpose. For more information, see Multiple Architectures.

    2. Push the image to a repository:

      $ make docker-push IMG=<registry>/<user>/<image_name>:<tag>
      Note

      The name and tag of the image, for example IMG=<registry>/<user>/<image_name>:<tag>, in both the commands can also be set in your Makefile. Modify the IMG ?= controller:latest value to set your default image name.

  2. Run the following command to deploy the Operator:

    $ make deploy IMG=<registry>/<user>/<image_name>:<tag>

    By default, this command creates a namespace with the name of your Operator project in the form <project_name>-system and is used for the deployment. This command also installs the RBAC manifests from config/rbac.

  3. Run the following command to verify that the Operator is running:

    $ oc get deployment -n <project_name>-system

    Example output

    NAME                                    READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
    <project_name>-controller-manager       1/1     1            1           8m

5.4.7.4. Ansible logs

Ansible-based Operators provide logs about the Ansible run, which can be useful for debugging your Ansible tasks. The logs can also contain detailed information about the internals of the Operator and its interactions with Kubernetes.

5.4.7.4.1. Viewing Ansible logs

Prerequisites

  • Ansible-based Operator running as a deployment on a cluster

Procedure

  • To view logs from an Ansible-based Operator, run the following command:

    $ oc logs deployment/<project_name>-controller-manager \
        -c manager \1
        -n <namespace> 2
    1
    View logs from the manager container.
    2
    If you used the make deploy command to run the Operator as a deployment, use the <project_name>-system namespace.

    Example output

    {"level":"info","ts":1612732105.0579333,"logger":"cmd","msg":"Version","Go Version":"go1.15.5","GOOS":"linux","GOARCH":"amd64","ansible-operator":"v1.10.1","commit":"1abf57985b43bf6a59dcd18147b3c574fa57d3f6"}
    {"level":"info","ts":1612732105.0587437,"logger":"cmd","msg":"WATCH_NAMESPACE environment variable not set. Watching all namespaces.","Namespace":""}
    I0207 21:08:26.110949       7 request.go:645] Throttling request took 1.035521578s, request: GET:https://172.30.0.1:443/apis/flowcontrol.apiserver.k8s.io/v1alpha1?timeout=32s
    {"level":"info","ts":1612732107.768025,"logger":"controller-runtime.metrics","msg":"metrics server is starting to listen","addr":"127.0.0.1:8080"}
    {"level":"info","ts":1612732107.768796,"logger":"watches","msg":"Environment variable not set; using default value","envVar":"ANSIBLE_VERBOSITY_MEMCACHED_CACHE_EXAMPLE_COM","default":2}
    {"level":"info","ts":1612732107.7688773,"logger":"cmd","msg":"Environment variable not set; using default value","Namespace":"","envVar":"ANSIBLE_DEBUG_LOGS","ANSIBLE_DEBUG_LOGS":false}
    {"level":"info","ts":1612732107.7688901,"logger":"ansible-controller","msg":"Watching resource","Options.Group":"cache.example.com","Options.Version":"v1","Options.Kind":"Memcached"}
    {"level":"info","ts":1612732107.770032,"logger":"proxy","msg":"Starting to serve","Address":"127.0.0.1:8888"}
    I0207 21:08:27.770185       7 leaderelection.go:243] attempting to acquire leader lease  memcached-operator-system/memcached-operator...
    {"level":"info","ts":1612732107.770202,"logger":"controller-runtime.manager","msg":"starting metrics server","path":"/metrics"}
    I0207 21:08:27.784854       7 leaderelection.go:253] successfully acquired lease memcached-operator-system/memcached-operator
    {"level":"info","ts":1612732107.7850506,"logger":"controller-runtime.manager.controller.memcached-controller","msg":"Starting EventSource","source":"kind source: cache.example.com/v1, Kind=Memcached"}
    {"level":"info","ts":1612732107.8853772,"logger":"controller-runtime.manager.controller.memcached-controller","msg":"Starting Controller"}
    {"level":"info","ts":1612732107.8854098,"logger":"controller-runtime.manager.controller.memcached-controller","msg":"Starting workers","worker count":4}

5.4.7.4.2. Enabling full Ansible results in logs

You can set the environment variable ANSIBLE_DEBUG_LOGS to True to enable checking the full Ansible result in logs, which can be helpful when debugging.

Procedure

  • Edit the config/manager/manager.yaml and config/default/manager_auth_proxy_patch.yaml files to include the following configuration:

          containers:
          - name: manager
            env:
            - name: ANSIBLE_DEBUG_LOGS
              value: "True"
5.4.7.4.3. Enabling verbose debugging in logs

While developing an Ansible-based Operator, it can be helpful to enable additional debugging in logs.

Procedure

  • Add the ansible.sdk.operatorframework.io/verbosity annotation to your custom resource to enable the verbosity level that you want. For example:

    apiVersion: "cache.example.com/v1alpha1"
    kind: "Memcached"
    metadata:
      name: "example-memcached"
      annotations:
        "ansible.sdk.operatorframework.io/verbosity": "4"
    spec:
      size: 4

5.4.8. Custom resource status management

5.4.8.1. About custom resource status in Ansible-based Operators

Ansible-based Operators automatically update custom resource (CR) status subresources with generic information about the previous Ansible run. This includes the number of successful and failed tasks and relevant error messages as shown:

status:
  conditions:
  - ansibleResult:
      changed: 3
      completion: 2018-12-03T13:45:57.13329
      failures: 1
      ok: 6
      skipped: 0
    lastTransitionTime: 2018-12-03T13:45:57Z
    message: 'Status code was -1 and not [200]: Request failed: <urlopen error [Errno
      113] No route to host>'
    reason: Failed
    status: "True"
    type: Failure
  - lastTransitionTime: 2018-12-03T13:46:13Z
    message: Running reconciliation
    reason: Running
    status: "True"
    type: Running

Ansible-based Operators also allow Operator authors to supply custom status values with the k8s_status Ansible module, which is included in the operator_sdk.util collection. This allows the author to update the status from within Ansible with any key-value pair as desired.

By default, Ansible-based Operators always include the generic Ansible run output as shown above. If you would prefer your application did not update the status with Ansible output, you can track the status manually from your application.

5.4.8.2. Tracking custom resource status manually

You can use the operator_sdk.util collection to modify your Ansible-based Operator to track custom resource (CR) status manually from your application.

Prerequisites

  • Ansible-based Operator project created by using the Operator SDK

Procedure

  1. Update the watches.yaml file with a manageStatus field set to false:

    - version: v1
      group: api.example.com
      kind: <kind>
      role: <role>
      manageStatus: false
  2. Use the operator_sdk.util.k8s_status Ansible module to update the subresource. For example, to update with key test and value data, operator_sdk.util can be used as shown:

    - operator_sdk.util.k8s_status:
        api_version: app.example.com/v1
        kind: <kind>
        name: "{{ ansible_operator_meta.name }}"
        namespace: "{{ ansible_operator_meta.namespace }}"
        status:
          test: data
  3. You can declare collections in the meta/main.yml file for the role, which is included for scaffolded Ansible-based Operators:

    collections:
      - operator_sdk.util
  4. After declaring collections in the role meta, you can invoke the k8s_status module directly:

    k8s_status:
      ...
      status:
        key1: value1

5.5. Helm-based Operators

5.5.1. Getting started with Operator SDK for Helm-based Operators

The Operator SDK includes options for generating an Operator project that leverages existing Helm charts to deploy Kubernetes resources as a unified application, without having to write any Go code.

To demonstrate the basics of setting up and running an Helm-based Operator using tools and libraries provided by the Operator SDK, Operator developers can build an example Helm-based Operator for Nginx and deploy it to a cluster.

5.5.1.1. Prerequisites

  • Operator SDK CLI installed
  • OpenShift CLI (oc) v4.11+ installed
  • Logged into an OpenShift Container Platform 4.11 cluster with oc with an account that has cluster-admin permissions
  • To allow the cluster to pull the image, the repository where you push your image must be set as public, or you must configure an image pull secret

5.5.1.2. Creating and deploying Helm-based Operators

You can build and deploy a simple Helm-based Operator for Nginx by using the Operator SDK.

Procedure

  1. Create a project.

    1. Create your project directory:

      $ mkdir nginx-operator
    2. Change into the project directory:

      $ cd nginx-operator
    3. Run the operator-sdk init command with the helm plug-in to initialize the project:

      $ operator-sdk init \
          --plugins=helm
  2. Create an API.

    Create a simple Nginx API:

    $ operator-sdk create api \
        --group demo \
        --version v1 \
        --kind Nginx

    This API uses the built-in Helm chart boilerplate from the helm create command.

  3. Build and push the Operator image.

    Use the default Makefile targets to build and push your Operator. Set IMG with a pull spec for your image that uses a registry you can push to:

    $ make docker-build docker-push IMG=<registry>/<user>/<image_name>:<tag>
  4. Run the Operator.

    1. Install the CRD:

      $ make install
    2. Deploy the project to the cluster. Set IMG to the image that you pushed:

      $ make deploy IMG=<registry>/<user>/<image_name>:<tag>
  5. Add a security context constraint (SCC).

    The Nginx service account requires privileged access to run in OpenShift Container Platform. Add the following SCC to the service account for the nginx-sample pod:

    $ oc adm policy add-scc-to-user \
        anyuid system:serviceaccount:nginx-operator-system:nginx-sample
  6. Create a sample custom resource (CR).

    1. Create a sample CR:

      $ oc apply -f config/samples/demo_v1_nginx.yaml \
          -n nginx-operator-system
    2. Watch for the CR to reconcile the Operator:

      $ oc logs deployment.apps/nginx-operator-controller-manager \
          -c manager \
          -n nginx-operator-system
  7. Clean up.

    Run the following command to clean up the resources that have been created as part of this procedure:

    $ make undeploy

5.5.1.3. Next steps

5.5.2. Operator SDK tutorial for Helm-based Operators

Operator developers can take advantage of Helm support in the Operator SDK to build an example Helm-based Operator for Nginx and manage its lifecycle. This tutorial walks through the following process:

  • Create a Nginx deployment
  • Ensure that the deployment size is the same as specified by the Nginx custom resource (CR) spec
  • Update the Nginx CR status using the status writer with the names of the nginx pods

This process is accomplished using two centerpieces of the Operator Framework:

Operator SDK
The operator-sdk CLI tool and controller-runtime library API
Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM)
Installation, upgrade, and role-based access control (RBAC) of Operators on a cluster
Note

This tutorial goes into greater detail than Getting started with Operator SDK for Helm-based Operators.

5.5.2.1. Prerequisites

  • Operator SDK CLI installed
  • OpenShift CLI (oc) v4.11+ installed
  • Logged into an OpenShift Container Platform 4.11 cluster with oc with an account that has cluster-admin permissions
  • To allow the cluster to pull the image, the repository where you push your image must be set as public, or you must configure an image pull secret

5.5.2.2. Creating a project

Use the Operator SDK CLI to create a project called nginx-operator.

Procedure

  1. Create a directory for the project:

    $ mkdir -p $HOME/projects/nginx-operator
  2. Change to the directory:

    $ cd $HOME/projects/nginx-operator
  3. Run the operator-sdk init command with the helm plug-in to initialize the project:

    $ operator-sdk init \
        --plugins=helm \
        --domain=example.com \
        --group=demo \
        --version=v1 \
        --kind=Nginx
    Note

    By default, the helm plug-in initializes a project using a boilerplate Helm chart. You can use additional flags, such as the --helm-chart flag, to initialize a project using an existing Helm chart.

    The init command creates the nginx-operator project specifically for watching a resource with API version example.com/v1 and kind Nginx.

  4. For Helm-based projects, the init command generates the RBAC rules in the config/rbac/role.yaml file based on the resources that would be deployed by the default manifest for the chart. Verify that the rules generated in this file meet the permission requirements of the Operator.
5.5.2.2.1. Existing Helm charts

Instead of creating your project with a boilerplate Helm chart, you can alternatively use an existing chart, either from your local file system or a remote chart repository, by using the following flags:

  • --helm-chart
  • --helm-chart-repo
  • --helm-chart-version

If the --helm-chart flag is specified, the --group, --version, and --kind flags become optional. If left unset, the following default values are used:

FlagValue

--domain

my.domain

--group

charts

--version

v1

--kind

Deduced from the specified chart

If the --helm-chart flag specifies a local chart archive, for example example-chart-1.2.0.tgz, or directory, the chart is validated and unpacked or copied into the project. Otherwise, the Operator SDK attempts to fetch the chart from a remote repository.

If a custom repository URL is not specified by the --helm-chart-repo flag, the following chart reference formats are supported:

FormatDescription

<repo_name>/<chart_name>

Fetch the Helm chart named <chart_name> from the helm chart repository named <repo_name>, as specified in the $HELM_HOME/repositories/repositories.yaml file. Use the helm repo add command to configure this file.

<url>

Fetch the Helm chart archive at the specified URL.

If a custom repository URL is specified by --helm-chart-repo, the following chart reference format is supported:

FormatDescription

<chart_name>

Fetch the Helm chart named <chart_name> in the Helm chart repository specified by the --helm-chart-repo URL value.

If the --helm-chart-version flag is unset, the Operator SDK fetches the latest available version of the Helm chart. Otherwise, it fetches the specified version. The optional --helm-chart-version flag is not used when the chart specified with the --helm-chart flag refers to a specific version, for example when it is a local path or a URL.

For more details and examples, run:

$ operator-sdk init --plugins helm --help
5.5.2.2.2. PROJECT file

Among the files generated by the operator-sdk init command is a Kubebuilder PROJECT file. Subsequent operator-sdk commands, as well as help output, that are run from the project root read this file and are aware that the project type is Helm. For example:

domain: example.com
layout: helm.sdk.operatorframework.io/v1
projectName: helm-operator
resources:
- group: demo
  kind: Nginx
  version: v1
version: 3

5.5.2.3. Understanding the Operator logic

For this example, the nginx-operator project executes the following reconciliation logic for each Nginx custom resource (CR):

  • Create an Nginx deployment if it does not exist.
  • Create an Nginx service if it does not exist.
  • Create an Nginx ingress if it is enabled and does not exist.
  • Ensure that the deployment, service, and optional ingress match the desired configuration as specified by the Nginx CR, for example the replica count, image, and service type.

By default, the nginx-operator project watches Nginx resource events as shown in the watches.yaml file and executes Helm releases using the specified chart:

# Use the 'create api' subcommand to add watches to this file.
- group: demo
  version: v1
  kind: Nginx
  chart: helm-charts/nginx
# +kubebuilder:scaffold:watch
5.5.2.3.1. Sample Helm chart

When a Helm Operator project is created, the Operator SDK creates a sample Helm chart that contains a set of templates for a simple Nginx release.

For this example, templates are available for deployment, service, and ingress resources, along with a NOTES.txt template, which Helm chart developers use to convey helpful information about a release.

If you are not already familiar with Helm charts, review the Helm developer documentation.

5.5.2.3.2. Modifying the custom resource spec

Helm uses a concept called values to provide customizations to the defaults of a Helm chart, which are defined in the values.yaml file.

You can override these defaults by setting the desired values in the custom resource (CR) spec. You can use the number of replicas as an example.

Procedure

  1. The helm-charts/nginx/values.yaml file has a value called replicaCount set to 1 by default. To have two Nginx instances in your deployment, your CR spec must contain replicaCount: 2.

    Edit the config/samples/demo_v1_nginx.yaml file to set replicaCount: 2:

    apiVersion: demo.example.com/v1
    kind: Nginx
    metadata:
      name: nginx-sample
    ...
    spec:
    ...
      replicaCount: 2
  2. Similarly, the default service port is set to 80. To use 8080, edit the config/samples/demo_v1_nginx.yaml file to set spec.port: 8080,which adds the service port override:

    apiVersion: demo.example.com/v1
    kind: Nginx
    metadata:
      name: nginx-sample
    spec:
      replicaCount: 2
      service:
        port: 8080

The Helm Operator applies the entire spec as if it was the contents of a values file, just like the helm install -f ./overrides.yaml command.

5.5.2.4. Enabling proxy support

Operator authors can develop Operators that support network proxies. Cluster administrators configure proxy support for the environment variables that are handled by Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM). To support proxied clusters, your Operator must inspect the environment for the following standard proxy variables and pass the values to Operands:

  • HTTP_PROXY
  • HTTPS_PROXY
  • NO_PROXY
Note

This tutorial uses HTTP_PROXY as an example environment variable.

Prerequisites

  • A cluster with cluster-wide egress proxy enabled.

Procedure

  • Edit the watches.yaml file to include overrides based on an environment variable by adding the overrideValues field:

    ...
    - group: demo.example.com
      version: v1alpha1
      kind: Nginx
      chart: helm-charts/nginx
      overrideValues:
        proxy.http: $HTTP_PROXY
    ...
    1. Add the proxy.http value in the helmcharts/nginx/values.yaml file:

      ...
      proxy:
        http: ""
        https: ""
        no_proxy: ""
    2. To make sure the chart template supports using the variables, edit the chart template in the helm-charts/nginx/templates/deployment.yaml file to contain the following:

      containers:
        - name: {{ .Chart.Name }}
          securityContext:
            - toYaml {{ .Values.securityContext | nindent 12 }}
          image: "{{ .Values.image.repository }}:{{ .Values.image.tag | default .Chart.AppVersion }}"
          imagePullPolicy: {{ .Values.image.pullPolicy }}
          env:
            - name: http_proxy
              value: "{{ .Values.proxy.http }}"
    3. Set the environment variable on the Operator deployment by adding the following to the config/manager/manager.yaml file:

      containers:
       - args:
         - --leader-elect
         - --leader-election-id=ansible-proxy-demo
         image: controller:latest
         name: manager
         env:
           - name: "HTTP_PROXY"
             value: "http_proxy_test"

5.5.2.5. Running the Operator

There are three ways you can use the Operator SDK CLI to build and run your Operator:

  • Run locally outside the cluster as a Go program.
  • Run as a deployment on the cluster.
  • Bundle your Operator and use Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) to deploy on the cluster.
5.5.2.5.1. Running locally outside the cluster

You can run your Operator project as a Go program outside of the cluster. This is useful for development purposes to speed up deployment and testing.

Procedure

  • Run the following command to install the custom resource definitions (CRDs) in the cluster configured in your ~/.kube/config file and run the Operator locally:

    $ make install run

    Example output

    ...
    {"level":"info","ts":1612652419.9289865,"logger":"controller-runtime.metrics","msg":"metrics server is starting to listen","addr":":8080"}
    {"level":"info","ts":1612652419.9296563,"logger":"helm.controller","msg":"Watching resource","apiVersion":"demo.example.com/v1","kind":"Nginx","namespace":"","reconcilePeriod":"1m0s"}
    {"level":"info","ts":1612652419.929983,"logger":"controller-runtime.manager","msg":"starting metrics server","path":"/metrics"}
    {"level":"info","ts":1612652419.930015,"logger":"controller-runtime.manager.controller.nginx-controller","msg":"Starting EventSource","source":"kind source: demo.example.com/v1, Kind=Nginx"}
    {"level":"info","ts":1612652420.2307851,"logger":"controller-runtime.manager.controller.nginx-controller","msg":"Starting Controller"}
    {"level":"info","ts":1612652420.2309358,"logger":"controller-runtime.manager.controller.nginx-controller","msg":"Starting workers","worker count":8}

5.5.2.5.2. Running as a deployment on the cluster

You can run your Operator project as a deployment on your cluster.

Procedure

  1. Run the following make commands to build and push the Operator image. Modify the IMG argument in the following steps to reference a repository that you have access to. You can obtain an account for storing containers at repository sites such as Quay.io.

    1. Build the image:

      $ make docker-build IMG=<registry>/<user>/<image_name>:<tag>
      Note

      The Dockerfile generated by the SDK for the Operator explicitly references GOARCH=amd64 for go build. This can be amended to GOARCH=$TARGETARCH for non-AMD64 architectures. Docker will automatically set the environment variable to the value specified by –platform. With Buildah, the –build-arg will need to be used for the purpose. For more information, see Multiple Architectures.

    2. Push the image to a repository:

      $ make docker-push IMG=<registry>/<user>/<image_name>:<tag>
      Note

      The name and tag of the image, for example IMG=<registry>/<user>/<image_name>:<tag>, in both the commands can also be set in your Makefile. Modify the IMG ?= controller:latest value to set your default image name.

  2. Run the following command to deploy the Operator:

    $ make deploy IMG=<registry>/<user>/<image_name>:<tag>

    By default, this command creates a namespace with the name of your Operator project in the form <project_name>-system and is used for the deployment. This command also installs the RBAC manifests from config/rbac.

  3. Run the following command to verify that the Operator is running:

    $ oc get deployment -n <project_name>-system

    Example output

    NAME                                    READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
    <project_name>-controller-manager       1/1     1            1           8m

5.5.2.5.3. Bundling an Operator and deploying with Operator Lifecycle Manager
5.5.2.5.3.1. Bundling an Operator

The Operator bundle format is the default packaging method for Operator SDK and Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM). You can get your Operator ready for use on OLM by using the Operator SDK to build and push your Operator project as a bundle image.

Prerequisites

  • Operator SDK CLI installed on a development workstation
  • OpenShift CLI (oc) v4.11+ installed
  • Operator project initialized by using the Operator SDK

Procedure

  1. Run the following make commands in your Operator project directory to build and push your Operator image. Modify the IMG argument in the following steps to reference a repository that you have access to. You can obtain an account for storing containers at repository sites such as Quay.io.

    1. Build the image:

      $ make docker-build IMG=<registry>/<user>/<operator_image_name>:<tag>
      Note

      The Dockerfile generated by the SDK for the Operator explicitly references GOARCH=amd64 for go build. This can be amended to GOARCH=$TARGETARCH for non-AMD64 architectures. Docker will automatically set the environment variable to the value specified by –platform. With Buildah, the –build-arg will need to be used for the purpose. For more information, see Multiple Architectures.

    2. Push the image to a repository:

      $ make docker-push IMG=<registry>/<user>/<operator_image_name>:<tag>
  2. Create your Operator bundle manifest by running the make bundle command, which invokes several commands, including the Operator SDK generate bundle and bundle validate subcommands:

    $ make bundle IMG=<registry>/<user>/<operator_image_name>:<tag>

    Bundle manifests for an Operator describe how to display, create, and manage an application. The make bundle command creates the following files and directories in your Operator project:

    • A bundle manifests directory named bundle/manifests that contains a ClusterServiceVersion object
    • A bundle metadata directory named bundle/metadata
    • All custom resource definitions (CRDs) in a config/crd directory
    • A Dockerfile bundle.Dockerfile

    These files are then automatically validated by using operator-sdk bundle validate to ensure the on-disk bundle representation is correct.

  3. Build and push your bundle image by running the following commands. OLM consumes Operator bundles using an index image, which reference one or more bundle images.

    1. Build the bundle image. Set BUNDLE_IMG with the details for the registry, user namespace, and image tag where you intend to push the image:

      $ make bundle-build BUNDLE_IMG=<registry>/<user>/<bundle_image_name>:<tag>
    2. Push the bundle image:

      $ docker push <registry>/<user>/<bundle_image_name>:<tag>
5.5.2.5.3.2. Deploying an Operator with Operator Lifecycle Manager

Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM) helps you to install, update, and manage the lifecycle of Operators and their associated services on a Kubernetes cluster. OLM is installed by default on OpenShift Container Platform and runs as a Kubernetes extension so that you can use the web console and the OpenShift CLI (oc) for all Operator lifecycle management functions without any additional tools.

The Operator bundle format is the default packaging method for Operator SDK and OLM. You can use the Operator SDK to quickly run a bundle image on OLM to ensure that it runs properly.

Prerequisites

  • Operator SDK CLI installed on a development workstation
  • Operator bundle image built and pushed to a registry
  • OLM installed on a Kubernetes-based cluster (v1.16.0 or later if you use apiextensions.k8s.io/v1 CRDs, for example OpenShift Container Platform 4.11)
  • Logged in to the cluster with oc using an account with cluster-admin permissions

Procedure

  1. Enter the following command to run the Operator on the cluster:

    $ operator-sdk run bundle \1
        -n <namespace> \2
        <registry>/<user>/<bundle_image_name>:<tag> 3
    1
    The run bundle command creates a valid file-based catalog and installs the Operator bundle on your cluster using OLM.
    2
    Optional: By default, the command installs the Operator in the currently active project in your ~/.kube/config file. You can add the -n flag to set a different namespace scope for the installation.
    3
    If you do not specify an image, the command uses quay.io/operator-framework/opm:latest as the default index image. If you specify an image, the command uses the bundle image itself as the index image.
    Important

    As of OpenShift Container Platform 4.11, the run bundle command supports the file-based catalog format for Operator catalogs by default. The deprecated SQLite database format for Operator catalogs continues to be supported; however, it will be removed in a future release. It is recommended that Operator authors migrate their workflows to the file-based catalog format.

    This command performs the following actions:

    • Create an index image referencing your bundle image. The index image is opaque and ephemeral, but accurately reflects how a bundle would be added to a catalog in production.
    • Create a catalog source that points to your new index image, which enables OperatorHub to discover your Operator.
    • Deploy your Operator to your cluster by creating an OperatorGroup, Subscription, InstallPlan, and all other required resources, including RBAC.

5.5.2.6. Creating a custom resource

After your Operator is installed, you can test it by creating a custom resource (CR) that is now provided on the cluster by the Operator.

Prerequisites

  • Example Nginx Operator, which provides the Nginx CR, installed on a cluster

Procedure

  1. Change to the namespace where your Operator is installed. For example, if you deployed the Operator using the make deploy command:

    $ oc project nginx-operator-system
  2. Edit the sample Nginx CR manifest at config/samples/demo_v1_nginx.yaml to contain the following specification:

    apiVersion: demo.example.com/v1
    kind: Nginx
    metadata:
      name: nginx-sample
    ...
    spec:
    ...
      replicaCount: 3
  3. The Nginx service account requires privileged access to run in OpenShift Container Platform. Add the following security context constraint (SCC) to the service account for the nginx-sample pod:

    $ oc adm policy add-scc-to-user \
        anyuid system:serviceaccount:nginx-operator-system:nginx-sample
  4. Create the CR:

    $ oc apply -f config/samples/demo_v1_nginx.yaml
  5. Ensure that the Nginx Operator creates the deployment for the sample CR with the correct size:

    $ oc get deployments

    Example output

    NAME                                    READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
    nginx-operator-controller-manager       1/1     1            1           8m
    nginx-sample                            3/3     3            3           1m

  6. Check the pods and CR status to confirm the status is updated with the Nginx pod names.

    1. Check the pods:

      $ oc get pods

      Example output

      NAME                                  READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
      nginx-sample-6fd7c98d8-7dqdr          1/1       Running   0          1m
      nginx-sample-6fd7c98d8-g5k7v          1/1       Running   0          1m
      nginx-sample-6fd7c98d8-m7vn7          1/1       Running   0          1m

    2. Check the CR status:

      $ oc get nginx/nginx-sample -o yaml

      Example output

      apiVersion: demo.example.com/v1
      kind: Nginx
      metadata:
      ...
        name: nginx-sample
      ...
      spec:
        replicaCount: 3
      status:
        nodes:
        - nginx-sample-6fd7c98d8-7dqdr
        - nginx-sample-6fd7c98d8-g5k7v
        - nginx-sample-6fd7c98d8-m7vn7

  7. Update the deployment size.

    1. Update config/samples/demo_v1_nginx.yaml file to change the spec.size field in the Nginx CR from 3 to 5:

      $ oc patch nginx nginx-sample \
          -p '{"spec":{"replicaCount": 5}}' \
          --type=merge
    2. Confirm that the Operator changes the deployment size:

      $ oc get deployments

      Example output

      NAME                                    READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
      nginx-operator-controller-manager       1/1     1            1           10m
      nginx-sample                            5/5     5            5           3m

  8. Clean up the resources that have been created as part of this tutorial.

    • If you used the make deploy command to test the Operator, run the following command:

      $ make undeploy
    • If you used the operator-sdk run bundle command to test the Operator, run the following command:

      $ operator-sdk cleanup <project_name>

5.5.2.7. Additional resources

5.5.3. Project layout for Helm-based Operators

The operator-sdk CLI can generate, or scaffold, a number of packages and files for each Operator project.

5.5.3.1. Helm-based project layout

Helm-based Operator projects generated using the operator-sdk init --plugins helm command contain the following directories and files:

File/foldersPurpose

config

Kustomize manifests for deploying the Operator on a Kubernetes cluster.

helm-charts/

Helm chart initialized with the operator-sdk create api command.

Dockerfile

Used to build the Operator image with the make docker-build command.

watches.yaml

Group/version/kind (GVK) and Helm chart location.

Makefile

Targets used to manage the project.

PROJECT

YAML file containing metadata information for the Operator.

5.5.4. Updating Helm-based projects for newer Operator SDK versions

OpenShift Container Platform 4.11 supports Operator SDK 1.22.0. If you already have the 1.16.0 CLI installed on your workstation, you can update the CLI to 1.22.0 by installing the latest version.

However, to ensure your existing Operator projects maintain compatibility with Operator SDK 1.22.0, update steps are required for the associated breaking changes introduced since 1.16.0. You must perform the update steps manually in any of your Operator projects that were previously created or maintained with 1.16.0.

5.5.4.1. Updating Helm-based Operator projects for Operator SDK 1.22.0

The following procedure updates an existing Helm-based Operator project for compatibility with 1.22.0.

Prerequisites

  • Operator SDK 1.22.0 installed.
  • An Operator project created or maintained with Operator SDK 1.16.0.

Procedure

  1. Make the following changes to the config/default/manager_auth_proxy_patch.yaml file:

    ...
    spec:
      template:
        spec:
          containers:
          - name: kube-rbac-proxy
            image: registry.redhat.io/openshift4/ose-kube-rbac-proxy:v4.11 1
            args:
            - "--secure-listen-address=0.0.0.0:8443"
            - "--upstream=http://127.0.0.1:8080/"
            - "--logtostderr=true"
            - "--v=0" 2
    ...
    resources:
      limits:
        cpu: 500m
        memory: 128Mi
      requests:
        cpu: 5m
        memory: 64Mi 3
    1
    Update the tag version from v4.10 to v4.11.
    2
    Reduce the debugging log level from --v=10 to --v=0.
    3
    Add resource requests and limits.
  2. Make the following changes to your Makefile:

    1. Enable support for image digests by adding the following environment variables to your Makefile:

      Old Makefile

      BUNDLE_IMG ?= $(IMAGE_TAG_BASE)-bundle:v$(VERSION)
      ...

      New Makefile

      BUNDLE_IMG ?= $(IMAGE_TAG_BASE)-bundle:v$(VERSION)
      
      # BUNDLE_GEN_FLAGS are the flags passed to the operator-sdk generate bundle command
      BUNDLE_GEN_FLAGS ?= -q --overwrite --version $(VERSION) $(BUNDLE_METADATA_OPTS)
      
      # USE_IMAGE_DIGESTS defines if images are resolved via tags or digests
      # You can enable this value if you would like to use SHA Based Digests
      # To enable set flag to true
      USE_IMAGE_DIGESTS ?= false
      ifeq ($(USE_IMAGE_DIGESTS), true)
      	BUNDLE_GEN_FLAGS += --use-image-digests
      endif

    2. Edit your Makefile to replace the bundle target with the BUNDLE_GEN_FLAGS environment variable:

      Old Makefile

      $(KUSTOMIZE) build config/manifests | operator-sdk generate bundle -q --overwrite --version $(VERSION) $(BUNDLE_METADATA_OPTS)

      New Makefile

      $(KUSTOMIZE) build config/manifests | operator-sdk generate bundle $(BUNDLE_GEN_FLAGS)

    3. Edit your Makefile to update opm to version 1.23.0:

      .PHONY: opm
      OPM = ./bin/opm
      opm: ## Download opm locally if necessary.
      ifeq (,$(wildcard $(OPM)))
      ifeq (,$(shell which opm 2>/dev/null))
      	@{ \
      	set -e ;\
      	mkdir -p $(dir $(OPM)) ;\
      	OS=$(shell go env GOOS) && ARCH=$(shell go env GOARCH) && \
      	curl -sSLo $(OPM) https://github.com/operator-framework/operator-registry/releases/download/v1.23.0/$${OS}-$${ARCH}-opm ;\ 1
      	chmod +x $(OPM) ;\
      	}
      else
      OPM = $(shell which opm)
      endif
      endif
      1
      Replace v1.19.1 with v1.23.0.
    4. Apply the changes to your Makefile and rebuild your Operator by entering the following command:

      $ make

5.5.4.2. Additional resources

5.5.5. Helm support in Operator SDK

5.5.5.1. Helm charts

One of the Operator SDK options for generating an Operator project includes leveraging an existing Helm chart to deploy Kubernetes resources as a unified application, without having to write any Go code. Such Helm-based Operators are designed to excel at stateless applications that require very little logic when rolled out, because changes should be applied to the Kubernetes objects that are generated as part of the chart. This may sound limiting, but can be sufficient for a surprising amount of use-cases as shown by the proliferation of Helm charts built by the Kubernetes community.

The main function of an Operator is to read from a custom object that represents your application instance and have its desired state match what is running. In the case of a Helm-based Operator, the spec field of the object is a list of configuration options that are typically described in the Helm values.yaml file. Instead of setting these values with flags using the Helm CLI (for example, helm install -f values.yaml), you can express them within a custom resource (CR), which, as a native Kubernetes object, enables the benefits of RBAC applied to it and an audit trail.

For an example of a simple CR called Tomcat:

apiVersion: apache.org/v1alpha1
kind: Tomcat
metadata:
  name: example-app
spec:
  replicaCount: 2

The replicaCount value, 2 in this case, is propagated into the template of the chart where the following is used:

{{ .Values.replicaCount }}

After an Operator is built and deployed, you can deploy a new instance of an app by creating a new instance of a CR, or list the different instances running in all environments using the oc command:

$ oc get Tomcats --all-namespaces

There is no requirement use the Helm CLI or install Tiller; Helm-based Operators import code from the Helm project. All you have to do is have an instance of the Operator running and register the CR with a custom resource definition (CRD). Because it obeys RBAC, you can more easily prevent production changes.

5.5.6. Operator SDK tutorial for Hybrid Helm Operators

The standard Helm-based Operator support in the Operator SDK has limited functionality compared to the Go-based and Ansible-based Operator support that has reached the Auto Pilot capability (level V) in the Operator maturity model.

The Hybrid Helm Operator enhances the existing Helm-based support’s abilities through Go APIs. With this hybrid approach of Helm and Go, the Operator SDK enables Operator authors to use the following process:

  • Generate a default structure for, or scaffold, a Go API in the same project as Helm.
  • Configure the Helm reconciler in the main.go file of the project, through the libraries provided by the Hybrid Helm Operator.
Important

The Hybrid Helm Operator is a Technology Preview feature only. Technology Preview features are not supported with Red Hat production service level agreements (SLAs) and might not be functionally complete. Red Hat does not recommend using them in production. These features provide early access to upcoming product features, enabling customers to test functionality and provide feedback during the development process.

For more information about the support scope of Red Hat Technology Preview features, see https://access.redhat.com/support/offerings/techpreview/.

This tutorial walks through the following process using the Hybrid Helm Operator:

  • Create a Memcached deployment through a Helm chart if it does not exist
  • Ensure that the deployment size is the same as specified by Memcached custom resource (CR) spec
  • Create a MemcachedBackup deployment by using the Go API

5.5.6.1. Prerequisites

  • Operator SDK CLI installed
  • OpenShift CLI (oc) v4.11+ installed
  • Logged into an OpenShift Container Platform 4.11 cluster with oc with an account that has cluster-admin permissions
  • To allow the cluster to pull the image, the repository where you push your image must be set as public, or you must configure an image pull secret

5.5.6.2. Creating a project

Use the Operator SDK CLI to create a project called memcached-operator.

Procedure

  1. Create a directory for the project:

    $ mkdir -p $HOME/github.com/example/memcached-operator
  2. Change to the directory:

    $ cd $HOME/github.com/example/memcached-operator
  3. Run the operator-sdk init command to initialize the project. Use a domain of example.com so that all API groups are <group>.example.com:

    $ operator-sdk init \
        --plugins=hybrid.helm.sdk.operatorframework.io \
        --project-version="3" \
        --domain example.com \
        --repo=github.com/example/memcached-operator

    The init command generates the RBAC rules in the config/rbac/role.yaml file based on the resources that would be deployed by the chart’s default manifests. Verify that the rules generated in the config/rbac/role.yaml file meet your Operator’s permission requirements.

Additional resources

  • This procedure creates a project structure that is compatible with both Helm and Go APIs. To learn more about the project directory structure, see Project layout.

5.5.6.3. Creating a Helm API

Use the Operator SDK CLI to create a Helm API.

Procedure

  • Run the following command to create a Helm API with group cache, version v1, and kind Memcached:

    $ operator-sdk create api \
        --plugins helm.sdk.operatorframework.io/v1 \
        --group cache \
        --version v1 \
        --kind Memcached
Note

This procedure also configures your Operator project to watch the Memcached resource with API version v1 and scaffolds a boilerplate Helm chart. Instead of creating the project from the boilerplate Helm chart scaffolded by the Operator SDK, you can alternatively use an existing chart from your local file system or remote chart repository.

For more details and examples for creating Helm API based on existing or new charts, run the following command:

$ operator-sdk create api --plugins helm.sdk.operatorframework.io/v1 --help

Additional resources

5.5.6.3.1. Operator logic for the Helm API

By default, your scaffolded Operator project watches Memcached resource events as shown in the watches.yaml file and executes Helm releases using the specified chart.

Example 5.2. Example watches.yaml file

# Use the 'create api' subcommand to add watches to this file.
- group: cache.my.domain
  version: v1
  kind: Memcached
  chart: helm-charts/memcached
#+kubebuilder:scaffold:watch

Additional resources

5.5.6.3.2. Custom Helm reconciler configurations using provided library APIs

A disadvantage of existing Helm-based Operators is the inability to configure the Helm reconciler, because it is abstracted from users. For a Helm-based Operator to reach the Seamless Upgrades capability (level II and later) that reuses an already existing Helm chart, a hybrid between the Go and Helm Operator types adds value.

The APIs provided in the helm-operator-plugins library allow Operator authors to make the following configurations:

  • Customize value mapping based on cluster state
  • Execute code in specific events by configuring the reconciler’s event recorder
  • Customize the reconciler’s logger
  • Setup Install, Upgrade, and Uninstall annotations to enable Helm’s actions to be configured based on the annotations found in custom resources watched by the reconciler
  • Configure the reconciler to run with Pre and Post hooks

The above configurations to the reconciler can be done in the main.go file:

Example main.go file

// Operator's main.go
// With the help of helpers provided in the library, the reconciler can be
// configured here before starting the controller with this reconciler.
reconciler := reconciler.New(
 reconciler.WithChart(*chart),
 reconciler.WithGroupVersionKind(gvk),
)

if err := reconciler.SetupWithManager(mgr); err != nil {
 panic(fmt.Sprintf("unable to create reconciler: %s", err))
}

5.5.6.4. Creating a Go API

Use the Operator SDK CLI to create a Go API.

Procedure

  1. Run the following command to create a Go API with group cache, version v1, and kind MemcachedBackup:

    $ operator-sdk create api \
        --group=cache \
        --version v1 \
        --kind MemcachedBackup \
        --resource \
        --controller \
        --plugins=go/v3
  2. When prompted, enter y for creating both resource and controller:

    $ Create Resource [y/n]
    y
    Create Controller [y/n]
    y

This procedure generates the MemcachedBackup resource API at api/v1/memcachedbackup_types.go and the controller at controllers/memcachedbackup_controller.go.

5.5.6.4.1. Defining the API

Define the API for the MemcachedBackup custom resource (CR).

Represent this Go API by defining the MemcachedBackup type, which will have a MemcachedBackupSpec.Size field to set the quantity of Memcached backup instances (CRs) to be deployed, and a MemcachedBackupStatus.Nodes field to store a CR’s pod names.

Note

The Node field is used to illustrate an example of a Status field.

Procedure

  1. Define the API for the MemcachedBackup CR by modifying the Go type definitions in the api/v1/memcachedbackup_types.go file to have the following spec and status:

    Example 5.3. Example api/v1/memcachedbackup_types.go file

    // MemcachedBackupSpec defines the desired state of MemcachedBackup
    type MemcachedBackupSpec struct {
    	// INSERT ADDITIONAL SPEC FIELDS - desired state of cluster
    	// Important: Run "make" to regenerate code after modifying this file
    
    	//+kubebuilder:validation:Minimum=0
    	// Size is the size of the memcached deployment
    	Size int32 `json:"size"`
    }
    
    // MemcachedBackupStatus defines the observed state of MemcachedBackup
    type MemcachedBackupStatus struct {
    	// INSERT ADDITIONAL STATUS FIELD - define observed state of cluster
    	// Important: Run "make" to regenerate code after modifying this file
    	// Nodes are the names of the memcached pods
    	Nodes []string `json:"nodes"`
    }
  2. Update the generated code for the