Cluster Administration

OpenShift Container Platform 3.7

OpenShift Container Platform 3.7 Cluster Administration

Red Hat OpenShift Documentation Team

Abstract

OpenShift Cluster Administration topics cover the day to day tasks for managing your OpenShift cluster and other advanced configuration topics.

Chapter 1. Overview

 
These Cluster Administration topics cover the day-to-day tasks for managing your OpenShift Container Platform cluster and other advanced configuration topics.

Chapter 2. Managing Nodes

2.1. Overview

You can manage nodes in your instance using the CLI.

When you perform node management operations, the CLI interacts with node objects that are representations of actual node hosts. The master uses the information from node objects to validate nodes with health checks.

2.2. Listing Nodes

To list all nodes that are known to the master:

$ oc get nodes
NAME                        STATUS                     AGE
master.example.com          Ready,SchedulingDisabled   165d
node1.example.com           Ready                      165d
node2.example.com           Ready                      165d

To only list information about a single node, replace <node> with the full node name:

$ oc get node <node>

The STATUS column in the output of these commands can show nodes with the following conditions:

Table 2.1. Node Conditions

ConditionDescription

Ready

The node is passing the health checks performed from the master by returning StatusOK.

NotReady

The node is not passing the health checks performed from the master.

SchedulingDisabled

Pods cannot be scheduled for placement on the node.

Note

The STATUS column can also show Unknown for a node if the CLI cannot find any node condition.

To get more detailed information about a specific node, including the reason for the current condition:

$ oc describe node <node>

For example:

$ oc describe node node1.example.com
Name:			node1.example.com
Labels:			kubernetes.io/hostname=node1.example.com
CreationTimestamp:	Wed, 10 Jun 2015 17:22:34 +0000
Conditions:
  Type		Status	LastHeartbeatTime			LastTransitionTime			Reason					Message
  Ready 	True 	Wed, 10 Jun 2015 19:56:16 +0000 	Wed, 10 Jun 2015 17:22:34 +0000 	kubelet is posting ready status
Addresses:	127.0.0.1
Capacity:
 memory:	1017552Ki
 pods:		100
 cpu:		2
Version:
 Kernel Version:		3.17.4-301.fc21.x86_64
 OS Image:			Fedora 21 (Twenty One)
 Container Runtime Version:	docker://1.6.0
 Kubelet Version:		v0.17.1-804-g496be63
 Kube-Proxy Version:		v0.17.1-804-g496be63
ExternalID:			node1.example.com
Pods:				(2 in total)
  docker-registry-1-9yyw5
  router-1-maytv
No events.

2.3. Adding Nodes

To add nodes to your existing OpenShift Container Platform cluster, you can run an Ansible playbook that handles installing the node components, generating the required certificates, and other important steps. See the advanced installation method for instructions on running the playbook directly.

Alternatively, if you used the quick installation method, you can re-run the installer to add nodes, which performs the same steps.

2.4. Deleting Nodes

When you delete a node using the CLI, the node object is deleted in Kubernetes, but the pods that exist on the node itself are not deleted. Any bare pods not backed by a replication controller would be inaccessible to OpenShift Container Platform, pods backed by replication controllers would be rescheduled to other available nodes, and local manifest pods would need to be manually deleted.

To delete a node from the OpenShift Container Platform cluster:

  1. Evacuate pods from the node you are preparing to delete.
  2. Delete the node object:

    $ oc delete node <node>
  3. Check that the node has been removed from the node list:

    $ oc get nodes

    Pods should now be only scheduled for the remaining nodes that are in Ready state.

  4. If you want to uninstall all OpenShift Container Platform content from the node host, including all pods and containers, continue to Uninstalling Nodes and follow the procedure using the uninstall.yml playbook. The procedure assumes general understanding of the advanced installation method using Ansible.

2.5. Updating Labels on Nodes

To add or update labels on a node:

$ oc label node <node> <key_1>=<value_1> ... <key_n>=<value_n>

To see more detailed usage:

$ oc label -h

2.6. Listing Pods on Nodes

To list all or selected pods on one or more nodes:

$ oadm manage-node <node1> <node2> \
    --list-pods [--pod-selector=<pod_selector>] [-o json|yaml]

To list all or selected pods on selected nodes:

$ oadm manage-node --selector=<node_selector> \
    --list-pods [--pod-selector=<pod_selector>] [-o json|yaml]

2.7. Marking Nodes as Unschedulable or Schedulable

By default, healthy nodes with a Ready status are marked as schedulable, meaning that new pods are allowed for placement on the node. Manually marking a node as unschedulable blocks any new pods from being scheduled on the node. Existing pods on the node are not affected.

To mark a node or nodes as unschedulable:

$ oadm manage-node <node1> <node2> --schedulable=false

For example:

$ oadm manage-node node1.example.com --schedulable=false
NAME                 LABELS                                        STATUS
node1.example.com    kubernetes.io/hostname=node1.example.com      Ready,SchedulingDisabled

To mark a currently unschedulable node or nodes as schedulable:

$ oadm manage-node <node1> <node2> --schedulable

Alternatively, instead of specifying specific node names (e.g., <node1> <node2>), you can use the --selector=<node_selector> option to mark selected nodes as schedulable or unschedulable.

2.8. Evacuating Pods on Nodes

Evacuating pods allows you to migrate all or selected pods from a given node or nodes. Nodes must first be marked unschedulable to perform pod evacuation.

Only pods backed by a replication controller can be evacuated; the replication controllers create new pods on other nodes and remove the existing pods from the specified node(s). Bare pods, meaning those not backed by a replication controller, are unaffected by default.

To list pods that will be migrated without actually performing the evacuation, use the --dry-run option:

$ oadm manage-node <node1> <node2> \
    --evacuate --dry-run [--pod-selector=<pod_selector>]

To actually evacuate all or selected pods on one or more nodes:

$ oadm manage-node <node1> <node2> \
    --evacuate [--pod-selector=<pod_selector>]

You can force deletion of bare pods by using the --force option:

$ oadm manage-node <node1> <node2> \
    --evacuate --force [--pod-selector=<pod_selector>]

Alternatively, instead of specifying specific node names (e.g., <node1> <node2>), you can use the --selector=<node_selector> option to evacuate pods on selected nodes.

2.9. Rebooting Nodes

To reboot a node without causing an outage for applications running on the platform, it is important to first evacuate the pods. For pods that are made highly available by the routing tier, nothing else needs to be done. For other pods needing storage, typically databases, it is critical to ensure that they can remain in operation with one pod temporarily going offline. While implementing resiliency for stateful pods is different for each application, in all cases it is important to configure the scheduler to use node anti-affinity to ensure that the pods are properly spread across available nodes.

Another challenge is how to handle nodes that are running critical infrastructure such as the router or the registry. The same node evacuation process applies, though it is important to understand certain edge cases.

2.9.1. Infrastructure Nodes

Infrastructure nodes are nodes that are labeled to run pieces of the OpenShift Container Platform environment. Currently, the easiest way to manage node reboots is to ensure that there are at least three nodes available to run infrastructure. The scenario below demonstrates a common mistake that can lead to service interruptions for the applications running on OpenShift Container Platform when only two nodes are available.

  • Node A is marked unschedulable and all pods are evacuated.
  • The registry pod running on that node is now redeployed on node B. This means node B is now running both registry pods.
  • Node B is now marked unschedulable and is evacuated.
  • The service exposing the two pod endpoints on node B, for a brief period of time, loses all endpoints until they are redeployed to node A.

The same process using three infrastructure nodes does not result in a service disruption. However, due to pod scheduling, the last node that is evacuated and brought back in to rotation is left running zero registries. The other two nodes will run two and one registries respectively. The best solution is to rely on pod anti-affinity. This is an alpha feature in Kubernetes that is available for testing now, but is not yet supported for production workloads.

2.9.2. Using Pod Anti-affinity

Pod anti-affinity is slightly different than node anti-affinity. Node anti-affinity can be violated if there are no other suitable locations to deploy a pod. Pod anti-affinity can be set to either required or preferred.

Using the docker-registry pod as an example, the first step in enabling this feature is to set the scheduler.alpha.kubernetes.io/affinity on the pod. Since this pod uses a deployment configuration, the most appropriate place to add the annotation is to the pod template’s metadata.

$ oc edit dc/docker-registry -o yaml

...
  template:
    metadata:
      annotations:
        scheduler.alpha.kubernetes.io/affinity: |
          {
            "podAntiAffinity": {
              "requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution": [{
                "labelSelector": {
                  "matchExpressions": [{
                    "key": "docker-registry",
                    "operator": "In",
                    "values":["default"]
                  }]
                },
                "topologyKey": "kubernetes.io/hostname"
              }]
            }
          }
Important

scheduler.alpha.kubernetes.io/affinity is internally stored as a string even though the contents are JSON. The above example shows how this string can be added as an annotation to a YAML deployment configuration.

This example assumes the Docker registry pod has a label of docker-registry=default. Pod anti-affinity can use any Kubernetes match expression.

The last required step is to enable the MatchInterPodAffinity scheduler predicate in /etc/origin/master/scheduler.json. With this in place, if only two infrastructure nodes are available and one is rebooted, the Docker registry pod is prevented from running on the other node. oc get pods reports the pod as unready until a suitable node is available. Once a node is available and all pods are back in ready state, the next node can be restarted.

2.9.3. Handling Nodes Running Routers

In most cases, a pod running an OpenShift Container Platform router will expose a host port. The PodFitsPorts scheduler predicate ensures that no router pods using the same port can run on the same node, and pod anti-affinity is achieved. If the routers are relying on IP failover for high availability, there is nothing else that is needed. For router pods relying on an external service such as AWS Elastic Load Balancing for high availability, it is that service’s responsibility to react to router pod restarts.

In rare cases, a router pod may not have a host port configured. In those cases, it is important to follow the recommended restart process for infrastructure nodes.

2.10. Configuring Node Resources

You can configure node resources by adding kubelet arguments to the node configuration file (/etc/origin/node/node-config.yaml). Add the kubeletArguments section and include any desired options:

kubeletArguments:
  max-pods 1
    - "40"
  resolv-conf 2
    - "/etc/resolv.conf"
  image-gc-high-threshold: 3
    - "90"
  image-gc-low-threshold: 4
    - "80"
1
2
Resolver configuration file used as the basis for the container DNS resolution configuration.
3
The percent of disk usage after which image garbage collection is always run. Default: 90%
4
The percent of disk usage before which image garbage collection is never run. Lowest disk usage to garbage collect to. Default: 80%

To view all available kubelet options:

$ kubelet -h

This can also be set during an advanced installation using the openshift_node_kubelet_args variable. For example:

openshift_node_kubelet_args={'max-pods': ['40'], 'resolv-conf': ['/etc/resolv.conf'],  'image-gc-high-threshold': ['90'], 'image-gc-low-threshold': ['80']}

2.10.1. Setting Maximum Pods Per Node

In the /etc/origin/node/node-config.yaml file, two parameters control the maximum number of pods that can be scheduled to a node: pods-per-core and max-pods. When both options are in use, the lower of the two limits the number of pods on a node. Exceeding these values can result in:

  • Increased CPU utilization on both OpenShift Container Platform and Docker.
  • Slow pod scheduling.
  • Potential out-of-memory scenarios (depends on the amount of memory in the node).
  • Exhausting the pool of IP addresses.
  • Resource overcommitting, leading to poor user application performance.
Note

In Kubernetes, a pod that is holding a single container actually uses two containers. The second container is used to set up networking prior to the actual container starting. Therefore, a system running 10 pods will actually have 20 containers running.

pods-per-core sets the number of pods the node can run based on the number of processor cores on the node. For example, if pods-per-core is set to 10 on a node with 4 processor cores, the maximum number of pods allowed on the node will be 40.

kubeletArguments:
  pods-per-core:
    - "10"
Note

Setting pods-per-core to 0 disables this limit.

max-pods sets the number of pods the node can run to a fixed value, regardless of the properties of the node.

kubeletArguments:
  max-pods:
    - "250"

Using the above example, the default value for pods-per-core is 10 and the default value for max-pods is 250. This means that unless the node has 25 cores or more, by default, pods-per-core will be the limiting factor.

2.11. Resetting Docker Storage

As you download Docker images and run and delete containers, Docker does not always free up mapped disk space. As a result, over time you can run out of space on a node, which might prevent OpenShift Container Platform from being able to create new pods or cause pod creation to take several minutes.

For example, the following shows pods that are still in the ContainerCreating state after six minutes and the events log shows a FailedSync event.

$ oc get pod
NAME                               READY     STATUS              RESTARTS   AGE
cakephp-mysql-persistent-1-build   0/1       ContainerCreating   0          6m
mysql-1-9767d                      0/1       ContainerCreating   0          2m
mysql-1-deploy                     0/1       ContainerCreating   0          6m

$ oc get events
LASTSEEN   FIRSTSEEN   COUNT     NAME                               KIND                    SUBOBJECT                     TYPE      REASON                         SOURCE                                                 MESSAGE
6m         6m          1         cakephp-mysql-persistent-1-build   Pod                                                   Normal    Scheduled                      default-scheduler                                      Successfully assigned cakephp-mysql-persistent-1-build to ip-172-31-71-195.us-east-2.compute.internal
2m         5m          4         cakephp-mysql-persistent-1-build   Pod                                                   Warning   FailedSync                     kubelet, ip-172-31-71-195.us-east-2.compute.internal   Error syncing pod
2m         4m          4         cakephp-mysql-persistent-1-build   Pod                                                   Normal    SandboxChanged                 kubelet, ip-172-31-71-195.us-east-2.compute.internal   Pod sandbox changed, it will be killed and re-created.

One solution to this problem is to reset Docker storage to remove artifacts not needed by Docker.

On the node where you want to restart Docker storage:

  1. Run the following command to mark the node as unschedulable:

    $ oadm manage-node <node> --schedulable=false
  2. Run the following command to shut down Docker and the atomic-openshift-node service:

    $ systemctl stop docker atomic-openshift-node
  3. Run the following command to remove the local volume directory:

    $ rm -rf /var/lib/origin/openshift.local.volumes

    This command clears the local image cache. As a result, images, including ose-* images, will need to be re-pulled. This might result in slower pod start times while the image store recovers.

  4. Remove the /var/lib/docker directory:

    $ rm -rf /var/lib/docker
  5. Run the following command to reset the Docker storage:

    $ docker-storage-setup --reset
  6. Run the following command to recreate the Docker storage:

    $ docker-storage-setup
  7. Recreate the /var/lib/docker directory:

    $ mkdir /var/lib/docker
  8. Run the following command to restart Docker and the atomic-openshift-node service:

    $ systemctl start docker atomic-openshift-node
  9. Run the following command to mark the node as schedulable:

    $ oadm manage-node <node> --schedulable=true

2.12. Changing Node Traffic Interface

By default, DNS routes all node traffic. During node registration, the master receives the node IP addresses from the DNS configuration, and therefore accessing nodes via DNS is the most flexible solution for most deployments.

If your deployment is using a cloud provider, then the node gets the IP information from the cloud provider. However, openshift-sdn attempts to determine the IP through a variety of methods, including a DNS lookup on the nodeName (if set), or on the system hostname (if nodeName is not set).

However, you may need to change the node traffic interface. For example, where:

  • OpenShift Container Platform is installed in a cloud provider where internal hostnames are not configured/resolvable by all hosts.
  • The node’s IP from the master’s perspective is not the same as the node’s IP from its own perspective.

Configuring the openshift_set_node_ip Ansible variable forces node traffic through an interface other than the default network interface.

To change the node traffic interface:

  1. Set the openshift_set_node_ip Ansible variable to true.
  2. Set the openshift_ip to the IP address for the node you want to configure.

Although openshift_set_node_ip can be useful as a workaround for the cases stated in this section, it is generally not suited for production environments. This is because the node will no longer function properly if it receives a new IP address.

Chapter 3. Managing Users

3.1. Overview

This topic describes the management of user accounts, including how new user accounts are created in OpenShift Container Platform and how they can be deleted.

3.2. Adding a User

After new users log in to OpenShift Container Platform, an account is created for that user per the identity provider configured on the master. The cluster administrator can manage the access level of each user.

3.3. Viewing User and Identity Lists

OpenShift Container Platform user configuration is stored in several locations within OpenShift Container Platform. Regardless of the identity provider, OpenShift Container Platform internally stores details like role-based access control (RBAC) information and group membership. To completely remove user information, this data must be removed in addition to the user account.

In OpenShift Container Platform, two object types contain user data outside the identification provider: user and identity.

To get the current list of users:

$ oc get user
NAME      UID                                    FULL NAME   IDENTITIES
demo     75e4b80c-dbf1-11e5-8dc6-0e81e52cc949               htpasswd_auth:demo

To get the current list of identities:

$ oc get identity
NAME                  IDP NAME        IDP USER NAME   USER NAME   USER UID
htpasswd_auth:demo    htpasswd_auth   demo            demo        75e4b80c-dbf1-11e5-8dc6-0e81e52cc949

Note the matching UID between the two object types. If you attempt to change the authentication provider after starting to use OpenShift Container Platform, the user names that overlap will not work because of the entries in the identity list, which will still point to the old authentication method.

3.4. Managing User and Group Labels

To add a label to a user or group:

$ oc label user/<user_name> <label_name>

For example, if the user name is theuser and the label is level=gold:

$ oc label user/theuser level=gold

To remove the label:

$ oc label user/<user_name> <label_name>-

To show labels for a user or group:

$ oc describe user/<user_name>

3.5. Deleting a User

To delete a user:

  1. Delete the user record:

    $ oc delete user demo
    user "demo" deleted
  2. Delete the user identity.

    The identity of the user is related to the identification provider you use. Get the provider name from the user record in oc get user.

    In this example, the identity provider name is htpasswd_auth. The command is:

    # oc delete identity htpasswd_auth:demo
    identity "htpasswd_auth:demo" deleted

    If you skip this step, the user will not be able to log in again.

After you complete these steps, a new account will be created in OpenShift Container Platform when the user logs in again.

If your intention is to prevent the user from being able to log in again (for example, if an employee has left the company and you want to permanently delete the account), you can also remove the user from your authentication back end (like htpasswd, kerberos, or others) for the configured identity provider.

For example, if you are using htpasswd, delete the entry in the htpasswd file that is configured for OpenShift Container Platform with the user name and password.

For external identification management like Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) or Red Hat Identity Management (IdM), use the user management tools to remove the user entry.

Chapter 4. Managing Projects

4.1. Overview

In OpenShift Container Platform, projects are used to group and isolate related objects. As an administrator, you can give developers access to certain projects, allow them to create their own, and give them administrative rights within individual projects.

4.2. Self-provisioning Projects

You can allow developers to create their own projects. There is an endpoint that will provision a project according to a template. The web console and oc new-project command use this endpoint when a developer creates a new project.

4.2.1. Modifying the Template for New Projects

The API server automatically provisions projects based on the template that is identified by the projectRequestTemplate parameter of the master-config.yaml file. If the parameter is not defined, the API server creates a default template that creates a project with the requested name, and assigns the requesting user to the "admin" role for that project.

To create your own custom project template:

  1. Start with the current default project template:

    $ oadm create-bootstrap-project-template -o yaml > template.yaml
  2. Use a text editor to modify the template.yaml file by adding objects or modifying existing objects.
  3. Load the template:

    $ oc create -f template.yaml -n default
  4. Modify the master-config.yaml file to reference the loaded template:

    ...
    projectConfig:
      projectRequestTemplate: "default/project-request"
      ...

When a project request is submitted, the API substitutes the following parameters into the template:

ParameterDescription

PROJECT_NAME

The name of the project. Required.

PROJECT_DISPLAYNAME

The display name of the project. May be empty.

PROJECT_DESCRIPTION

The description of the project. May be empty.

PROJECT_ADMIN_USER

The username of the administrating user.

PROJECT_REQUESTING_USER

The username of the requesting user.

Access to the API is granted to developers with the self-provisioner role and the self-provisioners cluster role binding. This role is available to all authenticated developers by default.

4.2.2. Disabling Self-provisioning

Removing the self-provisionerscluster role from authenticated user groups will deny permissions for self-provisioning any new projects.

$ oadm policy remove-cluster-role-from-group self-provisioner system:authenticated system:authenticated:oauth

When disabling self-provisioning, set the projectRequestMessage parameter in the master-config.yaml file to instruct developers on how to request a new project. This parameter is a string that will be presented to the developer in the web console and command line when they attempt to self-provision a project. For example:

Contact your system administrator at projectname@example.com to request a project.

or:

To request a new project, fill out the project request form located at
https://internal.example.com/openshift-project-request.

Example YAML file

...
projectConfig:
  ProjectRequestMessage: "message"
  ...

4.3. Using Node Selectors

Node selectors are used in conjunction with labeled nodes to control pod placement.

4.3.1. Setting the Cluster-wide Default Node Selector

As a cluster administrator, you can set the cluster-wide default node selector to restrict pod placement to specific nodes.

Edit the master configuration file at /etc/origin/master/master-config.yaml and add a value for a default node selector. This is applied to the pods created in all projects without a specified nodeSelector value:

...
projectConfig:
  defaultNodeSelector: "type=user-node,region=east"
...

Restart the OpenShift service for the changes to take effect:

# systemctl restart atomic-openshift-master

4.3.2. Setting the Project-wide Node Selector

To create an individual project with a node selector, use the --node-selector option when creating a project. For example, if you have an OpenShift Container Platform topology with multiple regions, you can use a node selector to restrict specific OpenShift Container Platform projects to only deploy pods onto nodes in a specific region.

The following creates a new project named myproject and dictates that pods be deployed onto nodes labeled user-node and east:

$ oadm new-project myproject \
    --node-selector='type=user-node,region=east'

Once this command is run, this becomes the adminstrator-set node selector for all pods contained in the specified project.

Note

While the new-project subcommand is available for both oadm and oc, the cluster administrator and developer commands respectively, creating a new project with a node selector is only available with the oadm command. The new-project subcommand is not available to project developers when self-provisioning projects.

Using the oadm new-project command adds an annotation section to the project. You can edit a project, and change the openshift.io/node-selector value to override the default:

...
metadata:
  annotations:
    openshift.io/node-selector: type=user-node,region=east
...

If openshift.io/node-selector is set to an empty string (oadm new-project --node-selector=""), the project will not have an adminstrator-set node selector, even if the cluster-wide default has been set. This means that, as a cluster administrator, you can set a default to restrict developer projects to a subset of nodes and still enable infrastructure or other projects to schedule the entire cluster.

4.3.3. Developer-specified Node Selectors

OpenShift Container Platform developers can set a node selector on their pod configuration if they wish to restrict nodes even further. This will be in addition to the project node selector, meaning that you can still dictate node selector values for all projects that have a node selector value.

For example, if a project has been created with the above annotation (openshift.io/node-selector: type=user-node,region=east) and a developer sets another node selector on a pod in that project, for example clearance=classified, the pod will only ever be scheduled on nodes that have all three labels (type=user-node, region=east, and clearance=classified). If they set region=west on a pod, their pods would be demanding nodes with labels region=east and region=west, which cannot work. The pods will never be scheduled, because labels can only be set to one value.

4.4. Limiting Number of Self-Provisioned Projects Per User

The number of self-provisioned projects requested by a given user can be limited with the ProjectRequestLimitadmission control plug-in.

Important

If your project request template was created in OpenShift Container Platform 3.1 or earlier using the process described in Modifying the Template for New Projects, then the generated template does not include the annotation openshift.io/requester: ${PROJECT_REQUESTING_USER}, which is used for the ProjectRequestLimitConfig. You must add the annotation.

In order to specify limits for users, a configuration must be specified for the plug-in within the master configuration file (/etc/origin/master/master-config.yaml). The plug-in configuration takes a list of user label selectors and the associated maximum project requests.

Selectors are evaluated in order. The first one matching the current user will be used to determine the maximum number of projects. If a selector is not specified, a limit applies to all users. If a maximum number of projects is not specified, then an unlimited number of projects are allowed for a specific selector.

The following configuration sets a global limit of 2 projects per user while allowing 10 projects for users with a label of level=advanced and unlimited projects for users with a label of level=admin.

admissionConfig:
  pluginConfig:
    ProjectRequestLimit:
      configuration:
        apiVersion: v1
        kind: ProjectRequestLimitConfig
        limits:
        - selector:
            level: admin 1
        - selector:
            level: advanced 2
          maxProjects: 10
        - maxProjects: 2 3
1
For selector level=admin, no maxProjects is specified. This means that users with this label will not have a maximum of project requests.
2
For selector level=advanced, a maximum number of 10 projects will be allowed.
3
For the third entry, no selector is specified. This means that it will be applied to any user that doesn’t satisfy the previous two rules. Because rules are evaluated in order, this rule should be specified last.
Note

Managing User and Group Labels provides further guidance on how to add, remove, or show labels for users and groups.

Once your changes are made, restart OpenShift Container Platform for the changes to take effect.

# systemctl restart atomic-openshift-master

Chapter 5. Managing Pods

5.1. Overview

This topic describes the management of pods, including limiting their run-once duration, and how much bandwidth they can use.

5.2. Limiting Run-once Pod Duration

OpenShift Container Platform relies on run-once pods to perform tasks such as deploying a pod or performing a build. Run-once pods are pods that have a RestartPolicy of Never or OnFailure.

The cluster administrator can use the RunOnceDuration admission control plug-in to force a limit on the time that those run-once pods can be active. Once the time limit expires, the cluster will try to actively terminate those pods. The main reason to have such a limit is to prevent tasks such as builds to run for an excessive amount of time.

5.2.1. Configuring the RunOnceDuration Plug-in

The plug-in configuration should include the default active deadline for run-once pods. This deadline is enforced globally, but can be superseded on a per-project basis.

kubernetesMasterConfig:
  admissionConfig:
    pluginConfig:
      RunOnceDuration:
        configuration:
          apiVersion: v1
          kind: RunOnceDurationConfig
          activeDeadlineSecondsOverride: 3600 1
1
Specify the global default for run-once pods in seconds.

5.2.2. Specifying a Custom Duration per Project

In addition to specifying a global maximum duration for run-once pods, an administrator can add an annotation (openshift.io/active-deadline-seconds-override) to a specific project to override the global default.

apiVersion: v1
kind: Project
metadata:
  annotations:
    openshift.io/active-deadline-seconds-override: "1000" 1
1
Overrides the default active deadline seconds for run-once pods to 1000 seconds. Note that the value of the override must be specified in string form.

5.2.2.1. Deploying an Egress Router Pod

Example 5.1. Example Pod Definition for an Egress Router

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: egress-1
  labels:
    name: egress-1
  annotations:
    pod.network.openshift.io/assign-macvlan: "true"
spec:
  containers:
  - name: egress-router
    image: openshift3/ose-egress-router
    securityContext:
      privileged: true
    env:
    - name: EGRESS_SOURCE 1
      value: 192.168.12.99
    - name: EGRESS_GATEWAY 2
      value: 192.168.12.1
    - name: EGRESS_DESTINATION 3
      value: 203.0.113.25
  nodeSelector:
    site: springfield-1 4
1
IP address on the node subnet reserved by the cluster administrator for use by this pod.
2
Same value as the default gateway used by the node itself.
3
Connections to the pod are redirected to 203.0.113.25, with a source IP address of 192.168.12.99
4
The pod will only be deployed to nodes with the label site springfield-1.

The pod.network.openshift.io/assign-macvlan annotation creates a Macvlan network interface on the primary network interface, and then moves it into the pod’s network name space before starting the egress-router container.

Note

Preserve the the quotation marks around "true". Omitting them will result in errors.

The pod contains a single container, using the openshift3/ose-egress-router image, and that container is run privileged so that it can configure the Macvlan interface and set up iptables rules.

The environment variables tell the egress-router image what addresses to use; it will configure the Macvlan interface to use EGRESS_SOURCE as its IP address, with EGRESS_GATEWAY as its gateway.

NAT rules are set up so that connections to any TCP or UDP port on the pod’s cluster IP address are redirected to the same port on EGRESS_DESTINATION.

If only some of the nodes in your cluster are capable of claiming the specified source IP address and using the specified gateway, you can specify a nodeName or nodeSelector indicating which nodes are acceptable.

5.2.2.2. Deploying an Egress Router Service

Though not strictly necessary, you normally want to create a service pointing to the egress router:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: egress-1
spec:
  ports:
  - name: http
    port: 80
  - name: https
    port: 443
  type: ClusterIP
  selector:
    name: egress-1

Your pods can now connect to this service. Their connections are redirected to the corresponding ports on the external server, using the reserved egress IP address.

5.2.3. Limiting Pod Access with Egress Firewall

As an OpenShift Container Platform cluster administrator, you can use egress policy to limit the external addresses that some or all pods can access from within the cluster, so that:

  • A pod can only talk to internal hosts, and cannot initiate connections to the public Internet.

    Or,

  • A pod can only talk to the public Internet, and cannot initiate connections to internal hosts (outside the cluster).

    Or,

  • A pod cannot reach specified internal subnets/hosts that it should have no reason to contact.

For example, you can configure projects with different egress policies, allowing <project A> access to a specified IP range, but denying the same access to <project B>.

Caution

You must have the ovs-multitenant plug-in enabled in order to limit pod access via egress policy.

Project administrators can neither create EgressNetworkPolicy objects, nor edit the ones you create in their project. There are also several other restrictions on where EgressNetworkPolicy can be created:

  1. The default project (and any other project that has been made global via oadm pod-network make-projects-global) cannot have egress policy.
  2. If you merge two projects together (via oadm pod-network join-projects), then you cannot use egress policy in any of the joined projects.
  3. No project may have more than one egress policy object.

Violating any of these restrictions will result in broken egress policy for the project, and may cause all external network traffic to be dropped.

5.2.3.1. Configuring Pod Access Limits

To configure pod access limits, you must use the oc command or the REST API. You can use oc [create|replace|delete] to manipulate EgressNetworkPolicy objects. The api/swagger-spec/oapi-v1.json file has API-level details on how the objects actually work.

To configure pod access limits:

  1. Navigate to the project you want to affect.
  2. Create a JSON file for the pod limit policy:

    # oc create -f <policy>.json
  3. Configure the JSON file with policy details. For example:

    {
        "kind": "EgressNetworkPolicy",
        "apiVersion": "v1",
        "metadata": {
            "name": "default"
        },
        "spec": {
            "egress": [
                {
                    "type": "Allow",
                    "to": {
                        "cidrSelector": "1.2.3.0/24"
                    }
                },
                {
                    "type": "Allow",
                    "to": {
                        "dnsName": "www.foo.com"
                    }
                },
                {
                    "type": "Deny",
                    "to": {
                        "cidrSelector": "0.0.0.0/0"
                    }
                }
            ]
        }
    }

    When the example above is added in a project, it allows traffic to IP range 1.2.3.0/24 and domain name www.foo.com, but denies access to all other external IP addresses. (Traffic to other pods is not affected because the policy only applies to external traffic.)

    The rules in an EgressNetworkPolicy are checked in order, and the first one that matches takes effect. If the three rules in the above example were reversed, then traffic would not be allowed to 1.2.3.0/24 and www.foo.com because the 0.0.0.0/0 rule would be checked first, and it would match and deny all traffic.

    Domain name updates are reflected within 30 minutes. In the above example, suppose www.foo.com resolved to 10.11.12.13, but later it was changed to 20.21.22.23. Then, OpenShift Container Platform will take up to 30 minutes to adapt to these DNS updates.

5.3. Limiting the Bandwidth Available to Pods

You can apply quality-of-service traffic shaping to a pod and effectively limit its available bandwidth. Egress traffic (from the pod) is handled by policing, which simply drops packets in excess of the configured rate. Ingress traffic (to the pod) is handled by shaping queued packets to effectively handle data. The limits you place on a pod do not affect the bandwidth of other pods.

To limit the bandwidth on a pod:

  1. Write an object definition JSON file, and specify the data traffic speed using kubernetes.io/ingress-bandwidth and kubernetes.io/egress-bandwidth annotations. For example, to limit both pod egress and ingress bandwidth to 10M/s:

    Example 5.2. Limited Pod Object Definition

    {
        "kind": "Pod",
        "spec": {
            "containers": [
                {
                    "image": "nginx",
                    "name": "nginx"
                }
            ]
        },
        "apiVersion": "v1",
        "metadata": {
            "name": "iperf-slow",
            "annotations": {
                "kubernetes.io/ingress-bandwidth": "10M",
                "kubernetes.io/egress-bandwidth": "10M"
            }
        }
    }
  2. Create the pod using the object definition:

    oc create -f <file_or_dir_path>

5.4. Setting Pod Disruption Budgets

A pod disruption budget is part of the Kubernetes API, which can be managed with oc commands like other object types. They allow the specification of safety constraints on pods during operations, such as draining a node for maintenance.

Note

Starting in OpenShift Container Platform 3.6, pod disruption budgets are now fully supported.

PodDisruptionBudget is an API object that specifies the minimum number or percentage of replicas that must be up at a time. Setting these in projects can be helpful during node maintenance (such as scaling a cluster down or a cluster upgrade) and is only honored on voluntary evictions (not on node failures).

A PodDisruptionBudget object’s configuration consists of the following key parts:

  • A label selector, which is a label query over a set of pods.
  • An availability level, which specifies the minimum number of pods that must be available simultaneously.

The following is an example of a PodDisruptionBudget resource:

apiVersion: policy/v1beta1 1
kind: PodDisruptionBudget
metadata:
  name: my-pdb
spec:
  selector:  2
    matchLabels:
      foo: bar
  minAvailable: 2  3
1
PodDisruptionBudget is part of the policy/v1beta1 API group.
2
A label query over a set of resources. The result of matchLabels and matchExpressions are logically conjoined.
3
The minimum number of pods that must be available simultaneously. This can be either an integer or a string specifying a percentage (for example, 20%).

If you created a YAML file with the above object definition, you could add it to project with the following:

$ oc create -f </path/to/file> -n <project_name>

You can check for pod disruption budgets across all projects with the following:

$ oc get poddisruptionbudget --all-namespaces

NAMESPACE         NAME          MIN-AVAILABLE   SELECTOR
another-project   another-pdb   4               bar=foo
test-project      my-pdb        2               foo=bar

The PodDisruptionBudget is considered healthy when there are at least minAvailable pods running in the system. Every pod above that limit can be evicted.

5.5. Injecting Information into Pods Using Pod Presets

A pod preset is an object that injects user-specified information into pods as they are created.

Important

Pod presets is a Technology Preview feature only. Technology Preview features are not supported with Red Hat production service level agreements (SLAs), might not be functionally complete, and Red Hat does not recommend to use them for production. These features provide early access to upcoming product features, enabling customers to test functionality and provide feedback during the development process.

For more information on Red Hat Technology Preview features support scope, see https://access.redhat.com/support/offerings/techpreview/.

Using pod preset objects you can inject:

Developers only need make sure the pod labels match the label selector on the PodPreset in order to add all that information to the pod. The label on a pod associates the pod with one or more pod preset objects that have a matching label selectors.

Using pod presets, a developer can provision pods without needing to know the details about the services the pod will consume. An administrator can keep configuration items of a service invisible from a developer without preventing the developer from deploying pods. For example, an administrator can create a pod preset that provides the name, user name, and password for a database through a secret and the database port through environment variables. The pod developer only needs to know the label to use to include all the information in pods. A developer can also create pod presets and perform all the same tasks. For example, the developer can create a preset that injects environment variable automatically into multiple pods.

Note

The Pod Preset feature is available only if the Service Catalog has been installed.

You can exclude specific pods from being injected using the podpreset.admission.kubernetes.io/exclude: "true" parameter in the pod specification. See the example pod specification.

For more information, see Injecting Information into Pods Using Pod Presets.

Chapter 6. Managing Networking

6.1. Overview

This topic describes the management of the overall cluster network, including project isolation and outbound traffic control.

Pod-level networking features, such as per-pod bandwidth limits, are discussed in Managing Pods.

6.2. Managing Pod Networks

When your cluster is configured to use the ovs-multitenant SDN plugin, you can manage the separate pod overlay networks for projects using the administrator CLI. See the Configuring the SDN section for plug-in configuration steps, if necessary.

6.2.1. Joining Project Networks

To join projects to an existing project network:

$ oadm pod-network join-projects --to=<project1> <project2> <project3>

In the above example, all the pods and services in <project2> and <project3> can now access any pods and services in <project1> and vice versa. Services can be accessed either by IP or fully-qualified DNS name (<service>.<pod_namespace>.svc.cluster.local). For example, to access a service named db in a project myproject, use db.myproject.svc.cluster.local.

Alternatively, instead of specifying specific project names, you can use the --selector=<project_selector> option.

6.3. Isolating Project Networks

To isolate the project network in the cluster and vice versa, run:

$ oadm pod-network isolate-projects <project1> <project2>

In the above example, all of the pods and services in <project1> and <project2> can not access any pods and services from other non-global projects in the cluster and vice versa.

Alternatively, instead of specifying specific project names, you can use the --selector=<project_selector> option.

6.3.1. Making Project Networks Global

To allow projects to access all pods and services in the cluster and vice versa:

$ oadm pod-network make-projects-global <project1> <project2>

In the above example, all the pods and services in <project1> and <project2> can now access any pods and services in the cluster and vice versa.

Alternatively, instead of specifying specific project names, you can use the --selector=<project_selector> option.

6.4. Disabling Host Name Collision Prevention For Ingress Objects

In OpenShift Container Platform, host name collision prevention for routes and ingress objects is enabled by default. This means that the host name in a route or ingress object can only be set on creation and not edited afterwards. Disabling host name collision prevention lets you edit a host name for ingress objects after creation. However, because OpenShift Container Platform uses the object creation timestamp to determine the oldest route or ingress object for a given host name, the route or ingress object can hijack a host name with a newer route. This can happen if an older route changes its host name, or if an ingress object is introduced.

This is relevant to OpenShift Container Platform installations that depend upon Kubernetes behavior, including allowing the host names in ingress objects be edited.

  1. Add the following to the master.yaml file:

    admissionConfig:
      pluginConfig:
        openshift.io/IngressAdmission:
          configuration:
            apiVersion: v1
            allowHostnameChanges: true
            kind: IngressAdmissionConfig
          location: ""
  2. Restart the master service for the changes to take effect:

    $ systemctl restart atomic-openshift-master

6.5. Controlling Egress Traffic

As a cluster administrator you can allocate a number of static IP addresses to a specific node at the host level. If an application developer needs a dedicated IP address for their application service, they can request one during the process they use to ask for firewall access. They can then deploy an egress router from the developer’s project, using a nodeSelector in the deployment configuration to ensure that the pod lands on the host with the pre-allocated static IP address.

The egress pod’s deployment declares one of the source IPs, the destination IP of the protected service, and a gateway IP to reach the destination. After the pod is deployed, you can create a service to access the egress router pod, then add that source IP to the corporate firewall. The developer then has access information to the egress router service that was created in their project, for example, service.project.cluster.domainname.com.

When the developer needs to access the external, firewalled service, they can call out to the egress router pod’s service (service.project.cluster.domainname.com) in their application (for example, the JDBC connection information) rather than the actual protected service URL.

You can also assign static IP addresses to projects, ensuring that all outgoing external connections from the specified project have recognizable origins. This is different from the default egress router, which is used to send traffic to specific destinations. See the Enabling Fixed IPs for External Project Traffic section for more information.

As an OpenShift Container Platform cluster administrator, you can control egress traffic in three ways:

Firewall
Using an egress firewall allows you to enforce the acceptable outbound traffic policies, so that specific endpoints or IP ranges (subnets) are the only acceptable targets for the dynamic endpoints (pods within OpenShift Container Platform) to talk to.
Router
Using an egress router allows you to create identifiable services to send traffic to certain destinations, ensuring those external destinations treat traffic as though it were coming from a known source. This helps with security, because it allows you to secure an external database so that only specific pods in a namespace can talk to a service (the egress router), which proxies the traffic to your database.
iptables
In addition to the above OpenShift Container Platform-internal solutions, it is also possible to create iptables rules that will be applied to outgoing traffic. These rules allow for more possibilities than the egress firewall, but cannot be limited to particular projects.

6.5.1. Using an Egress Firewall to Limit Access to External Resources

As an OpenShift Container Platform cluster administrator, you can use egress firewall policy to limit the external addresses that some or all pods can access from within the cluster, so that:

  • A pod can only talk to internal hosts, and cannot initiate connections to the public Internet.

    Or,

  • A pod can only talk to the public Internet, and cannot initiate connections to internal hosts (outside the cluster).

    Or,

  • A pod cannot reach specified internal subnets/hosts that it should have no reason to contact.

You can configure projects to have different egress policies. For example, allowing <project A> access to a specified IP range, but denying the same access to <project B>. Or restrict application developers from updating from (Python) pip mirrors, and forcing updates to only come from desired sources.

Caution

You must have the ovs-multitenant plugin enabled in order to limit pod access via egress policy.

Project administrators can neither create EgressNetworkPolicy objects, nor edit the ones you create in their project. There are also several other restrictions on where EgressNetworkPolicy can be created:

  • The default project (and any other project that has been made global via oadm pod-network make-projects-global) cannot have egress policy.
  • If you merge two projects together (via oadm pod-network join-projects), then you cannot use egress policy in any of the joined projects.
  • No project may have more than one egress policy object.

Violating any of these restrictions results in broken egress policy for the project, and may cause all external network traffic to be dropped.

Use the oc command or the REST API to configure egress policy. You can use oc [create|replace|delete] to manipulate EgressNetworkPolicy objects. The api/swagger-spec/oapi-v1.json file has API-level details on how the objects actually work.

To configure egress policy:

  1. Navigate to the project you want to affect.
  2. Create a JSON file with the desired policy details. For example:

    {
        "kind": "EgressNetworkPolicy",
        "apiVersion": "v1",
        "metadata": {
            "name": "default"
        },
        "spec": {
            "egress": [
                {
                    "type": "Allow",
                    "to": {
                        "cidrSelector": "1.2.3.0/24"
                    }
                },
                {
                    "type": "Allow",
                    "to": {
                        "dnsName": "www.foo.com"
                    }
                },
                {
                    "type": "Deny",
                    "to": {
                        "cidrSelector": "0.0.0.0/0"
                    }
                }
            ]
        }
    }

    When the example above is added to a project, it allows traffic to IP range 1.2.3.0/24 and domain name www.foo.com, but denies access to all other external IP addresses. Traffic to other pods is not affected because the policy only applies to external traffic.

    The rules in an EgressNetworkPolicy are checked in order, and the first one that matches takes effect. If the three rules in the above example were reversed, then traffic would not be allowed to 1.2.3.0/24 and www.foo.com because the 0.0.0.0/0 rule would be checked first, and it would match and deny all traffic.

    Domain name updates are polled based on the TTL (time to live) value of the domain of the local non-authoritative server, or 30 minutes if the TTL is unable to be fetched. The pod should also resolve the domain from the same local non-authoritative server when necessary, otherwise the IP addresses for the domain perceived by the egress network policy controller and the pod will be different, and the egress network policy may not be enforced as expected. In the above example, suppose www.foo.com resolved to 10.11.12.13 and has a DNS TTL of one minute, but was later changed to 20.21.22.23. OpenShift Container Platform will then take up to one minute to adapt to these changes.

    Note

    The egress firewall always allows pods access to the external interface of the node the pod is on for DNS resolution. If your DNS resolution is not handled by something on the local node, then you will need to add egress firewall rules allowing access to the DNS server’s IP addresses if you are using domain names in your pods. The default installer sets up a local dnsmasq, so if you are using that setup you will not need to add extra rules.

  3. Use the JSON file to create an EgressNetworkPolicy object:

    $ oc create -f <policy>.json
Caution

Exposing services by creating routes will ignore EgressNetworkPolicy. Egress network policy service endpoint filtering is done at the node kubeproxy. When the router is involved, kubeproxy is bypassed and egress network policy enforcement is not applied. Administrators can prevent this bypass by limiting access to create routes.

6.5.2. Using an Egress Router to Allow External Resources to Recognize Pod Traffic

The OpenShift Container Platform egress router runs a service that redirects traffic to a specified remote server, using a private source IP address that is not used for anything else. The service allows pods to talk to servers that are set up to only allow access from whitelisted IP addresses.

Important

The egress router is not intended for every outgoing connection. Creating large numbers of egress routers can push the limits of your network hardware. For example, creating an egress router for every project or application could exceed the number of local MAC addresses that the network interface can handle before falling back to filtering MAC addresses in software.

Important

Currently, the egress router is not compatible with Amazon AWS due to AWS not being compatible with macvlan traffic.

Deployment Considerations

The Egress router adds a second IP address and MAC address to the node’s primary network interface. If you are not running OpenShift Container Platform on bare metal, you may need to configure your hypervisor or cloud provider to allow the additional address.

Red Hat OpenStack Platform

If you are deploying OpenShift Container Platform on Red Hat OpenStack Platform, you need to whitelist the IP and MAC addresses on your OpenStack environment, otherwise communication will fail:

neutron port-update $neutron_port_uuid \
  --allowed_address_pairs list=true \
  type=dict mac_address=<mac_address>,ip_address=<ip_address>
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization
If you are using Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization, you should set EnableMACAntiSpoofingFilterRules to false.
VMware vSphere
If you are using VMware vSphere, see the VMWare documentation for securing vSphere standard switches. View and change VMWare vSphere default settings by selecting the host’s virtual switch from the vSphere Web Client.

Specifically, ensure that the following are enabled:

Egress Router Modes

The egress router can run in two different modes: redirect mode and HTTP proxy mode. Redirect mode works for all services except for HTTP and HTTPS. For HTTP and HTTPS services, use HTTP proxy mode.

6.5.2.1. Deploying an Egress Router Pod in Redirect Mode

In redirect mode, the egress router sets up iptables rules to redirect traffic from its own IP address to one or more destination IP addresses. Client pods that want to make use of the reserved source IP address must be modified to connect to the egress router rather than connecting directly to the destination IP.

  1. Create a pod configuration using the following:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      name: egress-1
      labels:
        name: egress-1
      annotations:
        pod.network.openshift.io/assign-macvlan: "true" 1
    spec:
      initContainers:
      - name: egress-router
        image: registry.access.redhat.com/openshift3/ose-egress-router
        securityContext:
          privileged: true
        env:
        - name: EGRESS_SOURCE 2
          value: 192.168.12.99
        - name: EGRESS_GATEWAY 3
          value: 192.168.12.1
        - name: EGRESS_DESTINATION 4
          value: 203.0.113.25
        - name: EGRESS_ROUTER_MODE 5
          value: init
      containers:
      - name: egress-router-wait
        image: registry.access.redhat.com/openshift3/ose-pod
      nodeSelector:
        site: springfield-1 6
    1
    The pod.network.openshift.io/assign-macvlan annotation creates a Macvlan network interface on the primary network interface, and then moves it into the pod’s network name space before starting the egress-router container. Preserve the quotation marks around "true". Omitting them results in errors.
    2
    IP address from the physical network that the node is on and is reserved by the cluster administrator for use by this pod.
    3
    Same value as the default gateway used by the node.
    4
    The external server to direct traffic to. Using this example, connections to the pod are redirected to 203.0.113.25, with a source IP address of 192.168.12.99.
    5
    This tells the egress router image that it is being deployed as an "init container". Previous versions of OpenShift Container Platform (and the egress router image) did not support this mode and had to be run as an ordinary container.
    6
    The pod is only deployed to nodes with the label site=springfield-1.
  2. Create the pod using the above definition:

    $ oc create -f <pod_name>.json

    To check to see if the pod has been created:

    $ oc get pod <pod_name>
  3. Ensure other pods can find the pod’s IP address by creating a service to point to the egress router:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Service
    metadata:
      name: egress-1
    spec:
      ports:
      - name: http
        port: 80
      - name: https
        port: 443
      type: ClusterIP
      selector:
        name: egress-1

    Your pods can now connect to this service. Their connections are redirected to the corresponding ports on the external server, using the reserved egress IP address.

The egress router setup is performed by an "init container" created from the openshift3/ose-egress-router image, and that container is run privileged so that it can configure the Macvlan interface and set up iptables rules. After it finishes setting up the iptables rules, it exits and the openshift3/ose-pod container will run (doing nothing) until the pod is killed.

The environment variables tell the egress-router image what addresses to use; it will configure the Macvlan interface to use EGRESS_SOURCE as its IP address, with EGRESS_GATEWAY as its gateway.

NAT rules are set up so that connections to any TCP or UDP port on the pod’s cluster IP address are redirected to the same port on EGRESS_DESTINATION.

If only some of the nodes in your cluster are capable of claiming the specified source IP address and using the specified gateway, you can specify a nodeName or nodeSelector indicating which nodes are acceptable.

6.5.2.2. Redirecting to Multiple Destinations

In the previous example, connections to the egress pod (or its corresponding service) on any port are redirected to a single destination IP. You can also configure different destination IPs depending on the port:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: egress-multi
  labels:
    name: egress-multi
  annotations:
    pod.network.openshift.io/assign-macvlan: "true"
spec:
  initContainers:
  - name: egress-router
    image: registry.access.redhat.com/openshift3/ose-egress-router
    securityContext:
      privileged: true
    env:
    - name: EGRESS_SOURCE
      value: 192.168.12.99
    - name: EGRESS_GATEWAY
      value: 192.168.12.1
    - name: EGRESS_DESTINATION
      value: | 1
        80   tcp 203.0.113.25
        8080 tcp 203.0.113.26 80
        8443 tcp 203.0.113.26 443
        203.0.113.27
    - name: EGRESS_ROUTER_MODE
      value: init
  containers:
  - name: egress-router-wait
    image: registry.access.redhat.com/openshift3/ose-pod
1
This uses the YAML syntax for a multi-line string; see below for details.

Each line of EGRESS_DESTINATION can be one of three types:

  • <port> <protocol> <IP address> - This says that incoming connections to the given <port> should be redirected to the same port on the given <IP address>. <protocol> is either tcp or udp. In the example above, the first line redirects traffic from local port 80 to port 80 on 203.0.113.25.
  • <port> <protocol> <IP address> <remote port> - As above, except that the connection is redirected to a different <remote port> on <IP address>. In the example above, the second and third lines redirect local ports 8080 and 8443 to remote ports 80 and 443 on 203.0.113.26.
  • <fallback IP address> - If the last line of EGRESS_DESTINATION is a single IP address, then any connections on any other port will be redirected to the corresponding port on that IP address (eg, 203.0.113.27 in the example above). If there is no fallback IP address then connections on other ports would simply be rejected.)

6.5.2.3. Using a ConfigMap to specify EGRESS_DESTINATION

For a large or frequently-changing set of destination mappings, you can use a ConfigMap to externally maintain the list, and have the egress router pod read it from there. This comes with the advantage of project administrators being able to edit the ConfigMap, whereas they may not be able to edit the Pod definition directly, because it contains a privileged container.

  1. Create a file containing the EGRESS_DESTINATION data:

    $ cat my-egress-destination.txt
    # Egress routes for Project "Test", version 3
    
    80   tcp 203.0.113.25
    
    8080 tcp 203.0.113.26 80
    8443 tcp 203.0.113.26 443
    
    # Fallback
    203.0.113.27

    Note that you can put blank lines and comments into this file

  2. Create a ConfigMap object from the file:

    $ oc delete configmap egress-routes --ignore-not-found
    $ oc create configmap egress-routes \
      --from-file=destination=my-egress-destination.txt

    Here egress-routes is the name of the ConfigMap object being created and my-egress-destination.txt is the name of the file the data is being read from.

  3. Create a egress router pod definition as above, but specifying the ConfigMap for EGRESS_DESTINATION in the environment section:

        ...
        env:
        - name: EGRESS_SOURCE
          value: 192.168.12.99
        - name: EGRESS_GATEWAY
          value: 192.168.12.1
        - name: EGRESS_DESTINATION
          valueFrom:
            configMapKeyRef:
              name: egress-routes
              key: destination
        - name: EGRESS_ROUTER_MODE
          value: init
        ...
Note

The egress router does not automatically update when the ConfigMap changes. Restart the pod to get updates.

6.5.2.4. Deploying an Egress Router HTTP Proxy Pod

In HTTP proxy mode, the egress router runs as an HTTP proxy on port 8080. This only works for clients talking to HTTP or HTTPS-based services, but usually requires fewer changes to the client pods to get them to work. Programs can be told to use an HTTP proxy by setting an environment variable.

  1. Create the pod using the following as an example:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      name: egress-http-proxy
      labels:
        name: egress-http-proxy
      annotations:
        pod.network.openshift.io/assign-macvlan: "true" 1
    spec:
      initContainers:
      - name: egress-router-setup
        image: registry.access.redhat.com/openshift3/ose-egress-router
        securityContext:
          privileged: true
        env:
        - name: EGRESS_SOURCE 2
          value: 192.168.12.99
        - name: EGRESS_GATEWAY 3
          value: 192.168.12.1
        - name: EGRESS_ROUTER_MODE 4
          value: http-proxy
      containers:
      - name: egress-router-proxy
        image: registry.access.redhat.com/openshift3/ose-egress-router-http-proxy
        env:
        - name: EGRESS_HTTP_PROXY_DESTINATION 5
          value: |
            !*.example.com
            !192.168.1.0/24
            *
    1
    The pod.network.openshift.io/assign-macvlan annotation creates a Macvlan network interface on the primary network interface, then moves it into the pod’s network name space before starting the egress-router container. Preserve the quotation marks around "true". Omitting them results in errors.
    2
    An IP address from the physical network that the node itself is on and is reserved by the cluster administrator for use by this pod.
    3
    Same value as the default gateway used by the node itself.
    4
    This tells the egress router image that it is being deployed as part of an HTTP proxy, and so it should not set up iptables redirecting rules.
    5
    A string or YAML multi-line string specifying how to configure the proxy. Note that this is specified as an environment variable in the HTTP proxy container, not with the other environment variables in the init container.

    You can specify any of the following for the EGRESS_HTTP_PROXY_DESTINATION value. You can also use *, meaning "allow connections to all remote destinations". Each line in the configuration specifies one group of connections to allow or deny:

    • An IP address (eg, 192.168.1.1) allows connections to that IP address.
    • A CIDR range (eg, 192.168.1.0/24) allows connections to that CIDR range.
    • A host name (eg, www.example.com) allows proxying to that host.
    • A domain name preceded by *. (eg, *.example.com) allows proxying to that domain and all of its subdomains.
    • A ! followed by any of the above denies connections rather than allowing them
    • If the last line is *, then anything that hasn’t been denied will be allowed. Otherwise, anything that hasn’t been allowed will be denied.
  2. Ensure other pods can find the pod’s IP address by creating a service to point to the egress router:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Service
    metadata:
      name: egress-1
    spec:
      ports:
      - name: http-proxy
        port: 8080 1
      type: ClusterIP
      selector:
        name: egress-1
    1
    Ensure the http port is always set to 8080.
  3. Configure the client pod (not the egress proxy pod) to use the HTTP proxy by setting the http_proxy or https_proxy variables:

        ...
        env:
        - name: http_proxy
          value: http://egress-1:8080/ 1
        - name: https_proxy
          value: http://egress-1:8080/
        ...
    1
    The service created in step 2.
    Note

    Using the http_proxy and https_proxy environment variables is not necessary for all setups. If the above does not create a working setup, then consult the documentation for the tool or software you are running in the pod.

You can also specify the EGRESS_HTTP_PROXY_DESTINATION using a ConfigMap, similarly to the redirecting egress router example above.

6.5.2.5. Enabling Failover for Egress Router Pods

Using a replication controller, you can ensure that there is always one copy of the egress router pod in order to prevent downtime.

  1. Create a replication controller configuration file using the following:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: ReplicationController
    metadata:
      name: egress-demo-controller
    spec:
      replicas: 1 1
      selector:
        name: egress-demo
      template:
        metadata:
          name: egress-demo
          labels:
            name: egress-demo
          annotations:
            pod.network.openshift.io/assign-macvlan: "true"
        spec:
          initContainers:
          - name: egress-demo-init
            image: registry.access.redhat.com/openshift3/ose-egress-router
            env:
            - name: EGRESS_SOURCE
              value: 192.168.12.99
            - name: EGRESS_GATEWAY
              value: 192.168.12.1
            - name: EGRESS_DESTINATION
              value: 203.0.113.25
            - name: EGRESS_ROUTER_MODE
              value: init
            securityContext:
              privileged: true
          containers:
          - name: egress-demo-wait
            image: registry.access.redhat.com/openshift3/ose-pod
          nodeSelector:
            site: springfield-1
    1
    Ensure replicas is set to 1, because only one pod can be using a given EGRESS_SOURCE value at any time. This means that only a single copy of the router will be running, on a node with the label site=springfield-1.
  2. Create the pod using the definition:

    $ oc create -f <replication_controller>.json
  3. To verify, check to see if the replication controller pod has been created:

    $ oc describe rc <replication_controller>

6.5.3. Using iptables Rules to Limit Access to External Resources

Some cluster administrators may want to perform actions on outgoing traffic that do not fit within the model of EgressNetworkPolicy or the egress router. In some cases, this can be done by creating iptables rules directly.

For example, you could create rules that log traffic to particular destinations, or to prevent more than a certain number of outgoing connections per second.

OpenShift Container Platform does not provide a way to add custom iptables rules automatically, but it does provide a place where such rules can be added manually by the administrator. Each node, on startup, will create an empty chain called OPENSHIFT-ADMIN-OUTPUT-RULES in the filter table (assuming that the chain does not already exist). Any rules added to that chain by an administrator will be applied to all traffic going from a pod to a destination outside the cluster (and not to any other traffic).

There are a few things to watch out for when using this functionality:

  1. It is up to you to ensure that rules get created on each node; OpenShift Container Platform does not provide any way to make that happen automatically.
  2. The rules are not applied to traffic that exits the cluster via an egress router, and they run after EgressNetworkPolicy rules are applied (and so will not see traffic that is denied by an EgressNetworkPolicy).
  3. The handling of connections from pods to nodes or pods to the master is complicated, because nodes have both "external" IP addresses and "internal" SDN IP addresses. Thus, some pod-to-node/master traffic may pass through this chain, but other pod-to-node/master traffic may bypass it.

6.6. Enabling Static IPs for External Project Traffic

As a cluster administrator, you can assign specific, static IP addresses to projects, so that traffic is externally easily recognizable. This is different from the default egress router, which is used to send traffic to specific destinations.

Recognizable IP traffic increases cluster security by ensuring the origins visible. Once enabled, all outgoing external connections from the specified project will share the same, fixed source IP, meaning that any external resources can recognize the traffic.

Unlike the egress router, this is subject to EgressNetworkPolicy firewall rules.

Important

Enabling static IPs for external project traffic is a Technology Preview feature only. Technology Preview features are not supported with Red Hat production service level agreements (SLAs), might not be functionally complete, and Red Hat does not recommend to use them for production. These features provide early access to upcoming product features, enabling customers to test functionality and provide feedback during the development process.

For more information on Red Hat Technology Preview features support scope, see https://access.redhat.com/support/offerings/techpreview/.

To enable static source IPs:

  1. Update the NetNamespace with the desired IP:

    $ oc patch netnamespace <project_name> -p '{"egressIPs": ["<IP_address>"]}'

    For example, to assign the MyProject project to an IP address of 192.168.1.100:

    $ oc patch netnamespace MyProject -p '{"egressIPs": ["192.168.1.100"]}'

    The egressIPs field is an array, but must be set to a single IP address. If setting multiple IPs, the other IPs will be ignored.

  2. Manually assign the egress IP to the desired node hosts. Set the egressIPs field on the HostSubnet object on the node host. Include as many IPs as you want to assign to that node host:

    $ oc patch hostsubnet <node_name> -p \
      '{"egressIPs": ["<IP_address_1>", "<IP_address_2>"]}'

    For example, to say that node1 should have the egress IPs 192.168.1.100, 192.168.1.101, and 192.168.1.102:

    $ oc patch hostsubnet node1 -p \
      '{"egressIPs": ["192.168.1.100", "192.168.1.101", "192.168.1.102"]}'
    Important

    Egress IPs are implemented as additional IP addresses on the primary network interface, and must be in the same subnet as the node’s primary IP. Allowing additional IP addresses on the primary network interface might require extra configuration when using some cloud or VM solutions.

If the above is enabled for a project, all egress traffic from that project will be routed to the node hosting that egress IP, then connected (using NAT) to that IP address. If egressIPs is set on a NetNamespace, but there is no node hosting that egress IP, then egress traffic from the namespace will be dropped.

6.7. Enabling Multicast

Important

At this time, multicast is best used for low bandwidth coordination or service discovery and not a high-bandwidth solution.

Multicast traffic between OpenShift Container Platform pods is disabled by default. You can enable Multicast on a per-project basis by setting an annotation on the project’s corresponding netnamespace object:

$ oc annotate netnamespace <namespace> \
    netnamespace.network.openshift.io/multicast-enabled=true

Disable multicast by removing the annotation:

$ oc annotate netnamespace <namespace> \
    netnamespace.network.openshift.io/multicast-enabled-

If you have joined networks together, you will need to enable Multicast in each projects' netnamespace in order for it to take effect in any of the projects. To enable Multicast in the default project, you must also enable it in the kube-service-catalog project and all other projects that have been made global.

Note

Multicast global projects are not "global", but instead communicate with only other global projects via Multicast, not with all projects in the cluster, as is the case with unicast.

6.8. Enabling NetworkPolicy

The ovs-subnet and ovs-multitenant plugins have their own legacy models of network isolation, and don’t support Kubernetes NetworkPolicy. However, NetworkPolicy support is available by using the ovs-networkpolicy plug-in.

In a cluster configured to use the ovs-networkpolicy plugin, network isolation is controlled entirely by NetworkPolicy objects. By default, all pods in a project are accessible from other pods and network endpoints. To isolate one or more pods in a project, you can create NetworkPolicy objects in that project to indicate the allowed incoming connections. Project administrators can create and delete NetworkPolicy objects within their own project.

Pods that do not have NetworkPolicy objects pointing to them are fully accessible, whereas, pods that have one or more NetworkPolicy objects pointing to them are isolated. These isolated pods only accept connections that are accepted by at least one of their NetworkPolicy objects.

Following are a few sample NetworkPolicy object definitions supporting different scenrios:

  • Deny All Traffic

    To make a project "deny by default" add a NetworkPolicy object that matches all pods but accepts no traffic.

    kind: NetworkPolicy
    apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
    metadata:
      name: deny-by-default
    spec:
      podSelector:
      ingress: []
  • Only Accept connections from pods within project

    To make pods accept connections from other pods in the same project, but reject all other connections from pods in other projects:

    kind: NetworkPolicy
    apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
    metadata:
      name: allow-same-namespace
    spec:
      podSelector:
      ingress:
      - from:
        - podSelector: {}
  • Only allow HTTP and HTTPS traffic based on pod labels

    To enable only HTTP and HTTPS access to the pods with a specific label (role=frontend in following example), add a NetworkPolicy object similar to:

    kind: NetworkPolicy
    apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
    metadata:
      name: allow-http-and-https
    spec:
      podSelector:
      ingress:
      - ports:
        - protocol: TCP
          port: 80
        - protocol: TCP
          port: 443

NetworkPolicy objects are additive, which means you can combine multiple NetworkPolicy objects together to satisfy complex network requirements.

For example, for the NetworkPolicy objects defined in previous samples, you can define both allow-same-namespace and allow-http-and-https policies within the same project. Thus allowing the pods with the label role=frontend, to accept any connection allowed by each policy. That is, connections on any port from pods in the same namespace, and connections on ports 80 and 443 from pods in any namespace.

6.8.1. NetworkPolicy and Routers

When using the ovs-multitenant plugin, traffic from the routers is automatically allowed into all namespaces. This is because the routers are usually in the default namespace, and all namespaces allow connections from pods in that namespace. With the ovs-networkpolicy plugin, this does not happen automatically. Therefore, if you have a policy that isolates a namespace by default, you need to take additional steps to allow routers to access it.

One option is to create a policy for each service, allowing access from all sources. for example,

kind: NetworkPolicy
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
metadata:
  name: allow-to-database-service
spec:
  podSelector:
    matchLabels:
      role: database
  ingress:
  - ports:
    - protocol: TCP
      port: 5432

This allows routers to access the service, but will also allow pods in other users' namespaces to access it as well. This should not cause any issues, as those pods can normally access the service by using the public router.

Alternatively, you can create a policy allowing full access from the default namespace, as in the ovs-multitenant plugin:

  1. Add a label to the default namespace.

    Important

    You only need to do this once for the entire cluster. The cluster administrator role is required to add labels to namesapces.

    $ oc label namespace default name=default
  2. Create policies allowing connections from that namespace.

    Note

    Perform this step for each namespace you want to allow conntections into. Users with the Project Administrator role can create policies.

    kind: NetworkPolicy
    apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
    metadata:
      name: allow-from-default-namespace
    spec:
      podSelector:
      ingress:
      - from:
        - namespaceSelector:
            matchLabels:
              name: default

6.8.2. Setting a Default NetworkPolicy for New Projects

The cluster administrators can modify the default project template to enable automatic creation of default NetworkPolicy objects (one or more), whenever a new project is created. To do this:

  1. Create a custom project template and configure the master to use it, as described in Modifying the Template for New Projects.
  2. Edit the template to include the desired NetworkPolicy objects:

    $ oc edit template project-request -n default
    Note

    To include NetworkPolicy objects into existing template, use the oc edit command. Currently, it is not possible to use oc patch to add objects to a Template resource.

    1. Add each default policy as an element in the objects array:

      objects:
      ...
      - apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
        kind: NetworkPolicy
        metadata:
          name: allow-same-namespace
        spec:
          podSelector:
          ingress:
          - from:
            - podSelector: {}
      ...

6.9. Enabling HTTP Strict Transport Security

HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS) policy is a security enhancement, which ensures that only HTTPS traffic is allowed on the host. Any HTTP requests are dropped by default. This is useful for ensuring secure interactions with websites, or to offer a secure application for the user’s benefit.

When HSTS is enabled, HSTS adds a Strict Transport Security header to HTTPS responses from the site. You can use the insecureEdgeTerminationPolicy value in a route to redirect to send HTTP to HTTPS. However, when HSTS is enabled, the client changes all requests from the HTTP URL to HTTPS before the request is sent, eliminating the need for a redirect. This is not required to be supported by the client, and can be disabled by setting max-age=0.

Important

HSTS works only with secure routes (either edge terminated or re-encrypt). The configuration is ineffective on HTTP or passthrough routes.

To enable HSTS to a route, add the haproxy.router.openshift.io/hsts_header value to the edge terminated or re-encrypt route:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Route
metadata:
  annotations:
    haproxy.router.openshift.io/hsts_header: max-age=31536000;includeSubDomains;preload
Important

Ensure there are no spaces and no other values in the parameters in the haproxy.router.openshift.io/hsts_header value. Only max-age is required.

The required max-age parameter indicates the length of time, in seconds, the HSTS policy is in effect for. The client updates max-age whenever a response with a HSTS header is received from the host. When max-age times out, the client discards the policy.

The optional includeSubDomains parameter tells the client that all subdomains of the host are to be treated the same as the host.

If max-age is greater than 0, the optional preload parameter allows external services to include this site in their HSTS preload lists. For example, sites such as Google can construct a list of sites that have preload set. Browsers can then use these lists to determine which sites to only talk to over HTTPS, even before they have interacted with the site. Without preload set, they need to have talked to the site over HTTPS to get the header.

Chapter 7. Configuring Service Accounts

7.1. Overview

When a person uses the OpenShift Container Platform CLI or web console, their API token authenticates them to the OpenShift Container Platform API. However, when a regular user’s credentials are not available, it is common for components to make API calls independently. For example:

  • Replication controllers make API calls to create or delete pods.
  • Applications inside containers can make API calls for discovery purposes.
  • External applications can make API calls for monitoring or integration purposes.

Service accounts provide a flexible way to control API access without sharing a regular user’s credentials.

7.2. User Names and Groups

Every service account has an associated user name that can be granted roles, just like a regular user. The user name is derived from its project and name:

system:serviceaccount:<project>:<name>

For example, to add the view role to the robot service account in the top-secret project:

$ oc policy add-role-to-user view system:serviceaccount:top-secret:robot

Every service account is also a member of two groups:

system:serviceaccount
Includes all service accounts in the system.
system:serviceaccount:<project>
Includes all service accounts in the specified project.

For example, to allow all service accounts in all projects to view resources in the top-secret project:

$ oc policy add-role-to-group view system:serviceaccount -n top-secret

To allow all service accounts in the managers project to edit resources in the top-secret project:

$ oc policy add-role-to-group edit system:serviceaccount:managers -n top-secret

7.3. Managing Service Accounts

Service accounts are API objects that exist within each project. To manage service accounts, you can use the oc command with the sa or serviceaccount object type or use the web console.

To get a list of existing service accounts in the current project:

$ oc get sa
NAME       SECRETS   AGE
builder    2         2d
default    2         2d
deployer   2         2d

To create a new service account:

$ oc create sa robot
serviceaccount "robot" created

As soon as a service account is created, two secrets are automatically added to it:

  • an API token
  • credentials for the OpenShift Container Registry

These can be seen by describing the service account:

$ oc describe sa robot
Name:		robot
Namespace:	project1
Labels:		<none>
Annotations:	<none>

Image pull secrets:	robot-dockercfg-qzbhb

Mountable secrets: 	robot-token-f4khf
                   	robot-dockercfg-qzbhb

Tokens:            	robot-token-f4khf
                   	robot-token-z8h44

The system ensures that service accounts always have an API token and registry credentials.

The generated API token and registry credentials do not expire, but they can be revoked by deleting the secret. When the secret is deleted, a new one is automatically generated to take its place.

7.4. Enabling Service Account Authentication

Service accounts authenticate to the API using tokens signed by a private RSA key. The authentication layer verifies the signature using a matching public RSA key.

To enable service account token generation, update the serviceAccountConfig stanza in the /etc/origin/master/master-config.yml file on the master to specify a privateKeyFile (for signing), and a matching public key file in the publicKeyFiles list:

serviceAccountConfig:
  ...
  masterCA: ca.crt 1
  privateKeyFile: serviceaccount.private.key 2
  publicKeyFiles:
  - serviceaccount.public.key 3
  - ...
1
CA file used to validate the API server’s serving certificate.
2
Private RSA key file (for token signing).
3
Public RSA key files (for token verification). If private key files are provided, then the public key component is used. Multiple public key files can be specified, and a token will be accepted if it can be validated by one of the public keys. This allows rotation of the signing key, while still accepting tokens generated by the previous signer.

7.5. Managed Service Accounts

Service accounts are required in each project to run builds, deployments, and other pods. The managedNames setting in the /etc/origin/master/master-config.yml file on the master controls which service accounts are automatically created in every project:

serviceAccountConfig:
  ...
  managedNames: 1
  - builder 2
  - deployer 3
  - default 4
  - ...
1
List of service accounts to automatically create in every project.
2
A builder service account in each project is required by build pods, and is given the system:image-builder role, which allows pushing images to any image stream in the project using the internal container registry.
3
A deployer service account in each project is required by deployment pods, and is given the system:deployer role, which allows viewing and modifying replication controllers and pods in the project.
4
A default service account is used by all other pods unless they specify a different service account.

All service accounts in a project are given the system:image-puller role, which allows pulling images from any image stream in the project using the internal container registry.

7.6. Infrastructure Service Accounts

Several infrastructure controllers run using service account credentials. The following service accounts are created in the OpenShift Container Platform infrastructure project (openshift-infra) at server start, and given the following roles cluster-wide:

Service AccountDescription

replication-controller

Assigned the system:replication-controller role

deployment-controller

Assigned the system:deployment-controller role

build-controller

Assigned the system:build-controller role. Additionally, the build-controller service account is included in the privileged security context constraint in order to create privileged build pods.

To configure the project where those service accounts are created, set the openshiftInfrastructureNamespace field in the /etc/origin/master/master-config.yml file on the master:

policyConfig:
  ...
  openshiftInfrastructureNamespace: openshift-infra

7.7. Service Accounts and Secrets

Set the limitSecretReferences field in the /etc/origin/master/master-config.yml file on the master to true to require pod secret references to be whitelisted by their service accounts. Set its value to false to allow pods to reference any secret in the project.

serviceAccountConfig:
  ...
  limitSecretReferences: false

Chapter 8. Managing Role-based Access Control (RBAC)

8.1. Overview

You can use the CLI to view RBAC resources and the administrator CLI to manage the roles and bindings.

8.2. Viewing Roles and Bindings

Roles can be used to grant various levels of access both cluster-wide as well as at the project-scope. Users and groups can be associated with, or bound to, multiple roles at the same time. You can view details about the roles and their bindings using the oc describe command.

Users with the cluster-admindefault cluster role bound cluster-wide can perform any action on any resource. Users with the admin default cluster role bound locally can manage roles and bindings in that project.

Note

Review a full list of verbs in the Evaluating Authorization section.

8.2.1. Viewing Cluster Roles

To view the cluster roles and their associated rule sets:

$ oc describe clusterrole.rbac

Viewing Cluster Roles

$ oc describe clusterrole.rbac
Name:		admin
Labels:		<none>
Annotations:	openshift.io/description=A user that has edit rights within the project and can change the project's membership.
		rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate=true
PolicyRule:
  Resources							Non-Resource URLs	Resource Names	Verbs
  ---------							-----------------	--------------	-----
  appliedclusterresourcequotas					[]			[]		[get list watch]
  appliedclusterresourcequotas.quota.openshift.io		[]			[]		[get list watch]
  bindings							[]			[]		[get list watch]
  buildconfigs							[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  buildconfigs.build.openshift.io				[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  buildconfigs/instantiate					[]			[]		[create]
  buildconfigs.build.openshift.io/instantiate			[]			[]		[create]
  buildconfigs/instantiatebinary				[]			[]		[create]
  buildconfigs.build.openshift.io/instantiatebinary		[]			[]		[create]
  buildconfigs/webhooks						[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  buildconfigs.build.openshift.io/webhooks			[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  buildlogs							[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  buildlogs.build.openshift.io					[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  builds							[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  builds.build.openshift.io					[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  builds/clone							[]			[]		[create]
  builds.build.openshift.io/clone				[]			[]		[create]
  builds/details						[]			[]		[update]
  builds.build.openshift.io/details				[]			[]		[update]
  builds/log							[]			[]		[get list watch]
  builds.build.openshift.io/log					[]			[]		[get list watch]
  configmaps							[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  cronjobs.batch						[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  daemonsets.extensions						[]			[]		[get list watch]
  deploymentconfigrollbacks					[]			[]		[create]
  deploymentconfigrollbacks.apps.openshift.io			[]			[]		[create]
  deploymentconfigs						[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  deploymentconfigs.apps.openshift.io				[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  deploymentconfigs/instantiate					[]			[]		[create]
  deploymentconfigs.apps.openshift.io/instantiate		[]			[]		[create]
  deploymentconfigs/log						[]			[]		[get list watch]
  deploymentconfigs.apps.openshift.io/log			[]			[]		[get list watch]
  deploymentconfigs/rollback					[]			[]		[create]
  deploymentconfigs.apps.openshift.io/rollback			[]			[]		[create]
  deploymentconfigs/scale					[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  deploymentconfigs.apps.openshift.io/scale			[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  deploymentconfigs/status					[]			[]		[get list watch]
  deploymentconfigs.apps.openshift.io/status			[]			[]		[get list watch]
  deployments.apps						[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  deployments.extensions					[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  deployments.extensions/rollback				[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  deployments.apps/scale					[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  deployments.extensions/scale					[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  deployments.apps/status					[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  endpoints							[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  events							[]			[]		[get list watch]
  horizontalpodautoscalers.autoscaling				[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  horizontalpodautoscalers.extensions				[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  imagestreamimages						[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  imagestreamimages.image.openshift.io				[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  imagestreamimports						[]			[]		[create]
  imagestreamimports.image.openshift.io				[]			[]		[create]
  imagestreammappings						[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  imagestreammappings.image.openshift.io			[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  imagestreams							[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  imagestreams.image.openshift.io				[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  imagestreams/layers						[]			[]		[get update]
  imagestreams.image.openshift.io/layers			[]			[]		[get update]
  imagestreams/secrets						[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  imagestreams.image.openshift.io/secrets			[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  imagestreams/status						[]			[]		[get list watch]
  imagestreams.image.openshift.io/status			[]			[]		[get list watch]
  imagestreamtags						[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  imagestreamtags.image.openshift.io				[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  jenkins.build.openshift.io					[]			[]		[admin edit view]
  jobs.batch							[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  limitranges							[]			[]		[get list watch]
  localresourceaccessreviews					[]			[]		[create]
  localresourceaccessreviews.authorization.openshift.io		[]			[]		[create]
  localsubjectaccessreviews					[]			[]		[create]
  localsubjectaccessreviews.authorization.k8s.io		[]			[]		[create]
  localsubjectaccessreviews.authorization.openshift.io		[]			[]		[create]
  namespaces							[]			[]		[get list watch]
  namespaces/status						[]			[]		[get list watch]
  networkpolicies.extensions					[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  persistentvolumeclaims					[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  pods								[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  pods/attach							[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  pods/exec							[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  pods/log							[]			[]		[get list watch]
  pods/portforward						[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  pods/proxy							[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  pods/status							[]			[]		[get list watch]
  podsecuritypolicyreviews					[]			[]		[create]
  podsecuritypolicyreviews.security.openshift.io		[]			[]		[create]
  podsecuritypolicyselfsubjectreviews				[]			[]		[create]
  podsecuritypolicyselfsubjectreviews.security.openshift.io	[]			[]		[create]
  podsecuritypolicysubjectreviews				[]			[]		[create]
  podsecuritypolicysubjectreviews.security.openshift.io		[]			[]		[create]
  processedtemplates						[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  processedtemplates.template.openshift.io			[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  projects							[]			[]		[delete get patch update]
  projects.project.openshift.io					[]			[]		[delete get patch update]
  replicasets.extensions					[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  replicasets.extensions/scale					[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  replicationcontrollers					[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  replicationcontrollers/scale					[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  replicationcontrollers.extensions/scale			[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  replicationcontrollers/status					[]			[]		[get list watch]
  resourceaccessreviews						[]			[]		[create]
  resourceaccessreviews.authorization.openshift.io		[]			[]		[create]
  resourcequotas						[]			[]		[get list watch]
  resourcequotas/status						[]			[]		[get list watch]
  resourcequotausages						[]			[]		[get list watch]
  rolebindingrestrictions					[]			[]		[get list watch]
  rolebindingrestrictions.authorization.openshift.io		[]			[]		[get list watch]
  rolebindings							[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  rolebindings.authorization.openshift.io			[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  rolebindings.rbac.authorization.k8s.io			[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  roles								[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  roles.authorization.openshift.io				[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  roles.rbac.authorization.k8s.io				[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  routes							[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  routes.route.openshift.io					[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  routes/custom-host						[]			[]		[create]
  routes.route.openshift.io/custom-host				[]			[]		[create]
  routes/status							[]			[]		[get list watch update]
  routes.route.openshift.io/status				[]			[]		[get list watch update]
  scheduledjobs.batch						[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  secrets							[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  serviceaccounts						[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch impersonate]
  services							[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  services/proxy						[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  statefulsets.apps						[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  subjectaccessreviews						[]			[]		[create]
  subjectaccessreviews.authorization.openshift.io		[]			[]		[create]
  subjectrulesreviews						[]			[]		[create]
  subjectrulesreviews.authorization.openshift.io		[]			[]		[create]
  templateconfigs						[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  templateconfigs.template.openshift.io				[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  templateinstances						[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  templateinstances.template.openshift.io			[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  templates							[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]
  templates.template.openshift.io				[]			[]		[create delete deletecollection get list patch update watch]


Name:		basic-user
Labels:		<none>
Annotations:	openshift.io/description=A user that can get basic information about projects.
		rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate=true
PolicyRule:
  Resources						Non-Resource URLs	Resource Names	Verbs
  ---------						-----------------	--------------	-----
  clusterroles						[]			[]		[get list]
  clusterroles.authorization.openshift.io		[]			[]		[get list]
  clusterroles.rbac.authorization.k8s.io		[]			[]		[get list watch]
  projectrequests					[]			[]		[list]
  projectrequests.project.openshift.io			[]			[]		[list]
  projects						[]			[]		[list watch]
  projects.project.openshift.io				[]			[]		[list watch]
  selfsubjectaccessreviews.authorization.k8s.io		[]			[]		[create]
  selfsubjectrulesreviews				[]			[]		[create]
  selfsubjectrulesreviews.authorization.openshift.io	[]			[]		[create]
  storageclasses.storage.k8s.io				[]			[]		[get list]
  users							[]			[~]		[get]
  users.user.openshift.io				[]			[~]		[get]


Name:		cluster-admin
Labels:		<none>
Annotations:	authorization.openshift.io/system-only=true
		openshift.io/description=A super-user that can perform any action in the cluster. When granted to a user within a project, they have full control over quota and membership and can perform every action...
		rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate=true
PolicyRule:
  Resources	Non-Resource URLs	Resource Names	Verbs
  ---------	-----------------	--------------	-----
  		[*]			[]		[*]
  *.*		[]			[]		[*]


Name:		cluster-debugger
Labels:		<none>
Annotations:	authorization.openshift.io/system-only=true
		rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate=true
PolicyRule:
  Resources	Non-Resource URLs	Resource Names	Verbs
  ---------	-----------------	--------------	-----
  		[/debug/pprof]		[]		[get]
  		[/debug/pprof/*]	[]		[get]
  		[/metrics]		[]		[get]


Name:		cluster-reader
Labels:		<none>
Annotations:	authorization.openshift.io/system-only=true
		rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate=true
PolicyRule:
  Resources							Non-Resource URLs	Resource Names	Verbs
  ---------							-----------------	--------------	-----
  								[*]			[]		[get]
  apiservices.apiregistration.k8s.io				[]			[]		[get list watch]
  apiservices.apiregistration.k8s.io/status			[]			[]		[get list watch]
  appliedclusterresourcequotas					[]			[]		[get list watch]

...

To view the current set of cluster role bindings, which show the users and groups that are bound to various roles:

$ oc describe clusterrolebinding.rbac

Viewing Cluster Role Bindings

$ oc describe clusterrolebinding.rbac
Name:		admin
Labels:		<none>
Annotations:	rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate=true
Role:
  Kind:	ClusterRole
  Name:	admin
Subjects:
  Kind			Name				Namespace
  ----			----				---------
  ServiceAccount	template-instance-controller	openshift-infra


Name:		basic-users
Labels:		<none>
Annotations:	rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate=true
Role:
  Kind:	ClusterRole
  Name:	basic-user
Subjects:
  Kind	Name			Namespace
  ----	----			---------
  Group	system:authenticated


Name:		cluster-admin
Labels:		kubernetes.io/bootstrapping=rbac-defaults
Annotations:	rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate=true
Role:
  Kind:	ClusterRole
  Name:	cluster-admin
Subjects:
  Kind			Name		Namespace
  ----			----		---------
  ServiceAccount	pvinstaller	default
  Group			system:masters


Name:		cluster-admins
Labels:		<none>
Annotations:	rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate=true
Role:
  Kind:	ClusterRole
  Name:	cluster-admin
Subjects:
  Kind	Name			Namespace
  ----	----			---------
  Group	system:cluster-admins
  User	system:admin


Name:		cluster-readers
Labels:		<none>
Annotations:	rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate=true
Role:
  Kind:	ClusterRole
  Name:	cluster-reader
Subjects:
  Kind	Name			Namespace
  ----	----			---------
  Group	system:cluster-readers


Name:		cluster-status-binding
Labels:		<none>
Annotations:	rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate=true
Role:
  Kind:	ClusterRole
  Name:	cluster-status
Subjects:
  Kind	Name			Namespace
  ----	----			---------
  Group	system:authenticated
  Group	system:unauthenticated


Name:		registry-registry-role
Labels:		<none>
Annotations:	<none>
Role:
  Kind:	ClusterRole
  Name:	system:registry
Subjects:
  Kind			Name		Namespace
  ----			----		---------
  ServiceAccount	registry	default


Name:		router-router-role
Labels:		<none>
Annotations:	<none>
Role:
  Kind:	ClusterRole
  Name:	system:router
Subjects:
  Kind			Name	Namespace
  ----			----	---------
  ServiceAccount	router	default


Name:		self-access-reviewers
Labels:		<none>
Annotations:	rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate=true
Role:
  Kind:	ClusterRole
  Name:	self-access-reviewer
Subjects:
  Kind	Name			Namespace
  ----	----			---------
  Group	system:authenticated
  Group	system:unauthenticated


Name:		self-provisioners
Labels:		<none>
Annotations:	rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate=true
Role:
  Kind:	ClusterRole
  Name:	self-provisioner
Subjects:
  Kind	Name				Namespace
  ----	----				---------
  Group	system:authenticated:oauth


Name:		system:basic-user
Labels:		kubernetes.io/bootstrapping=rbac-defaults
Annotations:	rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate=true
Role:
  Kind:	ClusterRole
  Name:	system:basic-user
Subjects:
  Kind	Name			Namespace
  ----	----			---------
  Group	system:authenticated
  Group	system:unauthenticated


Name:		system:build-strategy-docker-binding
Labels:		<none>
Annotations:	rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate=true
Role:
  Kind:	ClusterRole
  Name:	system:build-strategy-docker
Subjects:
  Kind	Name			Namespace
  ----	----			---------
  Group	system:authenticated


Name:		system:build-strategy-jenkinspipeline-binding
Labels:		<none>
Annotations:	rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate=true
Role:
  Kind:	ClusterRole
  Name:	system:build-strategy-jenkinspipeline
Subjects:
  Kind	Name			Namespace
  ----	----			---------
  Group	system:authenticated


Name:		system:build-strategy-source-binding
Labels:		<none>
Annotations:	rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate=true
Role:
  Kind:	ClusterRole
  Name:	system:build-strategy-source
Subjects:
  Kind	Name			Namespace
  ----	----			---------
  Group	system:authenticated


Name:		system:controller:attachdetach-controller
Labels:		kubernetes.io/bootstrapping=rbac-defaults
Annotations:	rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate=true
Role:
  Kind:	ClusterRole
  Name:	system:controller:attachdetach-controller
Subjects:
  Kind			Name			Namespace
  ----			----			---------
  ServiceAccount	attachdetach-controller	kube-system


Name:		system:controller:certificate-controller
Labels:		kubernetes.io/bootstrapping=rbac-defaults
Annotations:	rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate=true
Role:
  Kind:	ClusterRole
  Name:	system:controller:certificate-controller
Subjects:
  Kind			Name			Namespace
  ----			----			---------
  ServiceAccount	certificate-controller	kube-system


Name:		system:controller:cronjob-controller
Labels:		kubernetes.io/bootstrapping=rbac-defaults
Annotations:	rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate=true

...

8.2.2. Viewing Local Roles and Bindings

All of the default cluster roles can be bound locally to users or groups. Custom local roles can be created. The local role bindings are also viewable.

To view the current set of local role bindings, which show the users and groups that are bound to various roles:

$ oc describe rolebinding.rbac

By default, the current project is used when viewing local role bindings. Alternatively, a project can be specified with the -n flag. This is useful for viewing the local role bindings of another project, if the user already has the admindefault cluster role in it.

Viewing Local Role Bindings

$ oc describe rolebinding.rbac -n joe-project
Name:		admin
Labels:		<none>
Annotations:	<none>
Role:
  Kind:	ClusterRole
  Name:	admin
Subjects:
  Kind	Name	Namespace
  ----	----	---------
  User	joe


Name:		system:deployers
Labels:		<none>
Annotations:	<none>
Role:
  Kind:	ClusterRole
  Name:	system:deployer
Subjects:
  Kind			Name		Namespace
  ----			----		---------
  ServiceAccount	deployer	joe-project


Name:		system:image-builders
Labels:		<none>
Annotations:	<none>
Role:
  Kind:	ClusterRole
  Name:	system:image-builder
Subjects:
  Kind			Name	Namespace
  ----			----	---------
  ServiceAccount	builder	joe-project


Name:		system:image-pullers
Labels:		<none>
Annotations:	<none>
Role:
  Kind:	ClusterRole
  Name:	system:image-puller
Subjects:
  Kind	Name					Namespace
  ----	----					---------
  Group	system:serviceaccounts:joe-project

8.3. Managing Role Bindings

Adding, or binding, a role to users or groups gives the user or group the relevant access granted by the role. You can add and remove roles to and from users and groups using oc adm policy commands.

When managing a user or group’s associated roles for local role bindings using the following operations, a project may be specified with the -n flag. If it is not specified, then the current project is used.

Table 8.1. Local Role Binding Operations

CommandDescription

$ oc adm policy who-can <verb> <resource>

Indicates which users can perform an action on a resource.

$ oc adm policy add-role-to-user <role> <username>

Binds a given role to specified users in the current project.

$ oc adm policy remove-role-from-user <role> <username>

Removes a given role from specified users in the current project.

$ oc adm policy remove-user <username>

Removes specified users and all of their roles in the current project.

$ oc adm policy add-role-to-group <role> <groupname>

Binds a given role to specified groups in the current project.

$ oc adm policy remove-role-from-group <role> <groupname>

Removes a given role from specified groups in the current project.

$ oc adm policy remove-group <groupname>

Removes specified groups and all of their roles in the current project.

You can also manage cluster role bindings using the following operations. The -n flag is not used for these operations because cluster role bindings uses non-namespaced resources.

Table 8.2. Cluster Role Binding Operations

CommandDescription

$ oc adm policy add-cluster-role-to-user <role> <username>

Binds a given role to specified users for all projects in the cluster.

$ oc adm policy remove-cluster-role-from-user <role> <username>

Removes a given role from specified users for all projects in the cluster.

$ oc adm policy add-cluster-role-to-group <role> <groupname>

Binds a given role to specified groups for all projects in the cluster.

$ oc adm policy remove-cluster-role-from-group <role> <groupname>

Removes a given role from specified groups for all projects in the cluster.

For example, you can add the admin role to the alice user in joe-project by running:

$ oc adm policy add-role-to-user admin alice -n joe-project

You can then view the local role bindings and verify the addition in the output:

$ oc describe rolebinding.rbac -n joe-project
Name:		admin
Labels:		<none>
Annotations:	<none>
Role:
  Kind:	ClusterRole
  Name:	admin
Subjects:
  Kind	Name	Namespace
  ----	----	---------
  User	joe
  User	alice 1


Name:		system:deployers
Labels:		<none>
Annotations:	<none>
Role:
  Kind:	ClusterRole
  Name:	system:deployer
Subjects:
  Kind			Name		Namespace
  ----			----		---------
  ServiceAccount	deployer	joe-project


Name:		system:image-builders
Labels:		<none>
Annotations:	<none>
Role:
  Kind:	ClusterRole
  Name:	system:image-builder
Subjects:
  Kind			Name	Namespace
  ----			----	---------
  ServiceAccount	builder	joe-project


Name:		system:image-pullers
Labels:		<none>
Annotations:	<none>
Role:
  Kind:	ClusterRole
  Name:	system:image-puller
Subjects:
  Kind	Name					Namespace
  ----	----					---------
  Group	system:serviceaccounts:joe-project
1
The alice user has been added to the admins RoleBinding.

8.4. Granting Users Daemonset Permissions

By default, project developers do not have the permission to create daemonsets. As a cluster administrator, you can grant them the abilities.

  1. Create the cluster role:

    $ oc create clusterrole daemonset-admin --verb=create,delete,get,list,update,watch --resource=daemonsets.extensions
  2. Create the local role binding:

    $ oc adm policy add-role-to-user daemonset-admin <user>

8.5. Creating a Local Role

To create a local role for a project, run the following command:

$ oc create role ...

The following excerpt from the help of this command describes its usage:

Create a role with single rule.

Usage:
  oc create role NAME --verb=verb --resource=resource.group/subresource [--resource-name=resourcename] [--dry-run] [options]

Examples:
  # Create a Role named "pod-reader" that allows user to perform "get", "watch" and "list" on pods
  oc create role pod-reader --verb=get --verb=list --verb=watch --resource=pods

  # Create a Role named "pod-reader" with ResourceName specified
  oc create role pod-reader --verb=get,list,watch --resource=pods --resource-name=readablepod --resource-name=anotherpod

  # Create a Role named "foo" with API Group specified
  oc create role foo --verb=get,list,watch --resource=rs.extensions

  # Create a Role named "foo" with SubResource specified
  oc create role foo --verb=get,list,watch --resource=pods,pods/status

Options:
      --dry-run=false: If true, only print the object that would be sent, without sending it.
      --resource=[]: resource that the rule applies to
      --resource-name=[]: resource in the white list that the rule applies to, repeat this flag for multiple items
      --verb=[]: verb that applies to the resources contained in the rule

...

For example, to create a role that allows a user to view pods, run:

$ oc create role podview --verb=get --resource=pod -n bob-project

Optionally, annotate it with a description.

To bind the new role to a user, run:

$ oc adm policy add-role-to-user podview user2 --role-namespace=bob-project -n bob-project

8.6. Cluster and Local Role Bindings

A cluster role binding is a binding that exists at the cluster level. A role binding exists at the project level. The cluster role view must be bound to a user using a local role binding for that user to view the project. Local roles should only created if a cluster role does not provide the set of permissions needed for a particular situation.

Some cluster role names are initially confusing. The cluster role clusteradmin can be bound to a user using a local role binding, making it appear that this user has the privileges of a cluster administrator. This is not the case. The clusteradmin cluster role bound to a certain project is more like a super administrator for that project, granting the permissions of the cluster role admin, plus a few additional permissions like the ability to edit rate limits. This can appear especially confusing via the web console UI, which does not list cluster role bindings (which are bound to true cluster administrators). However, it does list local role bindings (which could be used to locally bind clusteradmin).

Chapter 9. Image Policy

9.1. Overview

You can control which images are allowed to run on your cluster using the ImagePolicy admission plug-in (currently considered beta). It allows you to control:

  • The source of images: which registries can be used to pull images
  • Image resolution: force pods to run with immutable digests to ensure the image does not change due to a re-tag
  • Container image label restrictions: force an image to have or not have particular labels
  • Image annotation restrictions: force an image in the integrated container registry to have or not have particular annotations

9.2. Configuring the ImagePolicy Admission Plug-in

To enable this feature, configure the plug-in in master-config.yaml:

Example 9.1. Annotated Example File

admissionConfig:
  pluginConfig:
    openshift.io/ImagePolicy:
      configuration:
        kind: ImagePolicyConfig
        apiVersion: v1
        resolveImages: AttemptRewrite 1
        executionRules: 2
        - name: execution-denied
          # Reject all images that have the annotation images.openshift.io/deny-execution set to true.
          # This annotation may be set by infrastructure that wishes to flag particular images as dangerous
          onResources: 3
          - resource: pods
          - resource: builds
          reject: true 4
          matchImageAnnotations: 5
          - key: images.openshift.io/deny-execution
            value: "true"
          skipOnResolutionFailure: true 6
        - name: allow-images-from-internal-registry
          # allows images from the internal registry and tries to resolve them
          onResources:
          - resource: pods
          - resource: builds
          matchIntegratedRegistry: true
        - name: allow-images-from-dockerhub
          onResources:
          - resource: pods
          - resource: builds
          matchRegistries:
          - docker.io
        resolutionRules: 7
        - targetResource:
            resource: pods
          localNames: true
        - targetResource: 8
            group: batch
            resource: jobs
          localNames: true 9
1
Try to resolve images to an immutable image digest and update the image pull specification in the pod.
2
Array of rules to evaluate against incoming resources. If you only have reject==true rules, the default is allow all. If you have any accept rule, the default is deny all.
3
Indicates which resources to enforce rules upon. If nothing is specified, the default is pods.
4
Indicates that if this rule matches, the pod should be rejected.
5
List of annotations to match on the image object’s metadata.
6
If you are not able to resolve the image, do not fail the pod.
7
Array of rules allowing use of image streams in Kubernetes resources. The default configuration allows pods, replication controllers, replica sets, deployments, and jobs to use same-project image stream tag references in their image fields.
8
Identifies the group and resource to which this rule applies. If resource is *, this rule will apply to all resources in that group.
9
LocalNames will allow single segment names (for example, ruby:2.4) to be interpreted as namespace-local image stream tags, but only if the resource or target image stream has local name resolution enabled.
Note

If you normally rely on infrastructure images being pulled using a default registry prefix (such as docker.io or registry.access.redhat.com), those images will not match to any matchRegistries value since they will have no registry prefix. To ensure infrastructure images have a registry prefix that can match your image policy, set the imageConfig.format value in your master-config.yaml file.

9.3. Testing the ImagePolicy Admission Plug-in

  1. Use the openshift/image-policy-check to test your configuration.

    For example, use the information above, then test like this:

    oc import-image openshift/image-policy-check:latest --confirm
  2. Create a pod using this YAML. The pod should be created.

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      generateName: test-pod
    spec:
      containers:
      - image: docker.io/openshift/image-policy-check:latest
        name: first
  3. Create another pod pointing to a different registry. The pod should be rejected.

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      generateName: test-pod
    spec:
      containers:
      - image: different-registry/openshift/image-policy-check:latest
        name: first
  4. Create a pod pointing to the internal registry using the imported image. The pod should be created and if you look at the image specification, you should see a digest in place of the tag.

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      generateName: test-pod
    spec:
      containers:
      - image: <internal registry IP>:5000/<namespace>/image-policy-check:latest
        name: first
  5. Create a pod pointing to the internal registry using the imported image. The pod should be created and if you look at the image specification, you should see the tag unmodified.

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      generateName: test-pod
    spec:
      containers:
      - image: <internal registry IP>:5000/<namespace>/image-policy-check:v1
        name: first
  6. Get the digest from oc get istag/image-policy-check:latest and use it for oc annotate images/<digest> images.openshift.io/deny-execution=true. For example:

    $ oc annotate images/sha256:09ce3d8b5b63595ffca6636c7daefb1a615a7c0e3f8ea68e5db044a9340d6ba8 images.openshift.io/deny-execution=true
  7. Create this pod again, and you should see the pod rejected:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      generateName: test-pod
    spec:
      containers:
      - image: <internal registry IP>:5000/<namespace>/image-policy-check:latest
        name: first

Chapter 10. Image Signatures

10.1. Overview

Container image signing on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) systems provides a means of:

  • Validating where a container image came from,
  • Checking that the image has not been tampered with, and
  • Setting policies to determine which validated images can be pulled to a host.

For a more complete understanding of the architecture of container image signing on RHEL systems, see the Container Image Signing Integration Guide.

The OpenShift Container Registry allows the ability to store signatures via REST API. The oc CLI can be used to verify image signatures, with their validated displayed in the web console or CLI.

Note

Initial support for storing image signatures was added in OpenShift Container Platform 3.3. Initial support for verifying image signatures was added in OpenShift Container Platform 3.6.

10.2. Signing Images Using Atomic CLI

OpenShift Container Platform does not automate image signing. Signing requires a developer’s private GPG key, typically stored securely on a workstation. This document describes that workflow.

The atomic command line interface (CLI), version 1.12.5 or greater, provides commands for signing container images, which can be pushed to an OpenShift Container Registry. The atomic CLI is available on Red Hat-based distributions: RHEL, Centos, and Fedora. The atomic CLI is pre-installed on RHEL Atomic Host systems. For information on installing the atomic package on a RHEL host, see Enabling Image Signature Support.

Important

The atomic CLI uses the authenticated credentials from oc login. Be sure to use the same user on the same host for both atomic and oc commands. For example, if you execute atomic CLI as sudo, be sure to log in to OpenShift Container Platform using sudo oc login.

In order to attach the signature to the image, the user must have the image-signer cluster role. Cluster administrators can add this using:

$ oc adm policy add-cluster-role-to-user system:image-signer <user_name>

Images may be signed at push time:

$ atomic push [--sign-by <gpg_key_id>] --type atomic <image>

Signatures are stored in OpenShift Container Platform when the atomic transport type argument is specified. See Signature Transports for more information.

For full details on how to set up and perform image signing using the atomic CLI, see the RHEL Atomic Host Managing Containers: Signing Container Images documentation or the atomic push --help output for argument details.

A specific example workflow of working with the atomic CLI and an OpenShift Container Registry is documented in the Container Image Signing Integration Guide.

10.3. Verifying Image Signatures Using OpenShift CLI

You can verify the signatures of an image imported to an OpenShift Container Registry using the oc adm verify-image-signature command. This command verifies if the image identity contained in the image signature can be trusted by using the public GPG key to verify the signature itself then match the provided expected identity with the identity (the pull spec) of the given image.

By default, this command uses the public GPG keyring located in $GNUPGHOME/pubring.gpg, typically in path ~/.gnupg. By default, this command does not save the result of the verification back to the image object. To do so, you must specify the --save flag, as shown below.

Note

In order to verify the signature of an image, the user must have the image-auditor cluster role. Cluster administrators can add this using:

$ oc adm policy add-cluster-role-to-user system:image-auditor <user_name>

Using the --save flag on already verified image together with invalid GPG key or invalid expected identity causes the saved verification status to be removed, and the image will become unverified.

To verify an image signature use the following format:

$ oc adm verify-image-signature <image> --expected-identity=<pull_spec> [--save] [options]

The <pull_spec> can be found by describing the image stream. The <image> may be found by describing the image stream tag. See the following example command output.

Example Image Signature Verification

$ oc describe is nodejs -n openshift
Name:             nodejs
Namespace:        openshift
Created:          2 weeks ago
Labels:           <none>
Annotations:      openshift.io/display-name=Node.js
                  openshift.io/image.dockerRepositoryCheck=2017-07-05T18:24:01Z
Docker Pull Spec: 172.30.1.1:5000/openshift/nodejs
...

$ oc describe istag nodejs:latest -n openshift
Image Name:	sha256:2bba968aedb7dd2aafe5fa8c7453f5ac36a0b9639f1bf5b03f95de325238b288
...

$ oc adm verify-image-signature \
    sha256:2bba968aedb7dd2aafe5fa8c7453f5ac36a0b9639f1bf5b03f95de325238b288 \
    --expected-identity 172.30.1.1:5000/openshift/nodejs:latest \
    --public-key /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-redhat-release \
    --save

10.4. Accessing Image Signatures Using Registry API

The OpenShift Container Registry provides an extensions endpoint that allows you to write and read image signatures. The image signatures are stored in the OpenShift Container Platform key-value store via the Docker Registry API.

Note

This endpoint is experimental and not supported by the upstream Docker Registry project. See the upstream API documentation for general information about the Docker Registry API.

10.4.1. Writing Image Signatures via API

In order to add a new signature to the image, you can use the HTTP PUT method to send a JSON payload to the extensions endpoint:

PUT /extensions/v2/<namespace>/<name>/signatures/<digest>
$ curl -X PUT --data @signature.json http://<user>:<token>@<registry_endpoint>:5000/extensions/v2/<namespace>/<name>/signatures/sha256:<digest>

The JSON payload with the signature content should have the following structure:

{
  "version": 2,
  "type":    "atomic",
  "name":    "sha256:4028782c08eae4a8c9a28bf661c0a8d1c2fc8e19dbaae2b018b21011197e1484@cddeb7006d914716e2728000746a0b23",
  "content": "<cryptographic_signature>"
}

The name field contains the name of the image signature, which must be unique and in the format <digest>@<name>. The <digest> represents an image name and the <name> is the name of the signature. The signature name must be 32 characters long. The <cryptographic_signature> must follow the specification documented in the containers/image library.

10.4.2. Reading Image Signatures via API

Assuming a signed image has already been pushed into the OpenShift Container Registry, you can read the signatures using the following command:

GET /extensions/v2/<namespace>/<name>/signatures/<digest>
$ curl http://<user>:<token>@<registry_endpoint>:5000/extensions/v2/<namespace>/<name>/signatures/sha256:<digest>

The <namespace> represents the OpenShift Container Platform project name or registry repository name and the <name> refers to the name of the image repository. The digest represents the SHA-256 checksum of the image.

If the given image contains the signature data, the output of the command above should produce following JSON response:

{
  "signatures": [
  {
    "version": 2,
    "type":    "atomic",
    "name":    "sha256:4028782c08eae4a8c9a28bf661c0a8d1c2fc8e19dbaae2b018b21011197e1484@cddeb7006d914716e2728000746a0b23",
    "content": "<cryptographic_signature>"
  }
  ]
}

The name field contains the name of the image signature, which must be unique and in the format <digest>@<name>. The <digest> represents an image name and the <name> is the name of the signature. The signature name must be 32 characters long. The <cryptographic_signature> must follow the specification documented in the containers/image library.

10.4.3. Importing Image Signatures Automatically from Signature Stores

OpenShift Container Platform can automatically import image signatures if a signature store is configured on all OpenShift Container Platform master nodes through the registries configuration directory located in the /etc/containers/registries.d.

The default registries configuration directory is the /etc/containers/registries.d/default.yaml file.

A sample configuration that will cause image signatures to be imported automatically for all Red Hat images:

docker:
  registry.access.redhat.com:
    sigstore: https://access.redhat.com/webassets/docker/content/sigstore

Note that all signatures imported automatically by {OpenShift Container Platform} will be unverified by default and will have to be verified by image administrators.

For more details about the registries configuration directory, see Registries Configuration Directory in the containers/image library documentation.

Chapter 11. Scoped Tokens

11.1. Overview

A user may want to give another entity the power to act as they have, but only in a limited way. For example, a project administrator may want to delegate the power to create pods. One way to do this is to create a scoped token.

A scoped token is a token that identifies as a given user, but is limited to certain actions by its scope. Right now, only a cluster-admin can create scoped tokens.

11.2. Evaluation

Scopes are evaluated by converting the set of scopes for a token into a set of PolicyRules. Then, the request is matched against those rules. The request attributes must match at least one of the scope rules to be passed to the "normal" authorizer for further authorization checks.

11.3. User Scopes

User scopes are focused on getting information about a given user. They are intent-based, so the rules are automatically created for you:

  • user:full - Allows full read/write access to the API with all of the user’s permissions.
  • user:info - Allows read-only access to information about the user: name, groups, and so on.
  • user:check-access - Allows access to self-localsubjectaccessreviews and self-subjectaccessreviews. These are the variables where you pass an empty user and groups in your request object.
  • user:list-projects - Allows read-only access to list the projects the user has access to.

11.4. Role Scope

The role scope allows you to have the same level of access as a given role filtered by namespace.

  • role:<cluster-role name>:<namespace or * for all> - Limits the scope to the rules specified by the cluster-role, but only in the specified namespace .

    Note

    Caveat: This prevents escalating access. Even if the role allows access to resources like secrets, rolebindings, and roles, this scope will deny access to those resources. This helps prevent unexpected escalations. Many people do not think of a role like edit as being an escalating role, but with access to a secret it is.

  • role:<cluster-role name>:<namespace or * for all>:! - This is similar to the example above, except that including the bang causes this scope to allow escalating access.

Chapter 12. Monitoring Images

12.1. Overview

You can monitor images in your instance using the CLI.

12.2. Viewing Images Statistics

OpenShift Container Platform can display several usage statistics about all the images it manages. In other words, all the images pushed to the internal registry either directly or through a build.

To view the usage statistics:

$ oadm top images
NAME                 IMAGESTREAMTAG            PARENTS                   USAGE                         METADATA    STORAGE
sha256:80c985739a78b openshift/python (3.5)                                                            yes         303.12MiB
sha256:64461b5111fc7 openshift/ruby (2.2)                                                              yes         234.33MiB
sha256:0e19a0290ddc1 test/ruby-ex (latest)     sha256:64461b5111fc71ec   Deployment: ruby-ex-1/test    yes         150.65MiB
sha256:a968c61adad58 test/django-ex (latest)   sha256:80c985739a78b760   Deployment: django-ex-1/test  yes         186.07MiB

The command displays the following information:

  • image ID
  • project, name, and tag of the accompanying ImageStreamTag
  • potential parents of the image, using their ID
  • information about where the image is being used
  • flag informing whether the image contains proper Docker metadata information
  • size of the image

12.3. Viewing ImageStreams Statistics

OpenShift Container Platform can display several usage statistics about all the ImageStreams.

To view the usage statistics:

$ oadm top imagestreams
NAME                STORAGE     IMAGES  LAYERS
openshift/python    1.21GiB     4       36
openshift/ruby      717.76MiB   3       27
test/ruby-ex        150.65MiB   1       10
test/django-ex      186.07MiB   1       10

The command displays the following information:

  • project and name of the ImageStream
  • size of the entire ImageStream stored in the internal Red Hat Container Registry
  • number of images this particular ImageStream is pointing to
  • number of layers ImageStream consists of

12.4. Pruning Images

The information returned from the above commands is helpful when performing image pruning.

Chapter 13. Managing Security Context Constraints

13.1. Overview

Security context constraints allow administrators to control permissions for pods. To learn more about this API type, see the security context constraints (SCCs) architecture documentation. You can manage SCCs in your instance as normal API objects using the CLI.

Note

You must have cluster-admin privileges to manage SCCs.

13.2. Listing Security Context Constraints

To get a current list of SCCs:

$ oc get scc

NAME               PRIV      CAPS      SELINUX     RUNASUSER          FSGROUP     SUPGROUP    PRIORITY   READONLYROOTFS   VOLUMES
anyuid             false     []        MustRunAs   RunAsAny           RunAsAny    RunAsAny    10         false            [configMap downwardAPI emptyDir persistentVolumeClaim secret]
hostaccess         false     []        MustRunAs   MustRunAsRange     MustRunAs   RunAsAny    <none>     false            [configMap downwardAPI emptyDir hostPath persistentVolumeClaim secret]
hostmount-anyuid   false     []        MustRunAs   RunAsAny           RunAsAny    RunAsAny    <none>     false            [configMap downwardAPI emptyDir hostPath nfs persistentVolumeClaim secret]
hostnetwork        false     []        MustRunAs   MustRunAsRange     MustRunAs   MustRunAs   <none>     false            [configMap downwardAPI emptyDir persistentVolumeClaim secret]
nonroot            false     []        MustRunAs   MustRunAsNonRoot   RunAsAny    RunAsAny    <none>     false            [configMap downwardAPI emptyDir persistentVolumeClaim secret]
privileged         true      [*]       RunAsAny    RunAsAny           RunAsAny    RunAsAny    <none>     false            [*]
restricted         false     []        MustRunAs   MustRunAsRange     MustRunAs   RunAsAny    <none>     false            [configMap downwardAPI emptyDir persistentVolumeClaim secret]

13.3. Examining a Security Context Constraints Object

To examine a particular SCC, use oc get, oc describe, oc export, or oc edit. For example, to examine the restricted SCC:

$ oc describe scc restricted
Name:					restricted
Priority:				<none>
Access:
  Users:				<none>
  Groups:				system:authenticated
Settings:
  Allow Privileged:			false
  Default Add Capabilities:		<none>
  Required Drop Capabilities:		KILL,MKNOD,SYS_CHROOT,SETUID,SETGID
  Allowed Capabilities:			<none>
  Allowed Seccomp Profiles:		<none>
  Allowed Volume Types:			configMap,downwardAPI,emptyDir,persistentVolumeClaim,projected,secret
  Allow Host Network:			false
  Allow Host Ports:			false
  Allow Host PID:			false
  Allow Host IPC:			false
  Read Only Root Filesystem:		false
  Run As User Strategy: MustRunAsRange
    UID:				<none>
    UID Range Min:			<none>
    UID Range Max:			<none>
  SELinux Context Strategy: MustRunAs
    User:				<none>
    Role:				<none>
    Type:				<none>
    Level:				<none>
  FSGroup Strategy: MustRunAs
    Ranges:				<none>
  Supplemental Groups Strategy: RunAsAny
    Ranges:				<none>
Note

In order to preserve customized SCCs during upgrades, do not edit settings on the default SCCs other than priority, users, groups, labels, and annotations.

13.4. Creating New Security Context Constraints

To create a new SCC:

  1. Define the SCC in a JSON or YAML file:

    Example 13.1. Security Context Constraint Object Definition

    kind: SecurityContextConstraints
    apiVersion: v1
    metadata:
      name: scc-admin
    allowPrivilegedContainer: true
    runAsUser:
      type: RunAsAny
    seLinuxContext:
      type: RunAsAny
    fsGroup:
      type: RunAsAny
    supplementalGroups:
      type: RunAsAny
    users:
    - my-admin-user
    groups:
    - my-admin-group

    Optionally, you can add drop capabilities to an SCC by setting the requiredDropCapabilities field with the desired values. Any specified capabilities will be dropped from the container. For example, to create an SCC with the KILL, MKNOD, and SYS_CHROOT required drop capabilities, add the following to the SCC object:

    requiredDropCapabilities:
    - KILL
    - MKNOD
    - SYS_CHROOT

    You can see the list of possible values in the Docker documentation.

Tip

Because capabilities are passed to the Docker, you can use a special ALL value to drop all possible capabilities.

  1. Then, run oc create passing the file to create it:

    $ oc create -f scc_admin.yaml
    securitycontextconstraints "scc-admin" created
  2. Verify that the SCC was created:

    $ oc get scc scc-admin
    NAME        PRIV      CAPS      SELINUX    RUNASUSER   FSGROUP    SUPGROUP   PRIORITY   READONLYROOTFS   VOLUMES
    scc-admin   true      []        RunAsAny   RunAsAny    RunAsAny   RunAsAny   <none>     false            [awsElasticBlockStore azureDisk azureFile cephFS cinder configMap downwardAPI emptyDir fc flexVolume flocker gcePersistentDisk gitRepo glusterfs iscsi nfs persistentVolumeClaim photonPersistentDisk quobyte rbd secret vsphere]

13.5. Deleting Security Context Constraints

To delete an SCC:

$ oc delete scc <scc_name>
Note

If you delete a default SCC, it will be regenerated upon restart.

13.6. Updating Security Context Constraints

To update an existing SCC:

$ oc edit scc <scc_name>
Note

In order to preserve customized SCCs during upgrades, do not edit settings on the default SCCs other than priority, users, and groups.

13.7. Updating the Default Security Context Constraints

Default SCCs will be created when the master is started if they are missing. To reset SCCs to defaults, or update existing SCCs to new default definitions after an upgrade you may:

  1. Delete any SCC you would like to be reset and let it be recreated by restarting the master
  2. Use the oc adm policy reconcile-sccs command

The oc adm policy reconcile-sccs command will set all SCC policies to the default values but retain any additional users, groups, labels, and annotations as well as priorities you may have already set. To view which SCCs will be changed you may run the command with no options or by specifying your preferred output with the -o <format> option.

After reviewing it is recommended that you back up your existing SCCs and then use the --confirm option to persist the data.

Note

If you would like to reset priorities and grants, use the --additive-only=false option.

Note

If you have customized settings other than priority, users, groups, labels, or annotations in an SCC, you will lose those settings when you reconcile.

13.8. How Do I?

The following describe common scenarios and procedures using SCCs.

13.8.1. Grant Access to the Privileged SCC

In some cases, an administrator might want to allow users or groups outside the administrator group access to create more privileged pods. To do so, you can:

  1. Determine the user or group you would like to have access to the SCC.

    Warning

    Granting access to a user only works when the user directly creates a pod. For pods created on behalf of a user, in most cases by the system itself, access should be given to a service account under which related controller is operated upon. Examples of resources that create pods on behalf of a user are Deployments, StatefulSets, DaemonSets, etc.

  2. Run:

    $ oc adm policy add-scc-to-user <scc_name> <user_name>
    $ oc adm policy add-scc-to-group <scc_name> <group_name>

    For example, to allow the e2e-user access to the privileged SCC, run:

    $ oc adm policy add-scc-to-user privileged e2e-user
  3. Modify SecurityContext of a container to request a privileged mode.

13.8.2. Grant a Service Account Access to the Privileged SCC

First, create a service account. For example, to create service account mysvcacct in project myproject:

$ oc create serviceaccount mysvcacct -n myproject

Then, add the service account to the privileged SCC.

$ oc adm policy add-scc-to-user privileged system:serviceaccount:myproject:mysvcacct

Then, ensure that the resource is being created on behalf of the service account. To do so, set the spec.serviceAccountName field to a service account name. Leaving the service account name blank will result in the default service account being used.

Then, ensure that at least one of the pod’s containers is requesting a privileged mode in the security context.

13.8.3. Enable Images to Run with USER in the Dockerfile

To relax the security in your cluster so that images are not forced to run as a pre-allocated UID, without granting everyone access to the privileged SCC:

  1. Grant all authenticated users access to the anyuid SCC:

    $ oc adm policy add-scc-to-group anyuid system:authenticated
Warning

This allows images to run as the root UID if no USER is specified in the Dockerfile.

13.8.4. Enable Container Images that Require Root

Some container images (examples: postgres and redis) require root access and have certain expectations about how volumes are owned. For these images, add the service account to the anyuid SCC.

$ oc adm policy add-scc-to-user anyuid system:serviceaccount:myproject:mysvcacct

13.8.5. Use --mount-host on the Registry

It is recommended that persistent storage using PersistentVolume and PersistentVolumeClaim objects be used for registry deployments. If you are testing and would like to instead use the oadm registry command with the --mount-host option, you must first create a new service account for the registry and add it to the privileged SCC. See the Administrator Guide for full instructions.

13.8.6. Provide Additional Capabilities

In some cases, an image may require capabilities that Docker does not provide out of the box. You can provide the ability to request additional capabilities in the pod specification which will be validated against an SCC.

Important

This allows images to run with elevated capabilities and should be used only if necessary. You should not edit the default restricted SCC to enable additional capabilities.

When used in conjunction with a non-root user, you must also ensure that the file that requires the additional capability is granted the capabilities using the setcap command. For example, in the Dockerfile of the image:

setcap cap_net_raw,cap_net_admin+p /usr/bin/ping

Further, if a capability is provided by default in Docker, you do not need to modify the pod specification to request it. For example, NET_RAW is provided by default and capabilities should already be set on ping, therefore no special steps should be required to run ping.

To provide additional capabilities:

  1. Create a new SCC
  2. Add the allowed capability using the allowedCapabilities field.
  3. When creating the pod, request the capability in the securityContext.capabilities.add field.

13.8.7. Modify Cluster Default Behavior

To modify your cluster so that it does not pre-allocate UIDs, allows containers to run as any user, and prevents privileged containers:

Note

In order to preserve customized SCCs during upgrades, do not edit settings on the default SCCs other than priority, users, groups, labels, and annotations.

  1. Edit the restricted SCC:

     $ oc edit scc restricted
  2. Change runAsUser.Type to RunAsAny.
  3. Ensure allowPrivilegedContainer is set to false.
  4. Save the changes.

To modify your cluster so that it does not pre-allocate UIDs and does not allow containers to run as root:

  1. Edit the restricted SCC:

     $ oc edit scc restricted
  2. Change runAsUser.Type to MustRunAsNonRoot.
  3. Save the changes.

13.8.8. Use the hostPath Volume Plug-in

To relax the security in your cluster so that pods are allowed to use the hostPath volume plug-in without granting everyone access to the privileged SCC:

  1. Edit the restricted SCC:

    $ oc edit scc restricted
  2. Add allowHostDirVolumePlugin: true.
  3. Save the changes.

13.8.9. Ensure That Admission Attempts to Use a Specific SCC First

You may control the sort ordering of SCCs in admission by setting the Priority field of the SCCs. Please see the SCC Prioritization section for more information on sorting.

13.8.10. Add an SCC to a User, Group, or Project

Before adding an SCC to a user or group, you can first use the scc-review option to check if the user or group can create a pod. See the Authorization topic for more information.

SCCs are not granted directly to a project. Instead, you add a service account to an SCC and either specify the service account name on your pod or, when unspecified, run as the default service account.

To add an SCC to a user:

$ oc adm policy add-scc-to-user <scc_name> <user_name>

To add an SCC to a service account:

$ oc adm policy add-scc-to-user <scc_name> \
    system:serviceaccount:<serviceaccount_namespace>:<serviceaccount_name>

If you are currently in the project to which the service account belongs, you can use the -z flag and just specify the <serviceaccount_name>.

$ oc adm policy add-scc-to-user <scc_name> -z <serviceaccount_name>

To add an SCC to a group:

$ oc adm policy add-scc-to-group <scc_name> <group_name>

To add an SCC to all service accounts in a namespace:

$ oc adm policy add-scc-to-group <scc_name> \
    system:serviceaccounts:<serviceaccount_namespace>

Chapter 14. Scheduling

14.1. Overview

14.1.1. Overview

Pod scheduling is an internal process that determines placement of new pods onto nodes within the cluster.

14.1.2. Default scheduling

OpenShift Container Platform comes with a default scheduler that serves the needs of most users. The default scheduler uses both inherent and customizable tools to determine the best fit for a pod.

For information on how the default scheduler determines pod placement and available customizable parameters, see Default Scheduling.

14.1.3. Advanced scheduling

In situations where you might want more control over where new pods are placed, the OpenShift Container Platform advanced scheduling features allow you to configure a pod so that the pod is required to (or has a preference to) run on a particular node or alongside a specific pod. Advanced scheduling also allows you to prevent pods from being placed on a node or with another pod.

For information about advanced scheduling, see Advanced Scheduling.

14.1.4. Custom scheduling

OpenShift Container Platform also allows you to use your own or third-party schedulers by editing the pod specification.

For more information, see Custom Schedulers.

14.2. Default Scheduling

14.2.1. Overview

The default OpenShift Container Platform pod scheduler is responsible for determining placement of new pods onto nodes within the cluster. It reads data from the pod and tries to find a node that is a good fit based on configured policies. It is completely independent and exists as a standalone/pluggable solution. It does not modify the pod and just creates a binding for the pod that ties the pod to the particular node.

14.2.2. Generic Scheduler

The existing generic scheduler is the default platform-provided scheduler "engine" that selects a node to host the pod in a 3-step operation:

  1. Filter the nodes
  2. Prioritize the filtered list of nodes
  3. Select the best fit node

14.2.2.1. Filter the Nodes

The available nodes are filtered based on the constraints or requirements specified. This is done by running each of the nodes through the list of filter functions called 'predicates'.

14.2.2.2. Prioritize the Filtered List of Nodes

This is achieved by passing each node through a series of 'priority' functions that assign it a score between 0 - 10, with 0 indicating a bad fit and 10 indicating a good fit to host the pod. The scheduler configuration can also take in a simple "weight" (positive numeric value) for each priority function. The node score provided by each priority function is multiplied by the "weight" (default weight is 1) and then combined by just adding the scores for each node provided by all the priority functions. This weight attribute can be used by administrators to give higher importance to some priority functions.

14.2.2.3. Select the Best Fit Node

The nodes are sorted based on their scores and the node with the highest score is selected to host the pod. If multiple nodes have the same high score, then one of them is selected at random.

14.2.3. Available Predicates

There are several predicates provided out of the box in Kubernetes. Some of these predicates can be customized by providing certain parameters. Multiple predicates can be combined to provide additional filtering of nodes.

14.2.3.1. Static Predicates

These predicates do not take any configuration parameters or inputs from the user. These are specified in the scheduler configuration using their exact name.

PodFitsPorts deems a node to be fit for hosting a pod based on the absence of port conflicts.

{"name" : "PodFitsPorts"}

PodFitsResources determines a fit based on resource availability. The nodes can declare their resource capacities and then pods can specify what resources they require. Fit is based on requested, rather than used resources.

{"name" : "PodFitsResources"}

NoDiskConflict determines fit based on non-conflicting disk volumes. It evaluates if a pod can fit due to the volumes it requests, and those that are already mounted. It is GCE PD, Amazon EBS, and Ceph RBD specific. Only Persistent Volume Claims for those supported types are checked. Persistent Volumes added directly to pods are not evaluated and are not constrained by this policy.

{"name" : "NoDiskConflict"}

MatchNodeSelector determines fit based on node selector query that is defined in the pod.

{"name" : "MatchNodeSelector"}

HostName determines fit based on the presence of the Host parameter and a string match with the name of the host.

{"name" : "HostName"}

14.2.3.2. Configurable Predicates

These predicates can be configured by the user to tweak their functioning. They can be given any user-defined name. The type of the predicate is identified by the argument that they take. Since these are configurable, multiple predicates of the same type (but different configuration parameters) can be combined as long as their user-defined names are different.

ServiceAffinity filters out nodes that do not belong to the specified topological level defined by the provided labels. This predicate takes in a list of labels and ensures affinity within the nodes (that have the same label values) for pods belonging to the same service. If the pod specifies a value for the labels in its NodeSelector, then the nodes matching those labels are the ones where the pod is scheduled. If the pod does not specify the labels in its NodeSelector, then the first pod can be placed on any node based on availability and all subsequent pods of the service are scheduled on nodes that have the same label values.

{"name" : "Zone", "argument" : {"serviceAffinity" : {"labels" : ["zone"]}}}

LabelsPresence checks whether a particular node has a certain label defined or not, regardless of its value. Matching by label can be useful, for example, where nodes have their physical location or status defined by labels.

{"name" : "RequireRegion", "argument" : {"labelsPresence" : {"labels" : ["region"], "presence" : true}}}
  • If "presence" is false, and any of the requested labels match any of the node labels, it returns false. Otherwise, it returns true.
  • If "presence" is true, and any of the requested labels do not match any of the node’s labels, it returns false. Otherwise, it returns true.

14.2.4. Available Priority Functions

A custom set of priority functions can be specified to configure the scheduler. There are several priority functions provided out-of-the-box in Kubernetes. Some of these priority functions can be customized by providing certain parameters. Multiple priority functions can be combined and different weights can be given to each in order to impact the prioritization. A weight is required to be specified and cannot be 0 or negative.

14.2.4.1. Static Priority Functions

These priority functions do not take any configuration parameters or inputs from the user. These are specified in the scheduler configuration using their exact name as well as the weight.

LeastRequestedPriority favors nodes with fewer requested resources. It calculates the percentage of memory and CPU requested by pods scheduled on the node, and prioritizes nodes that have the highest available/remaining capacity.

{"name" : "LeastRequestedPriority", "weight" : 1}

BalancedResourceAllocation favors nodes with balanced resource usage rate. It calculates the difference between the consumed CPU and memory as a fraction of capacity, and prioritizes the nodes based on how close the two metrics are to each other. This should always be used together with LeastRequestedPriority.

{"name" : "BalancedResourceAllocation", "weight" : 1}

ServiceSpreadingPriority spreads pods by minimizing the number of pods belonging to the same service onto the same machine.

{"name" : "ServiceSpreadingPriority", "weight" : 1}

EqualPriority gives an equal weight of one to all nodes, if no priority configs are provided. It is not required/recommended outside of testing.

{"name" : "EqualPriority", "weight" : 1}

14.2.4.2. Configurable Priority Functions

These priority functions can be configured by the user by providing certain parameters. They can be given any user-defined name. The type of the priority function is identified by the argument that they take. Since these are configurable, multiple priority functions of the same type (but different configuration parameters) can be combined as long as their user-defined names are different.

ServiceAntiAffinity takes a label and ensures a good spread of the pods belonging to the same service across the group of nodes based on the label values. It gives the same score to all nodes that have the same value for the specified label. It gives a higher score to nodes within a group with the least concentration of pods.

{"name" : "RackSpread", "weight" : 1, "argument" : {"serviceAntiAffinity" : {"label" : "rack"}}}

LabelPreference prefers nodes that have a particular label defined or not, regardless of its value.

{"name" : "RackPreferred", "weight" : 1, "argument" : {"labelPreference" : {"label" : "rack"}}}

14.2.5. Scheduler Policy

The selection of the predicate and priority functions defines the policy for the scheduler. Administrators can provide a JSON file that specifies the predicates and priority functions to configure the scheduler. The path to the scheduler policy file can be specified in the master configuration file. In the absence of the scheduler policy file, the default configuration gets applied.

It is important to note that the predicates and priority functions defined in the scheduler configuration file completely override the default scheduler policy. If any of the default predicates and priority functions are required, they have to be explicitly specified in the scheduler configuration file.

14.2.5.1. Default Scheduler Policy

The default scheduler policy includes the following predicates:

  1. NoVolumeZoneConflict
  2. MaxEBSVolumeCount
  3. MaxGCEPDVolumeCount
  4. MatchInterPodAffinity
  5. NoDiskConflict
  6. GeneralPredicates
  7. PodToleratesNodeTaints
  8. CheckNodeMemoryPressure
  9. CheckNodeDiskPressure

The default scheduler policy includes the following priority functions. Each of the priority function has a weight of 1 except NodePreferAvoidPodsPriority, which has a weight of 10000:

  1. SelectorSpreadPriority
  2. InterPodAffinityPriority
  3. LeastRequestedPriority
  4. BalancedResourceAllocation
  5. NodePreferAvoidPodsPriority
  6. NodeAffinityPriority
  7. TaintTolerationPriority

14.2.5.2. Modifying Scheduler Policy

The scheduler policy is defined in a file on the master, named /etc/origin/master/scheduler.json by default, unless overridden by the kubernetesMasterConfig.schedulerConfigFile field in the master configuration file.

To modify the scheduler policy:

  1. Edit the scheduler configuration file to set the desired predicates and priority functions. You can create a custom configuration, or modify one of the sample policy configurations.
  2. Restart the OpenShift Container Platform master services for the changes to take effect.

14.2.6. Use Cases

One of the important use cases for scheduling within OpenShift Container Platform is to support flexible affinity and anti-affinity policies.

14.2.6.1. Infrastructure Topological Levels

Administrators can define multiple topological levels for their infrastructure (nodes). This is done by specifying labels on nodes (e.g., region=r1, zone=z1, rack=s1). These label names have no particular meaning and administrators are free to name their infrastructure levels anything (eg, city/building/room). Also, administrators can define any number of levels for their infrastructure topology, with three levels usually being adequate (eg. regions → zones → racks). Lastly, administrators can specify affinity and anti-affinity rules at each of these levels in any combination.

14.2.6.2. Affinity

Administrators should be able to configure the scheduler to specify affinity at any topological level, or even at multiple levels. Affinity at a particular level indicates that all pods that belong to the same service are scheduled onto nodes that belong to the same level. This handles any latency requirements of applications by allowing administrators to ensure that peer pods do not end up being too geographically separated. If no node is available within the same affinity group to host the pod, then the pod is not scheduled.

If you need greater control over where the pods are scheduled, see Using Node Affinity and Using Pod Affinity and Anti-affinity. These advanced scheduling features allow administrators to specify which node a pod can be scheduled on and to force or reject scheduling relative to other pods.

14.2.6.3. Anti Affinity

Administrators should be able to configure the scheduler to specify anti-affinity at any topological level, or even at multiple levels. Anti-affinity (or 'spread') at a particular level indicates that all pods that belong to the same service are spread across nodes that belong to that level. This ensures that the application is well spread for high availability purposes. The scheduler tries to balance the service pods across all applicable nodes as evenly as possible.

If you need greater control over where the pods are scheduled, see Using Node Affinity and Using Pod Affinity and Anti-affinity. These advanced scheduling features allow administrators to specify which node a pod can be scheduled on and to force or reject scheduling relative to other pods.

14.2.7. Sample Policy Configurations

The configuration below specifies the default scheduler configuration, if it were to be specified via the scheduler policy file.

kind: "Policy"
version: "v1"
predicates:
  - name: "PodFitsPorts"
  - name: "PodFitsResources"
  - name: "NoDiskConflict"
  - name: "MatchNodeSelector"
  - name: "HostName"
priorities:
  - name: "LeastRequestedPriority"
    weight: 1
  - name: "BalancedResourceAllocation"
    weight: 1
  - name: "ServiceSpreadingPriority"
    weight: 1
Important

In all of the sample configurations below, the list of predicates and priority functions is truncated to include only the ones that pertain to the use case specified. In practice, a complete/meaningful scheduler policy should include most, if not all, of the default predicates and priority functions listed above.

Three topological levels defined as region (affinity) -→ zone (affinity) -→ rack (anti-affinity)

kind: "Policy"
version: "v1"
predicates:
...
  - name: "RegionZoneAffinity"
    argument:
      serviceAffinity:
        labels:
          - "region"
          - "zone"
priorities:
...
  - name: "RackSpread"
    weight: 1
    argument:
      serviceAntiAffinity:
        label: "rack"

Three topological levels defined as city (affinity) → building (anti-affinity) → room (anti-affinity):

kind: "Policy"
version: "v1"
predicates:
...
  - name: "CityAffinity"
    argument:
      serviceAffinity:
        labels:
          - "city"
priorities:
...
  - name: "BuildingSpread"
    weight: 1
    argument:
      serviceAntiAffinity:
        label: "building"
  - name: "RoomSpread"
    weight: 1
    argument:
      serviceAntiAffinity:
        label: "room"

Only use nodes with the 'region' label defined and prefer nodes with the 'zone' label defined:

kind: "Policy"
version: "v1"
predicates:
...
  - name: "RequireRegion"
    argument:
      labelsPresence:
        labels:
          - "region"
        presence: true
priorities:
...
  - name: "ZonePreferred"
    weight: 1
    argument:
      labelPreference:
        label: "zone"
        presence: true

Configuration example combining static and configurable predicates and priority functions:

kind: "Policy"
version: "v1"
predicates:
...
  - name: "RegionAffinity"
    argument:
      serviceAffinity:
        labels:
          - "region"
  - name: "RequireRegion"
    argument:
      labelsPresence:
        labels:
          - "region"
        presence: true
  - name: "BuildingNodesAvoid"
    argument:
      labelsPresence:
        labels:
          - "building"
        presence: false
  - name: "PodFitsPorts"
  - name: "MatchNodeSelector"
priorities:
...
  - name: "ZoneSpread"
    weight: 2
    argument:
      serviceAntiAffinity:
        label: "zone"
  - name: "ZonePreferred"
    weight: 1
    argument:
      labelPreference:
        label: "zone"
        presence: true
  - name: "ServiceSpreadingPriority"
    weight: 1

14.2.8. Scheduler Extensibility

As is the case with almost everything else in Kubernetes/OpenShift Container Platform, the scheduler is built using a plug-in model and the current implementation itself is a plug-in. There are two ways to extend the scheduler functionality:

  • Enhancements
  • Replacement

14.2.8.1. Enhancements

The scheduler functionality can be enhanced by adding new predicates and priority functions. They can either be contributed upstream or maintained separately. These predicates and priority functions would need to be registered with the scheduler factory and then specified in the scheduler policy file.

14.2.8.2. Replacement

Since the scheduler is a plug-in, it can be replaced in favor of an alternate implementation. The scheduler code has a clean separation that watches new pods as they get created and identifies the most suitable node to host them. It then creates bindings (pod to node bindings) for the pods using the master API.

14.2.9. Controlling Pod Placement

As a cluster administrator, you can set a policy to prevent application developers with certain roles from targeting specific nodes when scheduling pods.

Important

This process involves the pods/binding permission role, which is needed to target particular nodes. The constraint on the use of the nodeSelector field of a pod configuration is based on the pods/binding permission and the nodeSelectorLabelBlacklist configuration option.

The nodeSelectorLabelBlacklist field of a master configuration file gives you control over the labels that certain roles can specify in a pod configuration’s nodeSelector field. Users, service accounts, and groups that have the pods/binding permission can specify any node selector. Those without the pods/binding permission are prohibited from setting a nodeSelector for any label that appears in nodeSelectorLabelBlacklist.

As a hypothetical example, an OpenShift Container Platform cluster might consist of five data centers spread across two regions. In the U.S., "us-east", "us-central", and "us-west"; and in the Asia-Pacific region (APAC), "apac-east" and "apac-west". Each node in each geographical region is labeled accordingly. For example, region: us-east.

Note

See Updating Labels on Nodes for details on assigning labels.

As a cluster administrator, you can create an infrastructure where application developers should be deploying pods only onto the nodes closest to their geographical location. You can create a node selector, grouping the U.S. data centers into superregion: us and the APAC data centers into superregion: apac.

To maintain an even loading of resources per data center, you can add the desired region to the nodeSelectorLabelBlacklist section of a master configuration. Then, whenever a developer located in the U.S. creates a pod, it is deployed onto a node in one of the regions with the superregion: us label. If the developer tries to target a specific region for their pod (for example, region: us-east), they receive an error. If they try again, without the node selector on their pod, it can still be deployed onto the region they tried to target, because superregion: us is set as the project-level node selector, and nodes labeled region: us-east are also labeled superregion: us.

14.2.9.1. Constraining Pod Placement Using Node Name

Ensure a pod is deployed onto only a specified node host by assigning it a label and specifying this in the nodeName setting in a pod configuration.

  1. Ensure you have the desired labels and node selector set up in your environment.

    For example, make sure that your pod configuration features the nodeName value indicating the desired label:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    spec:
      nodeName: <value>
  2. Modify the master configuration file (/etc/origin/master/master-config.yaml) in two places:

    1. Add nodeSelectorLabelBlacklist to the admissionConfig section:

      ...
      admissionConfig:
        pluginConfig:
          PodNodeConstraints:
            configuration:
              apiversion: v1
              kind: PodNodeConstraintsConfig
      ...
    2. Then, add the same to the kubernetesMasterConfig section to restrict direct pod creation:

      ...
      kubernetesMasterConfig:
        admissionConfig:
          pluginConfig:
            PodNodeConstraints:
              configuration:
                apiVersion: v1
                kind: PodNodeConstraintsConfig
      ...
  3. Restart OpenShift Container Platform for the changes to take effect.

    # systemctl restart atomic-openshift-master

14.2.9.2. Constraining Pod Placement Using a Node Selector

Using nodeSelector in a pod configuration, you can ensure that pods are only placed onto nodes with specific labels.

  1. Ensure you have the desired labels (see Updating Labels on Nodes for details) and node selector set up in your environment.

    For example, make sure that your pod configuration features the nodeSelector value indicating the desired label:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    spec:
      nodeSelector:
        <key>: <value>
    ...
  2. Modify the master configuration file (/etc/origin/master/master-config.yaml) in two places:

    1. Add nodeSelectorLabelBlacklist to the admissionConfig section with the labels that are assigned to the node hosts you want to deny pod placement:

      ...
      admissionConfig:
        pluginConfig:
          PodNodeConstraints:
            configuration:
              apiversion: v1
              kind: PodNodeConstraintsConfig
              nodeSelectorLabelBlacklist:
                - kubernetes.io/hostname
                - <label>
      ...
    2. Then, add the same to the kubernetesMasterConfig section to restrict direct pod creation:

      ...
      kubernetesMasterConfig:
        admissionConfig:
          pluginConfig:
            PodNodeConstraints:
              configuration:
                apiVersion: v1
                kind: PodNodeConstraintsConfig
                nodeSelectorLabelBlacklist:
                  - kubernetes.io/hostname
                  - <label_1>
      ...
  3. Restart OpenShift Container Platform for the changes to take effect.

    # systemctl restart atomic-openshift-master

14.2.10. Control Pod Placement to Projects

The Pod Node Selector admission controller allows you to force pods onto nodes associated with a specific project and prevent pods from being scheduled in those nodes.

The Pod Node Selector admission controller determines where a pod can be placed using labels on projects and node selectors specified in pods. A new pod will be placed on a node associated with a project only if the node selectors in the pod match the labels in the project.

After the pod is created, the node selectors are merged into the pod so that the pod specification includes the labels originally included in the specification and any new labels from the node selectors. The example below illustrates the merging effect.

The Pod Node Selector admission controller also allows you to create a list of labels that are permitted in a specific project. This list acts as a whitelist that lets developers know what labels are acceptable to use in a project and gives administrators greater control over labeling in a cluster.

To activate the Pod Node Selector admission controller, add the following to the master configuration file (/etc/origin/master/master-config.yaml) or create a file and reference the file in the master configuration:

Master configuration file with the Pod Node Selector admission controller and whitelist

admissionConfig:
  pluginConfig:
    PodNodeSelector:
      configuration:
        podNodeSelectorPluginConfig: 1
          clusterDefaultNodeSelector: "k3=v3" 2
          ns1: region=west,env=test,infra=fedora,os=fedora 3

1
Adds the Pod Node Selector admission controller plug-in.
2 3
Creates default labels for all nodes.
Creates a whitelist of permitted labels in the specified project. Here, the project is ns1 and the labels are the key=value pairs that follow.

Alternatively, create a file containing the admission controller information:

podNodeSelectorPluginConfig:
    clusterDefaultNodeSelector: "k3=v3"
     ns1: region=west,env=test,infra=fedora,os=fedora

Then, reference the file in the master configuration:

admissionConfig:
  pluginConfig:
    PodNodeSelector:
      location: <path-to-file>
Note

If a project does not have a node selectors specified, the pods associated with that project will be merged with the using the default node selector (clusterDefaultNodeSelector).

To schedule pods onto specific project nodes:

  1. Activate the Pod Node Selector admission controller:

    1. Modify the master configuration file (/etc/origin/master/master-config.yaml) to add the admission controller plug-in and labels:

      admissionConfig:
        pluginConfig:
          PodNodeSelector:
            configuration:
              podNodeSelectorPluginConfig:
                clusterDefaultNodeSelector: "k3=v3"
                ns1: region=west,env=test,infra=fedora,os=fedora
  2. Restart OpenShift Container Platform for the changes to take effect.

    # systemctl restart atomic-openshift-master
  3. Create a project object that includes the scheduler.alpha.kubernetes.io/node-selector annotation and labels.

    {
        "kind": "Namespace",
        "apiVersion": "v1",
        "metadata": {
            "name": "ns1",
            "annotations": {
                "scheduler.alpha.kubernetes.io/node-selector": "env=test,infra=fedora" 1
            }
        },
        "spec": {},
        "status": {}
    }
    1
    Annotation to create the labels to match the project label selector. Here, the key/value labels are env=test and infra=fedora.
  4. Create a pod specification that includes the labels in the node selector, for example:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      labels:
        name: hello-pod
      name: hello-pod
    spec:
      containers:
        - image: "docker.io/ocpqe/hello-pod:latest"
          imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
          name: hello-pod
          ports:
            - containerPort: 8080
              protocol: TCP
          resources: {}
          securityContext:
            capabilities: {}
            privileged: false
          terminationMessagePath: /dev/termination-log
      dnsPolicy: ClusterFirst
      restartPolicy: Always
      nodeSelector: 1
        env: test
        os: fedora
      serviceAccount: ""
    status: {}
    1
    Node selectors to match project labels.
  5. Create the pod in the project:

    oc create -f pod.yaml --namespace=ns1
  6. Check that the node selector labels were added to the pod configuration:

    get pod pod1 --namespace=ns1 -o json
    
    nodeSelector": {
     "env": "test",
     "infra": "fedora",
     "os": "fedora"
    }

    The node selectors are merged into the pod and the pod should be scheduled in the appropriate project.

If you create a pod with a label that is not specified in the project specification, the pod is not scheduled on the node.

For example, here the label env: production is not in any project specification:

nodeSelector:
 "env: production"
 "infra": "fedora",
 "os": "fedora"

If there is a node that does not have a node selector annotation, the pod will be scheduled there.

14.3. Custom Scheduling

14.3.1. Overview

You can run multiple, custom schedulers alongside the default scheduler and configure which scheduler to use for each pods.

To schedule a given pod using a specific scheduler, specify the name of the scheduler in that pod specification.

14.3.2. Deploying the Scheduler

The steps below are the general process for deploying a scheduler into your cluster.

Note

Information on how to create/deploy a scheduler is outside the scope of this document. For an example, see plugin/pkg/scheduler in the Kubernetes source directory.

  1. Create or edit a pod configuration and specify the name of the scheduler with the schedulerName parameter. The name must be unique.

    Sample pod specification with scheduler

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      name: custom-scheduler
      labels:
        name: multischeduler-example
    spec:
      schedulerName: custom-scheduler 1
      containers:
      - name: pod-with-second-annotation-container
        image: docker.io/ocpqe/hello-pod

    1
    The name of the scheduler to use. When no scheduler name is supplied, the pod is automatically scheduled using the default scheduler.
  2. Run the following command to create the pod:

    $ oc create -f scheduler.yaml
  3. Run the following command to check that the pod was created with the custom scheduler:

    $ oc get pod custom-scheduler -o yaml
  4. Run the following command to check the status of the pod:

    $ oc get pod

    The pod should not be running.

    NAME                READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    custom-scheduler    0/1       Pending    0         2m
  5. Deploy the custom scheduler.
  6. Run the following command to check the status of the pod:

    $ oc get pod

    The pod should be running.

    NAME                READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
    custom-scheduler    1/1       Running    0         4m
  7. Run the following command to check that the scheduler was used:

    $ oc describe pod custom-scheduler

    The name of the scheduler is listed, as shown in the following truncated output:

    [...]
    Events:
      FirstSeen  LastSeen  Count  From              SubObjectPath  Type       Reason Message
      ---------  --------  -----  ----              -------------  --------   ------ -------
      1m         1m        1      my-scheduler      Normal         Scheduled  Successfully assigned custom-scheduler to <$node1>
    [...]

14.4. Advanced Scheduling

14.4.1. Overview

Advanced scheduling involves configuring a pod so that the pod is required to run on particular nodes or has a preference to run on particular nodes.

Generally, advanced scheduling is not necessary, as the OpenShift Container Platform automatically places pods in a reasonable manner. For example, the default scheduler attempts to distribute pods across the nodes evenly and considers the available resources in a node. However, you might want more control over where a pod is placed.

If a pod needs to be on a machine with a faster disk speed (or prevented from being placed on that machine) or pods from two different services need to be located so they can communicate, you can use advanced scheduling to make that happen.

To ensure that appropriate new pods are scheduled on a dedicated group of nodes and prevent other new pods from being scheduled on those nodes, you can combine these methods as needed.

14.4.2. Using Advanced Scheduling

There are several ways to invoke advanced scheduling in your cluster:

Pod Affinity and Anti-affinity

Pod affinity allows a pod to specify an affinity (or anti-affinity) towards a group of pods (for an application’s latency requirements, due to security, and so forth) it can be placed with. The node does not have control over the placement.

Pod affinity uses labels on nodes and label selectors on pods to create rules for pod placement. Rules can be mandatory (required) or best-effort (preferred).

See Using Pod Affinity and Anti-affinity.

Node Affinity

Node affinity allows a pod to specify an affinity (or anti-affinity) towards a group of nodes (due to their special hardware, location, requirements for high availability, and so forth) it can be placed on. The node does not have control over the placement.

Node affinity uses labels on nodes and label selectors on pods to create rules for pod placement. Rules can be mandatory (required) or best-effort (preferred).

See Using Node Affinity.

Node Selectors

Node selectors are the simplest form of advanced scheduling. Like node affinity, node selectors also use labels on nodes and label selectors on pods to allow a pod to control the nodes on which it can be placed. However, node selectors do not have required and preferred rules that node affinities have.

See Using Node Selectors.

Taints and Tolerations

Taints/Tolerations allow the node to control which pods should (or should not) be scheduled on them. Taints are labels on a node and tolerations are labels on a pod. The labels on the pod must match (or tolerate) the label (taint) on the node in order to be scheduled.

Taints/tolerations have one advantage over affinities. For example, if you add to a cluster a new group of nodes with different labels, you would need to update affinities on each of the pods you want to access the node and on any other pods you do not want to use the new nodes. With taints/tolerations, you would only need to update those pods that are required to land on those new nodes, because other pods would be repelled.

See Using Taints and Tolerations.

14.5. Advanced Scheduling and Node Affinity

14.5.1. Overview

Node affinity is a set of rules used by the scheduler to determine where a pod can be placed. The rules are defined using custom labels on nodes and label selectors specified in pods. Node affinity allows a pod to specify an affinity (or anti-affinity) towards a group of nodes it can be placed on. The node does not have control over the placement.

For example, you could configure a pod to only run on a node with a specific CPU or in a specific availability zone.

There are two types of node affinity rules: required and preferred.

Required rules must be met before a pod can be scheduled on a node. Preferred rules specify that, if the rule is met, the scheduler tries to enforce the rules, but does not guarantee enforcement.

Note

If labels on a node change at runtime that results in an node affinity rule on a pod no longer being met, the pod continues to run on the node.

14.5.2. Configuring Node Affinity

You configure node affinity through the pod specification file. You can specify a required rule, a preferred rule, or both. If you specify both, the node must first meet the required rule, then attempts to meet the preferred rule.

The following example is a pod specification with a rule that requires the pod be placed on a node with a label whose key is e2e-az-NorthSouth and whose value is either e2e-az-North or e2e-az-South:

Sample pod configuration file with a node affinity required rule

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: with-node-affinity
spec:
  affinity:
    nodeAffinity: 1
      requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution: 2
        nodeSelectorTerms:
        - matchExpressions:
          - key: e2e-az-NorthSouth 3
            operator: In 4
            values:
            - e2e-az-North 5
            - e2e-az-South 6
  containers:
  - name: with-node-affinity
    image: docker.io/ocpqe/hello-pod

1
The stanza to configure node affinity.
2
Defines a required rule.
3 5 6
The key/value pair (label) that must be matched to apply the rule.
4
The operator represents the relationship between the label on the node and the set of values in the matchExpression parameters in the pod specification. This value can be In, NotIn, Exists, or DoesNotExist, Lt, or Gt.

The following example is a node specification with a preferred rule that a node with a label whose key is e2e-az-EastWest and whose value is either e2e-az-East or e2e-az-West is preferred for the pod:

Sample pod configuration file with a node affinity preferred rule

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: with-node-affinity
spec:
  affinity:
    nodeAffinity: 1
      preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution: 2
      - weight: 1 3
        preference:
          matchExpressions:
          - key: e2e-az-EastWest 4
            operator: In 5
            values:
            - e2e-az-East 6
            - e2e-az-West 7
  containers:
  - name: with-node-affinity
    image: docker.io/ocpqe/hello-pod

1
The stanza to configure node affinity.
2
Defines a preferred rule.
3
Specifies a weight for a preferred rule. The node with highest weight is preferred.
4 6 7
The key/value pair (label) that must be matched to apply the rule.
5
The operator represents the relationship between the label on the node and the set of values in the matchExpression parameters in the pod specification. This value can be In, NotIn, Exists, or DoesNotExist, Lt, or Gt.

There is no explicit node anti-affinity concept, but using the NotIn or DoesNotExist operator replicates that behavior.

Note

If you are using node affinity and node selectors in the same pod configuration, note the following:

  • If you configure both nodeSelector and nodeAffinity, both conditions must be satisfied for the pod to be scheduled onto a candidate node.
  • If you specify multiple nodeSelectorTerms associated with nodeAffinity types, then the pod can be scheduled onto a node if one of the nodeSelectorTerms is satisfied.
  • If you specify multiple matchExpressions associated with nodeSelectorTerms, then the pod can be scheduled onto a node only if all matchExpressions are satisfied.

14.5.2.1. Configuring a Required Node Affinity Rule

Required rules must be met before a pod can be scheduled on a node.

The following steps demonstrate a simple configuration that creates a node and a pod that the scheduler is required to place on the node.

  1. Add a label to a node by editing the node configuration or by using the oc label node command:

    $ oc label node node1 e2e-az-name=e2e-az1
  2. In the pod specification, use the nodeAffinity stanza to configure the requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution parameter:

    1. Specify the key and values that must be met. If you want the new pod to be scheduled on the node you edited, use the same key and value parameters as the label in the node.
    2. Specify an operator. The operator can be In, NotIn, Exists, DoesNotExist, Lt, or Gt. For example, use the operator In to require the label to be in the node:

      spec:
        affinity:
          nodeAffinity:
            requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
              nodeSelectorTerms:
              - matchExpressions:
                - key: e2e-az-name
                  operator: In
                  values:
                  - e2e-az1
                  - e2e-az2
  3. Create the pod:

    $ oc create -f e2e-az2.yaml

14.5.2.2. Configuring a Preferred Node Affinity Rule

Preferred rules specify that, if the rule is met, the scheduler tries to enforce the rules, but does not guarantee enforcement.

The following steps demonstrate a simple configuration that creates a node and a pod that the scheduler tries to place on the node.

  1. Add a label to a node by editing the node configuration or by executing the oc label node command:

    $ oc label node node1 e2e-az-name=e2e-az3
  2. In the pod specification, use the nodeAffinity stanza to configure the preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution parameter:

    1. Specify a weight for the node, as a number 1-100. The node with highest weight is preferred.
    2. Specify the key and values that must be met. If you want the new pod to be scheduled on the node you edited, use the same key and value parameters as the label in the node:

            preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution: 1
            - weight: 1
              preference:
                matchExpressions:
                - key: e2e-az-name
                  operator: In
                  values:
                  - e2e-az3
  3. Specify an operator. The operator can be In, NotIn, Exists, DoesNotExist, Lt, or Gt. For example, use the operator In to require the label to be in the node.
  4. Create the pod.

    $ oc create -f e2e-az3.yaml

14.5.3. Examples

The following examples demonstrate node affinity.

14.5.3.1. Node Affinity with Matching Labels

The following example demonstrates node affinity for a node and pod with matching labels:

  • The Node1 node has the label zone:us:

    $ oc label node node1 zone=us
  • The pod pod-s1 has the zone and us key/value pair under a required node affinity rule:

    $ cat pod-s1.yaml
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      name: pod-s1
    spec:
      containers:
        - image: "docker.io/ocpqe/hello-pod"
          name: hello-pod
      affinity:
        nodeAffinity:
          requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
            nodeSelectorTerms:
              - matchExpressions:
                - key: "zone"
                  operator: In
                  values:
                  - us
  • Create the pod using the standard command:

    $ oc create -f pod-s1.yaml
    pod "pod-s1" created
  • The pod pod-s1 can be scheduled on Node1:

     oc get pod -o wide
    NAME     READY     STATUS       RESTARTS   AGE      IP      NODE
    pod-s1   1/1       Running      0          4m       IP1     node1

14.5.3.2. Node Affinity with No Matching Labels

The following example demonstrates node affinity for a node and pod without matching labels:

  • The Node1 node has the label zone:emea:

    $ oc label node node1 zone=emea
  • The pod pod-s1 has the zone and us key/value pair under a required node affinity rule:

    $ cat pod-s1.yaml
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      name: pod-s1
    spec:
      containers:
        - image: "docker.io/ocpqe/hello-pod"
          name: hello-pod
      affinity:
        nodeAffinity:
          requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
            nodeSelectorTerms:
              - matchExpressions:
                - key: "zone"
                  operator: In
                  values:
                  - us
  • The pod pod-s1 cannot be scheduled on Node1:

    oc describe pod pod-s1
    <---snip--->
    Events:
     FirstSeen LastSeen Count From              SubObjectPath  Type                Reason
     --------- -------- ----- ----              -------------  --------            ------
     1m        33s      8     default-scheduler Warning        FailedScheduling    No nodes are available that match all of the following predicates:: MatchNodeSelector (1).

14.6. Advanced Scheduling and Pod Affinity and Anti-affinity

14.6.1. Overview

Pod affinity and pod anti-affinity allow you to specify rules about how pods should be placed relative to other pods. The rules are defined using custom labels on nodes and label selectors specified in pods. Pod affinity/anti-affinity allows a pod to specify an affinity (or anti-affinity) towards a group of pods it can be placed with. The node does not have control over the placement.

For example, using affinity rules, you could spread or pack pods within a service or relative to pods in other services. Anti-affinity rules allow you to prevent pods of a particular service from scheduling on the same nodes as pods of another service that are known to interfere with the performance of the pods of the first service. Or, you could spread the pods of a service across nodes or availability zones to reduce correlated failures.

Pod affinity/anti-affinity allows you to constrain which nodes your pod is eligible to be scheduled on based on the labels on other pods. A label is a key/value pair.

  • Pod affinity can tell the scheduler to locate a new pod on the same node as other pods if the label selector on the new pod matches the label on the current pod.
  • Pod anti-affinity can prevent the scheduler from locating a new pod on the same node as pods with the same labels if the label selector on the new pod matches the label on the current pod.

There are two types of pod affinity rules: required and preferred.

Required rules must be met before a pod can be scheduled on a node. Preferred rules specify that, if the rule is met, the scheduler tries to enforce the rules, but does not guarantee enforcement.

14.6.2. Configuring Pod Affinity and Anti-affinity

You configure pod affinity/anti-affinity through the pod specification files. You can specify a required rule, a preferred rule, or both. If you specify both, the node must first meet the required rule, then attempts to meet the preferred rule.

The following example shows a pod specification configured for pod affinity and anti-affinity.

In this example, the pod affinity rule indicates that the pod can schedule onto a node only if that node has at least one already-running pod with a label that has the key security and value S1. The pod anti-affinity rule says that the pod prefers to not schedule onto a node if that node is already running a pod with label having key security and value S2.

Sample pod config file with pod affinity

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: with-pod-affinity
spec:
  affinity:
    podAffinity: 1
      requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution: 2
      - labelSelector:
          matchExpressions:
          - key: security 3
            operator: In 4
            values:
            - S1 5
        topologyKey: failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone
  containers:
  - name: with-pod-affinity
    image: docker.io/ocpqe/hello-pod

1
Stanza to configure pod affinity.
2
Defines a required rule.
3 5
The key and value (label) that must be matched to apply the rule.
1 4
The operator represents the relationship between the label on the existing pod and the set of values in the matchExpression parameters in the specification for the new pod. Can be In, NotIn, Exists, or DoesNotExist.

Sample pod config file with pod anti-affinity

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: with-pod-antiaffinity
spec:
  affinity:
    podAntiAffinity: 1
      preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution: 2
      - weight: 100 3
        podAffinityTerm:
          labelSelector:
            matchExpressions:
            - key: security 4
              operator: In 5
              values:
              - S2 6
          topologyKey: kubernetes.io/hostname
  containers:
  - name: with-pod-affinity
    image: docker.io/ocpqe/hello-pod

1
Stanza to configure pod anti-affinity.
2
Defines a preferred rule.
3
Specifies a weight for a preferred rule. The node that with highest weight is preferred.
4 6
The key and value (label) that must be matched to apply the rule.
5
The operator represents the relationship between the label on the existing pod and the set of values in the matchExpression parameters in the specification for the new pod. Can be In, NotIn, Exists, or DoesNotExist.
Note

If labels on a node change at runtime such that the affinity rules on a pod are no longer met, the pod continues to run on the node.

14.6.2.1. Configuring an Affinity Rule

The following steps demonstrate a simple two-pod configuration that creates pod with a label and a pod that uses affinity to allow scheduling with that pod.

  1. Create a pod with a specific label in the pod specification:

    $ cat team4.yaml
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      name: security-s1
      labels:
        security: S1
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: security-s1
        image: docker.io/ocpqe/hello-pod
  2. When creating other pods, edit the pod specification as follows:

    1. Use the podAffinity stanza to configure the requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution parameter or preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution parameter:
    2. Specify the key and value that must be met. If you want the new pod to be scheduled with the other pod, use the same key and value parameters as the label on the first pod.

          podAffinity:
            requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
            - labelSelector:
                matchExpressions:
                - key: security
                  operator: In
                  values:
                  - S1
              topologyKey: failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone
    3. Specify an operator. The operator can be In, NotIn, Exists, or DoesNotExist. For example, use the operator In to require the label to be in the node.
    4. Specify a topologyKey, which is a prepopulated Kubernetes label that the system uses to denote such a topology domain.
  3. Create the pod.

    $ oc create -f <pod-spec>.yaml

14.6.2.2. Configuring an Anti-affinity Rule

The following steps demonstrate a simple two-pod configuration that creates pod with a label and a pod that uses an anti-affinity preferred rule to attempt to prevent scheduling with that pod.

  1. Create a pod with a specific label in the pod specification:

    $ cat team4.yaml
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      name: security-s2
      labels:
        security: S2
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: security-s2
        image: docker.io/ocpqe/hello-pod
  2. When creating other pods, edit the pod specification to set the following parameters:
  3. Use the podAffinity stanza to configure the requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution parameter or preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution parameter:

    1. Specify a weight for the node, 1-100. The node that with highest weight is preferred.
    2. Specify the key and values that must be met. If you want the new pod to not be scheduled with the other pod, use the same key and value parameters as the label on the first pod.

          podAntiAffinity:
            preferredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
            - weight: 100
              podAffinityTerm:
                labelSelector:
                  matchExpressions:
                  - key: security
                    operator: In
                    values:
                    - S2
                topologyKey: kubernetes.io/hostname
    3. For a preferred rule, specify a weight, 1-100.
    4. Specify an operator. The operator can be In, NotIn, Exists, or DoesNotExist. For example, use the operator In to require the label to be in the node.
  4. Specify a topologyKey, which is a prepopulated Kubernetes label that the system uses to denote such a topology domain.
  5. Create the pod.

    $ oc create -f <pod-spec>.yaml

14.6.3. Examples

The following examples demonstrate pod affinity and pod anti-affinity.

14.6.3.1. Pod Affinity

The following example demonstrates pod affinity for pods with matching labels and label selectors.

  • The pod team4 has the label team:4.

    $ cat team4.yaml
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      name: team4
      labels:
         team: "4"
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: ocp
        image: docker.io/ocpqe/hello-pod
  • The pod team4a has the label selector team:4 under podAffinity.

    $ cat pod-team4a.yaml
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      name: team4a
    spec:
      affinity:
        podAffinity:
          requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
          - labelSelector:
              matchExpressions:
              - key: team
                operator: In
                values:
                - "4"
            topologyKey: kubernetes.io/hostname
      containers:
      - name: pod-affinity
        image: docker.io/ocpqe/hello-pod
  • The team4a pod is scheduled on the same node as the team4 pod.

14.6.3.2. Pod Anti-affinity

The following example demonstrates pod anti-affinity for pods with matching labels and label selectors.

  • The pod pod-s1 has the label security:s1.

    cat pod-s1.yaml
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      name: s1
      labels:
        security: s1
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: ocp
        image: docker.io/ocpqe/hello-pod
  • The pod pod-s2 has the label selector security:s1 under podAntiAffinity.

    cat pod-s2.yaml
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      name: pod-s2
    spec:
      affinity:
        podAntiAffinity:
          requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
          - labelSelector:
              matchExpressions:
              - key: security
                operator: In
                values:
                - s1
            topologyKey: kubernetes.io/hostname
      containers:
      - name: pod-antiaffinity
        image: docker.io/ocpqe/hello-pod
  • The pod pod-s2 is not scheduled unless there is a node with a pod that has the security:s2 label. If there is no other pod with that label, the new pod remains in a pending state:

    NAME      READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE       IP        NODE
    pod-s2    0/1       Pending   0          32s       <none>

14.6.3.3. Pod Affinity with no Matching Labels

The following example demonstrates pod affinity for pods without matching labels and label selectors.

  • The pod pod-s1 has the label security:s1.

    $ cat pod-s1.yaml
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      name: pod-s1
      labels:
        security: s1
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: ocp
        image: docker.io/ocpqe/hello-pod
  • The pod pod-s2 has the label selector security:s2.

    $ cat pod-s2.yaml
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      name: pod-s2
    spec:
      affinity:
        podAffinity:
          requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
          - labelSelector:
              matchExpressions:
              - key: security
                operator: In
                values:
                - s2
            topologyKey: kubernetes.io/hostname
      containers:
      - name: pod-affinity
        image: docker.io/ocpqe/hello-pod
  • The pod pod-s2 cannot be scheduled on the same node as pod-s1.

14.7. Advanced Scheduling and Node Selectors

14.7.1. Overview

A node selector specifies a map of key-value pairs. The rules are defined using custom labels on nodes and selectors specified in pods.

For the pod to be eligible to run on a node, the pod must have the indicated key-value pairs as the label on the node.

If you are using node affinity and node selectors in the same pod configuration, see the important considerations below.

14.7.2. Configuring Node Selectors

Using nodeSelector in a pod configuration, you can ensure that pods are only placed onto nodes with specific labels.

  1. Ensure you have the desired labels (see Updating Labels on Nodes for details) and node selector set up in your environment.

    For example, make sure that your pod configuration features the nodeSelector value indicating the desired label:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    spec:
      nodeSelector:
        <key>: <value>
    ...
  2. Modify the master configuration file (/etc/origin/master/master-config.yaml) in two places:

    1. Add nodeSelectorLabelBlacklist to the admissionConfig section with the labels that are assigned to the node hosts you want to deny pod placement:

      ...
      admissionConfig:
        pluginConfig:
          PodNodeConstraints:
            configuration:
              apiversion: v1
              kind: PodNodeConstraintsConfig
              nodeSelectorLabelBlacklist:
                - kubernetes.io/hostname
                - <label>
      ...
    2. Then, add the same to the kubernetesMasterConfig section to restrict direct pod creation:

      ...
      kubernetesMasterConfig:
        admissionConfig:
          pluginConfig:
            PodNodeConstraints:
              configuration:
                apiVersion: v1
                kind: PodNodeConstraintsConfig
                nodeSelectorLabelBlacklist:
                  - kubernetes.io/hostname
                  - <label_1>
      ...
  3. Restart OpenShift Container Platform for the changes to take effect.

    # systemctl restart atomic-openshift-master
Note

If you are using node selectors and node affinity in the same pod configuration, note the following:

  • If you configure both nodeSelector and nodeAffinity, both conditions must be satisfied for the pod to be scheduled onto a candidate node.
  • If you specify multiple nodeSelectorTerms associated with nodeAffinity types, then the pod can be scheduled onto a node if one of the nodeSelectorTerms is satisfied.
  • If you specify multiple matchExpressions associated with nodeSelectorTerms, then the pod can be scheduled onto a node only if all matchExpressions are satisfied.

14.8. Advanced Scheduling and Taints and Tolerations

14.8.1. Overview

Taints and tolerations allow the node to control which pods should (or should not) be scheduled on them.

14.8.2. Taints and Tolerations

A taint allows a node to refuse pod to be scheduled unless that pod has a matching toleration.

You apply taints to a node through the node specification (NodeSpec) and apply tolerations to a pod through the pod specification (PodSpec). A taint on a node instructs the node to repel all pods that do not tolerate the taint.

Taints and tolerations consist of a key, value, and effect. An operator allows you to leave one of these parameters empty.

Table 14.1. Taint and toleration components

ParameterDescription

key

The key is any string, up to 253 characters. The key must begin with a letter or number, and may contain letters, numbers, hyphens, dots, and underscores.

value

The value is any string, up to 63 characters. The value must begin with a letter or number, and may contain letters, numbers, hyphens, dots, and underscores.

effect

The effect is one of the following:

NoSchedule

  • New pods that do not match the taint are not scheduled onto that node.
  • Existing pods on the node remain.

PreferNoSchedule

  • New pods that do not match the taint might be scheduled onto that node, but the scheduler tries not to.
  • Existing pods on the node remain.

NoExecute

  • New pods that do not match the taint cannot be scheduled onto that node.
  • Existing pods on the node that do not have a matching toleration are removed.

operator

Equal

The key/value/effect parameters must match. This is the default.

Exists

The key/effect parameters must match. You must leave a blank value parameter, which matches any.

A toleration matches a taint:

  • If the operator parameter is set to Equal:

    • the key parameters are the same;
    • the value parameters are the same;
    • the effect parameters are the same.
  • If the operator parameter is set to Exists:

    • the key parameters are the same;
    • the effect parameters are the same.

14.8.2.1. Using Multiple Taints

You can put multiple taints on the same node and multiple tolerations on the same pod. OpenShift Container Platform processes multiple taints and tolerations as follows:

  1. Process the taints for which the pod has a matching toleration.
  2. The remaining unmatched taints have the indicated effects on the pod:

    • If there is at least one unmatched taint with effect NoSchedule, OpenShift Container Platform cannot schedule a pod onto that node.
    • If there is no unmatched taint with effect NoSchedule but there is at least one unmatched taint with effect PreferNoSchedule, OpenShift Container Platform tries to not schedule the pod onto the node.
    • If there is at least one unmatched taint with effect NoExecute, OpenShift Container Platform evicts the pod from the node (if it is already running on the node), or the pod is not scheduled onto the node (if it is not yet running on the node).

      • Pods that do not tolerate the taint are evicted immediately.
      • Pods that tolerate the taint without specifying tolerationSeconds in their toleration specification remain bound forever.
      • Pods that tolerate the taint with a specified tolerationSeconds remain bound for the specified amount of time.

For example:

  • The node has the following taints:

    $ oadm taint nodes node1 key1=value1:NoSchedule
    $ oadm taint nodes node1 key1=value1:NoExecute
    $ oadm taint nodes node1 key2=value2:NoSchedule
  • The pod has the following tolerations:

    tolerations:
    - key: "key1"
      operator: "Equal"
      value: "value1"
      effect: "NoSchedule"
    - key: "key1"
      operator: "Equal"
      value: "value1"
      effect: "NoExecute"

In this case, the pod cannot be scheduled onto the node, because there is no toleration matching the third taint. The pod continues running if it is already running on the node when the taint is added, because the third taint is the only one of the three that is not tolerated by the pod.

14.8.3. Adding a Taint to an Existing Node

You add a taint to a node using the oadm taint command with the parameters described in the Taint and toleration components table:

$ oadm taint nodes <node-name> <key>=<value>:<effect>

For example:

$ oadm taint nodes node1 key1=value1:NoSchedule

The example places a taint on node1 that has key key1, value value1, and taint effect NoSchedule.

14.8.4. Adding a Toleration to a Pod

To add a toleration to a pod, edit the pod specification to include a tolerations section:

Sample pod configuration file with Equal operator

tolerations:
- key: "key1" 1
  operator: "Equal" 2
  value: "value1" 3
  effect: "NoExecute" 4
  tolerationSeconds: 3600 5

1 2 3 4
The toleration parameters, as described in the Taint and toleration components table.
5
The tolerationSeconds parameter specifies how long a pod can remain bound to a node before being evicted. See Using Toleration Seconds to Delay Pod Evictions below.

Sample pod configuration file with Exists operator

tolerations:
- key: "key1"
  operator: "Exists"
  effect: "NoExecute"
  tolerationSeconds: 3600

Both of these tolerations match the taint created by the oadm taint command above. A pod with either toleration would be able to schedule onto node1.

14.8.4.1. Using Toleration Seconds to Delay Pod Evictions

You can specify how long a pod can remain bound to a node before being evicted by specifying the tolerationSeconds parameter in the pod specification. If a taint with the NoExecute effect is added to a node, any pods that do not tolerate the taint are evicted immediately (pods that do tolerate the taint are not evicted). However, if a pod that to be evicted has the tolerationSeconds parameter, the pod is not evicted until that time period expires.

For example:

tolerations:
- key: "key1"
  operator: "Equal"
  value: "value1"
  effect: "NoExecute"
  tolerationSeconds: 3600

Here, if this pod is running but does not have a matching taint, the pod stays bound to the node for 3,600 seconds and then be evicted. If the taint is removed before that time, the pod is not evicted.

14.8.4.1.1. Setting a Default Value for Toleration Seconds

This plug-in sets the default forgiveness toleration for pods, to tolerate the node.alpha.kubernetes.io/notReady:NoExecute and node.alpha.kubernetes.io/notReady:NoExecute taints for five minutes.

If the pod configuration provided by the user already has either toleration, the default is not added.

To enable Default Toleration Seconds:

  1. Modify the master configuration file (/etc/origin/master/master-config.yaml) to Add DefaultTolerationSeconds to the admissionConfig section:

    admissionConfig:
      pluginConfig:
        DefaultTolerationSeconds:
          configuration:
            kind: DefaultAdmissionConfig
            apiVersion: v1
            disable: false
  2. Restart OpenShift for the changes to take effect:

    # systemctl restart atomic-openshift-master
  3. Verify that the default was added:

    1. Create a pod:

      $ oc create -f </path/to/file>

      For example:

      $ oc create -f hello-pod.yaml
      pod "hello-pod" created
    2. Check the pod tolerations:

      $ oc describe pod <pod-name> |grep -i toleration

      For example:

      $ oc describe pod hello-pod |grep -i toleration
      Tolerations:    node.alpha.kubernetes.io/notReady=:Exists:NoExecute for 300s

14.8.5. Preventing Pod Eviction for Node Problems

OpenShift Container Platform can be configured to represent node unreachable and node not ready conditions as taints. This allows per-pod specification of how long to remain bound to a node that becomes unreachable or not ready, rather than using the default of five minutes.

When the Taint Based Evictions feature is enabled, the taints are automatically added by the node controller and the normal logic for evicting pods from Ready nodes is disabled.

  • If a node enters a not ready state, the node.alpha.kubernetes.io/notReady:NoExecute taint is added and pods cannot be scheduled on the node. Existing pods remain for the toleration seconds period.
  • If a node enters a not reachable state, the node.alpha.kubernetes.io/unreachable:NoExecute taint is added and pods cannot be scheduled on the node. Existing pods remain for the toleration seconds period.

To enable Taint Based Evictions:

  1. Modify the master configuration file (/etc/origin/master/master-config.yaml) to add the following to the kubernetesMasterConfig section:

    kubernetesMasterConfig:
       controllerArguments:
            feature-gates:
            - "TaintBasedEvictions=true"
  2. Check that the taint is added to a node:

    oc describe node $node | grep -i taint
    
    Taints: node.alpha.kubernetes.io/notReady:NoExecute
  3. Restart OpenShift for the changes to take effect:

    # systemctl restart atomic-openshift-master
  4. Add a toleration to pods:

    tolerations:
    - key: "node.alpha.kubernetes.io/unreachable"
      operator: "Exists"
      effect: "NoExecute"
      tolerationSeconds: 6000

    or

    tolerations:
    - key: "node.alpha.kubernetes.io/notReady"
      operator: "Exists"
      effect: "NoExecute"
      tolerationSeconds: 6000
Note

To maintain the existing rate limiting behavior of pod evictions due to node problems, the system adds the taints in a rate-limited way. This prevents massive pod evictions in scenarios such as the master becoming partitioned from the nodes.

14.8.6. Daemonsets and Tolerations

DaemonSet pods are created with NoExecute tolerations for node.alpha.kubernetes.io/unreachable and node.alpha.kubernetes.io/notReady with no tolerationSeconds to ensure that DaemonSet pods are never evicted due to these problems, even when the Default Toleration Seconds feature is disabled.

14.8.7. Examples

Taints and tolerations are a flexible way to steer pods away from nodes or evict pods that should not be running on a node. A few of typical scenrios are:

14.8.7.1. Dedicating a Node for a User

You can specify a set of nodes for exclusive use by a particular set of users.

To specify dedicated nodes:

  1. Add a taint to those nodes:

    For example:

    $ oadm taint nodes node1 dedicated=groupName:NoSchedule
  2. Add a corresponding toleration to the pods by writing a custom admission controller.

    Only the pods with the tolerations are allowed to use the dedicated nodes.

14.8.7.2. Binding a User to a Node

You can configure a node so that particular users can use only the dedicated nodes.

To configure a node so that users can use only that node:

  1. Add a taint to those nodes:

    For example:

    $ oadm taint nodes node1 dedicated=groupName:NoSchedule
  2. Add a corresponding toleration to the pods by writing a custom admission controller.

    The admission controller should add a node affinity to require that the pods can only schedule onto nodes labeled with the key:value label (dedicated=groupName).

  3. Add a label similar to the taint (such as the key:value label) to the dedicated nodes.

14.8.7.3. Nodes with Special Hardware

In a cluster where a small subset of nodes have specialized hardware (for example GPUs), you can use taints and tolerations to keep pods that do not need the specialized hardware off of those nodes, leaving the nodes for pods that do need the specialized hardware. You can also require pods that need specialized hardware to use specific nodes.

To ensure pods are blocked from the specialized hardware:

  1. Taint the nodes that have the specialized hardware using one of the following commands:

    $ oadm taint nodes <node-name> disktype=ssd:NoSchedule
    $ oadm taint nodes <node-name> disktype=ssd:PreferNoSchedule
  2. Adding a corresponding toleration to pods that use the special hardware using an admission controller.

For example, the admission controller could use some characteristic(s) of the pod to determine that the pod should be allowed to use the special nodes by adding a toleration.

To ensure pods can only use the specialized hardware, you need some additional mechanism. For example, you could label the nodes that have the special hardware and use node affinity on the pods that need the hardware.

Chapter 15. Setting Quotas

15.1. Overview

A resource quota, defined by a ResourceQuota object, provides constraints that limit aggregate resource consumption per project. It can limit the quantity of objects that can be created in a project by type, as well as the total amount of compute resources and storage that may be consumed by resources in that project.

Note

See the Developer Guide for more on compute resources.

15.2. Resources Managed by Quota

The following describes the set of compute resources and object types that may be managed by a quota.

Note

A pod is in a terminal state if status.phase in (Failed, Succeeded) is true.

Table 15.1. Compute Resources Managed by Quota

Resource NameDescription

cpu

The sum of CPU requests across all pods in a non-terminal state cannot exceed this value. cpu and requests.cpu are the same value and can be used interchangeably.

memory

The sum of memory requests across all pods in a non-terminal state cannot exceed this value. memory and requests.memory are the same value and can be used interchangeably.

requests.cpu

The sum of CPU requests across all pods in a non-terminal state cannot exceed this value. cpu and requests.cpu are the same value and can be used interchangeably.

requests.memory

The sum of memory requests across all pods in a non-terminal state cannot exceed this value. memory and requests.memory are the same value and can be used interchangeably.

limits.cpu

The sum of CPU limits across all pods in a non-terminal state cannot exceed this value.

limits.memory

The sum of memory limits across all pods in a non-terminal state cannot exceed this value.

Table 15.2. Storage Resources Managed by Quota

Resource NameDescription

requests.storage

The sum of storage requests across all persistent volume claims in any state cannot exceed this value.

persistentvolumeclaims

The total number of persistent volume claims that can exist in the project.

<storage-class-name>.storageclass.storage.k8s.io/requests.storage

The sum of storage requests across all persistent volume claims in any state that have a matching storage class, cannot exceed this value.

<storage-class-name>.storageclass.storage.k8s.io/persistentvolumeclaims

The total number of persistent volume claims with a matching storage class that can exist in the project.

Table 15.3. Object Counts Managed by Quota

Resource NameDescription

pods

The total number of pods in a non-terminal state that can exist in the project.

replicationcontrollers

The total number of replication controllers that can exist in the project.

resourcequotas

The total number of resource quotas that can exist in the project.

services

The total number of services that can exist in the project.

secrets

The total number of secrets that can exist in the project.

configmaps

The total number of ConfigMap objects that can exist in the project.

persistentvolumeclaims

The total number of persistent volume claims that can exist in the project.

openshift.io/imagestreams

The total number of image streams that can exist in the project.

15.3. Quota Scopes

Each quota can have an associated set of scopes. A quota will only measure usage for a resource if it matches the intersection of enumerated scopes.

Adding a scope to a quota restricts the set of resources to which that quota can apply. Specifying a resource outside of the allowed set results in a validation error.

ScopeDescription

Terminating

Match pods where spec.activeDeadlineSeconds >= 0.

NotTerminating

Match pods where spec.activeDeadlineSeconds is nil.

BestEffort

Match pods that have best effort quality of service for either cpu or memory. See the Quality of Service Classes for more on committing compute resources.

NotBestEffort

Match pods that do not have best effort quality of service for cpu and memory.

A BestEffort scope restricts a quota to limiting the following resources:

  • pods

A Terminating, NotTerminating, and NotBestEffort scope restricts a quota to tracking the following resources:

  • pods
  • memory
  • requests.memory
  • limits.memory
  • cpu
  • requests.cpu
  • limits.cpu

15.4. Quota Enforcement

After a resource quota for a project is first created, the project restricts the ability to create any new resources that may violate a quota constraint until it has calculated updated usage statistics.

After a quota is created and usage statistics are updated, the project accepts the creation of new content. When you create or modify resources, your quota usage is incremented immediately upon the request to create or modify the resource.

When you delete a resource, your quota use is decremented during the next full recalculation of quota statistics for the project. A configurable amount of time determines how long it takes to reduce quota usage statistics to their current observed system value.

If project modifications exceed a quota usage limit, the server denies the action, and an appropriate error message is returned to the user explaining the quota constraint violated, and what their currently observed usage stats are in the system.

15.5. Requests vs Limits

When allocating compute resources, each container may specify a request and a limit value each for CPU and memory. Quotas can restrict any of these values.

If the quota has a value specified for requests.cpu or requests.memory, then it requires that every incoming container make an explicit request for those resources. If the quota has a value specified for limits.cpu or limits.memory, then it requires that every incoming container specify an explicit limit for those resources.

15.6. Sample Resource Quota Definitions

core-object-counts.yaml

apiVersion: v1
kind: ResourceQuota
metadata:
  name: core-object-counts
spec:
  hard:
    configmaps: "10" 1
    persistentvolumeclaims: "4" 2
    replicationcontrollers: "20" 3
    secrets: "10" 4
    services: "10" 5

1
The total number of ConfigMap objects that can exist in the project.
2
The total number of persistent volume claims (PVCs) that can exist in the project.
3
The total number of replication controllers that can exist in the project.
4
The total number of secrets that can exist in the project.
5
The total number of services that can exist in the project.

openshift-object-counts.yaml

apiVersion: v1
kind: ResourceQuota
metadata:
  name: openshift-object-counts
spec:
  hard:
    openshift.io/imagestreams: "10" 1

1
The total number of image streams that can exist in the project.

compute-resources.yaml

apiVersion: v1
kind: ResourceQuota
metadata:
  name: compute-resources
spec:
  hard:
    pods: "4" 1
    requests.cpu: "1" 2
    requests.memory: 1Gi 3
    limits.cpu: "2" 4
    limits.memory: 2Gi 5

1
The total number of pods in a non-terminal state that can exist in the project.
2
Across all pods in a non-terminal state, the sum of CPU requests cannot exceed 1 core.
3
Across all pods in a non-terminal state, the sum of memory requests cannot exceed 1Gi.
4
Across all pods in a non-terminal state, the sum of CPU limits cannot exceed 2 cores.
5
Across all pods in a non-terminal state, the sum of memory limits cannot exceed 2Gi.

besteffort.yaml

apiVersion: v1
kind: ResourceQuota
metadata:
  name: besteffort
spec:
  hard:
    pods: "1" 1
  scopes:
  - BestEffort 2

1
The total number of pods in a non-terminal state with BestEffort quality of service that can exist in the project.
2
Restricts the quota to only matching pods that have BestEffort quality of service for either memory or CPU.

compute-resources-long-running.yaml

apiVersion: v1
kind: ResourceQuota
metadata:
  name: compute-resources-long-running
spec:
  hard:
    pods: "4" 1
    limits.cpu: "4" 2
    limits.memory: "2Gi" 3
  scopes:
  - NotTerminating 4

1
The total number of pods in a non-terminal state.
2
Across all pods in a non-terminal state, the sum of CPU limits cannot exceed this value.
3
Across all pods in a non-terminal state, the sum of memory limits cannot exceed this value.
4
Restricts the quota to only matching pods where spec.activeDeadlineSeconds is nil. For example, this quota would not charge for build or deployer pods.

compute-resources-time-bound.yaml

apiVersion: v1
kind: ResourceQuota
metadata:
  name: compute-resources-time-bound
spec:
  hard:
    pods: "2" 1
    limits.cpu: "1" 2
    limits.memory: "1Gi" 3
  scopes:
  - Terminating 4

1
The total number of pods in a non-terminal state.
2
Across all pods in a non-terminal state, the sum of CPU limits cannot exceed this value.
3
Across all pods in a non-terminal state, the sum of memory limits cannot exceed this value.
4
Restricts the quota to only matching pods where spec.activeDeadlineSeconds >=0. For example, this quota would charge for build or deployer pods, but not long running pods like a web server or database.

storage-consumption.yaml

apiVersion: v1
kind: ResourceQuota
metadata:
  name: storage-consumption
spec:
  hard:
    persistentvolumeclaims: "10" 1
    requests.storage: "50Gi" 2
    gold.storageclass.storage.k8s.io/requests.storage: "10Gi" 3
    silver.storageclass.storage.k8s.io/requests.storage: "20Gi" 4
    silver.storageclass.storage.k8s.io/persistentvolumeclaims: "5" 5
    bronze.storageclass.storage.k8s.io/requests.storage: "0" 6
    bronze.storageclass.storage.k8s.io/persistentvolumeclaims: "0" 7

1
The total number of persistent volume claims in a project
2
Across all persistent volume claims in a project, the sum of storage requested cannot exceed this value.
3
Across all persistent volume claims in a project, the sum of storage requested in the gold storage class cannot exceed this value.
4
Across all persistent volume claims in a project, the sum of storage requested in the silver storage class cannot exceed this value.
5
Across all persistent volume claims in a project, the total number of claims in the silver storage class cannot exceed this value.
6
Across all persistent volume claims in a project, the sum of storage requested in the bronze storage class cannot exceed this value. When this is set to 0, it means bronze storage class cannot request storage.
7
Across all persistent volume claims in a project, the sum of storage requested in the bronze storage class cannot exceed this value. When this is set to 0, it means bronze storage class cannot create claims.

15.7. Creating a Quota

To create a quota, first define the quota to your specifications in a file, for example as seen in Sample Resource Quota Definitions. Then, create using that file to apply it to a project:

$ oc create -f <resource_quota_definition> [-n <project_name>]

For example:

$ oc create -f resource-quota.json -n demoproject

15.8. Viewing a Quota

You can view usage statistics related to any hard limits defined in a project’s quota by navigating in the web console to the project’s Quota page.

You can also use the CLI to view quota details:

  1. First, get the list of quotas defined in the project. For example, for a project called demoproject:

    $ oc get quota -n demoproject
    NAME                AGE
    besteffort          11m
    compute-resources   2m
    core-object-counts  29m
  2. Then, describe the quota you are interested in, for example the core-object-counts quota:

    $ oc describe quota core-object-counts -n demoproject
    Name:			core-object-counts
    Namespace:		demoproject
    Resource		Used	Hard
    --------		----	----
    configmaps		3	10
    persistentvolumeclaims	0	4
    replicationcontrollers	3	20
    secrets			9	10
    services		2	10

15.9. Configuring Quota Synchronization Period

When a set of resources are deleted, the synchronization time frame of resources is determined by the resource-quota-sync-period setting in the /etc/origin/master/master-config.yaml file.

Before quota usage is restored, a user may encounter problems when attempting to reuse the resources. You can change the resource-quota-sync-period setting to have the set of resources regenerate at the desired amount of time (in seconds) and for the resources to be available again:

kubernetesMasterConfig:
  apiLevels:
  - v1beta3
  - v1
  apiServerArguments: null
  controllerArguments:
    resource-quota-sync-period:
      - "10s"

After making any changes, restart the master service to apply them.

Adjusting the regeneration time can be helpful for creating resources and determining resource usage when automation is used.

Note

The resource-quota-sync-period setting is designed to balance system performance. Reducing the sync period can result in a heavy load on the master.

15.10. Accounting for Quota in Deployment Configurations

If a quota has been defined for your project, see Deployment Resources for considerations on any deployment configurations.

15.11. Require Explicit Quota to Consume a Resource

Note

This feature is tech preview and subject to change in future releases.

If a resource is not managed by quota, a user has no restriction on the amount of resource that can be consumed. For example, if there is no quota on storage related to the gold storage class, the amount of gold storage a project can create is unbounded.

For high-cost compute or storage resources, administrators may want to require an explicit quota be granted in order to consume a resource. For example, if a project was not explicitly given quota for storage related to the gold storage class, users of that project would not be able to create any storage of that type.

In order to require explicit quota to consume a particular resource, the following stanza should be added to the master-config.yaml.

admissionConfig:
  pluginConfig:
    ResourceQuota:
      configuration:
        apiVersion: resourcequota.admission.k8s.io/v1alpha1
        kind: Configuration
        limitedResources:
        - resource: persistentvolumeclaims 1
          matchContains:
        - gold.storageclass.storage.k8s.io/requests.storage 2
1
The group/resource to whose consumption is limited by default.
2
The name of the resource tracked by quota associated with the group/resource to limit by default.

In the above example, the quota system will intercept every operation that creates or updates a PersistentVolumeClaim. It checks what resources understood by quota would be consumed, and if there is no covering quota for those resources in the project, the request is denied. In this example, if a user creates a PersistentVolumeClaim that uses storage associated with the gold storage class, and there is no matching quota in the project, the request is denied.

Chapter 16. Setting Multi-Project Quotas

16.1. Overview

A multi-project quota, defined by a ClusterResourceQuota object, allows quotas to be shared across multiple projects. Resources used in each selected project will be aggregated and that aggregate will be used to limit resources across all the selected projects.

16.2. Selecting Projects

Projects can be selected based on either annotation selection, label selection, or both. For example:

$ oc create clusterquota for-user \
     --project-annotation-selector openshift.io/requester=<user-name> \
     --hard pods=10 \
     --hard secrets=20

creates:

apiVersion: v1
kind: ClusterResourceQuota
metadata:
  name: for-user
spec:
  quota: 1
    hard:
      pods: "10"
      secrets: "20"
  selector:
    annotations: 2
      openshift.io/requester: <user-name>
    labels: null 3
status:
  namespaces: 4
  - namespace: ns-one
    status:
      hard:
        pods: "10"
        secrets: "20"
      used:
        pods: "1"
        secrets: "9"
  total: 5
    hard:
      pods: "10"
      secrets: "20"
    used:
      pods: "1"
      secrets: "9"
1
The ResourceQuotaSpec object that will be enforced over the selected projects.
2
A simple key/value selector for annotations.
3
A label selector that can be used to select projects.
4
A per-namespace map that describes current quota usage in each selected project.
5
The aggregate usage across all selected projects.

This multi-project quota document controls all projects requested by <user-name> using the default project request endpoint. You are limited to 10 pods and 20 secrets.

16.3. Viewing Applicable ClusterResourceQuotas

A project administrator is not allowed to create or modify the multi-project quota that limits his or her project, but the administrator is allowed to view the multi-project quota documents that are applied to his or her project. The project administrator can do this via the AppliedClusterResourceQuota resource.

$ oc describe AppliedClusterResourceQuota

produces:

Name:   for-user
Namespace:  <none>
Created:  19 hours ago
Labels:   <none>
Annotations:  <none>
Label Selector: <null>
AnnotationSelector: map[openshift.io/requester:<user-name>]
Resource  Used  Hard
--------  ----  ----
pods    1 10
secrets   9 20

16.4. Selection Granularity

Due to the locking consideration when claiming quota allocations, the number of active projects selected by a multi-project quota is an important consideration. Selecting more than 100 projects under a single multi-project quota may have detrimental effects on API server responsiveness in those projects.

Chapter 17. Setting Limit Ranges

17.1. Overview

A limit range, defined by a LimitRange object, enumerates compute resource constraints in a project at the pod, container, image, image stream, and persistent volume claim level, and specifies the amount of resources that a pod, container, image, image stream, or persistent volume claim can consume.

All resource create and modification requests are evaluated against each LimitRange object in the project. If the resource violates any of the enumerated constraints, then the resource is rejected. If the resource does not set an explicit value, and if the constraint supports a default value, then the default value is applied to the resource.

Example 17.1. Limit Range Object Definition

apiVersion: "v1"
kind: "LimitRange"
metadata:
  name: "core-resource-limits" 1
spec:
  limits:
    - type: "Pod"
      max:
        cpu: "2" 2
        memory: "1Gi" 3
      min:
        cpu: "200m" 4
        memory: "6Mi" 5
    - type: "Container"
      max:
        cpu: "2" 6
        memory: "1Gi" 7
      min:
        cpu: "100m" 8
        memory: "4Mi" 9
      default:
        cpu: "300m" 10
        memory: "200Mi" 11
      defaultRequest:
        cpu: "200m" 12
        memory: "100Mi" 13
      maxLimitRequestRatio:
        cpu: "10" 14
1
The name of the limit range object.
2
The maximum amount of CPU that a pod can request on a node across all containers.
3
The maximum amount of memory that a pod can request on a node across all containers.
4
The minimum amount of CPU that a pod can request on a node across all containers.
5
The minimum amount of memory that a pod can request on a node across all containers.
6
The maximum amount of CPU that a single container in a pod can request.
7
The maximum amount of memory that a single container in a pod can request.
8
The minimum amount of CPU that a single container in a pod can request.
9
The minimum amount of memory that a single container in a pod can request.
10
The default amount of CPU that a container will be limited to use if not specified.
11
The default amount of memory that a container will be limited to use if not specified.
12
The default amount of CPU that a container will request to use if not specified.
13
The default amount of memory that a container will request to use if not specified.
14
The maximum amount of CPU burst that a container can make as a ratio of its limit over request.

For more information on how CPU and memory are measured, see Compute Resources.

Example 17.2. OpenShift Container Platform Limit Range Object Definition

apiVersion: "v1"
kind: "LimitRange"
metadata:
  name: "openshift-resource-limits"
spec:
  limits:
    - type: openshift.io/Image
      max:
        storage: 1Gi 1
    - type: openshift.io/ImageStream
      max:
        openshift.io/image-tags: 20 2
        openshift.io/images: 30 3
1
The maximum size of an image that can be pushed to an internal registry.
2
The maximum number of unique image tags per image stream’s spec.
3
The maximum number of unique image references per image stream’s status.

Both core and OpenShift Container Platform resources can be specified in just one limit range object. They are separated here into two examples for clarity.

17.1.1. Container Limits

Supported Resources:

  • CPU
  • Memory

Supported Constraints:

Per container, the following must hold true if specified:

Table 17.1. Container

ConstraintBehavior

Min

Min[resource] less than or equal to container.resources.requests[resource] (required) less than or equal to container/resources.limits[resource] (optional)

If the configuration defines a min CPU, then the request value must be greater than the CPU value. A limit value does not need to be specified.

Max

container.resources.limits[resource] (required) less than or equal to Max[resource]

If the configuration defines a max CPU, then you do not need to define a request value, but a limit value does need to be set that satisfies the maximum CPU constraint.

MaxLimitRequestRatio

MaxLimitRequestRatio[resource] less than or equal to ( container.resources.limits[resource] / container.resources.requests[resource])

If a configuration defines a maxLimitRequestRatio value, then any new containers must have both a request and limit value. Additionally, OpenShift Container Platform calculates a limit to request ratio by dividing the limit by the request.

For example, if a container has cpu: 500 in the limit value, and cpu: 100 in the request value, then its limit to request ratio for cpu is 5. This ratio must be less than or equal to the maxLimitRequestRatio.

Supported Defaults:

Default[resource]
Defaults container.resources.limit[resource] to specified value if none.
Default Requests[resource]
Defaults container.resources.requests[resource] to specified value if none.

17.1.2. Pod Limits

Supported Resources:

  • CPU
  • Memory

Supported Constraints:

Across all containers in a pod, the following must hold true:

Table 17.2. Pod

ConstraintEnforced Behavior

Min

Min[resource] less than or equal to container.resources.requests[resource] (required) less than or equal to container.resources.limits[resource] (optional)

Max

container.resources.limits[resource] (required) less than or equal to Max[resource]

MaxLimitRequestRatio

MaxLimitRequestRatio[resource] less than or equal to ( container.resources.limits[resource] / container.resources.requests[resource])

17.1.3. Image Limits

Supported Resources:

  • Storage

Resource type name:

  • openshift.io/Image

Per image, the following must hold true if specified:

Table 17.3. Image

ConstraintBehavior

Max

image.dockerimagemetadata.size less than or equal to Max[resource]

Note

To prevent blobs exceeding the limit from being uploaded to the registry, the registry must be configured to enforce quota. An environment variable REGISTRY_MIDDLEWARE_REPOSITORY_OPENSHIFT_ENFORCEQUOTA must be set to true which is done by default for new deployments. To update older deployment configuration, refer to Enforcing quota in the Registry.

Warning

The image size is not always available in the manifest of an uploaded image. This is especially the case for images built with Docker 1.10 or higher and pushed to a v2 registry. If such an image is pulled with an older Docker daemon, the image manifest will be converted by the registry to schema v1 lacking all the size information. No storage limit set on images will prevent it from being uploaded.

The issue is being addressed.

17.1.4. Image Stream Limits

Supported Resources:

  • openshift.io/image-tags
  • openshift.io/images

Resource type name:

  • openshift.io/ImageStream

Per image stream, the following must hold true if specified:

Table 17.4. ImageStream

ConstraintBehavior

Max[openshift.io/image-tags]

length( uniqueimagetags( imagestream.spec.tags ) ) less than or equal to Max[openshift.io/image-tags]

uniqueimagetags returns unique references to images of given spec tags.

Max[openshift.io/images]

length( uniqueimages( imagestream.status.tags ) ) less than or equal to Max[openshift.io/images]

uniqueimages returns unique image names found in status tags. The name equals image’s digest.

17.1.4.1. Counting of Image References

Resource openshift.io/image-tags represents unique image references. Possible references are an ImageStreamTag, an ImageStreamImage and a DockerImage. They may be created using commands oc tag and oc import-image or by using tag tracking. No distinction is made between internal and external references. However, each unique reference tagged in the image stream’s specification is counted just once. It does not restrict pushes to an internal container registry in any way, but is useful for tag restriction.

Resource openshift.io/images represents unique image names recorded in image stream status. It allows for restriction of a number of images that can be pushed to the internal registry. Internal and external references are not distinguished.

17.1.5. PersistentVolumeClaim Limits

Supported Resources:

  • Storage

Supported Constraints:

Across all persistent volume claims in a project, the following must hold true:

Table 17.5. Pod

ConstraintEnforced Behavior

Min

Min[resource] ⇐ claim.spec.resources.requests[resource] (required)

Max

claim.spec.resources.requests[resource] (required) ⇐ Max[resource]

Example 17.3. Limit Range Object Definition

{
  "apiVersion": "v1",
  "kind": "LimitRange",
  "metadata": {
    "name": "pvcs" 1
  },
  "spec": {
    "limits": [{
        "type": "PersistentVolumeClaim",
        "min": {
          "storage": "2Gi" 2
        },
        "max": {
          "storage": "50Gi" 3
        }
      }
    ]
  }
}
1
The name of the limit range object.
2
The minimum amount of storage that can be requested in a persistent volume claim
3
The maximum amount of storage that can be requested in a persistent volume claim

17.2. Creating a Limit Range

To apply a limit range to a project, create a limit range object definition on your file system to your desired specifications, then run:

$ oc create -f <limit_range_file> -n <project>

17.3. Viewing Limits

You can view any limit ranges defined in a project by navigating in the web console to the project’s Quota page.

You can also use the CLI to view limit range details:

  1. First, get the list of limit ranges defined in the project. For example, for a project called demoproject:

    $ oc get limits -n demoproject
    NAME              AGE
    resource-limits   6d
  2. Then, describe the limit range you are interested in, for example the resource-limits limit range:

    $ oc describe limits resource-limits -n demoproject
    Name:                           resource-limits
    Namespace:                      demoproject
    Type                            Resource                Min     Max     Default Request Default Limit   Max Limit/Request Ratio
    ----                            --------                ---     ---     --------------- -------------   -----------------------
    Pod                             cpu                     200m    2       -               -               -
    Pod                             memory                  6Mi     1Gi     -               -               -
    Container                       cpu                     100m    2       200m            300m            10
    Container                       memory                  4Mi     1Gi     100Mi           200Mi           -
    openshift.io/Image              storage                 -       1Gi     -               -               -
    openshift.io/ImageStream        openshift.io/image      -       12      -               -               -
    openshift.io/ImageStream        openshift.io/image-tags -       10      -               -               -

17.4. Deleting Limits

Remove any active limit range to no longer enforce the limits of a project:

$ oc delete limits <limit_name>

Chapter 18. Pruning Objects

18.1. Overview

Over time, API objects created in OpenShift Container Platform can accumulate in the etcd data store through normal user operations, such as when building and deploying applications.

As an administrator, you can periodically prune older versions of objects from your OpenShift Container Platform instance that are no longer needed. For example, by pruning images you can delete older images and layers that are no longer in use, but are still taking up disk space.

18.2. Basic Prune Operations

The CLI groups prune operations under a common parent command.

$ oadm prune <object_type> <options>

This specifies:

  • The <object_type> to perform the action on, such as builds, deployments, or images.
  • The <options> supported to prune that object type.

18.3. Pruning Deployments

In order to prune deployments that are no longer required by the system due to age and status, administrators may run the following command:

$ oadm prune deployments [<options>]

Table 18.1. Prune Deployments CLI Configuration Options

OptionDescription

--confirm

Indicate that pruning should occur, instead of performing a dry-run.

--orphans

Prune all deployments whose deployment config no longer exists, status is complete or failed, and replica count is zero.

--keep-complete=<N>

Per deployment config, keep the last N deployments whose status is complete and replica count is zero. (default 5)

--keep-failed=<N>

Per deployment config, keep the last N deployments whose status is failed and replica count is zero. (default 1)

--keep-younger-than=<duration>

Do not prune any object that is younger than <duration> relative to the current time. (default 60m) Valid units of measurement include nanoseconds (ns), microseconds (us), milliseconds (ms), seconds (s), minutes (m), and hours (h).

To see what a pruning operation would delete:

$ oadm prune deployments --orphans --keep-complete=5 --keep-failed=1 \
    --keep-younger-than=60m

To actually perform the prune operation:

$ oadm prune deployments --orphans --keep-complete=5 --keep-failed=1 \
    --keep-younger-than=60m --confirm

18.4. Pruning Builds

In order to prune builds that are no longer required by the system due to age and status, administrators may run the following command:

$ oadm prune builds [<options>]

Table 18.2. Prune Builds CLI Configuration Options

OptionDescription

--confirm

Indicate that pruning should occur, instead of performing a dry-run.

--orphans

Prune all builds whose build config no longer exists, status is complete, failed, error, or canceled.

--keep-complete=<N>

Per build config, keep the last N builds whose status is complete. (default 5)

--keep-failed=<N>

Per build config, keep the last N builds whose status is failed, error, or canceled (default 1)

--keep-younger-than=<duration>

Do not prune any object that is younger than <duration> relative to the current time. (default 60m)

To see what a pruning operation would delete:

$ oadm prune builds --orphans --keep-complete=5 --keep-failed=1 \
    --keep-younger-than=60m

To actually perform the prune operation:

$ oadm prune builds --orphans --keep-complete=5 --keep-failed=1 \
    --keep-younger-than=60m --confirm
Note

Developers can enable automatic build pruning by modifying their build configuration.

18.5. Pruning Images

In order to prune images that are no longer required by the system due to age, status, or exceed limits, administrators may run the following command:

$ oadm prune images [<options>]
Note

Currently, to prune images you must first log in to the CLI as a user with an access token. The user must also have the cluster rolesystem:image-pruner or greater (for example, cluster-admin).

Note

Pruning images removes data from the integrated registry. For this operation to work properly, ensure your registry is configured with storage:delete:enabled set to true.

Note

Pruning images with the --namespace flag does not remove images, only image streams. Images are non-namespaced resources. Therefore, limiting pruning to a particular namespace makes it impossible to calculate their current usage.

Table 18.3. Prune Images CLI Configuration Options

OptionDescription

--all

Include images that were not pushed to the registry, but have been mirrored by pullthrough. This is on by default. To limit the pruning to images that were pushed to the integrated registry, pass --all=false.

--certificate-authority

The path to a certificate authority file to use when communicating with the OpenShift Container Platform-managed registries. Defaults to the certificate authority data from the current user’s configuration file. If provided, secure connection will be initiated.

--confirm

Indicate that pruning should occur, instead of performing a dry-run. This requires a valid route to the integrated Docker registry. If this command is run outside of the cluster network, the route needs to be provided using --registry-url.

--force-insecure

Use caution with this option. Allow an insecure connection to the Docker registry that is hosted via HTTP or has an invalid HTTPS certificate. See Using Secure or Insecure Connections for more information.

--keep-tag-revisions=<N>

For each image stream, keep up to at most N image revisions per tag. (default 3)

--keep-younger-than=<duration>

Do not prune any image that is younger than <duration> relative to the current time. Do not prune any image that is referenced by any other object that is younger than <duration> relative to the current time. (default 60m)

--prune-over-size-limit

Prune each image that exceeds the smallest limit defined in the same project. This flag cannot be combined with --keep-tag-revisions nor --keep-younger-than.

--registry-url

The address to use when contacting the registry. The command will attempt to use a cluster-internal URL determined from managed images and image streams. In case it fails (the registry cannot be resolved or reached), an alternative route that works needs to be provided using this flag. The registry host name may be prefixed by https:// or http:// which will enforce particular connection protocol.

18.5.1. Image Prune Conditions

  • Remove any image "managed by OpenShift Container Platform" (images with the annotation openshift.io/image.managed) that was created at least --keep-younger-than minutes ago and is not currently referenced by:

    • any pod created less than --keep-younger-than minutes ago.
    • any image stream created less than --keep-younger-than minutes ago.
    • any running pods.
    • any pending pods.
    • any replication controllers.
    • any deployment configurations.
    • any build configurations.
    • any builds.
    • the --keep-tag-revisions most recent items in stream.status.tags[].items.
  • Remove any image "managed by OpenShift Container Platform" (images with the annotation openshift.io/image.managed) that is exceeding the smallest limit defined in the same project and is not currently referenced by:

    • any running pods.
    • any pending pods.
    • any replication controllers.
    • any deployment configurations.
    • any build configurations.
    • any builds.
  • There is no support for pruning from external registries.
  • When an image is pruned, all references to the image are removed from all image streams that have a reference to the image in status.tags.
  • Image layers that are no longer referenced by any images are removed as well.
Note

--prune-over-size-limit cannot be combined with --keep-tag-revisions nor --keep-younger-than flags. Doing so will return an information that this operation is not allowed.

To see what a pruning operation would delete:

  1. Keeping up to three tag revisions, and keeping resources (images, image streams and pods) younger than sixty minutes:

    $ oadm prune images --keep-tag-revisions=3 --keep-younger-than=60m
  2. Pruning every image that exceeds defined limits:

    $ oadm prune images --prune-over-size-limit

To actually perform the prune operation for the previously mentioned options accordingly:

$ oadm prune images --keep-tag-revisions=3 --keep-younger-than=60m --confirm

$ oadm prune images --prune-over-size-limit --confirm

18.5.2. Using Secure or Insecure Connections

The secure connection is the preferred and recommended approach. It is done over HTTPS protocol with a mandatory certificate verification. The prune command always attempts to use it if possible. If not possible, in some cases it can fall-back to insecure connection, which is dangerous. In this case, either certificate verification is skipped or plain HTTP protocol is used.

The fall-back to insecure connection is allowed in the following cases unless --certificate-authority is specified:

  1. The prune command is run with the --force-insecure option.
  2. The provided registry-url is prefixed with the http:// scheme.
  3. The provided registry-url is a local-link address or localhost.
  4. The configuration of the current user allows for an insecure connection. This may be caused by the user either logging in using --insecure-skip-tls-verify or choosing the insecure connection when prompted.
Important

If the registry is secured by a certificate authority different from the one used by OpenShift Container Platform, it needs to be specified using the --certificate-authority flag. Otherwise, the prune command will fail with an error similar to those listed in Using the Wrong Certificate Authority or Using an Insecure Connection Against a Secured Registry.

18.5.3. Image Pruning Problems

Images Not Being Pruned

If your images keep accumulating and the prune command removes just a small portion of what you expect, ensure that you understand the conditions that must apply for an image to be considered a candidate for pruning.

Especially ensure that images you want removed occur at higher positions in each tag history than your chosen tag revisions threshold. For example, consider an old and obsolete image named sha:abz. By running the following command in namespace N, where the image is tagged, you will see the image is tagged three times in a single image stream named myapp:

$ image_name="sha:abz"
$ oc get is -n N -o go-template='{{range $isi, $is := .items}}{{range $ti, $tag := $is.status.tags}}'\
  '{{range $ii, $item := $tag.items}}{{if eq $item.image "'"${image_name}"\
  $'"}}{{$is.metadata.name}}:{{$tag.tag}} at position {{$ii}} out of {{len $tag.items}}\n'\
  '{{end}}{{end}}{{end}}{{end}}'
myapp:v2 at position 4 out of 5
myapp:v2.1 at position 2 out of 2
myapp:v2.1-may-2016 at position 0 out of 1

When default options are used, the image will not ever be pruned because it occurs at position 0 in a history of myapp:v2.1-may-2016 tag. For an image to be considered for pruning, the administrator must either:

  1. Specify --keep-tag-revisions=0 with the oadm prune images command.

    Caution

    This action will effectively remove all the tags from all the namespaces with underlying images, unless they are younger or they are referenced by objects younger than the specified threshold.

  2. Delete all the istags where the position is below the revision threshold, which means myapp:v2.1 and myapp:v2.1-may-2016.
  3. Move the image further in the history, either by running new builds pushing to the same istag, or by tagging other image. Unfortunately, this is not always desirable for old release tags.

Tags having a date or time of a particular image’s build in their names should be avoided, unless the image needs to be preserved for undefined amount of time. Such tags tend to have just one image in its history, which effectively prevents them from ever being pruned. Learn more about istag naming.

Using a Secure Connection Against Insecure Registry

If you see a message similar to the following in the output of the oadm prune images, then your registry is not secured and the oadm prune images client will attempt to use secure connection:

error: error communicating with registry: Get https://172.30.30.30:5000/healthz: http: server gave HTTP response to HTTPS client
  1. The recommened solution is to secure the registry. If that is not desired, you can force the client to use an insecure connection by appending --force-insecure to the command (not recommended).

18.5.3.1. Using an Insecure Connection Against a Secured Registry

If you see one of the following errors in the output of the oadm prune images command, it means that your registry is secured using a certificate signed by a certificate authority other than the one used by oadm prune images client for connection verification.

error: error communicating with registry: Get http://172.30.30.30:5000/healthz: malformed HTTP response "\x15\x03\x01\x00\x02\x02"
error: error communicating with registry: [Get https://172.30.30.30:5000/healthz: x509: certificate signed by unknown authority, Get http://172.30.30.30:5000/healthz: malformed HTTP response "\x15\x03\x01\x00\x02\x02"]

By default, the certificate authority data stored in user’s configuration file are used — the same for communication with the master API.

Use the --certificate-authority option to provide the right certificate authority for the Docker registry server.

Using the Wrong Certificate Authority

The following error means that the certificate authority used to sign the certificate of the secured Docker registry is different than the authority used by the client.

error: error communicating with registry: Get https://172.30.30.30:5000/: x509: certificate signed by unknown authority

Make sure to provide the right one with the flag --certificate-authority.

As a work-around, the --force-insecure flag can be added instead (not recommended).

18.6. Hard Pruning the Registry

The OpenShift Container Registry can accumulate blobs that are not referenced by the OpenShift Container Platform cluster’s etcd. The basic Pruning Images procedure, therefore, is unable to operate on them. These are called orphaned blobs.

Orphaned blobs can occur from the following scenarios:

  • Manually deleting an image with oc delete image <sha256:image-id> command, which only removes the image from etcd, but not from the registry’s storage.
  • Pushing to the registry initiated by docker daemon failures, which causes some blobs to get uploaded, but the image manifest (which is uploaded as the very last component) does not. All unique image blobs become orphans.
  • OpenShift Container Platform refusing an image because of quota restrictions.
  • The standard image pruner deleting an image manifest, but is interrupted before it deletes the related blobs.
  • A bug in the registry pruner, which fails to remove the intended blobs, causing the image objects referencing them to be removed and the blobs becoming orphans.

Hard pruning the registry, a separate procedure from basic image pruning, allows you to remove orphaned blobs. You should hard prune if you are running out of storage space in your OpenShift Container Registry and believe you have orphaned blobs.

This should be an infrequent operation and is necessary only when you have evidence that significant numbers of new orphans have been created. Otherwise, you can perform standard image pruning at regular intervals, for example, once a day (depending on the number of images being created).

To hard prune orphaned blobs from the registry:

  1. <b>Log in:</b> Log in using the CLI as a user with an access token.
  2. <b>Run a basic image prune:</b> Basic image pruning removes additional images that are no longer needed. The hard prune does not remove images on its own. It only removes blobs stored in the registry storage. Therefore, you should run this just before the hard prune.

    See Pruning Images for steps.

  3. <b>Switch the registry to read-only mode:</b> If the registry is not running in read-only mode, any pushes happening at the same time as the prune will either:

    • fail and cause new orphans, or
    • succeed although the images will not be pullable (because some of the referenced blobs were deleted).

    Pushes will not succeed until the registry is switched back to read-write mode. Therefore, the hard prune must be carefully scheduled.

    To switch the registry to read-only mode:

    1. Set the following envirornment variable:

      $ oc env -n default \
          dc/docker-registry \
          'REGISTRY_STORAGE_MAINTENANCE_READONLY={"enabled":true}'
    2. By default, the registry should automatically redeploy when the previous step completes; wait for the redeployment to complete before continuing. However, if you have disabled these triggers, you must manually redeploy the registry so that the new environment variables are picked up:

      $ oc rollout -n default \
          latest dc/docker-registry
  4. <b>Add the system:image-pruner role:</b> The service account used to run the registry instances requires additional permissions in order to list some resources.

    1. Get the service account name:

      $ service_account=$(oc get -n default \
          -o jsonpath=$'system:serviceaccount:{.metadata.namespace}:{.spec.template.spec.serviceAccountName}\n' \
          dc/docker-registry)
    2. Add the system:image-pruner cluster role to the service account:

      $ oadm policy add-cluster-role-to-user \
          system:image-pruner \
          ${service_account}
  5. <b>(Optional) Run the pruner in dry-run mode:</b> To see how many blobs would be removed, run the hard pruner in dry-run mode. No changes are actually made:

    $ oc -n default \
        exec -i -t "$(oc -n default get pods -l deploymentconfig=docker-registry \
        -o jsonpath=$'{.items[0].metadata.name}\n')" \
        -- /usr/bin/dockerregistry -prune=check

    Alternatively, to get the exact paths for the prune candidates, increase the logging level:

    $ oc -n default \
        exec "$(oc -n default get pods -l deploymentconfig=docker-registry \
          -o jsonpath=$'{.items[0].metadata.name}\n')" \
        -- /bin/sh \
        -c 'REGISTRY_LOG_LEVEL=info /usr/bin/dockerregistry -prune=check'

    Sample Output (Truncated)

    $ oc exec docker-registry-3-vhndw \
        -- /bin/sh -c 'REGISTRY_LOG_LEVEL=info /usr/bin/dockerregistry -prune=check'
    
    time="2017-06-22T11:50:25.066156047Z" level=info msg="start prune (dry-run mode)" distribution_version="v2.4.1+unknown" kubernetes_version=v1.6.1+$Format:%h$ openshift_version=unknown
    time="2017-06-22T11:50:25.092257421Z" level=info msg="Would delete blob: sha256:00043a2a5e384f6b59ab17e2c3d3a3d0a7de01b2cabeb606243e468acc663fa5" go.version=go1.7.5 instance.id=b097121c-a864-4e0c-ad6c-cc25f8fdf5a6
    time="2017-06-22T11:50:25.092395621Z" level=info msg="Would delete blob: sha256:0022d49612807cb348cabc562c072ef34d756adfe0100a61952cbcb87ee6578a" go.version=go1.7.5 instance.id=b097121c-a864-4e0c-ad6c-cc25f8fdf5a6
    time="2017-06-22T11:50:25.092492183Z" level=info msg="Would delete blob: sha256:0029dd4228961086707e53b881e25eba0564fa80033fbbb2e27847a28d16a37c" go.version=go1.7.5 instance.id=b097121c-a864-4e0c-ad6c-cc25f8fdf5a6
    time="2017-06-22T11:50:26.673946639Z" level=info msg="Would delete blob: sha256:ff7664dfc213d6cc60fd5c5f5bb00a7bf4a687e18e1df12d349a1d07b2cf7663" go.version=go1.7.5 instance.id=b097121c-a864-4e0c-ad6c-cc25f8fdf5a6
    time="2017-06-22T11:50:26.674024531Z" level=info msg="Would delete blob: sha256:ff7a933178ccd931f4b5f40f9f19a65be5eeeec207e4fad2a5bafd28afbef57e" go.version=go1.7.5 instance.id=b097121c-a864-4e0c-ad6c-cc25f8fdf5a6
    time="2017-06-22T11:50:26.674675469Z" level=info msg="Would delete blob: sha256:ff9b8956794b426cc80bb49a604a0b24a1553aae96b930c6919a6675db3d5e06" go.version=go1.7.5 instance.id=b097121c-a864-4e0c-ad6c-cc25f8fdf5a6
    ...
    Would delete 13374 blobs
    Would free up 2.835 GiB of disk space
    Use -prune=delete to actually delete the data

  6. <b>Run the hard prune:</b> Execute the following command inside one running instance of docker-registry pod to run the hard prune:

    $ oc -n default \
        exec -i -t "$(oc -n default get pods -l deploymentconfig=docker-registry -o jsonpath=$'{.items[0].metadata.name}\n')" \
        -- /usr/bin/dockerregistry -prune=delete

    Sample Output

    $ oc exec docker-registry-3-vhndw \
        -- /usr/bin/dockerregistry -prune=delete
    
    Deleted 13374 blobs
    Freed up 2.835 GiB of disk space

  7. <b>Switch the registry back to read-write mode:</b> After the prune is finished, the registry can be switched back to read-write mode by executing:

    $ oc env -n default dc/docker-registry REGISTRY_STORAGE_MAINTENANCE_READONLY-

Chapter 19. Extending the Kubernetes API with Custom Resources

In the Kubernetes API a resource is an endpoint that stores a collection of API objects of a certain kind. For example, the built-in pods resource contains a collection of Pod objects.

A custom resource is an object that extends the Kubernetes API or allows you to introduce your own API into a project or a cluster.

A custom resource definition (CRD) file defines your own object kinds and lets the API Server handle the entire lifecycle. Deploying a CRD into the cluster causes the Kubernetes API server to begin serving the specified custom resource.

When you create a new custom resource definition (CRD), the Kubernetes API Server reacts by creating a new RESTful resource path, that can be accessed by an entire cluster or a single project (namespace). As with existing built-in objects, deleting a project deletes all custom objects in that project.

<admin-guide-custom-resource-create-crd><title>Creating Custom Resource Definitions</title>

To create a CRD, open a YAML file and enter the fields in the following example.

Example YAML file for a Custom Resource Definition

apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1 1
kind: CustomResourceDefinition
metadata:
  name: crontabs.stable.example.com 2
spec:
  group: stable.example.com 3
  version: v1 4
  scope: Namespaced 5
  names:
    plural: crontabs 6
    singular: crontab 7
    kind: CronTab 8
    shortNames:
    - ct 9

1
Use the apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1 API.
2
Specify a name for the definition. This must be in the <plural-name><group> format using the values from the group and plural fields.
3
Specify a group name for the API. An API group is a collection of objects that are logically related. For example, all batch objects like Job or ScheduledJob could be in the batch API Group (such as batch.api.example.com). A good practice is to use a fully-qualified-domain name of your organization.
4
Specify a version name to be used in the URL. Each API Group can exist in multiple versions. For example: v1alpha, vibeta, v1.
5
Specify whether the custom objects are available to a project (Namespaced) or all projects in the cluster (Cluster).
6
Specify the plural name to be used in the URL. The plural field is the same as a resource in an API URL.
7
Specify a singular name to be used as an alias on the CLI and for display.
8
Specify the kind of objects that can be created. The type can be in CamelCase.
9
Specify a shorter string to match your resource on the CLI.
Note

By default, a custom resource definition is cluster-scoped and available to all projects.

After configuring the definition file, create the object:

oc create -f <file-name>.yaml

A new RESTful API endpoint is created at:

/apis/<spec:group>/<spec:version>/<scope>/*/<names-plural>/...

For example, using the example file, the following endpoint would be created:

/apis/stable.example.com/v1/namespaces/*/crontabs/...

This endpoint URL can then be used to create and manage custom objects. The kind of object is based on the spec.kind field of the Custom Resource Definition object you created.

</admin-guide-custom-resource-create-crd>
<admin-guide-custom-resource-create-obj><title>Create Custom Objects</title>

After the custom resource definition object has been created, you can create custom objects.

Custom objects can contain custom fields. These fields can contain arbitrary JSON.

In the following example, the cronSpec and image custom fields are set in a custom object of kind CronTab. The kind CronTab comes from the spec.kind field of the custom resource definition object you created above.

Example YAML file for a Custom Object

apiVersion: "stable.example.com/v1" 1
kind: CronTab 2
metadata:
  name: my-new-cron-object 3
spec: 4
  cronSpec: "* * * * /5"
  image: my-awesome-cron-image

1
Specify the group name and API version (name/version) from the custom resource definition.
2
Specify the type in the custom resource definition.
3
Specify a name for the object.
4
Specify conditions specific to the type of object.

After configuring the object file, create the object:

oc create -f <file-name>.yaml
</admin-guide-custom-resource-create-obj>
<admin-guide-custom-resource-manage><title>Manage Custom Objects</title>

You can then manage your custom resources.

To get information on a specific kind of custom resource, enter:

oc get <kind>

For example:

oc get crontab

NAME                 KIND
my-new-cron-object   CronTab.v1.stable.example.com

Note that resource names are not case-sensitive, and you can use either the singular or plural forms defined in the CRD, as well as any short name. For example:

oc get crontabs
oc get crontab
oc get ct

You can also view the raw JSON data:

oc get <kind> -o yaml

You should see that it contains the custom <1> cronSpec and <2> image fields from the YAML you used to create it:

oc get ct -o yaml

apiVersion: v1
items:
- apiVersion: stable.example.com/v1
  kind: CronTab
  metadata:
    clusterName: ""
    creationTimestamp: 2017-05-31T12:56:35Z
    deletionGracePeriodSeconds: null
    deletionTimestamp: null
    name: my-new-cron-object
    namespace: default
    resourceVersion: "285"
    selfLink: /apis/stable.example.com/v1/namespaces/default/crontabs/my-new-cron-object
    uid: 9423255b-4600-11e7-af6a-28d2447dc82b
  spec:
    cronSpec: '* * * * /5' 1
    image: my-awesome-cron-image 2
</admin-guide-custom-resource-manage>
<admin-guide-custom-resource-finalizers><title>Finalizers</title>

Custom objects support finalizers, which allow controllers to implement conditions that must be completed before the object can be deleted.

You can add a finalizer to a custom object like this:

apiVersion: "stable.example.com/v1"
kind: CronTab
metadata:
  finalizers:
  - finalizer.stable.example.com

The first delete request on an object with finalizers sets a value for the metadata.deletionTimestamp field instead of deleting the object. This triggers controllers watching the object to execute any finalizers they handle.

Each controller then removes the finalizer from the list and issues the delete request again. This request deletes the object only if the list of finalizers is empty, meaning all finalizers are done.

</admin-guide-custom-resource-finalizers>

Chapter 20. Garbage Collection

20.1. Overview

The OpenShift Container Platform node performs two types of garbage collection:

20.2. Container Garbage Collection

The policy for container garbage collection is based on three node settings:

SettingDescription

minimum-container-ttl-duration

The minimum age that a container is eligible for garbage collection. The default is 1m (one minute). Use 0 for no limit. Values for this setting can be specified using unit suffixes such as h for hour, m for minutes, s for seconds.

maximum-dead-containers-per-container

The number of instances to retain per pod container. The default is 2.

maximum-dead-containers

The maximum number of total dead containers in the node. The default is 240.

The maximum-dead-containers setting takes precedence over the maximum-dead-containers-per-container setting when there is a conflict. For example, if retaining the number of maximum-dead-containers-per-container would result in a total number of containers that is greater than maximum-dead-containers, the oldest containers will be removed to satisfy the maximum-dead-containers limit.

When the node removes the dead containers, all files inside those containers are removed as well. Only containers created by the node will be garbage collected.

You can specify values for these settings in the kubeletArguments section of the /etc/origin/node/node-config.yaml file on node hosts. Add the section if it does not already exist:

Container Garbage Collection Settings

kubeletArguments:
  minimum-container-ttl-duration:
    - "10s"
  maximum-dead-containers-per-container:
    - "2"
  maximum-dead-containers:
    - "240"

20.2.1. Detecting Containers for Deletion

Each spin of the garbage collector loop goes through the following steps:

  1. Retrieve a list of available containers.
  2. Filter out all containers that are running or are not alive longer than the minimum-container-ttl-duration parameter.
  3. Classify all remaining containers into equivalence classes based on pod and image name membership.
  4. Remove all unidentified containers (containers that are managed by kubelet but their name is malformed).
  5. For each class that contains more containers than the maximum-dead-containers-per-container parameter, sort containers in the class by creation time.
  6. Start removing containers from the oldest first until the maximum-dead-containers-per-container parameter is met.
  7. If there are still more containers in the list than the maximum-dead-containers parameter, the collector starts removing containers from each class so the number of containers in each one is not greater than the average number of containers per class, or <all_remaining_containers>/<number_of_classes>.
  8. If this is still not enough, sort all containers in the list and start removing containers from the oldest first until the maximum-dead-containers criterion is met.

20.3. Image Garbage Collection

Image garbage collection relies on disk usage as reported by cAdvisor on the node to decide which images to remove from the node. It takes the following settings into consideration:

SettingDescription

image-gc-high-threshold

The percent of disk usage (expressed as an integer) which triggers image garbage collection. The default is 85.

image-gc-low-threshold

The percent of disk usage (expressed as an integer) to which image garbage collection attempts to free. Default is 80.

You can specify values for these settings in the kubeletArguments section of the /etc/origin/node/node-config.yaml file on node hosts. Add the section if it does not already exist:

Image Garbage Collection Settings

kubeletArguments:
  image-gc-high-threshold:
    - "85"
  image-gc-low-threshold:
    - "80"

20.3.1. Detecting Images for Deletion

Two lists of images are retrieved in each garbage collector run:

  1. A list of images currently running in at least one pod
  2. A list of images available on a host

As new containers are run, new images appear. All images are marked with a time stamp. If the image is running (the first list above) or is newly detected (the second list above), it is marked with the current time. The remaining images are already marked from the previous spins. All images are then sorted by the time stamp.

Once the collection starts, the oldest images get deleted first until the stopping criterion is met.

Chapter 21. Allocating Node Resources

21.1. Overview

To provide more reliable scheduling and minimize node resource overcommitment, each node can reserve a portion of its resources for use by all underlying node components (e.g., kubelet, kube-proxy, Docker) and the remaining system components (e.g., sshd, NetworkManager) on the host. Once specified, the scheduler has more information about the resources (e.g., memory, CPU) a node has allocated for pods.

21.2. Configuring Nodes for Allocated Resources

Resources reserved for node components are based on two node settings:

SettingDescription

kube-reserved

Resources reserved for node components. Default is none.

system-reserved

Resources reserved for the remaining system components. Default is none.

You can set these in the kubeletArguments section of the node configuration file (the /etc/origin/node/node-config.yaml file by default) using a set of <resource_type>=<resource_quantity> pairs (e.g., cpu=200m,memory=30G). Add the section if it does not already exist:

Example 21.1. Node Allocatable Resources Settings

kubeletArguments:
  kube-reserved:
    - "cpu=200m,memory=30G"
  system-reserved:
    - "cpu=200m,memory=30G"

Currently, the cpu and memory resource types are supported. For cpu, the resource quantity is specified in units of cores (e.g., 200m, 100Ki, 50M). For memory, it is specified in units of bytes (e.g., 200Ki, 100M, 50Gi).

See Compute Resources for more details.

If a flag is not set, it defaults to 0. If none of the flags are set, the allocated resource is set to the node’s capacity as it was before the introduction of allocatable resources.

21.3. Computing Allocated Resources

An allocated amount of a resource is computed based on the following formula:

[Allocatable] = [Node Capacity] - [kube-reserved] - [system-reserved] - [Hard-Eviction-Thresholds]
Note

The withholding of Hard-Eviction-Thresholds from allocatable is a change in behavior to improve system reliability now that allocatable is enforced for end-user pods at the node level. The experimental-allocatable-ignore-eviction setting is available to preserve legacy behavior, but it will be deprecated in a future release.

If [Allocatable] is negative, it is set to 0.

21.4. Viewing Node Allocatable Resources and Capacity

To see a node’s current capacity and allocatable resources, you can run:

$ oc get node/<node_name> -o yaml
...
status:
...
  allocatable:
    cpu: "4"
    memory: 8010948Ki
    pods: "110"
  capacity:
    cpu: "4"
    memory: 8010948Ki
    pods: "110"
...

21.5. System Resources Reported by Node

Starting with OpenShift Container Platform 3.3, each node reports system resources utilized by the container runtime and kubelet. To better aid your ability to configure --system-reserved and --kube-reserved, you can introspect corresponding node’s resource usage using the node summary API, which is accessible at <master>/api/v1/nodes/<node>/proxy/stats/summary.

For instance, to access the resources from cluster.node22 node, you can run:

$ curl <certificate details> https://<master>/api/v1/nodes/cluster.node22/proxy/stats/summary
{
    "node": {
        "nodeName": "cluster.node22",
        "systemContainers": [
            {
                "cpu": {
                    "usageCoreNanoSeconds": 929684480915,
                    "usageNanoCores": 190998084
                },
                "memory": {
                    "rssBytes": 176726016,
                    "usageBytes": 1397895168,
                    "workingSetBytes": 1050509312
                },
                "name": "kubelet"
            },
            {
                "cpu": {
                    "usageCoreNanoSeconds": 128521955903,
                    "usageNanoCores": 5928600
                },
                "memory": {
                    "rssBytes": 35958784,
                    "usageBytes": 129671168,
                    "workingSetBytes": 102416384
                },
                "name": "runtime"
            }
        ]
    }
}

See REST API Overview for more details about certificate details.

21.6. Node enforcement

The node is able to limit the total amount of resources that pods may consume based on the configured allocatable value. This feature significantly improves the reliability of the node by preventing pods from starving system services (for example: container runtime, node agent, etc.) for resources. It is strongly encouraged that administrators reserve resources based on the desired node utilization target in order to improve node reliability.

The node enforces resource constraints using a new cgroup hierarchy that enforces quality of service. All pods are launched in a dedicated cgroup hierarchy separate from system daemons.

To configure this ability, the following kubelet arguments are provided.

Example 21.2. Node Cgroup Settings

kubeletArguments:
  cgroups-per-qos:
    - "true" 1
  cgroup-driver:
    - "systemd" 2
  enforce-node-allocatable:
    - "pods" 3
1 1
Enable or disable the new cgroup hierarchy managed by the node. Any change of this setting requires a full drain of the node. This flag must be true to allow the node to enforce node allocatable. We do not recommend users change this value.
2 2
The cgroup driver used by the node when managing cgroup hierarchies. This value must match the driver associated with the container runtime. Valid values are systemd and cgroupfs. The default is systemd.
3
A comma-delimited list of scopes for where the node should enforce node resource constraints. Valid values are pods, system-reserved, and kube-reserved. The default is pods. We do not recommend users change this value.

Optionally, the node can be made to enforce kube-reserved and system-reserved by specifying those tokens in the enforce-node-allocatable flag. If specified, the corresponding --kube-reserved-cgroup or --system-reserved-cgroup needs to be provided. In future releases, the node and container runtime will be packaged in a common cgroup separate from system.slice. Until that time, we do not recommend users change the default value of enforce-node-allocatable flag.

Administrators should treat system daemons similar to Guaranteed pods. System daemons can burst within their bounding control groups and this behavior needs to be managed as part of cluster deployments. Enforcing system-reserved limits can lead to critical system services being CPU starved or OOM killed on the node. The recommendation is to enforce system-reserved only if operators have profiled their nodes exhaustively to determine precise estimates and are confident in their ability to recover if any process in that group is OOM killed.

As a result, we strongly recommended that users only enforce node allocatable for pods by default, and set aside appropriate reservations for system daemons to maintain overall node reliability.

21.7. Eviction Thresholds

If a node is under memory pressure, it can impact the entire node and all pods running on it. If a system daemon is using more than its reserved amount of memory, an OOM event may occur that can impact the entire node and all pods running on it. To avoid (or reduce the probability of) system OOMs the node provides Out Of Resource Handling.

By reserving some memory via the --eviction-hard flag, the node attempts to evict pods whenever memory availability on the node drops below the absolute value or percentage. If system daemons did not exist on a node, pods are limited to the memory capacity - eviction-hard. For this reason, resources set aside as a buffer for eviction before reaching out of memory conditions are not available for pods.

Here is an example to illustrate the impact of node allocatable for memory:

  • Node capacity is 32Gi
  • --kube-reserved is 2Gi
  • --system-reserved is 1Gi
  • --eviction-hard is set to <100Mi.

For this node, the effective node allocatable value is 28.9Gi. If the node and system components use up all their reservation, the memory available for pods is 28.9Gi, and kubelet will evict pods when it exceeds this usage.

If we enforce node allocatable (28.9Gi) via top level cgroups, then pods can never exceed 28.9Gi. Evictions would not be performed unless system daemons are consuming more than 3.1Gi of memory.

If system daemons do not use up all their reservation, with the above example, pods would face memcg OOM kills from their bounding cgroup before node evictions kick in. To better enforce QoS under this situation, the node applies the hard eviction thresholds to the top-level cgroup for all pods to be Node Allocatable + Eviction Hard Thresholds.

If system daemons do not use up all their reservation, the node will evict pods whenever they consume more than 28.9Gi of memory. If eviction does not occur in time, a pod will be OOM killed if pods consume 29Gi of memory.

21.8. Scheduler

The scheduler now uses the value of node.Status.Allocatable instead of node.Status.Capacity to decide if a node will become a candidate for pod scheduling.

By default, the node will report its machine capacity as fully schedulable by the cluster.

Chapter 22. Opaque Integer Resources

22.1. Overview

Opaque integer resources allow cluster operators to provide new node-level resources that would be otherwise unknown to the system. Users can consume these resources in pod specifications, similar to CPU and memory. The scheduler performs resource accounting so that no more than the available amount is simultaneously allocated to pods.

Note

Opaque integer resources are Alpha currently, and only resource accounting is implemented. There is no resource quota or limit range support for these resources, and they have no impact on QoS.

Opaque integer resources are called opaque because OpenShift Container Platform does not know what the resource is, but will schedule a pod on a node only if enough of that resource is available. They are called integer resources because they must be available, or advertised, in integer amounts. The API server restricts quantities of these resources to whole numbers. Examples of valid quantities are 3, 3000m, and 3Ki.

Opaque integer resources can be used to allocate:

  • Last-level cache (LLC)
  • Graphics processing unit (GPU) devices
  • Field-programmable gate array (FPGA) devices
  • Slots for sharing bandwidth to a parallel file system.

For example, if a node has 800 GiB of a special kind of disk storage, you could create a name for the special storage, such as opaque-int-resource-special-storage. You could advertise it in chunks of a certain size, such as 100 GiB. In that case, your node would advertise that it has eight resources of type opaque-int-resource-special-storage.

Opaque integer resource names must begin with the prefix pod.alpha.kubernetes.io/opaque-int-resource-.

22.2. Creating Opaque Integer Resources

There are two steps required to use opaque integer resources. First, the cluster operator must name and advertise a per-node opaque resource on one or more nodes. Second, application developer must request the opaque resource in pods.

To make opaque integer resources available:

  1. Allocate the resource and assign a name starting with pod.alpha.kubernetes.io/opaque-int-resource-
  2. Advertise a new opaque integer resource by submitting a PATCH HTTP request to the API server that specifies the available quantity in the status.capacity for a node in the cluster.

    For example, the following HTTP request advertises five foo resources on the openshift-node-1 node.

    PATCH /api/v1/nodes/openshift-node-1/status HTTP/1.1
    Accept: application/json
    Content-Type: application/json-patch+json
    Host: openshift-master:8080
    
    [
      {
        "op": "add",
        "path": "/status/capacity/pod.alpha.kubernetes.io~1opaque-int-resource-foo",
        "value": "5"
      }
    ]
    Note

    The ~1 in the path is the encoding for the character /. The operation path value in the JSON-Patch is interpreted as a JSON-Pointer. For more details, refer to IETF RFC 6901, section 3.

    After this operation, the node status.capacity includes a new resource. The status.allocatable field is updated automatically with the new resource asynchronously.

    Note

    Since the scheduler uses the node status.allocatable value when evaluating pod fitness, there might be a short delay between patching the node capacity with a new resource and the first pod that requests the resource to be scheduled on that node.

The application developer can then consume the opaque resources by editing the pod config to include the name of the opaque resource as a key in the spec.containers[].resources.requests field.

For example: The following pod requests two CPUs and one foo (an opaque resource).

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: my-pod
spec:
  containers:
  - name: my-container
    image: myimage
    resources:
      requests:
        cpu: 2
        pod.alpha.kubernetes.io/opaque-int-resource-foo: 1

The pod will be scheduled only if all of the resource requests are satisfied (including CPU, memory, and any opaque resources). The pod will remain in the PENDING state while the resource request cannot be met by any node.

Conditions:
  Type    Status
  PodScheduled  False
...
Events:
  FirstSeen  LastSeen	Count	From		  SubObjectPath	Type	  Reason	    Message
  ---------  --------	-----	----		  -------------	--------  ------	    -------
  14s	     0s		6	default-scheduler		Warning	  FailedScheduling  No nodes are available that match all of the following predicates:: Insufficient pod.alpha.kubernetes.io/opaque-int-resource-foo (1).

This information can also be found in the Developer Guide under Quotas and Limit Ranges.

Chapter 23. Overcommitting

23.1. Overview

Containers can specify compute resource requests and limits. Requests are used for scheduling your container and provide a minimum service guarantee. Limits constrain the amount of compute resource that may be consumed on your node.

The scheduler attempts to optimize the compute resource use across all nodes in your cluster. It places pods onto specific nodes, taking the pods' compute resource requests and nodes' available capacity into consideration.

Requests and limits enable administrators to allow and manage the overcommitment of resources on a node, which may be desirable in development environments where a tradeoff of guaranteed performance for capacity is acceptable.

23.2. Requests and Limits

For each compute resource, a container may specify a resource request and limit. Scheduling decisions are made based on the request to ensure that a node has enough capacity available to meet the requested value. If a container specifies limits, but omits requests, the requests are defaulted to the limits. A container is not able to exceed the specified limit on the node.

The enforcement of limits is dependent upon the compute resource type. If a container makes no request or limit, the container is scheduled to a node with no resource guarantees. In practice, the container is able to consume as much of the specified resource as is available with the lowest local priority. In low resource situations, containers that specify no resource requests are given the lowest quality of service.

23.2.1. Tune Buffer Chunk Limit

If Fluentd logger is unable to keep up with a high number of logs, you will need to increase the compute resource values.

The memory limit is used to calculate the Fluentd buffer_queue_limit as follows:

buffer_queue_limit = resource memory limit / (number of output * buffer_chunk_size)

By default, buffer_chunk_size is 1 MB.

The following steps allow you to adjust the available resources.

  1. Edit the daemonset of Fluentd:

    $ oc edit daemonset logging-fluentd
    
    resources:
      limits:
        cpu: 100m
        memory: 512Mi
  2. Increase the values according to available resources. For example:

    resources:
      limits:
        cpu: 150m
        memory: 1Gi

If the mux server is behind the incoming logs, the same configuration is avaialable. The memory limit is used to calculate the mux buffer_queue_limit as follows:

buffer_queue_limit = resource memory limit / (number of output * buffer_chunk_size)

By default, buffer_chunk_size is 1 MB.

  1. Edit the deploymentconfig of mux:

    $ oc edit deploymentconfig logging-mux
    
    resources:
      limits:
        cpu: 500m
        memory: 2Gi
  2. Increase the values according to available resources. For example:

    resources:
      limits:
        cpu: 600m
        memory: 2.5Gi

23.3. Compute Resources

The node-enforced behavior for compute resources is specific to the resource type.

23.3.1. CPU

A container is guaranteed the amount of CPU it requests and is additionally able to consume excess CPU available on the node, up to any limit specified by the container. If multiple containers are attempting to use excess CPU, CPU time is distributed based on the amount of CPU requested by each container.

For example, if one container requested 500m of CPU time and another container requested 250m of CPU time, then any extra CPU time available on the node is distributed among the containers in a 2:1 ratio. If a container specified a limit, it will be throttled not to use more CPU than the specified limit.

CPU requests are enforced using the CFS shares support in the Linux kernel. By default, CPU limits are enforced using the CFS quota support in the Linux kernel over a 100ms measuring interval, though this can be disabled.

23.3.2. Memory

A container is guaranteed the amount of memory it requests. A container may use more memory than requested, but once it exceeds its requested amount, it could be killed in a low memory situation on the node.

If a container uses less memory than requested, it will not be killed unless system tasks or daemons need more memory than was accounted for in the node’s resource reservation. If a container specifies a limit on memory, it is immediately killed if it exceeds the limit amount.

23.4. Quality of Service Classes

A node is overcommitted when it has a pod scheduled that makes no request, or when the sum of limits across all pods on that node exceeds available machine capacity.

In an overcommitted environment, it is possible that the pods on the node will attempt to use more compute resource than is available at any given point in time. When this occurs, the node must give priority to one pod over another. The facility used to make this decision is referred to as a Quality of Service (QoS) Class.

For each compute resource, a container is divided into one of three QoS classes with decreasing order of priority:

Table 23.1. Quality of Service Classes

PriorityClass NameDescription

1 (highest)

Guaranteed

If limits and optionally requests are set (not equal to 0) for all resources and they are equal, then the container is classified as Guaranteed.

2

Burstable

If requests and optionally limits are set (not equal to 0) for all resources, and they are not equal, then the container is classified as Burstable.

3 (lowest)

BestEffort

If requests and limits are not set for any of the resources, then the container is classified as BestEffort.

Memory is an incompressible resource, so in low memory situations, containers that have the lowest priority are killed first:

  • Guaranteed containers are considered top priority, and are guaranteed to only be killed if they exceed their limits, or if the system is under memory pressure and there are no lower priority containers that can be evicted.
  • Burstable containers under system memory pressure are more likely to be killed once they exceed their requests and no other BestEffort containers exist.
  • BestEffort containers are treated with the lowest priority. Processes in these containers are first to be killed if the system runs out of memory.

23.5. Configuring Masters for Overcommitment

Scheduling is based on resources requested, while quota and hard limits refer to resource limits, which can be set higher than requested resources. The difference between request and limit determines the level of overcommit; for instance, if a container is given a memory request of 1Gi and a memory limit of 2Gi, it is scheduled based on the 1Gi request being available on the node, but could use up to 2Gi; so it is 200% overcommitted.

If OpenShift Container Platform administrators would like to control the level of overcommit and manage container density on nodes, masters can be configured to override the ratio between request and limit set on developer containers. In conjunction with a per-project LimitRange specifying limits and defaults, this adjusts the container limit and request to achieve the desired level of overcommit.

This requires configuring the ClusterResourceOverride admission controller in the master-config.yaml as in the following example (reuse the existing configuration tree if it exists, or introduce absent elements as needed):

kubernetesMasterConfig:
  admissionConfig:
    pluginConfig:
      ClusterResourceOverride:   1
        configuration:
          apiVersion: v1
          kind: ClusterResourceOverrideConfig
          memoryRequestToLimitPercent: 25  2
          cpuRequestToLimitPercent: 25     3
          limitCPUToMemoryPercent: 200     4
1
This is the plug-in name; case matters and anything but an exact match for a plug-in name is ignored.
2
(optional, 1-100) If a container memory limit has been specified or defaulted, the memory request is overridden to this percentage of the limit.
3
(optional, 1-100) If a container CPU limit has been specified or defaulted, the CPU request is overridden to this percentage of the limit.
4
(optional, positive integer) If a container memory limit has been specified or defaulted, the CPU limit is overridden to a percentage of the memory limit, with a 100 percentage scaling 1Gi of RAM to equal 1 CPU core. This is processed prior to overriding CPU request (if configured).

After changing the master configuration, a master restart is required.

Note that these overrides have no effect if no limits have been set on containers. Create a LimitRange object with default limits (per individual project, or in the project template) in order to ensure that the overrides apply.

Note also that after overrides, the container limits and requests must still be validated by any LimitRange objects in the project. It is possible, for example, for developers to specify a limit close to the minimum limit, and have the request then be overridden below the minimum limit, causing the pod to be forbidden. This unfortunate user experience should be addressed with future work, but for now, configure this capability and LimitRanges with caution.

When configured, overrides can be disabled per-project (for example, to allow infrastructure components to be configured independently of overrides) by editing the project and adding the following annotation:

quota.openshift.io/cluster-resource-override-enabled: "false"

23.6. Configuring Nodes for Overcommitment

In an overcommitted environment, it is important to properly configure your node to provide best system behavior.

23.6.1. Reserving Memory Across Quality of Service Tiers

You can use the experimental-qos-reserved parameter to specify a percentage of memory to be reserved by a pod in a particular QoS level. This feature attempts to reserve requested resources to exclude pods from lower OoS classes from using resources requested by pods in higher QoS classes.

By reserving resources for higher QOS levels, pods that don’t have resource limits are prevented from encroaching on the resources requested by pods at higher QoS levels.

Important

The experimental-qos-reserved parameter is a Technology Preview feature only. Technology Preview features are not supported with Red Hat production service level agreements (SLAs), might not be functionally complete, and Red Hat does not recommend to use them for production. These features provide early access to upcoming product features, enabling customers to test functionality and provide feedback during the development process.

For more information on Red Hat Technology Preview features support scope, see https://access.redhat.com/support/offerings/techpreview/.

To configure experimental-qos-reserved, edit the /etc/origin/node/node-config.yaml file for the node.

kubeletArguments:
  cgroups-per-qos:
  - true
  cgroup-driver:
  - 'systemd'
  cgroup-root:
  - '/'
  experimental-qos-reserved: 1
  - 'memory=50%'
1
Specifies how pod resource requests are reserved at the QoS level.

OpenShift Container Platform uses the experimental-qos-reserved parameter as follows:

  • A value of experimental-qos-reserved=memory=100% will prevent the Burstable and BestEffort QOS classes from consuming memory that was requested by a higher QoS class. This increases the risk of inducing OOM on BestEffort and Burstable workloads in favor of increasing memory resource guarantees for Guaranteed and Burstable workloads.
  • A value of experimental-qos-reserved=memory=50% will allow the Burstable and BestEffort QOS classes to consume half of the memory requested by a higher QoS class.
  • A value of experimental-qos-reserved=memory=0% will allow a Burstable and BestEffort QoS classes to consume up to the full node allocatable amount if available, but increases the risk that a Guaranteed workload will not have access to requested memory. This condition effectively disables this feature.

23.6.2. Enforcing CPU Limits

Nodes by default enforce specified CPU limits using the CPU CFS quota support in the Linux kernel. If you do not want to enforce CPU limits on the node, you can disable its enforcement by modifying the node configuration file (the node-config.yaml file) to include the following:

kubeletArguments:
  cpu-cfs-quota:
    - "false"

If CPU limit enforcement is disabled, it is important to understand the impact that will have on your node:

  • If a container makes a request for CPU, it will continue to be enforced by CFS shares in the Linux kernel.
  • If a container makes no explicit request for CPU, but it does specify a limit, the request will default to the specified limit, and be enforced by CFS shares in the Linux kernel.
  • If a container specifies both a request and a limit for CPU, the request will be enforced by CFS shares in the Linux kernel, and the limit will have no impact on the node.

23.6.3. Reserving Resources for System Processes

The scheduler ensures that there are enough resources for all pods on a node based on the pod requests. It verifies that the sum of requests of containers on the node is no greater than the node capacity. It includes all containers started by the node, but not containers or processes started outside the knowledge of the cluster.

It is recommended that you reserve some portion of the node capacity to allow for the system daemons that are required to run on your node for your cluster to function (sshd, docker, etc.). In particular, it is recommended that you reserve resources for incompressible resources such as memory.

If you want to explicitly reserve resources for non-pod processes, there are two ways to do so:

  • The preferred method is to allocate node resources by specifying resources available for scheduling. See Allocating Node Resources for more details.
  • Alternatively, you can create a resource-reserver pod that does nothing but reserve capacity from being scheduled on the node by the cluster. For example:

    Example 23.1. resource-reserver Pod Definition

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      name: resource-reserver
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: sleep-forever
        image: gcr.io/google_containers/pause:0.8.0
        resources:
          limits:
            cpu: 100m 1
            memory: 150Mi 2
    1
    The amount of CPU to reserve on a node for host-level daemons unknown to the cluster.
    2
    The amount of memory to reserve on a node for host-level daemons unknown to the cluster.

    You can save your definition to a file, for example resource-reserver.yaml, then place the file in the node configuration directory, for example /etc/origin/node/ or the --config=<dir> location if otherwise specified.

    Additionally, the node server needs to be configured to read the definition from the node configuration directory, by naming the directory in the kubeletArguments.config field of the node configuration file (usually named node-config.yaml):

    kubeletArguments:
      config:
        - "/etc/origin/node"  1
    1
    If --config=<dir> is specified, use <dir> here.

    With the resource-reserver.yaml file in place, starting the node server also launches the sleep-forever container. The scheduler takes into account the remaining capacity of the node, adjusting where to place cluster pods accordingly.

    To remove the resource-reserver pod, you can delete or move the resource-reserver.yaml file from the node configuration directory.

23.6.4. Kernel Tunable Flags

When the node starts, it ensures that the kernel tunable flags for memory management are set properly. The kernel should never fail memory allocations unless it runs out of physical memory.

To ensure this behavior, the node instructs the kernel to always overcommit memory:

$ sysctl -w vm.overcommit_memory=1

The node also instructs the kernel not to panic when it runs out of memory. Instead, the kernel OOM killer should kill processes based on priority:

$ sysctl -w vm.panic_on_oom=0
Note

The above flags should already be set on nodes, and no further action is required.

23.6.5. Disabling Swap Memory

You can disable swap by default on your nodes in order to preserve quality of service guarantees. Otherwise, physical resources on a node can oversubscribe, affecting the resource guarantees the Kubernetes scheduler makes during pod placement.

For example, if two guaranteed pods have reached their memory limit, each container could start using swap memory. Eventually, if there is not enough swap space, processes in the pods can be terminated due to the system being oversubscribed.

To disable swap:

$ swapoff -a

Failing to disable swap results in nodes not recognizing that they are experiencing MemoryPressure, resulting in pods not receiving the memory they made in their scheduling request. As a result, additional pods are placed on the node to further increase memory pressure, ultimately increasing your risk of experiencing a system out of memory (OOM) event.

Important

If swap is enabled, any out of resource handling eviction thresholds for available memory will not work as expected. Take advantage of out of resource handling to allow pods to be evicted from a node when it is under memory pressure, and rescheduled on an alternative node that has no such pressure.

Chapter 24. Assigning Unique External IPs for Ingress Traffic

24.1. Overview

One approach to getting external traffic into the cluster is by using ExternalIP or IngressIP addresses.

Note

This feature is only supported in non-cloud deployments. For cloud (GCE, AWS, and OpenStack) deployments, load Balancer services can be used to automatically deploy a cloud load balancer to target the service’s endpoints.

OpenShift Container Platform supports two pools of IP addresses:

  • IngressIP uses by the Loadbalancer when choosing an external IP address for the service.
  • ExternalIP is used when the user selects a specific IP from the configured pool.
Note

Both have to be configured to a device on an OpenShift Container Platform host to be used, whether with network interface controller (NIC) or virtual ethernet, as well as external routing. Ipfailover is recommended for this, because it selects the host and configures the NIC.

IngressIP and ExternalIP both allow external traffic access to the cluster, and, if routed correctly, external traffic can reach that service’s endpoints via any TCP/UDP port the service exposes. This can be simpler than having to manage the port space of a limited number of shared IP addresses when manually assigning external IPs to services. Also, these addresses can be used as virtual IPs (VIPs) when configuring high availability.

OpenShift Container Platform supports both the automatic and manual assignment of IP addresses, and each address is guaranteed to be assigned to a maximum of one service. This ensures that each service can expose its chosen ports regardless of the ports exposed by other services.

24.2. Restrictions

To use an ExternalIP, you can:

  • Select an IP address from the externalIPNetworkCIDRs range.
  • Have an IP address assigned from the ingressIPNetworkCIDR pool in the master configuration file. In this case, OpenShift Container Platform implements a non-cloud version of the load balancer service type and assigns IP addresses to the services.

    Caution

    You must ensure that the IP address pool you assign terminates at one or more nodes in your cluster. You can use the existing oadm ipfailover to ensure that the external IPs are highly available.

For manually-configured external IPs, potential port clashes are handled on a first-come, first-served basis. If you request a port, it is only available if it has not yet been assigned for that IP address. For example:

Example 24.1. Port clash example for manually-configured external IPs

Two services have been manually configured with the same external IP address of 172.7.7.7.

MongoDB service A requests port 27017, and then MongoDB service B requests the same port; the first request gets the port.

However, port clashes are not an issue for external IPs assigned by the ingress controller, because the controller assigns each service a unique address.

Note

Ingress IPs can only be assigned if the cluster is not running in the cloud. In cloud environments, LoadBalancer-type services configure cloud-specific load balancers.

24.3. Configuring the Cluster to Use Unique External IPs

In non-cloud clusters, ingressIPNetworkCIDR is set by default to 172.29.0.0/16. If your cluster environment is not already using this private range, you can use the default. However, if you want to use a different range, then you must set ingressIPNetworkCIDR in the /etc/origin/master/master-config.yaml file before you assign an ingress IP. Then, restart the master service.

Caution

External IPs assigned to services of type LoadBalancer will always be in the range of ingressIPNetworkCIDR. If ingressIPNetworkCIDR is changed such that the assigned external IPs are no longer in range, the affected services will be assigned new external IPs compatible with the new range.

Note

If you are using high availibility, then this range must be less than 255 IP addresses.

Example 24.2. Sample /etc/origin/master/master-config.yaml

networkConfig:
  ingressIPNetworkCIDR: 172.29.0.0/16

24.3.1. Configuring an Ingress IP for a Service

To assign an ingress IP:

  1. Create a YAML file for a LoadBalancer service that requests a specific IP via the loadBalancerIP setting:

    Example 24.3. Sample LoadBalancer Configuration

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Service
    metadata:
      name: egress-1
    spec:
      ports:
      - name: db
        port: 3306
      loadBalancerIP: 172.29.0.1
      type: LoadBalancer
      selector:
        name: my-db-selector
  2. Create a LoadBalancer service on your pod:

    $ oc create -f loadbalancer.yaml
  3. Check the service for an external IP. For example, for a service named myservice:

    $ oc get svc myservice

    When your LoadBalancer-type service has an external IP assigned, the output displays the IP:

    NAME         CLUSTER-IP      EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)   AGE
    myservice    172.30.74.106   172.29.0.1    3306/TCP    30s

24.4. Routing the Ingress CIDR for Development or Testing

Add a static route directing traffic for the ingress CIDR to a node in the cluster. For example:

# route add -net 172.29.0.0/16 gw 10.66.140.17 eth0

In the example above, 172.29.0.0/16 is the ingressIPNetworkCIDR, and 10.66.140.17 is the node IP.

24.4.1. Service externalIPs

In addition to the cluster’s internal IP addresses, the application developer can configure IP addresses that are external to the cluster. As the OpenShift Container Platform administrator, you are responsible for ensuring that traffic arrives at a node with this IP.

The externalIPs must be selected by the administrator from the externalIPNetworkCIDRs range configured in the master-config.yaml file. When master-config.yaml changes, the master service must be restarted.

Example 24.4. Sample externalIPNetworkCIDR /etc/origin/master/master-config.yaml

networkConfig:
  externalIPNetworkCIDR: 172.47.0.0/24

Example 24.5. Service externalIPs Definition (JSON)

{
    "kind": "Service",
    "apiVersion": "v1",
    "metadata": {
        "name": "my-service"
    },
    "spec": {
        "selector": {
            "app": "MyApp"
        },
        "ports": [
            {
                "name": "http",
                "protocol": "TCP",
                "port": 80,
                "targetPort": 9376
            }
        ],
        "externalIPs" : [
            "80.11.12.10"         1
        ]
    }
}
1
List of External IP addresses on which the port is exposed. In addition to the internal IP addresses)

Chapter 25. Handling Out of Resource Errors

25.1. Overview

This topic discusses best-effort attempts to prevent OpenShift Container Platform from experiencing out-of-memory (OOM) and out-of-disk-space conditions.

A node must maintain stability when available compute resources are low. This is especially important when dealing with incompressible resources such as memory or disk. If either resource is exhausted, the node becomes unstable.

Administrators can proactively monitor nodes for and prevent against situations where the node runs out of compute and memory resources using configurable eviction policies.

This topic also provides information on how OpenShift Container Platform handles out-of-resource conditions and provides an example scenario and recommended practices:

Warning

If swap memory is enabled for a node, that node cannot detect that it is under MemoryPressure.

To take advantage of memory based evictions, operators must disable swap.

25.2. Configuring Eviction Policies

An eviction policy allows a node to fail one or more pods when the node is running low on available resources. Failing a pod allows the node to reclaim needed resources.

An eviciton policy is a combination of an eviction trigger signal with a specific eviction threshold value, that is set in the node configuration file or through the command line. Evictions can be either hard, where a node takes immediate action on a pod that exceeds a threshold, or soft, where a node allows a grace period before taking action. See the sections below for important information the differences between hard and soft evictions.

By using well-configured eviction policies, a node can proactively monitor for and prevent against total starvation of a compute resource.

Note

When the node fails a pod, it terminates all containers in the pod, and the PodPhase is transitioned to Failed.

25.2.1. Using the Node Configuration to Create a Policy

To configure an eviction policy, edit the node configuration file (the /etc/origin/node/node-config.yaml file) to specify the eviction thresholds under the eviction-hard or eviction-soft parameters.

For example:

Example 25.1. Sample Node Configuration file for a hard eviction

kubeletArguments:
  eviction-hard: 1
  - memory.available<500Mi2
  - nodefs.available<500Mi
  - nodefs.inodesFree<100Mi
  - imagefs.available<100Mi
  - imagefs.inodesFree<100Mi
1
The type of eviction: Use this parameter for a hard eviction.
2
An eviction threshold based on a specific eviction trigger signal.

Example 25.2. Sample Node Configuration file for a soft eviction

kubeletArguments:
  eviction-soft: 1
  - memory.available<500Mi 2
  - nodefs.available<500Mi
  - nodefs.inodesFree<100Mi
  - imagefs.available<100Mi
  - imagefs.inodesFree<100Mi
  eviction-soft-grace-period:3
  - memory.available=1m30s
  - nodefs.available=1m30s
  - nodefs.inodesFree=1m30s
  - imagefs.available=1m30s
  - imagefs.inodesFree=1m30s
1
The type of eviction: Use this parameter for a soft eviction.
2
An eviction threshold based on a specific eviction trigger signal.
3
The grace period for the soft eviction. Leave the default values for optimal performance.
  1. Restart the OpenShift Container Platform service for the changes to take effect:

    # systemctl restart atomic-openshift-node

25.2.2. Understanding Eviction Signals

You can configure a node to trigger eviction decisions on any of the signals described in the table below. You add an eviction signal to an eviction threshold along with a threshold value.

The value of each signal is described in the Description column based on the node summary API.

To view the signals:

curl <certificate details> \
  https://<master>/api/v1/nodes/<node>/proxy/stats/summary

Table 25.1. Supported Eviction Signals

Node ConditionEviction SignalValueDescription

MemoryPressure

memory.available

memory.available = node.status.capacity[memory] - node.stats.memory.workingSet

Available memory on the node has exceeded an eviction threshold.

DiskPressure

nodefs.available

nodefs.available = node.stats.fs.available

Available diskspace on either the node root file system or image file system has exceeded an eviction threshold.

nodefs.inodesFree

nodefs.inodesFree = node.stats.fs.inodesFree

imagefs.available

imagefs.available = node.stats.runtime.imagefs.available

imagefs.inodesFree

imagefs.inodesFree = node.stats.runtime.imagefs.inodesFree

Each of the above signals supports either a literal or percentage-based value. The percentage-based value is calculated relative to the total capacity associated with each signal.

A script derives the value for memory.available from your cgroup driver using the same set of steps that the kubelet performs. The script excludes inactive file memory (that is, the number of bytes of file-backed memory on inactive LRU list) from its calculation as it assumes that inactive file memory is reclaimable under pressure.

Note

Do not use tools like free -m, because free -m does not work in a container.

The node supports the nodefs and imagefs file system partitions when detecting disk pressure, as follows:

  • The nodefs file system that the node uses for local disk volumes, daemon logs, and so on (for example, the file system that provides /).
  • The imagefs file system that the container runtime uses for storing images and individual container writable layers.

OpenShift Container Platform monitors these file systems every 10 seconds.

If you store volumes and logs in a dedicated file system, the node will not monitor that file system.

Note

As of OpenShift Container Platform 3.4, the node supports the ability to trigger eviction decisions based on disk pressure. Before evicting pods becuase of disk pressure, the node also performs container and image garbage collection. In future releases, garbage collection will be deprecated in favor of a pure disk-eviction based configuration.

25.2.3. Understanding Eviction Thresholds

You can configure a node to specify eviction thresholds, which triggers the node to reclaim resources, by adding a threshold to the node configuration file.

If an eviction threshold is met, independent of its associated grace period, the node reports a condition indicating that the node is under memory or disk pressure. This prevents the scheduler from scheduling any additional pods on the node while attempts to reclaim resources are made.

The node continues to report node status updates at the frequency specified by the node-status-update-frequency argument, which defaults to 10s (ten seconds).

Eviction thresholds can be hard, for when the node takes immediate action when a threshold is met, or soft, for when you allow a grace period before reclaiming resources.

Note

Soft eviction usage is more common when you are targeting a certain level of utilization, but can tolerate temporary spikes. We recommended setting the soft eviction threshold lower than the hard eviction threshold, but the time period can be operator-specific. The system reservation should also cover the soft eviction threshold.

The soft eviction threshold is an advanced feature. You should configure a hard eviction threshold before attempting to use soft eviction thresholds.

Thresholds are configured in the following form:

<eviction_signal><operator><quantity>

For example, if an operator has a node with 10Gi of memory, and that operator wants to induce eviction if available memory falls below 1Gi, an eviction threshold for memory can be specified as either of the following:

memory.available<1Gi
memory.available<10%
Note

The node evaluates and monitors eviction thresholds every 10 seconds and the value can not be modified. This is the housekeeping interval.

25.2.3.1. Understanding Hard Eviction Thresholds

A hard eviction threshold has no grace period and, if observed, the node takes immediate action to reclaim the associated starved resource. If a hard eviction threshold is met, the node kills the pod immediately with no graceful termination.

To configure hard eviction thresholds, add eviction thresholds to the node configuration file under eviction-hard, as shown in Using the Node Configuration to Create a Policy.

Sample Node Configuration file with hard eviction thresholds

kubeletArguments:
  eviction-hard:
  - memory.available<500Mi
  - nodefs.available<500Mi
  - nodefs.inodesFree<100Mi
  - imagefs.available<100Mi
  - imagefs.inodesFree<100Mi

This example is a general guideline and not recommended settings.

25.2.3.1.1. Default Hard Eviction Thresholds

OpenShift Container Platform uses the following default configuration for eviction-hard.

...
kubeletArguments:
  eviction-hard:
  - memory.available<100Mi
  - nodefs.available<10%
  - nodefs.inodesFree<5%
  - imagefs.available<15%
...

25.2.3.2. Understanding Soft Eviction Thresholds

A soft eviction threshold pairs an eviction threshold with a required administrator-specified grace period. The node does not reclaim resources associated with the eviction signal until that grace period is exceeded. If no grace period is provided in the node configuration the node errors on startup.

In addition, if a soft eviction threshold is met, an operator can specify a maximum allowed pod termination grace period to use when evicting pods from the node. If eviction-max-pod-grace-period is specified, the node uses the lesser value among the pod.Spec.TerminationGracePeriodSeconds and the maximum-allowed grace period. If not specified, the node kills pods immediately with no graceful termination.

For soft eviction thresholds the following flags are supported:

  • eviction-soft: a set of eviction thresholds (for example, memory.available<1.5Gi) that, if met over a corresponding grace period, triggers a pod eviction.
  • eviction-soft-grace-period: a set of eviction grace periods (for example, memory.available=1m30s) that correspond to how long a soft eviction threshold must hold before triggering a pod eviction.
  • eviction-max-pod-grace-period: the maximum-allowed grace period (in seconds) to use when terminating pods in response to a soft eviction threshold being met.

To configure soft eviction thresholds, add eviction thresholds to the node configuration file under eviction-soft, as shown in Using the Node Configuration to Create a Policy.

Sample Node Configuration files with soft eviction thresholds

kubeletArguments:
  eviction-soft:
  - memory.available<500Mi
  - nodefs.available<500Mi
  - nodefs.inodesFree<100Mi
  - imagefs.available<100Mi
  - imagefs.inodesFree<100Mi
  eviction-soft-grace-period:
  - memory.available=1m30s
  - nodefs.available=1m30s
  - nodefs.inodesFree=1m30s
  - imagefs.available=1m30s
  - imagefs.inodesFree=1m30s

This example is a general guideline and not recommended settings.

25.3. Configuring the Amount of Resource for Scheduling

You can control how much of a node resource is made available for scheduling in order to allow the scheduler to fully allocate a node and to prevent evictions.

Set system-reserved equal to the amount of resource you want available to the scheduler for deploying pods and for system-daemons. Evictions should only occur if pods use more than their requested amount of an allocatable resource.

A node reports two values:

  • Capacity: How much resource is on the machine
  • Allocatable: How much resource is made available for scheduling.

To configure the amount of allocatable resources, edit the node configuration file (the /etc/origin/node/node-config.yaml file) to add or modify the system-reserved parameter for eviction-hard or eviction-soft.

+

kubeletArguments:
  eviction-hard: 1
    - "memory.available<500Mi"
  system-reserved:
    - "1.5Gi"
1
This threshold can either be eviction-hard or eviction-soft.
  1. Restart the OpenShift Container Platform service for the changes to take effect:

    # systemctl restart atomic-openshift-node

25.4. Controlling Node Condition Oscillation

If a node is oscillating above and below a soft eviction threshold, but not exceeding its associated grace period, the corresponding node condition oscillates between true and false, which can cause problems for the scheduler.

To prevent this oscillation, set the eviction-pressure-transition-period parameter to control how long the node must wait before transitioning out of a pressure condition.

  1. Edit or add the parameter to the kubeletArguments section of the node configuration file (the /etc/origin/node/node-config.yaml) using a set of <resource_type>=<resource_quantity> pairs.
kubeletArguments:
  eviction-pressure-transition-period="5m"

+ The node toggles the condition back to false when the node has not observed an eviction threshold being met for the specified pressure condition for the specified period.

+

Note

Use the default value (5 minutes) before doing any adjustments. The default choice is intended to allow the system to stabilize, and to prevent the scheduler from assigning new pods to the node before it has settled.

  1. Restart the OpenShift Container Platform services for the changes to take effect:

    # systemctl restart atomic-openshift-node

25.5. Reclaiming Node-level Resources

If an eviction criteria is satisfied, the node initiates the process of reclaiming the pressured resource until the signal goes below the defined threshold. During this time, the node does not support scheduling any new pods.

The node attempts to reclaim node-level resources prior to evicting end-user pods, based on whether the host system has a dedicated imagefs configured for the container runtime.

With Imagefs

If the host system has imagefs:

  • If the nodefs file system meets eviction thresholds, the node frees up disk space in the following order:

    • Delete dead pods/containers
  • If the imagefs file system meets eviction thresholds, the node frees up disk space in the following order:

    • Delete all unused images
Without Imagefs

If the host system does not have imagefs:

  • If the nodefs file system meets eviction thresholds, the node frees up disk space in the following order:

    • Delete dead pods/containers
    • Delete all unused images

25.6. Understanding Pod Eviction

If an eviction threshold is met and the grace period is passed, the node initiates the process of evicting pods until the signal goes below the defined threshold.

The node ranks pods for eviction by their quality of service, and, among those with the same quality of service, by the consumption of the starved compute resource relative to the pod’s scheduling request.

Each QOS level has an OOM score, which the Linux out-of-memory tool (OOM killer) uses to determine which pods to kill. See Understanding Quality of Service and Out of Memory Killer below.

The following table lists each QOS level and the associated OOM score.

Table 25.2. Quality of Service Levels

Quality of ServiceDescription

Guaranteed

Pods that consume the highest amount of the starved resource relative to their request are failed first. If no pod has exceeded its request, the strategy targets the largest consumer of the starved resource.

Burstable

Pods that consume the highest amount of the starved resource relative to their request for that resource are failed first. If no pod has exceeded its request, the strategy targets the largest consumer of the starved resource.

BestEffort

Pods that consume the highest amount of the starved resource are failed first.

A Guaranteed pod will never be evicted because of another pod’s resource consumption unless a system daemon (such as node, docker, journald) is consuming more resources than were reserved using system-reserved, or kube-reserved allocations or if the node has only Guaranteed pods remaining.

If the node has only Guaranteed pods remaining, the node evicts a Guaranteed pod that least impacts node stability and limits the impact of the unexpected consumption to other Guaranteed pods.

Local disk is a BestEffort resource. If necessary, the node evicts pods one at a time to reclaim disk when DiskPressure is encountered. The node ranks pods by quality of service. If the node is responding to inode starvation, it will reclaim inodes by evicting pods with the lowest quality of service first. If the node is responding to lack of available disk, it will rank pods within a quality of service that consumes the largest amount of local disk, and evict those pods first.

25.6.1. Understanding Quality of Service and Out of Memory Killer

If the node experiences a system out of memory (OOM) event before it is able to reclaim memory, the node depends on the OOM killer to respond.

The node sets a oom_score_adj value for each container based on the quality of service for the pod.

Table 25.3. Quality of Service Levels

Quality of Serviceoom_score_adj Value

Guaranteed

-998

Burstable

min(max(2, 1000 - (1000 * memoryRequestBytes) / machineMemoryCapacityBytes), 999)

BestEffort

1000

If the node is unable to reclaim memory prior to experiencing a system OOM event, the oom_killer calculates an oom_score:

% of node memory a container is using + `oom_score_adj` = `oom_score`

The node then kills the container with the highest score.

Containers with the lowest quality of service that are consuming the largest amount of memory relative to the scheduling request are failed first.

Unlike pod eviction, if a pod container is OOM failed, it can be restarted by the node based on the node restart policy.

25.7. Understanding the Pod Scheduler and OOR Conditions

The scheduler views node conditions when placing additional pods on the node. For example, if the node has an eviction threshold like the following:

eviction-hard is "memory.available<500Mi"

and available memory falls below 500Mi, the node reports a value in Node.Status.Conditions as MemoryPressure as true.

Table 25.4. Node Conditions and Scheduler Behavior

Node ConditionScheduler Behavior

MemoryPressure

If a node reports this condition, the scheduler will not place BestEffort pods on that node.

DiskPressure

If a node reports this condition, the scheduler will not place any additional pods on that node.

25.8. Example Scenario

Consider the following scenario.

An opertator:

  • has a node with a memory capacity of 10Gi;
  • wants to reserve 10% of memory capacity for system daemons (kernel, node, etc.);
  • wants to evict pods at 95% memory utilization to reduce thrashing and incidence of system OOM.

Implicit in this configuration is the understanding that system-reserved should include the amount of memory covered by the eviction threshold.

To reach that capacity, either some pod is using more than its request, or the system is using more than 1Gi.

If a node has 10 Gi of capacity, and you want to reserve 10% of that capacity for the system daemons (system-reserved), perform the following calculation:

capacity = 10 Gi
system-reserved = 10 Gi * .01 = 1 Gi

The amount of allocatable resources becomes:

allocatable = capacity - system-reserved = 9 Gi

This means by default, the scheduler will schedule pods that request 9 Gi of memory to that node.

If you want to turn on eviction so that eviction is triggered when the node observes that available memory falls below 10% of capacity for 30 seconds, or immediately when it falls below 5% of capacity, you need the scheduler to see allocatable as 8Gi. Therefore, ensure your system reservation covers the greater of your eviction thresholds.

capacity = 10 Gi
eviction-threshold = 10 Gi * .05 = .5 Gi
system-reserved = (10Gi * .01) + eviction-threshold = 1.5 Gi
allocatable = capacity - system-reserved = 8.5 Gi

Enter the following in the node-config.yaml:

kubeletArguments:
  system-reserved:
  - "8.5Gi"
  eviction-hard:
  - memory.available<.5Gi
  eviction-soft:
  - memory.available<1Gi
  eviction-soft-grace-period:
  - memory.available=30s

This configuration ensures that the scheduler does not place pods on a node that immediately induce memory pressure and trigger eviction assuming those pods use less than their configured request.

Chapter 26. Monitoring and Debugging Routers

26.1. Overview

Depending on the underlying implementation, you can monitor a running router in multiple ways. This topic discusses the HAProxy template router and the components to check to ensure its health.

26.2. Viewing Statistics

The HAProxy router exposes a web listener for the HAProxy statistics. Enter the router’s public IP address and the correctly configured port (1936 by default) to view the statistics page, and enter the administrator password when prompted. This password and port are configured during the router installation, but they can be found by viewing the haproxy.config file on the container.

26.3. Disabling Statistics View

By default the HAProxy statistics are exposed on port 1936 (with a password protected account). To disable exposing the HAProxy statistics, specify 0 as the stats port number.

$ oadm router hap --service-account=router --stats-port=0

Note: HAProxy will still collect and store statistics, it would just not expose them via a web listener. You can still get access to the statistics by sending a request to the HAProxy AF_UNIX socket inside the HAProxy Router container.

$ cmd="echo 'show stat' | socat - UNIX-CONNECT:/var/lib/haproxy/run/haproxy.sock"
$ routerPod=$(oc get pods --selector="router=router"  \
    --template="{{with index .items 0}}{{.metadata.name}}{{end}}")
$ oc exec $routerPod -- bash -c "$cmd"
Important

For security purposes, the oc exec command does not work when accessing privileged containers. Instead, you can SSH into a node host, then use the docker exec command on the desired container.

26.4. Viewing Logs

To view a router log, run the oc logs command on the pod. Since the router is running as a plug-in process that manages the underlying implementation, the log is for the plug-in, not the actual HAProxy log.

To view the logs generated by HAProxy, start a syslog server and pass the location to a router pod using the following environment variables.

Table 26.1. Router Syslog Variables

Environment VariableDescription

ROUTER_SYSLOG_ADDRESS

The IP address of the syslog server. Port 514 is the default if no port is specified.

ROUTER_LOG_LEVEL

Optional. Set to change the HAProxy log level. If not set, the default log level is warning. This can be changed to any log level that HAProxy supports.

ROUTER_SYSLOG_FORMAT

Optional. Set to define customized HAProxy log format. This can be changed to any log format string that HAProxy accepts.

To set a running router pod to send messages to a syslog server:

$ oc set env dc/router ROUTER_SYSLOG_ADDRESS=<dest_ip:dest_port>  ROUTER_LOG_LEVEL=<level>

For example, the following sets HAProxy to send logs to 127.0.0.1 with the default port 514 and changes the log level to debug.

$ oc set env dc/router ROUTER_SYSLOG_ADDRESS=127.0.0.1 ROUTER_LOG_LEVEL=debug

26.5. Viewing the Router Internals

routes.json

Routes are processed by the HAProxy router, and are stored both in memory, on disk, and in the HAProxy configuration file. The internal route representation, which is passed to the template to generate the HAProxy configuration file, is found in the /var/lib/haproxy/router/routes.json file. When troubleshooting a routing issue, view this file to see the data being used to drive configuration.

HAProxy configuration

You can find the HAProxy configuration and the backends that have been created for specific routes in the /var/lib/haproxy/conf/haproxy.config file. The mapping files are found in the same directory. The helper frontend and backends use mapping files when mapping incoming requests to a backend.

Certificates

Certificates are stored in two places:

  • Certificates for edge terminated and re-encrypt terminated routes are stored in the /var/lib/haproxy/router/certs directory.
  • Certificates that are used for connecting to backends for re-encrypt terminated routes are stored in the /var/lib/haproxy/router/cacerts directory.

The files are keyed by the namespace and name of the route. The key, certificate, and CA certificate are concatenated into a single file. You can use OpenSSL to view the contents of these files.

Chapter 27. High Availability

27.1. Overview

This topic describes setting up high availability for pods and services on your OpenShift Container Platform cluster.

IP failover manages a pool of Virtual IP (VIP) addresses on a set of nodes. Every VIP in the set will be serviced by a node selected from the set. As long a single node is available, the VIPs will be served. There is no way to explicitly distribute the VIPs over the nodes. so there may be nodes with no VIPs and other nodes with many VIPs. If there is only one node, all VIPs will be on it.

Note

The VIPs must be routable from outside the cluster.

IP failover monitors a port on each VIP to determine whether the port is reachable on the node. If the port is not reachable, the VIP will not be assigned to the node. If the port is set to 0, this check is suppressed. The check script does the needed testing.

IP failover uses Keepalived to host a set of externally accessible VIP addresses on a set of hosts. Each VIP is only serviced by a single host at a time. Keepalived uses the VRRP protocol to determine which host (from the set of hosts) will service which VIP. If a host becomes unavailable or if the service that Keepalived is watching does not respond, the VIP is switched to another host from the set. Thus, a VIP is always serviced as long as a host is available.

When a host running Keepalived passes the check script, the host can become in the MASTER state based on its priority and the priority of the current MASTER, as determined by the preemption strategy.

The administrator can provide a script via the --notify-script= option, which is called whenever the state changes. Keepalived is in MASTER state when it is servicing the VIP, in BACKUP state when another node is servicing the VIP, or in FAULT` state when the check script fails. The notify script is called with the new state whenever the state changes.

OpenShift Container Platform supports creation of IP failover deployment configuration, by running the oc adm ipfailover command. The IP failover deployment configuration specifies the set of VIP addresses, and the set of nodes on which to service them. A cluster can have multiple IP failover deployment configurations, with each managing its own set of unique VIP addresses. Each node in the IP failover configuration runs an IP failover pod, and this pod runs Keepalived.

When using VIPs to access a pod with host networking (e.g. a router), the application pod should be running on all nodes that are running the ipfailover pods. This enables any of the ipfailover nodes to become the master and service the VIPs when needed. If application pods are not running on all nodes with ipfailover, either some ipfailover nodes will never service the VIPs or some application pods will never receive any traffic. Use the same selector and replication count, for both ipfailover and the application pods, to avoid this mismatch.

While using VIPs to access a service, any of the nodes can be in the ipfailover set of nodes, since the service is reachable on all nodes (no matter where the application pod is running). Any of the ipfailover nodes can become master at any time. The service can either use external IPs and a service port or it can use a nodePort.

When using external IPs in the service definition the VIPs are set to the external IPs and the ipfailover monitoring port is set to the service port. A nodePort is open on every node in the cluster and the service will load balance traffic from whatever node currently supports the VIP. In this case, the ipfailover monitoring port is set to the nodePort in the service definition.

Important

Setting up a nodePort is a privileged operation.

Important

Even though a service VIP is highly available, performance can still be affected. keepalived makes sure that each of the VIPs is serviced by some node in the configuration, and several VIPs may end up on the same node even when other nodes have none. Strategies that externally load balance across a set of VIPs may be thawed when ipfailover puts multiple VIPs on the same node.

When you use ingressIP, you can set up ipfailover to have the same VIP range as the ingressIP range. You can also disable the monitoring port. In this case, all the VIPs will appear on same node in the cluster. Any user can set up a service with an ingressIP and have it highly available.

Important

There are a maximum of 255 VIPs in the cluster.

27.2. Configuring IP Failover

Use the oc adm ipfailover command with suitable options, to create ipfailover deployment configuration.

Important

Currently, ipfailover is not compatible with cloud infrastructures. For AWS, an Elastic Load Balancer (ELB) can be used to make OpenShift Container Platform highly available, using the AWS console.

As an administrator, you can configure ipfailover on an entire cluster, or on a subset of nodes, as defined by the label selector. You can also configure multiple IP failover deployment configurations in your cluster, where each one is independent of the others. The oc adm ipfailover command creates an ipfailover deployment configuration which ensures that a failover pod runs on each of the nodes matching the constraints or the label used. This pod runs Keepalived which uses VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol) among all the Keepalived daemons to ensure that the service on the watched port is available, and if it is not, Keepalived will automatically float the VIPs.

For production use, make sure to use a --selector=<label> with at least two nodes to select the nodes. Also, set a --replicas=<n> value that matches the number of nodes for the given labeled selector.

The oc adm ipfailover command includes command line options that set environment variables that control Keepalived. The environment variables start with OPENSHIFT_HA_* and they can be changed as needed.

For example, the command below will create an IP failover configuration on a selection of nodes labeled router=us-west-ha (on 4 nodes with 7 virtual IPs monitoring a service listening on port 80, such as the router process).

$ oc adm ipfailover --selector="router=us-west-ha" \
    --virtual-ips="1.2.3.4,10.1.1.100-104,5.6.7.8" \
    --watch-port=80 --replicas=4 --create

27.2.1. Virtual IP Addresses

Keepalived manages a set of virtual IP addresses. The administrator must make sure that all these addresses:

  • Are accessible on the configured hosts from outside the cluster.
  • Are not used for any other purpose within the cluster.

Keepalived on each node determines whether the needed service is running. If it is, VIPs are supported and Keepalived participates in the negotiation to determine which node will serve the VIP. For a node to participate, the service must be listening on the watch port on a VIP or the check must be disabled.

Note

Each VIP in the set may end up being served by a different node.

27.2.2. Check and Notify Scripts

Keepalived monitors the health of the application by periodically running an optional user supplied check script. For example, the script can test a web server by issuing a request and verifying the response.

The script is provided through the --check-script=<script> option to the oc adm ipfailover command. The script must exit with 0 for PASS or 1 for FAIL.

By default, the check is done every two seconds, but can be changed using the --check-interval=<seconds> option.

When a check script is not provided, a simple default script is run that tests the TCP connection. This default test is suppressed when the monitor port is 0.

For each VIP, keepalived keeps the state of the node. The VIP on the node may be in MASTER, BACKUP, or FAULT state. All VIPs on the node that are not in the FAULT state participate in the negotiation to decide which will be MASTER for the VIP. All of the losers enter the BACKUP state. When the check script on the MASTER fails, the VIP enters the FAULT state and triggers a renegotiation. When the BACKUP fails, the VIP enters the FAULT state. When the check script passes again on a VIP in the FAULT state, it exits FAULT and negotiates for MASTER. The resulting state is either MASTER or BACKUP.

The administrator can provide an optional notify script, which is called whenever the state changes. Keepalived passes the following three parameters to the script:

  • $1 - "GROUP"|"INSTANCE"
  • $2 - Name of the group or instance
  • $3 - The new state ("MASTER"|"BACKUP"|"FAULT")

These scripts run in the IP failover pod and use the pod’s file system, not the host file system. The options require the full path to the script. The administrator must make the script available in the pod to extract the results from running the notify script. The recommended approach for providing the scripts is to use a ConfigMap.

The full path names of the check and notify scripts are added to the keepalived configuration file, /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf, which is loaded every time keepalived starts. The scripts can be added to the pod with a ConfigMap as follows.

  1. Create the desired script and create a ConfigMap to hold it. The script has no input arguments and must return 0 for OK and 1 for FAIL.

    The check script, mycheckscript.sh:

    #!/bin/bash
        # Whatever tests are needed
        # E.g., send request and verify response
    exit 0
  2. Create the ConfigMap:

    $ oc create configmap mycustomcheck --from-file=mycheckscript.sh
  3. There are two approaches to adding the script to the pod: use oc commands or edit the deployment configuration. In both cases, the defaultMode for the mounted configMap files must allow execution. A value of 0755 (493 decimal) is typical.

    1. Using oc commands:

      $ oc env dc/ipf-ha-router \
          OPENSHIFT_HA_CHECK_SCRIPT=/etc/keepalive/mycheckscript.sh
      $ oc volume dc/ipf-ha-router --add --overwrite \
          --name=config-volume \
          --mount-path=/etc/keepalive \
          --source='{"configMap": { "name": "mycustomcheck", "defaultMode": 493}}'
    2. Editing the ipf-ha-router deployment configuration:

      1. Use oc edit dc ipf-ha-router to edit the router deployment configuration with a text editor.

        ...
            spec:
              containers:
              - env:
                - name: OPENSHIFT_HA_CHECK_SCRIPT  1
                  value: /etc/keepalive/mycheckscript.sh
        ...
                volumeMounts: 2
                - mountPath: /etc/keepalive
                  name: config-volume
              dnsPolicy: ClusterFirst
        ...
              volumes: 3
              - configMap:
                  defaultMode: 0755 4
                  name: customrouter
                name: config-volume
        ...
        1
        In the spec.container.env field, add the OPENSHIFT_HA_CHECK_SCRIPT environment variable to point to the mounted script file.
        2
        Add the spec.container.volumeMounts field to create the mount point.
        3
        Add a new spec.volumes field to mention the ConfigMap.
        4
        This sets execute permission on the files. When read back, it will be displayed in decimal (493).
      2. Save the changes and exit the editor. This restarts ipf-ha-router.

27.2.3. VRRP Preemption

When a host leaves the FAULT state by passing the check script, the host becomes a BACKUP if the new host has lower priority than the host currently in the MASTER state. However, if it has a higher priority, the preemption strategy determines it’s role in the cluster.

The nopreempt strategy does not move MASTER from the lower priority host to the higher priority host. With preempt 300, the default, keepalived waits the specified 300 seconds and moves MASTER to the higher priority host.

To specify preemption:

  1. When creating ipfailover using the preemption-strategy:

    $ oc adm ipfailover --preempt-strategy=nopreempt \
      ...
  2. Setting the variable using the oc set env command:

    $ oc set env dc/ipf-ha-router \
        --overwrite=true \
        OPENSHIFT_HA_PREEMPTION=nopreempt
  3. Using oc edit dc ipf-ha-router to edit the router deployment configuration:

    ...
        spec:
          containers:
          - env:
            - name: OPENSHIFT_HA_PREEMPTION  1
              value: nopreempt
    ...

27.2.4. Keepalived Multicast

OpenShift Container Platform’s IP failover internally uses keepalived.

Important

Ensure that multicast is enabled on the nodes labeled above and they can accept network traffic for 224.0.0.18 (the VRRP multicast IP address).

Before starting the keepalived daemon, the startup script verifies the iptables rule that allows multicast traffic to flow. If there is no such rule, the startup script creates a new rule and adds it to the IP tables configuration. Where this new rule gets added to the IP tables configuration depends on the --iptables-chain= option. If there is an --iptables-chain= option specified, the rule gets added to the specified chain in the option. Otherwise, the rule is added to the INPUT chain.

Important

The iptables rule must be present whenever there is one or more keepalived daemon running on the node.

The iptables rule can be removed after the last keepalived daemon terminates. The rule is not automatically removed.

You can manually manage the iptables rule on each of the nodes. It only gets created when none is present (as long as ipfailover is not created with the --iptable-chain="" option).

Important

You must ensure that the manually added rules persist after a system restart.

Be careful since every keepalived daemon uses the VRRP protocol over multicast 224.0.0.18 to negotiate with its peers. There must be a different VRRP-id (in the range 0..255) for each VIP.

$ for node in openshift-node-{5,6,7,8,9}; do   ssh $node <<EOF

export interface=${interface:-"eth0"}
echo "Check multicast enabled ... ";
ip addr show $interface | grep -i MULTICAST

echo "Check multicast groups ... "
ip maddr show $interface | grep 224.0.0 | grep $interface

EOF
done;

27.2.5. Command Line Options and Environment Variables

Table 27.1. Command Line Options and Environment Variables

OptionVariable NameDefaultNotes

--watch-port

OPENSHIFT_HA_MONITOR_PORT

80

The ipfailover pod tries to open a TCP connection to this port on each VIP. If connection is established, the service is considered to be running. If this port is set to 0, the test always passes.

--interface

OPENSHIFT_HA_NETWORK_INTERFACE

 

The interface name for ipfailover to use, to send VRRP traffic. By default, eth0 is used.

--replicas

OPENSHIFT_HA_REPLICA_COUNT

2

Number of replicas to create. This must match spec.replicas value in ipfailover deployment configuration.

--virtual-ips

OPENSHIFT_HA_VIRTUAL_IPS

 

The list of IP address ranges to replicate. This must be provided. (For example, 1.2.3.4-6,1.2.3.9.) See this discussion for more details.

--vrrp-id-offset

OPENSHIFT_HA_VRRP_ID_OFFSET

0

See VRRP ID Offset discussion for more details.

--iptables-chain

OPENSHIFT_HA_IPTABLES_CHAIN

INPUT

The name of the iptables chain, to automatically add an iptables rule to allow the VRRP traffic on. If the value is not set, an iptables rule will not be added. If the chain does not exist, it is not created.

--check-script

OPENSHIFT_HA_CHECK_SCRIPT

 

Full path name in the pod file system of a script that is periodically run to verify the application is operating. See this discussion for more details.

--check-interval

OPENSHIFT_HA_CHECK_INTERVAL

2

The period, in seconds, that the check script is run.

--notify-script

OPENSHIFT_HA_NOTIFY_SCRIPT

 

Full path name in the pod file system of a script that is run whenever the state changes. See this discussion for more details.

--preemption-strategy

OPENSHIFT_HA_PREEMPTION

preempt 300

Strategy for handling a new higher priority host. See the VRRP Preemption section for more details.

27.2.6. VRRP ID Offset

Each ipfailover pod managed by the ipfailover deployment configuration (1 pod per node/replica) runs a keepalived daemon. As more ipfailover deployment configurations are configured, more pods are created and more daemons join into the common VRRP negotiation. This negotiation is done by all the keepalived daemons and it determines which nodes will service which VIPs.

Internally, keepalived assigns a unique vrrp-id to each VIP. The negotiation uses this set of vrrp-ids, when a decision is made, the VIP corresponding to the winning vrrp-id is serviced on the winning node.

Therefore, for every VIP defined in the ipfailover deployment configuration, the ipfailover pod must assign a corresponding vrrp-id. This is done by starting at --vrrp-id-offset and sequentially assigning the vrrp-ids to the list of VIPs. The vrrp-ids may have values in the range 1..255.

When there are multiple ipfailover deployment configuration care must be taken to specify --vrrp-id-offset so that there is room to increase the number of VIPS in the deployment configuration and none of the vrrp-id ranges overlap.

27.2.7. Configuring a Highly-available Service

The following example describes how to set up highly-available router and geo-cache network services with IP failover on a set of nodes.

  1. Label the nodes that will be used for the services. This step can be optional if you run the services on all the nodes in your OpenShift Container Platform cluster and will use VIPs that can float within all nodes in the cluster.

    The following example defines a label for nodes that are servicing traffic in the US west geography ha-svc-nodes=geo-us-west:

    $ oc label nodes openshift-node-{5,6,7,8,9} "ha-svc-nodes=geo-us-west"
  2. Create the service account. You can use ipfailover or when using a router (depending on your environment policies), you can either reuse the router service account created previously or a new ipfailover service account.

    The following example creates a new service account with the name ipfailover in the default namespace:

    $ oc create serviceaccount ipfailover -n default
  3. Add the ipfailover service account in the default namespace to the privileged SCC:

    $ oc adm policy add-scc-to-user privileged system:serviceaccount:default:ipfailover
  4. Start the router and the geo-cache services.

    Important

    Since the ipfailover runs on all nodes from step 1, it is recommended to also run the router/service on all the step 1 nodes.

    1. Start the router with the nodes matching the labels used in the first step. The following example runs five instances using the ipfailover service account:

      $ oc adm router ha-router-us-west --replicas=5 \
          --selector="ha-svc-nodes=geo-us-west" \
          --labels="ha-svc-nodes=geo-us-west" \
          --service-account=ipfailover
    2. Run the geo-cache service with a replica on each of the nodes. See an example configuration for running a geo-cache service.

      Important

      Make sure that you replace the myimages/geo-cache Docker image referenced in the file with your intended image. Change the number of replicas to the number of nodes in the geo-cache label. Check that the label matches the one used in the first step.

      $ oc create -n <namespace> -f ./examples/geo-cache.json
  5. Configure ipfailover for the router and geo-cache services. Each has its own VIPs and both use the same nodes labeled with ha-svc-nodes=geo-us-west in the first step. Ensure that the number of replicas match the number of nodes listed in the label setup, in the first step.

    Important

    The router, geo-cache, and ipfailover all create deployment configuration and all must have different names.

  6. Specify the VIPs and the port number that ipfailover should monitor on the desired instances.

    The ipfailover command for the router:

    $ oc adm ipfailover ipf-ha-router-us-west \
        --replicas=5 --watch-port=80 \
        --selector="ha-svc-nodes=geo-us-west" \
        --virtual-ips="10.245.2.101-105" \
        --iptables-chain="INPUT" \
        --service-account=ipfailover --create

    The following is the oc adm ipfailover command for the geo-cache service that is listening on port 9736. Since there are two ipfailover deployment configurations, the --vrrp-id-offset must be set so that each VIP gets its own offset. In this case, setting a value of 10 means that the ipf-ha-router-us-west can have a maximum of 10 VIPs (0-9) since ipf-ha-geo-cache is starting at 10.

    $ oc adm ipfailover ipf-ha-geo-cache \
        --replicas=5 --watch-port=9736 \
        --selector="ha-svc-nodes=geo-us-west" \
        --virtual-ips=10.245.3.101-105 \
        --vrrp-id-offset=10 \
        --service-account=ipfailover --create

    In the commands above, there are ipfailover, router, and geo-cache pods on each node. The set of VIPs for each ipfailover configuration must not overlap and they must not be used elsewhere in the external or cloud environments. The five VIP addresses in each example, 10.245.{2,3}.101-105 are served by the two ipfailover deployment configurations. IP failover dynamically selects which address is served on which node.

    The administrator sets up external DNS to point to the VIP addresses knowing that all the router VIPs point to the same router, and all the geo-cache VIPs point to the same geo-cache service. As long as one node remains running, all the VIP addresses are served.

27.2.7.1. Deploy IP Failover Pod

Deploy the ipfailover router to monitor postgresql listening on node port 32439 and the external IP address, as defined in the postgresql-ingress service:

$ oc adm ipfailover ipf-ha-postgresql \
    --replicas=1 <1> --selector="app-type=postgresql" <2> \
    --virtual-ips=10.9.54.100 <3> --watch-port=32439 <4>  \
    --service-account=ipfailover --create
1
Specifies the number of instances to deploy.
Restricts where the ipfailover is deployed.
Virtual IP address to monitor.
Port on which ipfailover will monitor on each node.

27.2.8. Dynamically Updating Virtual IPs for a Highly-available Service

The default deployment strategy for the IP failover service is to recreate the deployment. In order to dynamically update the VIPs for a highly available routing service with minimal or no downtime, you must:

  • Update the IP failover service deployment configuration to use a rolling update strategy, and
  • Update the OPENSHIFT_HA_VIRTUAL_IPS environment variable with the updated list or sets of virtual IP addresses.

The following example shows how to dynamically update the deployment strategy and the virtual IP addresses:

  1. Consider an IP failover configuration that was created using the following:

    $ oc adm ipfailover ipf-ha-router-us-west \
        --replicas=5 --watch-port=80 \
        --selector="ha-svc-nodes=geo-us-west" \
        --virtual-ips="10.245.2.101-105" \
        --service-account=ipfailover --create
  2. Edit the deployment configuration:

    $ oc edit dc/ipf-ha-router-us-west
  3. Update the spec.strategy.type field from Recreate to Rolling:

    spec:
      replicas: 5
      selector:
        ha-svc-nodes: geo-us-west
      strategy:
        recreateParams:
          timeoutSeconds: 600
        resources: {}
        type: Rolling 1
    1
    Set to Rolling.
  4. Update the OPENSHIFT_HA_VIRTUAL_IPS environment variable to contain the additional virtual IP addresses:

    - name: OPENSHIFT_HA_VIRTUAL_IPS
      value: 10.245.2.101-105,10.245.2.110,10.245.2.201-205 1
    1
    10.245.2.110,10.245.2.201-205 have been added to the list.
  5. Update the external DNS to match the set of VIPs.

27.3. Configuring Service ExternalIP and NodePort

The user can assign VIPs as ExternalIPs in a service. Keepalived makes sure that each VIP is served on some node in the ipfailover configuration. When a request arrives on the node, the service that is running on all nodes in the cluster, load balances the request among the service’s endpoints.

The NodePorts can be set to the ipfailover watch port so that keepalived can check the application is running. The NodePort is exposed on all nodes in the cluster, therefore it is available to keepalived on all ipfailover nodes.

27.4. High Availability For IngressIP

In non-cloud clusters, ipfailover and ingressIP to a service can be combined. The result is high availability services for users that create services using ingressIP.

The approach is to specify an ingressIPNetworkCIDR range and then use the same range in creating the ipfailover configuration.

Since, ipfailover can support up to a maximum of 255 VIPs for the entire cluster, the ingressIPNetworkCIDR needs to be /24 or less.

Chapter 28. iptables

28.1. Overview

There are many system components including OpenShift Container Platform, containers, and software that manage local firewall policies that rely on the kernel iptables configuration for proper network operation. In addition, the iptables configuration of all nodes in the cluster must be correct for networking to work.

All components independently work with iptables without knowledge of how other components are using them. This makes it very easy for one component to break another component’s configuration. Further, OpenShift Container Platform and the Docker service assume that iptables remains set up exactly as they have set it up. They may not detect changes introduced by other components and if they do there may be some lag in implementing the fix. In particular, OpenShift Container Platform does monitor and fix problems. However, the Docker service does not.

Important

Ensure that any changes you make to the iptables configuration on a node do not impact the operation of OpenShift Container Platform and the Docker service. Also, changes will often need to be made on all nodes in the cluster. Use caution, as iptables is not designed to have multiple concurrent users, and is very easy to break OpenShift Container Platform and Docker networking.

OpenShift Container Platform provides several chains, one of which is specifically intended for administrators to use for their own purposes: OPENSHIFT-ADMIN-OUTPUT-RULES. See the discussion of using iptables rules to limit access to external resources for more information.

The chains, order of the chains, and rules in the kernel iptables must be properly set up on each node in the cluster for OpenShift Container Platform and Docker networking to work properly. There are several tools and services that are commonly used in the system that interact with the kernel iptables and can accidentally impact OpenShift Container Platform and the Docker service.

28.2. iptables

The iptables tool can be used to set up, maintain, and inspect the tables of IPv4 packet filter rules in the Linux kernel.

Independent of other use, such as a firewall, OpenShift Container Platform and the the Docker service manage chains in some of the tables. The chains are inserted in specific order and the rules are specific to their needs.

Caution

iptables --flush [chain] can remove key required configuration. Do not execute this command.

28.3. iptables.service

The iptables service supports a local network firewall. It assumes total control of the iptables configuration. When it starts, it flushes and restores the complete iptables configuration. The restored rules are from its configuration file, /etc/sysconfig/iptables. The configuration file is not kept up to date during operation, so the dynamically added rules are lost during every restart.

Warning

Stopping and starting iptables.service will destroy configuration that is required by OpenShift Container Platform and Docker. OpenShift Container Platform and Docker are not notified of the change.

# systemctl disable iptables.service
# systemctl mask iptables.service

If you need to run iptables.service, keep a limited configuration in the configuration file and rely on OpenShift Container Platform and Docker to install their needed rules.

The iptables.service configuration is loaded from:

/etc/sysconfig/iptables

To make permanent rules changes, edit the changes into this file. Do not include Docker or OpenShift Container Platform rules.

After iptables.service is started or restarted on a node, the Docker service and atomic-openshift-node.service must be restarted to reconstruct the needed iptables configuration.

Important

Restarting the Docker service will cause all containers running on the node to be stopped and restarted.

# systemctl restart iptables.service
# systemctl restart docker
# systemctl restart atomic-openshift-node.service

Chapter 29. Securing Builds by Strategy

29.1. Overview

Builds in OpenShift Container Platform are run in privileged containers that have access to the Docker daemon socket. As a security measure, it is recommended to limit who can run builds and the strategy that is used for those builds. Custom builds are inherently less safe than Source builds, given that they can execute any code in the build with potentially full access to the node’s Docker socket, and as such are disabled by default. Docker build permission should also be granted with caution as a vulnerability in the Docker build logic could result in a privileges being granted on the host node.

By default, all users that can create builds are granted permission to use the Docker and Source-to-Image build strategies. Users with cluster-admin privileges can enable the Custom build strategy, as referenced in the Restricting Build Strategies to a User Globally section of this page.

You can control who can build with what build strategy using an authorization policy. Each build strategy has a corresponding build subresource. A user must have permission to create a build and permission to create on the build strategy subresource in order to create builds using that strategy. Default roles are provided which grant the create permission on the build strategy subresource.

Table 29.1. Build Strategy Subresources and Roles

StrategySubresourceRole

Docker

builds/docker

system:build-strategy-docker

Source-to-Image

builds/source

system:build-strategy-source

Custom

builds/custom

system:build-strategy-custom

JenkinsPipeline

builds/jenkinspipeline

system:build-strategy-jenkinspipeline

29.2. Disabling a Build Strategy Globally

To prevent access to a particular build strategy globally, log in as a user with cluster-admin privileges and remove the corresponding role from the system:authenticated group:

$ oadm policy remove-cluster-role-from-group system:build-strategy-custom system:authenticated
$ oadm policy remove-cluster-role-from-group system:build-strategy-docker system:authenticated
$ oadm policy remove-cluster-role-from-group system:build-strategy-source system:authenticated
$ oadm policy remove-cluster-role-from-group system:build-strategy-jenkinspipeline system:authenticated

In versions prior to 3.2, the build strategy subresources were included in the admin and edit roles. Ensure the build strategy subresources are also removed from these roles:

$ oc edit clusterrole admin
$ oc edit clusterrole edit

For each role, remove the line that corresponds to the resource of the strategy to disable.

Example 29.1. Disable the Docker Build Strategy for admin

kind: ClusterRole
metadata:
  name: admin
...
rules:
- resources:
  - builds/custom
  - builds/docker 1
  - builds/source
  ...
...
1
Delete this line to disable Docker builds globally for users with the admin role.

29.3. Restricting Build Strategies to a User Globally

To allow only a set of specific users to create builds with a particular strategy:

  1. Disable global access to the build strategy.
  2. Assign the role corresponding to the build strategy to a specific user. For example, to add the system:build-strategy-docker cluster role to the user devuser:

    $ oadm policy add-cluster-role-to-user system:build-strategy-docker devuser
Warning

Granting a user access at the cluster level to the builds/docker subresource means that the user will be able to create builds with the Docker strategy in any project in which they can create builds.

29.4. Restricting Build Strategies to a User Within a Project

Similar to granting the build strategy role to a user globally, to allow only a set of specific users within a project to create builds with a particular strategy:

  1. Disable global access to the build strategy.
  2. Assign the role corresponding to the build strategy to a specific user within a project. For example, to add the system:build-strategy-docker role within the project devproject to the user devuser:

    $ oadm policy add-role-to-user system:build-strategy-docker devuser -n devproject

Chapter 30. Restricting Application Capabilities Using Seccomp

30.1. Overview

Seccomp (secure computing mode) is used to restrict the set of system calls applications can make, allowing cluster administrators greater control over the security of workloads running in OpenShift Container Platform.

Seccomp support is achieved via two annotations in the pod configuration:

  • seccomp.security.alpha.kubernetes.io/pod: profile applies to all containers in the pod that do not override
  • container.seccomp.security.alpha.kubernetes.io/<container_name>: container-specific profile override
Important

Containers are run with unconfined seccomp settings by default.

For detailed design information, refer to the seccomp design document.

30.2. Enabling Seccomp

Seccomp is a feature of the Linux kernel. To ensure seccomp is enabled on your system, run:

$ cat /boot/config-`uname -r` | grep CONFIG_SECCOMP=
CONFIG_SECCOMP=y

30.3. Configuring OpenShift Container Platform for Seccomp

A seccomp profile is a json file providing syscalls and the appropriate action to take when a syscall is invoked.

  1. Create the seccomp profile.

    The default profile is sufficient in many cases, but the cluster administrator must define the security constraints of an individual system.

    To create your own custom profile, create a file on every node in the seccomp-profile-root directory.

    If you are using the default docker/default profile, you do not need to create one.

  2. Configure your nodes to use the seccomp-profile-root where your profiles will be stored. In the node-config.yaml via the kubeletArguments:

    kubeletArguments:
      seccomp-profile-root:
        - "/your/path"
  3. Restart the node service to apply the changes:

    # systemctl restart atomic-openshift-node
  4. In order to control which profiles may be used, and to set the default profile, configure your SCC via the seccompProfiles field. The first profile will be used as a default.

    The allowable formats of the seccompProfiles field include:

    • docker/default: the default profile for the container runtime (no profile required)
    • unconfined: unconfined profile, and disables seccomp
    • localhost/<profile-name>: the profile installed to the node’s local seccomp profile root

      For example, if you are using the default docker/default profile, configure the restricted SCC with:

      seccompProfiles:
      - docker/default

30.4. Configuring OpenShift Container Platform for a Custom Seccomp Profile

To ensure pods in your cluster run with a custom profile in the restricted SCC:

  1. Create the seccomp profile in seccomp-profile-root.
  2. Configure seccomp-profile-root:

    kubeletArguments:
      seccomp-profile-root:
        - "/your/path"
  3. Restart the node service to apply the changes:

    # systemctl restart atomic-openshift-node
  4. Configure the restricted SCC:

    seccompProfiles:
    - localhost/<profile-name>

Chapter 31. Sysctls

31.1. Overview

Sysctl settings are exposed via Kubernetes, allowing users to modify certain kernel parameters at runtime for namespaces within a container. Only sysctls that are namespaced can be set independently on pods; if a sysctl is not namespaced (called node-level), it cannot be set within OpenShift Container Platform. Moreover, only those sysctls considered safe are whitelisted by default; other unsafe sysctls can be manually enabled on the node to be available to the user.

Note

As of OpenShift Container Platform 3.3.1, sysctl support is a feature in Technology Preview.

31.2. Understanding Sysctls

In Linux, the sysctl interface allows an administrator to modify kernel parameters at runtime. Parameters are available via the /proc/sys/ virtual process file system. The parameters cover various subsystems such as:

  • kernel (common prefix: kernel.)
  • networking (common prefix: net.)
  • virtual memory (common prefix: vm.)
  • MDADM (common prefix: dev.)

More subsystems are described in Kernel documentation. To get a list of all parameters, you can run:

$ sudo sysctl -a

31.3. Namespaced vs Node-Level Sysctls

A number of sysctls are namespaced in today’s Linux kernels. This means that they can be set independently for each pod on a node. Being namespaced is a requirement for sysctls to be accessible in a pod context within Kubernetes.

The following sysctls are known to be namespaced:

  • kernel.shm*
  • kernel.msg*
  • kernel.sem
  • fs.mqueue.*
  • net.*

Sysctls that are not namespaced are called node-level and must be set manually by the cluster administrator, either by means of the underlying Linux distribution of the nodes (e.g., via /etc/sysctls.conf) or using a DaemonSet with privileged containers.

Note

Consider marking nodes with special sysctls as tainted. Only schedule pods onto them that need those sysctl settings. Use the Kubernetes taints and toleration feature to implement this.

31.4. Safe vs Unsafe Sysctls

Sysctls are grouped into safe and unsafe sysctls. In addition to proper namespacing, a safe sysctl must be properly isolated between pods on the same node. This means that setting a safe sysctl for one pod:

  • must not have any influence on any other pod on the node,
  • must not allow to harm the node’s health, and
  • must not allow to gain CPU or memory resources outside of the resource limits of a pod.

By far, most of the namespaced sysctls are not necessarily considered safe.

For OpenShift Container Platform 3.3.1, the following sysctls are supported (whitelisted) in the safe set:

  • kernel.shm_rmid_forced
  • net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range

This list will be extended in future versions when the kubelet supports better isolation mechanisms.

All safe sysctls are enabled by default. All unsafe sysctls are disabled by default and must be allowed manually by the cluster administrator on a per-node basis. Pods with disabled unsafe sysctls will be scheduled, but will fail to launch.

Warning

Due to their nature of being unsafe, the use of unsafe sysctls is at-your-own-risk and can lead to severe problems like wrong behavior of containers, resource shortage, or complete breakage of a node.

31.5. Enabling Unsafe Sysctls

With the warning above in mind, the cluster administrator can allow certain unsafe sysctls for very special situations, e.g., high-performance or real-time application tuning.

If you want to use unsafe sysctls, cluster administrators must enable them individually on nodes. Only namespaced sysctls can be enabled this way.

  1. Use the kubeletArguments field in the /etc/origin/node/node-config.yaml file, as described in Configuring Node Resources, to set the desired unsafe sysctls:

    kubeletArguments:
      experimental-allowed-unsafe-sysctls:
        - "kernel.msg*,net.ipv4.route.min_pmtu"
  2. Restart the node service to apply the changes:

    # systemctl restart atomic-openshift-node

31.6. Setting Sysctls for a Pod

Sysctls are set on pods using annotations. They apply to all containers in the same pod.

Here is an example, with different annotations for safe and unsafe sysctls:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: sysctl-example
  annotations:
    security.alpha.kubernetes.io/sysctls: kernel.shm_rmid_forced=1
    security.alpha.kubernetes.io/unsafe-sysctls: net.ipv4.route.min_pmtu=1000,kernel.msgmax=1 2 3
spec:
  ...
Note

A pod with the unsafe sysctls specified above will fail to launch on any node that has not enabled those two unsafe sysctls explicitly. As with node-level sysctls, use the taints and toleration feature or labels on nodes to schedule those pods onto the right nodes.

Chapter 32. Encrypting Data at Datastore Layer

32.1. Overview

This topic reviews how to enable and configure encryption of secret data at the datastore layer. While the examples use the secrets resource, any resource can be encrypted, such as configmaps.

Warning

This is an alpha feature and may change in future.

Important

etcd v3 or later is required in order to use this feature.

32.2. Configuration and Determining Whether Encryption Is Already Enabled

To activate data encryption, pass the --experimental-encryption-provider-config argument to the Kubernetes API server:

Excerpt of master-config.yaml

kubernetesMasterConfig:
  apiServerArguments:
    experimental-encryption-provider-config:
    - /path/to/encryption-config.yaml

For more information about master-config.yaml and its format, see the Master Configuration Files topic.

32.3. Understanding the Encryption Configuration

Encryption configuration file with all available providers

kind: EncryptionConfig
apiVersion: v1
resources: 1
  - resources: 2
    - secrets
    providers: 3
    - aescbc: 4
        keys:
        - name: key1 5
          secret: c2VjcmV0IGlzIHNlY3VyZQ== 6
        - name: key2
          secret: dGhpcyBpcyBwYXNzd29yZA==
    - secretbox:
        keys:
        - name: key1
          secret: YWJjZGVmZ2hpamtsbW5vcHFyc3R1dnd4eXoxMjM0NTY=
    - aesgcm:
        keys:
        - name: key1
          secret: c2VjcmV0IGlzIHNlY3VyZQ==
        - name: key2
          secret: dGhpcyBpcyBwYXNzd29yZA==
    - identity: {}

1
Each resources array item is a separate configuration and contains a complete configuration.
2
The resources.resources field is an array of Kubernetes resource names (resource or resource.group) that should be encrypted.
3
The providers array is an ordered list of the possible encryption providers. Only one provider type can be specified per entry (identity or aescbc can be provided, but not both in the same item).
4
The first provider in the list is used to encrypt resources going into storage.
5
Arbitrary name of the secret.
6
Base64 encoded random key. Different providers have different key lengths. See instructions on how to generate the key.

When reading resources from storage, each provider that matches the stored data attempts to decrypt the data in order. If no provider can read the stored data due to a mismatch in format or secret key, an error is returned, which prevents clients from accessing that resource.

Important

If any resource is not readable via the encryption configuration (because keys were changed), the only recourse is to delete that key from the underlying etcd directly. Calls attempting to read that resource will fail until it is deleted or a valid decryption key is provided.

32.3.1. Available Providers

NameEncryptionStrengthSpeedKey LengthOther Considerations

identity

None

N/A

N/A

N/A

Resources written as-is without encryption. When set as the first provider, the resource will be decrypted as new values are written.

aescbc

AES-CBC with PKCS#7 padding

Strongest

Fast

32-byte

The recommended choice for encryption, but may be slightly slower than secretbox.

secretbox

XSalsa20 and Poly1305

Strong

Faster

32-byte

A newer standard and may not be considered acceptable in environments that require high levels of review.

aesgcm

AES-GCM with a random initialization vector (IV)

Must be rotated every 200,000 writes

Fastest

16, 24, or 32-byte

Is not recommended for use except when an automated key rotation scheme is implemented.

Each provider supports multiple keys. The keys are tried in order for decryption. If the provider is the first provider, the first key is used for encryption.

Note

Kubernetes has no proper nonce generator and uses a random IV as nonce for AES-GCM. Since AES-GCM requires a proper nonce to be secure, AES-GCM is not recommended. The 200,000 write limit just limits the possibility of a fatal nonce misuse to a reasonable low margin.

32.4. Encrypting Data

Create a new encryption configuration file.

kind: EncryptionConfig
apiVersion: v1
resources:
  - resources:
    - secrets
    providers:
    - aescbc:
        keys:
        - name: key1
          secret: <BASE 64 ENCODED SECRET>
    - identity: {}

To create a new secret:

  1. Generate a 32-byte random key and base64 encode it. For example, on Linux and macOS use:

    $ head -c 32 /dev/urandom | base64
    Important

    The encryption key must be generated with an appropriate cryptographically secure random number generator like /dev/urandom. For example, math/random from Golang or random.random() from Python are not suitable.

  2. Place that value in the secret field.
  3. Restart the API server:

    On a single master cluster installation:

    # systemctl restart atomic-openshift-master

    On a multi-master cluster installation, on each master:

    # systemctl restart atomic-openshift-master-api
Important

The encryption provider configuration file contains keys that can decrypt content in etcd, so you must properly restrict permissions on masters so only the user who runs the master API server can read it.

32.5. Verifying that Data is Encrypted

Data is encrypted when written to etcd. After restarting the API server, any newly created or updated secrets should be encrypted when stored. To check, you can use the etcdctl command line program to retrieve the contents of your secret.

  1. Create a new secret called secret1 in the default namespace:

    $ oc create secret generic secret1 -n default --from-literal=mykey=mydata
  2. Using the etcdctl command line, read that secret out of etcd:

    $ ETCDCTL_API=3 etcdctl get /kubernetes.io/secrets/default/secret1 -w fields [...] | grep Value

    […​] must be the additional arguments for connecting to the etcd server.

    The final command will look similar to:

    $ ETCDCTL_API=3 etcdctl get /kubernetes.io/secrets/default/secret1 -w fields \
    --cacert=/var/lib/origin/openshift.local.config/master/ca.crt \
    --key=/var/lib/origin/openshift.local.config/master/master.etcd-client.key \
    --cert=/var/lib/origin/openshift.local.config/master/master.etcd-client.crt \
    --endpoints 'https://127.0.0.1:4001' | grep Value
  3. Verify that the output of the command above is prefixed with k8s:enc:aescbc:v1: which indicates the aescbc provider has encrypted the resulting data.
  4. Verify the secret is correctly decrypted when retrieved via the API:

    $ oc get secret secret1 -n default -o yaml | grep mykey

    This should match mykey: bXlkYXRh.

32.6. Ensure All Secrets are Encrypted

Since secrets are encrypted when written, performing an update on a secret will encrypt that content.

$ oc adm migrate storage --include=secrets --confirm

This command reads all secrets, then updates them to apply server-side encryption. If an error occurs due to a conflicting write, retry the command.

For larger clusters, you can subdivide the secrets by namespace or script an update.

32.7. Rotating a Decryption Key

Changing the secret without incurring downtime requires a multi-step operation, especially in the presence of a highly available deployment where multiple API servers are running.

  1. Generate a new key and add it as the second key entry for the current provider on all servers.
  2. Restart all API servers to ensure each server can decrypt using the new key.

    Note

    If using a single API server, you can skip this step.

    On a single master cluster installation:

    # systemctl restart atomic-openshift-master

    On a multi-master cluster installation, on each master:

    # systemctl restart atomic-openshift-master-api
  3. Make the new key the first entry in the keys array so that it is used for encryption in the configuration.
  4. Restart all API servers to ensure each server now encrypts using the new key.

    On a single master cluster installation:

    # systemctl restart atomic-openshift-master

    On a multi-master cluster installation, on each master:

    # systemctl restart atomic-openshift-master-api
  5. Run the following to encrypt all existing secrets with the new key:

    $ oc adm migrate storage --include=secrets --confirm
  6. After you back up etcd with the new key in use and update all secrets, remove the old decryption key from the configuration.

32.8. Decrypting Data

To disable encryption at the datastore layer:

  1. Place the identity provider as the first entry in the configuration:
kind: EncryptionConfig
apiVersion: v1
resources:
  - resources:
    - secrets
    providers:
    - identity: {}
    - aescbc:
        keys:
        - name: key1
          secret: <BASE 64 ENCODED SECRET>
  1. Restart all API servers:

    On a single master cluster installation:

    # systemctl restart atomic-openshift-master

    On a multi-master cluster installation, on each master:

    # systemctl restart atomic-openshift-master-api
  2. Run the following to force all secrets to be decrypted:

    $ oc adm migrate storage --include=secrets --confirm

Chapter 33. Encrypting Hosts with IPsec

33.1. Overview

IPsec protects traffic in an OpenShift Container Platform cluster by encrypting the communication between all master and node hosts that communicate using the Internet Protocol (IP).

This topic shows how to secure communication of an entire IP subnet from which the OpenShift Container Platform hosts receive their IP addresses, including all cluster management and pod data traffic.

Note

Because OpenShift Container Platform management traffic uses HTTPS, enabling IPsec encrypts management traffic a second time.

Important

This procedure should be repeated on each master host, then node host, in your cluster. Hosts that do not have IPsec enabled will not be able to communicate with a host that does.

33.2. Encrypting Hosts

33.2.1. Step 1: Prerequisites

At this time, libreswan version 3.15 is the latest version supported on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7. Ensure that libreswan 3.15 or later is installed on cluster hosts. If opportunistic group functionality is required, then libreswan version 3.19 or later is required.

Configure the SDN MTU to allow space for the IPSec header. In the configuration described here IPSec requires 62 bytes. If the cluster is operating on an ethernet network with an MTU of 1500 then the SDN MTU should be 1388, to allow for the overhead of IPSec and the SDN encapsulation.

After modifying the MTU in the OpenShift Container Platform configuration, the SDN must be made aware of the change by removing the SDN interface and restarting the OpenShift Container Platform node process.

# systemctl stop atomic-openshift-node
# ovs-vsctl del-br br0
# systemctl start atomic-openshift-node

33.2.2. Step 2: Certificates

By default, OpenShift Container Platform secures cluster management communication with mutually authenticated HTTPS communication. This means that both the client (for example, an OpenShift Container Platform node) and the server (for example, an OpenShift Container Platform api-server) send each other their certificates, which are checked against a known certificate authority (CA). These certificates are generated at cluster set up time and typically live on each host.

These certificates can also be used to secure pod communications with IPsec. You need three files on each host:

  • Cluster CA file
  • Host client certificate file
  • Host private key file

    1. Determine what the certificate’s nickname will be after it has been imported into the libreswan certificate database. The nickname is taken directly from the certificate’s subject’s Common Name (CN):

      # openssl x509 \
        -in /path/to/client-certificate -subject -noout | \
        sed -n 's/.*CN=\(.*\)/\1/p'
    2. Use openssl to combine the client certificate, CA certificate, and private key files into a PKCS#12 file, which is a common file format for multiple certificates and keys:

      # openssl pkcs12 -export \
        -in /path/to/client-certificate \
        -inkey /path/to/private-key \
        -certfile /path/to/certificate-authority \
        -passout pass: \
        -out certs.p12
    3. Import the PKCS#12 file into the libreswan certificate database. The -W option is left empty because no password is assigned to the PKCS#12 file, as it is only temporary.

      # ipsec initnss
      # pk12util -i certs.p12 -d sql:/etc/ipsec.d -W ""
      # rm certs.p12

33.2.3. Step 3: libreswan IPsec Policy

Now that the necessary certificates are imported into the libreswan certificate database, create a policy that uses them to secure communication between hosts in your cluster.

If you are using libreswan 3.19 or later, then opportunistic group configuration is recommended. Otherwise, explicit connections are required.

33.2.3.1. Opportunistic Group Configuration

The following configuration creates two libreswan connections. The first encrypts traffic using the OpenShift Container Platform certificates, while the second creates exceptions to the encryption for cluster-external traffic.

  1. Place the following into the /etc/ipsec.d/openshift-cluster.conf file:

    conn private
    	left=%defaultroute
    	leftid=%fromcert
    	# our certificate
    	leftcert="NSS Certificate DB:<cert_nickname>" 1
    	right=%opportunisticgroup
    	rightid=%fromcert
    	# their certificate transmitted via IKE
    	rightca=%same
    	ikev2=insist
    	authby=rsasig
    	failureshunt=drop
    	negotiationshunt=hold
    	auto=ondemand
    
    conn clear
    	left=%defaultroute
    	right=%group
    	authby=never
    	type=passthrough
    	auto=route
    	priority=100
    1
    Replace <cert_nickname> with the certificate nickname from step one.
  2. Tell libreswan which IP subnets and hosts to apply each policy using policy files in /etc/ipsec.d/policies/, where each configured connection has a corresponding policy file. So, in the example above, the two connections, private and clear, each have a file in /etc/ipsec.d/policies/.

    /etc/ipsec.d/policies/private should contain the IP subnet of your cluster, which your hosts receive IP addresses from. By default, this causes all communication between hosts in the cluster subnet to be encrypted if the remote host’s client certificate authenticates against the local host’s Certificate Authority certificate. If the remote host’s certificate does not authenticate, all traffic between the two hosts will be blocked.

    For example, if all hosts are configured to use addresses in the 172.16.0.0/16 address space, your private policy file would contain 172.16.0.0/16. Any number of additional subnets to encrypt may be added to this file, which results in all traffic to those subnets using IPsec as well.

  3. Unencrypt the communication between all hosts and the subnet gateway to ensure that traffic can enter and exit the cluster. Add the gateway to the /etc/ipsec.d/policies/clear file:

    172.16.0.1/32

    Additional hosts and subnets may be added to this file, which will result in all traffic to these hosts and subnets being unencrypted.

33.2.3.2. Explicit Connection Configuration

In this configuration, each IPSec node configuration must explicitly list the configuration of every other node in the cluster. Using a configuration management tool such as Ansible to generate this file on each host is recommended.

  1. This configuration also requires the full certificate subject of each node to be placed into the configuration for every other node. To read this subject from the node’s certificate, use openssl:

    # openssl x509 \
      -in /path/to/client-certificate -text | \
      grep "Subject:" | \
      sed 's/[[:blank:]]*Subject: //'
  2. Place the following lines into the /etc/ipsec.d/openshift-cluster.conf file on each node for every other node in the cluster:

    conn <other_node_hostname>
            left=<this_node_ip> 1
            leftid="CN=<this_node_cert_nickname>" 2
            leftrsasigkey=%cert
            leftcert=<this_node_cert_nickname> 3
            right=<other_node_ip> 4
            rightid="<other_node_cert_full_subject>" 5
            rightrsasigkey=%cert
            auto=start
            keyingtries=%forever
    1
    Replace <this_node_ip> with the cluster IP address of this node.
    2 3
    Replace <this_node_cert_nickname> with the node certificate nickname from step one.
    4
    Replace <other_node_ip> with the cluster IP address of the other node.
    5
    Replace <other_node_cert_full_subject> with the other node’s certificate subject from just above. For example: "O=system:nodes,CN=openshift-node-45.example.com".
  3. Place the following in the /etc/ipsec.d/openshift-cluster.secrets file on each node:

    : RSA "<this_node_cert_nickname>" 1
    1
    Replace <this_node_cert_nickname> with the node certificate nickname from step one.

33.3. IPSec Firewall Configuration

All nodes within the cluster need to allow IPSec related network traffic. This includes IP protocol numbers 50 and 51 as well as UDP port 500.

For example, if the cluster nodes communicate over interface eth0:

-A OS_FIREWALL_ALLOW -i eth0 -p 50 -j ACCEPT
-A OS_FIREWALL_ALLOW -i eth0 -p 51 -j ACCEPT
-A OS_FIREWALL_ALLOW -i eth0 -p udp --dport 500 -j ACCEPT
Note

IPSec also uses UDP port 4500 for NAT traversal, though this should not apply to normal cluster deployments.

33.4. Starting and Enabling IPSec

  1. Start the ipsec service to load the new configuration and policies, and begin encrypting:

    # systemctl start ipsec
  2. Enable the ipsec service to start on boot:

    # systemctl enable ipsec

33.5. Optimizing IPSec

See the Scaling and Performance Guide for performance suggestions when encrypting with IPSec.

33.6. Troubleshooting

When authentication cannot be completed between two hosts, you will not be able to ping between them, because all IP traffic will be rejected. If the clear policy is not configured correctly, you will also not be able to SSH to the host from another host in the cluster.

You can use the ipsec status command to check that the clear and private policies have been loaded.

Chapter 34. Building Dependency Trees

34.1. Overview

OpenShift Container Platform uses image change triggers in a BuildConfig to detect when an image stream tag has been updated. You can use the oadm build-chain command to build a dependency tree that identifies which images would be affected by updating an image in a specified image stream.

The build-chain tool can determine which builds to trigger; it analyzes the output of those builds to determine if they will in turn update another image stream tag. If they do, the tool continues to follow the dependency tree. Lastly, it outputs a graph specifying the image stream tags that would be impacted by an update to the top-level tag. The default output syntax for this tool is set to a human-readable format; the DOT format is also supported.

34.2. Usage

The following table describes common build-chain usage and general syntax:

Table 34.1. Common build-chain Operations

DescriptionSyntax

Build the dependency tree for the latest tag in <image-stream>.

$ oadm build-chain <image-stream>

Build the dependency tree for the v2 tag in DOT format, and visualize it using the DOT utility.

$ oadm build-chain <image-stream>:v2 \
    -o dot \
    | dot -T svg -o deps.svg

Build the dependency tree across all projects for the specified image stream tag found the test project.

$ oadm build-chain <image-stream>:v1 \
    -n test --all
Note

You may need to install the graphviz package to use the dot command.

Chapter 35. Backup and Restore

35.1. Overview

In OpenShift Container Platform, you can back up (saving state to separate storage) and restore (recreating state from separate storage) at the cluster level. There is also some preliminary support for per-project backup. The full state of a cluster installation includes:

  • etcd data on each master
  • API objects
  • registry storage
  • volume storage

This topic does not cover how to back up and restore persistent storage, as those topics are left to the underlying storage provider. However, an example of how to perform a generic backup of application data is provided.

Important

This topic only provides a generic way of backing up applications and the OpenShift Container Platform cluster. It can not take into account custom requirements. Therefore, you should create a full backup and restore procedure. To prevent data loss, necessary precautions should be taken.

Note that the etcd backup still has all the references to the storage volumes. When you restore etcd, OpenShift Container Platform starts launching the previous pods on nodes and reattaching the same storage. This is really no different than the process of when you remove a node from the cluster and add a new one back in its place. Anything attached to that node will be reattached to the pods on whatever nodes they get rescheduled to.

35.2. Prerequisites

  1. Because the restore procedure involves a complete reinstallation, save all the files used in the initial installation. This may include:

  2. Backup the procedures for post-installation steps. Some installations may involve steps that are not included in the installer. This may include changes to the services outside of the control of OpenShift Container Platform or the installation of extra services like monitoring agents. Additional configuration that is not supported yet by the advanced installer might also be affected, for example when using multiple authentication providers.
  3. Install packages that provide various utility commands:

    # yum install etcd
  4. If using a container-based installation, pull the etcd image instead:

    # docker pull rhel7/etcd

Note the location of the etcd data directory (or $ETCD_DATA_DIR in the following sections), which depends on how etcd is deployed.

Deployment TypeData Directory

all-in-one cluster

/var/lib/origin/openshift.local.etcd

external etcd (located either on a master or another host)

/var/lib/etcd

Warning

Embedded etcd is no longer supported starting with OpenShift Container Platform 3.7. See Migrating Embedded etcd to External etcd for details.

35.3. Cluster Backup

35.3.1. Master Backup

  1. Save all the certificates and keys, on each master:

    # cd /etc/origin/master
    # tar cf /tmp/certs-and-keys-$(hostname).tar *.key *.crt

35.3.2. Etcd Backup

  1. If etcd is running on more than one host, stop it on each host:

    # sudo systemctl stop etcd

    Although this step is not strictly necessary, doing so ensures that the etcd data is fully synchronized.

  2. Create an etcd backup:

    # etcdctl backup \
        --data-dir $ETCD_DATA_DIR \
        --backup-dir $ETCD_DATA_DIR.bak
    Note

    If etcd is running on more than one host, the various instances regularly synchronize their data, so creating a backup for one of them is sufficient.

    Note

    For a container-based installation, you must use docker exec to run etcdctl inside the container.

  3. Copy the db file over to the backup you created:

    # cp "$ETCD_DATA_DIR"/member/snap/db "$ETCD_DATA_DIR.bak"/member/snap/db

35.3.3. Registry Certificates Backup

  1. Save all the registry certificates, on every master and node host.

    # cd /etc/docker/certs.d/
    # tar cf /tmp/docker-registry-certs-$(hostname).tar *
    Note

    When working with one or more external secured registry, any host required to pull or push images must trust registry certificates in order to run pods.

35.4. Cluster Restore for Single-member etcd Clusters

To restore the cluster:

  1. Reinstall OpenShift Container Platform.

    This should be done in the same way that OpenShift Container Platform was previously installed.

  2. Run all necessary post-installation steps.
  3. Restore the certificates and keys, on each master:

    # cd /etc/origin/master
    # tar xvf /tmp/certs-and-keys-$(hostname).tar
  4. Restore from the etcd backup:

    # mv $ETCD_DATA_DIR $ETCD_DATA_DIR.orig
    # cp -Rp $ETCD_DATA_DIR.bak $ETCD_DATA_DIR
    # chcon -R --reference $ETCD_DATA_DIR.orig $ETCD_DATA_DIR
    # chown -R etcd:etcd $ETCD_DATA_DIR
  5. Create the new single node cluster using etcd’s --force-new-cluster option. You can do this using the values from /etc/etcd/etcd.conf, or you can temporarily modify the systemd unit file and start the service normally.

    To do so, edit the /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service file, and add --force-new-cluster:

    # sed -i '/ExecStart/s/"$/  --force-new-cluster"/' /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service
    # systemctl show etcd.service --property ExecStart --no-pager
    
    ExecStart=/bin/bash -c "GOMAXPROCS=$(nproc) /usr/bin/etcd --force-new-cluster"

    Then, restart the etcd service:

    # systemctl daemon-reload
    # systemctl start etcd
  6. Verify the etcd service started correctly, then re-edit the /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service file and remove the --force-new-cluster option:

    # sed -i '/ExecStart/s/ --force-new-cluster//' /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service
    # systemctl show etcd.service --property ExecStart --no-pager
    
    ExecStart=/bin/bash -c "GOMAXPROCS=$(nproc) /usr/bin/etcd"
  7. Restart the etcd service, then verify the etcd cluster is running correctly and displays OpenShift Container Platform’s configuration:

    # systemctl daemon-reload
    # systemctl restart etcd

35.5. Cluster Restore for Multiple-member etcd Clusters

When using an external etcd host, you must first restore the etcd backup by creating a new, single node etcd cluster. If using external etcd with multiple members, you must then also add any additional etcd members to the cluster one by one.

Choose a system to be the initial etcd member, and restore its etcd backup and configuration:

  1. Run the following on the etcd host:

    # ETCD_DIR=/var/lib/etcd/
    # mv $ETCD_DIR /var/lib/etcd.orig
    # cp -Rp /var/lib/origin/etcd-backup-<timestamp>/ $ETCD_DIR
    # chcon -R --reference /var/lib/etcd.orig/ $ETCD_DIR
    # chown -R etcd:etcd $ETCD_DIR
  2. Restore your /etc/etcd/etcd.conf file from backup or .rpmsave.
  3. Depending on your environment, follow the instructions for Containerized etcd Deployments or Non-Containerized etcd Deployments.

35.5.1. Containerized etcd Deployments

  1. Create the new single node cluster using etcd’s --force-new-cluster option. You can do this with a long, complex command using the values from /etc/etcd/etcd.conf, or you can temporarily modify the systemd unit file and start the service normally.

    To do so, edit the /etc/systemd/system/etcd_container.service file, and add --force-new-cluster:

    # sed -i '/ExecStart=/s/$/  --force-new-cluster/' /etc/systemd/system/etcd_container.service
    
    ExecStart=/usr/bin/docker run --name etcd --rm -v \
    /var/lib/etcd:/var/lib/etcd:z -v /etc/etcd:/etc/etcd:ro --env-file=/etc/etcd/etcd.conf \
    --net=host --entrypoint=/usr/bin/etcd rhel7/etcd:3.1.9  --force-new-cluster

    Then, restart the etcd service:

    # systemctl daemon-reload
    # systemctl start etcd_container
  2. Verify the etcd service started correctly, then re-edit the /etc/systemd/system/etcd_container.service file and remove the --force-new-cluster option:

    # sed  -i '/ExecStart=/s/ --force-new-cluster//' /etc/systemd/system/etcd_container.service
    
    ExecStart=/usr/bin/docker run --name etcd --rm -v /var/lib/etcd:/var/lib/etcd:z -v \
    /etc/etcd:/etc/etcd:ro --env-file=/etc/etcd/etcd.conf --net=host \
    --entrypoint=/usr/bin/etcd rhel7/etcd:3.1.9
  3. Restart the etcd service, then verify the etcd cluster is running correctly and displays OpenShift Container Platform’s configuration:

    # systemctl daemon-reload
    # systemctl restart etcd_container
    # etcdctl --cert-file=/etc/etcd/peer.crt \
        --key-file=/etc/etcd/peer.key \
        --ca-file=/etc/etcd/ca.crt \
        --peers="https://172.16.4.18:2379,https://172.16.4.27:2379" \
        ls /
  4. If you have additional etcd members to add to your cluster, continue to Adding Additional etcd Members. Otherwise, if you only want a single node external etcd, continue to Bringing OpenShift Container Platform Services Back Online.

35.5.2. Non-Containerized etcd Deployments

  1. Create the new single node cluster using etcd’s --force-new-cluster option. You can do this with a long, complex command using the values from /etc/etcd/etcd.conf, or you can temporarily modify the systemd unit file and start the service normally.

    To do so, edit the /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service file, and add --force-new-cluster:

    # sed -i '/ExecStart/s/"$/  --force-new-cluster"/' /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service
    # systemctl show etcd.service --property ExecStart --no-pager
    
    ExecStart=/bin/bash -c "GOMAXPROCS=$(nproc) /usr/bin/etcd --force-new-cluster"

    Then restart the etcd service:

    # systemctl daemon-reload
    # systemctl start etcd
  2. Verify the etcd service started correctly, then re-edit the /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service file and remove the --force-new-cluster option:

    # sed -i '/ExecStart/s/ --force-new-cluster//' /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service
    # systemctl show etcd.service --property ExecStart --no-pager
    
    ExecStart=/bin/bash -c "GOMAXPROCS=$(nproc) /usr/bin/etcd"
  3. Restart the etcd service, then verify the etcd cluster is running correctly and displays OpenShift Container Platform’s configuration:

    # systemctl daemon-reload
    # systemctl restart etcd
    # etcdctl --cert-file=/etc/etcd/peer.crt \
        --key-file=/etc/etcd/peer.key \
        --ca-file=/etc/etcd/ca.crt \
        --peers="https://172.16.4.18:2379,https://172.16.4.27:2379" \
        ls /
  4. If you have additional etcd members to add to your cluster, continue to Adding Additional etcd Members. Otherwise, if you only want a single node external etcd, continue to Bringing OpenShift Container Platform Services Back Online.

35.5.3. Adding Additional etcd Members

To add additional etcd members to the cluster, you must first adjust the default localhost peer in the peerURLs value for the first member:

  1. Get the member ID for the first member using the member list command:

    # etcdctl --cert-file=/etc/etcd/peer.crt \
        --key-file=/etc/etcd/peer.key \
        --ca-file=/etc/etcd/ca.crt \
        --peers="https://172.18.1.18:2379,https://172.18.9.202:2379,https://172.18.0.75:2379" \
        member list
  2. Update the value of peerURLs using the etcdctl member update command by passing the member ID obtained from the previous step:

    # etcdctl --cert-file=/etc/etcd/peer.crt \
        --key-file=/etc/etcd/peer.key \
        --ca-file=/etc/etcd/ca.crt \
        --peers="https://172.18.1.18:2379,https://172.18.9.202:2379,https://172.18.0.75:2379" \
        member update 511b7fb6cc0001 https://172.18.1.18:2380

    Alternatively, you can use curl:

    # curl --cacert /etc/etcd/ca.crt \
        --cert /etc/etcd/peer.crt \
        --key /etc/etcd/peer.key \
        https://172.18.1.18:2379/v2/members/511b7fb6cc0001 \
        -XPUT -H "Content-Type: application/json" \
        -d '{"peerURLs":["https://172.18.1.18:2380"]}'
  3. Re-run the member list command and ensure the peer URLs no longer include localhost.
  4. Now, add each additional member to the cluster one at a time.

    Warning

    Each member must be fully added and brought online one at a time. When adding each additional member to the cluster, the peerURLs list must be correct for that point in time, so it will grow by one for each member added. The etcdctl member add command will output the values that need to be set in the etcd.conf file as you add each member, as described in the following instructions.

    1. For each member, add it to the cluster using the values that can be found in that system’s etcd.conf file:

      # etcdctl --cert-file=/etc/etcd/peer.crt \
          --key-file=/etc/etcd/peer.key \
          --ca-file=/etc/etcd/ca.crt \
          --peers="https://172.16.4.18:2379,https://172.16.4.27:2379" \
          member add 10.3.9.222 https://172.16.4.27:2380
      
      Added member named 10.3.9.222 with ID 4e1db163a21d7651 to cluster
      
      ETCD_NAME="10.3.9.222"
      ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER="10.3.9.221=https://172.16.4.18:2380,10.3.9.222=https://172.16.4.27:2380"
      ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE="existing"
    2. Using the environment variables provided in the output of the above etcdctl member add command, edit the /etc/etcd/etcd.conf file on the member system itself and ensure these settings match.
    3. Now start etcd on the new member:

      # rm -rf /var/lib/etcd/member
      # systemctl enable etcd
      # systemctl start etcd
    4. Ensure the service starts correctly and the etcd cluster is now healthy:

      # etcdctl --cert-file=/etc/etcd/peer.crt \
          --key-file=/etc/etcd/peer.key \
          --ca-file=/etc/etcd/ca.crt \
          --peers="https://172.16.4.18:2379,https://172.16.4.27:2379" \
          member list
      
      51251b34b80001: name=10.3.9.221 peerURLs=https://172.16.4.18:2380 clientURLs=https://172.16.4.18:2379
      d266df286a41a8a4: name=10.3.9.222 peerURLs=https://172.16.4.27:2380 clientURLs=https://172.16.4.27:2379
      
      # etcdctl --cert-file=/etc/etcd/peer.crt \
          --key-file=/etc/etcd/peer.key \
          --ca-file=/etc/etcd/ca.crt \
          --peers="https://172.16.4.18:2379,https://172.16.4.27:2379" \
          cluster-health
      
      cluster is healthy
      member 51251b34b80001 is healthy
      member d266df286a41a8a4 is healthy
    5. Now repeat this process for the next member to add to the cluster.
  5. After all additional etcd members have been added, continue to Bringing OpenShift Container Platform Services Back Online.

35.6. Adding New etcd Hosts

In cases where etcd members have failed and you still have a quorum of etcd cluster members running, you can use the surviving members to add additional etcd members without downtime.

Suggested Cluster Size

Having a cluster with an odd number of etcd hosts can account for fault tolerance. Having an odd number of etcd hosts does not change the number needed for a quorum, but increases the tolerance for failure. For example, a cluster size of three members, quorum is two leaving a failure tolerance of one. This ensures the cluster will continue to operate if two of the members are healthy.

Having an in-production cluster of three etcd hosts is recommended.

Note

The following presumes you have a backup of the /etc/etcd configuration for the etcd hosts.

  1. If the new etcd members will also be OpenShift Container Platform nodes, see Add the desired number of hosts to the cluster. The rest of this procedure presumes you have added just one host, but if adding multiple, perform all steps on each host.
  2. Upgrade etcd and iptables on the surviving nodes:

    # yum update etcd iptables-services

    Ensure version etcd-2.3.7-4.el7.x86_64 or greater is installed, and that the same version is installed on each host.

  3. Install etcd and iptables on the new host

    # yum install etcd iptables-services

    Ensure version etcd-2.3.7-4.el7.x86_64 or greater is installed, and that the same version is installed on the new host.

  4. Backup the etcd data store on surviving hosts before making any cluster configuration changes.
  5. If replacing a failed etcd member, remove the failed member before adding the new member.

    # etcdctl -C https://<surviving host IP>:2379 \
      --ca-file=/etc/etcd/ca.crt     \
      --cert-file=/etc/etcd/peer.crt     \
      --key-file=/etc/etcd/peer.key cluster-health
    
    # etcdctl -C https://<surviving host IP>:2379 \
      --ca-file=/etc/etcd/ca.crt     \
      --cert-file=/etc/etcd/peer.crt     \
      --key-file=/etc/etcd/peer.key member remove <failed member identifier>

    Stop the etcd service on the failed etcd member:

    # systemctl stop etcd
  6. On the new host, add the appropriate iptables rules:

    # systemctl enable iptables.service --now
    # iptables -N OS_FIREWALL_ALLOW
    # iptables -t filter -I INPUT -j OS_FIREWALL_ALLOW
    # iptables -A OS_FIREWALL_ALLOW -p tcp -m state \
      --state NEW -m tcp --dport 2379 -j ACCEPT
    # iptables -A OS_FIREWALL_ALLOW -p tcp -m state \
      --state NEW -m tcp --dport 2380 -j ACCEPT
    # iptables-save
  7. Generate the required certificates for the new host. On a surviving etcd host:

    1. Make a backup of the /etc/etcd/ca/ directory.
    2. Set the variables and working directory for the certificates, ensuring to create the PREFIX directory if one has not been created:

      # cd /etc/etcd
      # export NEW_ETCD="<NEW_HOST_NAME>"
      
      # export CN=$NEW_ETCD
      # export SAN="IP:<NEW_HOST_IP>"
      # export PREFIX="./generated_certs/etcd-$CN/"
    3. Create the $PREFIX directory:

      $ mkdir -p $PREFIX
    4. Create the server.csr and server.crt certificates:

      # openssl req -new -keyout ${PREFIX}server.key \
        -config ca/openssl.cnf \
        -out ${PREFIX}server.csr \
        -reqexts etcd_v3_req -batch -nodes \
        -subj /CN=$CN
      
      # openssl ca -name etcd_ca -config ca/openssl.cnf \
        -out ${PREFIX}server.crt \
        -in ${PREFIX}server.csr \
        -extensions etcd_v3_ca_server -batch
    5. Create the peer.csr and peer.crt certificates:

      # openssl req -new -keyout ${PREFIX}peer.key \
        -config ca/openssl.cnf \
        -out ${PREFIX}peer.csr \
        -reqexts etcd_v3_req -batch -nodes \
        -subj /CN=$CN
      
      # openssl ca -name etcd_ca -config ca/openssl.cnf \
        -out ${PREFIX}peer.crt \
        -in ${PREFIX}peer.csr \
        -extensions etcd_v3_ca_peer -batch
    6. Copy the etcd.conf and ca.crt files, and archive the contents of the directory:

      # cp etcd.conf ${PREFIX}
      # cp ca.crt ${PREFIX}
      # tar -czvf ${PREFIX}${CN}.tgz -C ${PREFIX} .
    7. Transfer the files to the new etcd hosts:

      # scp ${PREFIX}${CN}.tgz  $CN:/etc/etcd/
  8. While still on the surviving etcd host, add the new host to the cluster:

    1. Add the new host to the cluster:

      # export ETCD_CA_HOST="<SURVIVING_ETCD_HOSTNAME>"
      # export NEW_ETCD="<NEW_ETCD_HOSTNAME>"
      # export NEW_ETCD_IP="<NEW_HOST_IP>"
      
      # etcdctl -C https://${ETCD_CA_HOST}:2379 \
        --ca-file=/etc/etcd/ca.crt     \
        --cert-file=/etc/etcd/peer.crt     \
        --key-file=/etc/etcd/peer.key member add ${NEW_ETCD} https://${NEW_ETCD_IP}:2380
      
      ETCD_NAME="<NEW_ETCD_HOSTNAME>"
      ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER="<NEW_ETCD_HOSTNAME>=https://<NEW_HOST_IP>:2380,<SURVIVING_ETCD_HOST>=https:/<SURVIVING_HOST_IP>:2380
      ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE="existing"

      Copy the three environment variables in the etcdctl member add output. They will be used later.

    2. On the new host, extract the copied configuration data and set the permissions:

      # tar -xf /etc/etcd/<NEW_ETCD_HOSTNAME>.tgz -C /etc/etcd/ --overwrite
      # chown -R etcd:etcd /etc/etcd/*
    3. On the new host, remove any etcd data:

      # rm -rf /var/lib/etcd/member
      # chown -R etcd:etcd /var/lib/etcd
  9. On the new etcd host’s etcd.conf file:

    1. Replace the following with the values generated in the previous step:

      • ETCD_NAME
      • ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER
      • ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE

        Replace the IP address with the "NEW_ETCD" value for:

      • ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS
      • ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS
      • ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS
      • ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS

        For replacing failed members, you will need to remove the failed hosts from the etcd configuration.

  10. Start etcd on the new host:

    # systemctl enable etcd --now
  11. To verify that the new member has been added successfully:

    etcdctl -C https://${ETCD_CA_HOST}:2379 --ca-file=/etc/etcd/ca.crt \
      --cert-file=/etc/etcd/peer.crt     \
      --key-file=/etc/etcd/peer.key cluster-health
  12. Update the master configuration on all masters to point to the new etcd host

    1. On every master in the cluster, edit /etc/origin/master/master-config.yaml
    2. Find the etcdClientInfo section.
    3. Add the new etcd host to the urls list.
    4. If a failed etcd host was replaced, remove it from the list.
    5. Restart the master API service.

      On a single master cluster installation:

      # systemctl restart atomic-openshift-master

      On a multi-master cluster installation, on each master:

      # systemctl restart atomic-openshift-master-api

The procedure to add an etcd member is complete.

35.7. Bringing OpenShift Container Platform Services Back Online

On each OpenShift Container Platform master, restore your master and node configuration from backup and enable and restart all relevant services.

On the master in a single master cluster:

# cp /etc/sysconfig/atomic-openshift-master.rpmsave /etc/sysconfig/atomic-openshift-master
# cp /etc/origin/master/master-config.yaml.<timestamp> /etc/origin/master/master-config.yaml
# cp /etc/origin/node/node-config.yaml.<timestamp> /etc/origin/node/node-config.yaml
# systemctl enable atomic-openshift-master
# systemctl enable atomic-openshift-node
# systemctl start atomic-openshift-master
# systemctl start atomic-openshift-node

On each master in a multi-master cluster:

# cp /etc/sysconfig/atomic-openshift-master-api.rpmsave /etc/sysconfig/atomic-openshift-master-api
# cp /etc/sysconfig/atomic-openshift-master-controllers.rpmsave /etc/sysconfig/atomic-openshift-master-controllers
# cp /etc/origin/master/master-config.yaml.<timestamp> /etc/origin/master/master-config.yaml
# cp /etc/origin/node/node-config.yaml.<timestamp> /etc/origin/node/node-config.yaml
# systemctl enable atomic-openshift-master-api
# systemctl enable atomic-openshift-master-controllers
# systemctl enable atomic-openshift-node
# systemctl start atomic-openshift-master-api
# systemctl start atomic-openshift-master-controllers
# systemctl start atomic-openshift-node

On each OpenShift Container Platform node, restore your node-config.yaml file from backup and enable and restart the atomic-openshift-node service:

# cp /etc/origin/node/node-config.yaml.<timestamp> /etc/origin/node/node-config.yaml
# systemctl enable atomic-openshift-node
# systemctl start atomic-openshift-node

Your OpenShift Container Platform cluster should now be back online.

35.8. Project Backup

A future release of OpenShift Container Platform will feature specific support for per-project back up and restore.

For now, to back up API objects at the project level, use oc export for each object to be saved. For example, to save the deployment configuration frontend in YAML format:

$ oc export dc frontend -o yaml > dc-frontend.yaml

To back up all of the project (with the exception of cluster objects like namespaces and projects):

$ oc export all -o yaml > project.yaml

35.8.1. Role Bindings

Sometimes custom policy role bindings are used in a project. For example, a project administrator can give another user a certain role in the project and grant that user project access.

These role bindings can be exported:

$ oc get rolebindings -o yaml --export=true > rolebindings.yaml

35.8.2. Service Accounts

If custom service accounts are created in a project, these need to be exported:

$ oc get serviceaccount -o yaml --export=true > serviceaccount.yaml

35.8.3. Secrets

Custom secrets like source control management secrets (SSH Public Keys, Username/Password) should be exported if they are used:

$ oc get secret -o yaml --export=true > secret.yaml

35.8.4. Persistent Volume Claims

If the application within a project uses a persistent volume through a persistent volume claim (PVC), these should be backed up:

$ oc get pvc -o yaml --export=true > pvc.yaml

35.9. Project Restore

To restore a project, recreate the project and recreate all of the objects that were exported during the backup:

$ oc new-project myproject
$ oc create -f project.yaml
$ oc create -f secret.yaml
$ oc create -f serviceaccount.yaml
$ oc create -f pvc.yaml
$ oc create -f rolebindings.yaml
Note

Some resources can fail to be created (for example, pods and default service accounts).

35.10. Application Data Backup

In many cases, application data can be backed up using the oc rsync command, assuming rsync is installed within the container image. The Red Hat rhel7 base image does contain rsync. Therefore, all images that are based on rhel7 contain it as well. See Troubleshooting and Debugging CLI Operations - rsync.

Warning

This is a generic backup of application data and does not take into account application-specific backup procedures, for example, special export/import procedures for database systems.

Other means of backup may exist depending on the type of the persistent volume (for example, Cinder, NFS, Gluster, or others).

The paths to back up are also application specific. You can determine what path to back up by looking at the mountPath for volumes in the deploymentconfig.

Example of Backing up a Jenkins Deployment’s Application Data

  1. Get the application data mountPath from the deploymentconfig:

    $ oc get dc/jenkins -o jsonpath='{ .spec.template.spec.containers[?(@.name=="jenkins")].volumeMounts[?(@.name=="jenkins-data")].mountPath }'
    /var/lib/jenkins
  2. Get the name of the pod that is currently running:

    $ oc get pod --selector=deploymentconfig=jenkins -o jsonpath='{ .metadata.name }'
    jenkins-1-37nux
  3. Use the oc rsync command to copy application data:

    $ oc rsync jenkins-1-37nux:/var/lib/jenkins /tmp/
Note

This type of application data backup can only be performed while an application pod is currently running.

35.11. Application Data Restore

The process for restoring application data is similar to the application backup procedure using the oc rsync tool. The same restrictions apply and the process of restoring application data requires a persistent volume.

Example of Restoring a Jenkins Deployment’s Application Data

  1. Verify the backup:

    $ ls -la /tmp/jenkins-backup/
    total 8
    drwxrwxr-x.  3 user     user   20 Sep  6 11:14 .
    drwxrwxrwt. 17 root     root 4096 Sep  6 11:16 ..
    drwxrwsrwx. 12 user     user 4096 Sep  6 11:14 jenkins
  2. Use the oc rsync tool to copy the data into the running pod:

    $ oc rsync /tmp/jenkins-backup/jenkins jenkins-1-37nux:/var/lib
    Note

    Depending on the application, you may be required to restart the application.

  3. Restart the application with new data (optional):

    $ oc delete pod jenkins-1-37nux

    Alternatively, you can scale down the deployment to 0, and then up again:

    $ oc scale --replicas=0 dc/jenkins
    $ oc scale --replicas=1 dc/jenkins

Chapter 36. Troubleshooting OpenShift SDN

36.1. Overview

As described in the SDN documentation there are multiple layers of interfaces that are created to correctly pass the traffic from one container to another. In order to debug connectivity issues, you have to test the different layers of the stack to work out where the problem arises. This guide will help you dig down through the layers to identify the problem and how to fix it.

Part of the problem is that OpenShift Container Platform can be set up many ways, and the networking can be wrong in a few different places. So this document will work through some scenarios that, hopefully, will cover the majority of cases. If your problem is not covered, the tools and concepts that are introduced should help guide debugging efforts.

36.2. Nomenclature

Cluster
The set of machines in the cluster. i.e. the Masters and the Nodes.
Master
A controller of the OpenShift Container Platform cluster. Note that the master may not be a node in the cluster, and thus, may not have IP connectivity to the pods.
Node
Host in the cluster running OpenShift Container Platform that can host pods.
Pod
Group of containers running on a node, managed by OpenShift Container Platform.
Service
Abstraction that presents a unified network interface that is backed by one or more pods.
Router
A web proxy that can map various URLs and paths into OpenShift Container Platform services to allow external traffic to travel into the cluster.
Node Address
The IP address of a node. This is assigned and managed by the owner of the network to which the node is attached. Must be reachable from any node in the cluster (master and client).
Pod Address
The IP address of a pod. These are assigned and managed by OpenShift Container Platform. By default they are assigned out of the 10.128.0.0/14 network (or, in older versions, 10.1.0.0/16). Only reachable from the client nodes.
Service Address
An IP address that represents the service, and is mapped to a pod address internally. These are assigned and managed by OpenShift Container Platform. By default they are assigned out of the 172.30.0.0/16 network. Only reachable from the client nodes.

The following diagram shows all of the pieces involved with external access.

External Access to a Pod

36.3. Debugging External Access to an HTTP Service

If you are on an machine outside the cluster and are trying to access a resource provided by the cluster there needs to be a process running in a pod that listens on a public IP address and "routes" that traffic inside the cluster. The OpenShift Container Platform router serves that purpose for HTTP, HTTPS (with SNI), WebSockets, or TLS (with SNI).

Assuming you can’t access an HTTP service from the outside of the cluster, let’s start by reproducing the problem on the command line of the machine where things are failing. Try:

curl -kv http://foo.example.com:8000/bar    # But replace the argument with your URL

If that works, are you reproducing the bug from the right place? It is also possible that the service has some pods that work, and some that don’t. So jump ahead to the Section 36.4, “Debugging the Router” section.

If that failed, then let’s resolve the DNS name to an IP address (assuming it isn’t already one):

dig +short foo.example.com                  # But replace the hostname with yours

If that doesn’t give back an IP address, it’s time to troubleshoot DNS, but that’s outside the scope of this guide.

Important

Make sure that the IP address that you got back is one that you expect to be running the router. If it’s not, fix your DNS.

Next, use ping -c address and tracepath address to check that you can reach the router host. It is possible that they will not respond to ICMP packets, in which case those tests will fail, but the router machine may be reachable. In which case, try using the telnet command to access the port for the router directly:

telnet 1.2.3.4 8000

You may get:

Trying 1.2.3.4...
Connected to 1.2.3.4.
Escape character is '^]'.

If so, there’s something listening on the port on the IP address. That’s good. Hit ctrl-] then hit the enter key and then type close to quit telnet. Move on to the Section 36.4, “Debugging the Router” section to check other things on the router.

Or you could get:

Trying 1.2.3.4...
telnet: connect to address 1.2.3.4: Connection refused

Which tells us that the router is not listening on that port. Please see the Section 36.4, “Debugging the Router” section for more pointers on how to configure the router.

Or if you see:

Trying 1.2.3.4...
  telnet: connect to address 1.2.3.4: Connection timed out

Which tells us that you can’t talk to anything on that IP address. Check your routing, firewalls, and that you have a router listening on that IP address. To debug the router, see the Section 36.4, “Debugging the Router” section. For IP routing and firewall issues, debugging that is beyond the purview of this guide.

36.4. Debugging the Router

Now that you have an IP address, we need to ssh to that machine and check that the router software is running on that machine and configured correctly. So let’s ssh there and get administrative OpenShift Container Platform credentials.

Note

If you have access to administrator credentials but are no longer logged in as the default system user system:admin, you can log back in as this user at any time as long as the credentials are still present in your CLI configuration file. The following command logs in and switches to the default project:

$ oc login -u system:admin -n default

Check that the router is running:

# oc get endpoints --namespace=default --selector=router
NAMESPACE   NAME              ENDPOINTS
default     router            10.128.0.4:80

If that command fails, then your OpenShift Container Platform configuration is broken. Fixing that is outside the scope of this document.

You should see one or more router endpoints listed, but that won’t tell you if they are running on the machine with the given external IP address, since the endpoint IP address will be one of the pod addresses that is internal to the cluster. To get the list of router host IP addresses, run:

# oc get pods --all-namespaces --selector=router --template='{{range .items}}HostIP: {{.status.hostIP}}   PodIP: {{.status.podIP}}{{end}}{{"\n"}}'
HostIP: 192.168.122.202   PodIP: 10.128.0.4

You should see the host IP that corresponds to your external address. If you do not, please refer to the router documentation to configure the router pod to run on the right node (by setting the affinity correctly) or update your DNS to match the IP addresses where the routers are running.

At this point in the guide, you should be on a node, running your router pod, but you still cannot get the HTTP request to work. First we need to make sure that the router is mapping the external URL to the correct service, and if that works, we need to dig into that service to make sure that all endpoints are reachable.

Let’s list all of the routes that OpenShift Container Platform knows about:

# oc get route --all-namespaces
NAME              HOST/PORT         PATH      SERVICE        LABELS    TLS TERMINATION
route-unsecured   www.example.com   /test     service-name

If the host name and path from your URL don’t match anything in the list of returned routes, then you need to add a route. See the router documentation.

If your route is present, then you need to debug access to the endpoints. That’s the same as if you were debugging problems with a service, so please continue on with the next Section 36.5, “Debugging a Service” section.

36.5. Debugging a Service

If you can’t communicate with a service from inside the cluster (either because your services can’t communicate directly, or because you are using the router and everything works until you get into the cluster) then you need to work out what endpoints are associated with a service and debug them.

First, let’s get the services:

# oc get services --all-namespaces
NAMESPACE   NAME              LABELS                                    SELECTOR                  IP(S)            PORT(S)
default     docker-registry   docker-registry=default                   docker-registry=default   172.30.243.225   5000/TCP
default     kubernetes        component=apiserver,provider=kubernetes   <none>                    172.30.0.1       443/TCP
default     router            router=router                             router=router             172.30.213.8     80/TCP

You should see your service in the list. If not, then you need to define your service.

The IP addresses listed in the service output are the Kubernetes service IP addresses that Kubernetes will map to one of the pods that backs that service. So you should be able to talk to that IP address. But, unfortunately, even if you can, it doesn’t mean all pods are reachable; and if you can’t, it doesn’t mean all pods aren’t reachable. It just tells you the status of the one that kubeproxy hooked you up to.

Let’s test the service anyway. From one of your nodes:

curl -kv http://172.30.243.225:5000/bar                  # Replace the argument with your service IP address and port

Then, let’s work out what pods are backing our service (replace docker-registry with the name of the broken service):

# oc get endpoints --selector=docker-registry
NAME              ENDPOINTS
docker-registry   10.128.2.2:5000

From this, we can see that there’s only one endpoint. So, if your service test succeeded, and the router test succeeded, then something really odd is going on. But if there’s more than one endpoint, or the service test failed, try the following for each endpoint. Once you identify what endpoints aren’t working, then proceed to the next section.

First, test each endpoint (change the URL to have the right endpoint IP, port, and path):

curl -kv http://10.128.2.2:5000/bar

If that works, great, try the next one. If it failed, make a note of it and we’ll work out why, in the next section.

If all of them failed, then it is possible that the local node is not working, jump to the Section 36.7, “Debugging Local Networking” section.

If all of them worked, then jump to the Section 36.11, “Debugging Kubernetes” section to work out why the service IP address isn’t working.

36.6. Debugging Node to Node Networking

Using our list of non-working endpoints, we need to test connectivity to the node.

  1. Make sure that all nodes have the expected IP addresses:

    # oc get hostsubnet
    NAME                   HOST                   HOST IP           SUBNET
    rh71-os1.example.com   rh71-os1.example.com   192.168.122.46    10.1.1.0/24
    rh71-os2.example.com   rh71-os2.example.com   192.168.122.18    10.1.2.0/24
    rh71-os3.example.com   rh71-os3.example.com   192.168.122.202   10.1.0.0/24

    If you are using DHCP they could have changed. Ensure the host names, IP addresses, and subnets match what you expect. If any node details have changed, use oc edit hostsubnet to correct the entries.

  2. After ensuring the node addresses and host names are correct, list the endpoint IPs and node IPs:

    # oc get pods --selector=docker-registry \
        --template='{{range .items}}HostIP: {{.status.hostIP}}   PodIP: {{.status.podIP}}{{end}}{{"\n"}}'
    
    HostIP: 192.168.122.202   PodIP: 10.128.0.4
  3. Find the endpoint IP address you made note of before and look for it in the PodIP entry, and find the corresponding HostIP address. Then test connectivity at the node host level using the address from HostIP:

    • ping -c 3 <IP_address>: No response could mean that an intermediate router is eating the ICMP traffic.
    • tracepath <IP_address>: Shows the IP route taken to the target, if ICMP packets are returned by all hops.

      If both tracepath and ping fail, then look for connectivity issues with your local or virtual network.

  4. For local networking, check the following:

    • Check the route the packet takes out of the box to the target address:

      # ip route get 192.168.122.202
        192.168.122.202 dev ens3  src 192.168.122.46
          cache

      In the above example, it will go out the interface named ens3 with the source address of 192.168.122.46 and go directly to the target. If that is what you expected, use ip a show dev ens3 to get the interface details and make sure that is the expected interface.

      An alternate result may be the following:

      # ip route get 192.168.122.202
        1.2.3.4 via 192.168.122.1 dev ens3  src 192.168.122.46

      It will pass through the via IP value to route appropriately. Ensure that the traffic is routing correctly. Debugging route traffic is beyond the scope of this guide.

Other debugging options for node to node networking can be solved with the following:

  • Do you have ethernet link on both ends? Look for Link detected: yes in the output from ethtool <network_interface>.
  • Are your duplex settings, and ethernet speeds right on both ends? Look through the rest of the ethtool <network_interface> information.
  • Are the cables plugged in correctly? To the correct ports?
  • Are the switches configured correctly?

Once you have ascertained that the node to node connectivity is fine, we need to look at the SDN configuration on both ends.

36.7. Debugging Local Networking

At this point we should have a list of one or more endpoints that you can’t communicate with, but that have node to node connectivity. For each one, we need to work out what is wrong, but first you need to understand how the SDN sets up the networking on a node for the different pods.

36.7.1. The Interfaces on a Node

These are the interfaces that the OpenShift SDN creates:

  • br0: The OVS bridge device that containers will be attached to. OpenShift SDN also configures a set of non-subnet-specific flow rules on this bridge.
  • tun0: An OVS internal port (port 2 on br0). This gets assigned the cluster subnet gateway address, and is used for external network access. OpenShift SDN configures netfilter and routing rules to enable access from the cluster subnet to the external network via NAT.
  • vxlan_sys_4789: The OVS VXLAN device (port 1 on br0), which provides access to containers on remote nodes. Referred to as vxlan0 in the OVS rules.
  • vethX (in the main netns): A Linux virtual ethernet peer of eth0 in the Docker netns. It will be attached to the OVS bridge on one of the other ports.

36.7.2. SDN Flows Inside a Node

The possible SDN paths

Depending on what you are trying to access (or be accessed from) the path will vary. There are four different places the SDN connects (inside a node). They are labeled in red on the diagram above.

  • Pod: Traffic is going from one pod to another on the same machine (1 to a different 1)
  • Remote Node (or Pod): Traffic is going from a local pod to a remote node or pod in the same cluster (1 to 2)
  • External Machine: Traffic is going from a local pod outside the cluster (1 to 3)

Of course the opposite traffic flows are also possible.

36.7.3. Debugging Steps

36.7.3.1. Is IP Forwarding Enabled?

Check that sysctl net.ipv4.ip_forward is set to 1 (and check the host if this is a VM)

36.7.3.2. Are your routes correct?

Check the route tables with ip route:

# ip route
default via 192.168.122.1 dev ens3
10.128.0.0/14 dev tun0  proto kernel  scope link                        # This sends all pod traffic into OVS
10.128.2.0/23 dev tun0  proto kernel  scope link  src 10.128.2.1        # This is traffic going to local pods, overriding the above
169.254.0.0/16 dev ens3  scope link  metric 1002                        # This is for Zeroconf (may not be present)
172.17.0.0/16 dev docker0  proto kernel  scope link  src 172.17.42.1    # Docker's private IPs... used only by things directly configured by docker; not OpenShift
192.168.122.0/24 dev ens3  proto kernel  scope link  src 192.168.122.46 # The physical interface on the local subnet

You should see the 10.128.x.x lines (assuming you have your pod network set to the default range in your configuration). If you do not, check the OpenShift Container Platform logs (see the Section 36.10, “Reading the Logs” section)

36.7.4. Is the Open vSwitch configured correctly?

Check the Open vSwitch bridges on both sides:

# ovs-vsctl list-br
br0

This should be br0.

You can list all of the ports that ovs knows about:

# ovs-ofctl -O OpenFlow13 dump-ports-desc br0
OFPST_PORT_DESC reply (OF1.3) (xid=0x2):
 1(vxlan0): addr:9e:f1:7d:4d:19:4f
     config:     0
     state:      0
     speed: 0 Mbps now, 0 Mbps max
 2(tun0): addr:6a:ef:90:24:a3:11
     config:     0
     state:      0
     speed: 0 Mbps now, 0 Mbps max
 8(vethe19c6ea): addr:1e:79:f3:a0:e8:8c
     config:     0
     state:      0
     current:    10GB-FD COPPER
     speed: 10000 Mbps now, 0 Mbps max
 LOCAL(br0): addr:0a:7f:b4:33:c2:43
     config:     PORT_DOWN
     state:      LINK_DOWN
     speed: 0 Mbps now, 0 Mbps max

In particular, the vethX devices for all of the active pods should be listed as ports.

Next, list the flows that are configured on that bridge:

# ovs-ofctl -O OpenFlow13 dump-flows br0

The results will vary slightly depending on whether you are using the ovs-subnet or ovs-multitenant plug-in, but there are certain general things you can look for:

  1. Every remote node should have a flow matching tun_src=<node_IP_address> (for incoming VXLAN traffic from that node) and another flow including the action set_field:<node_IP_address>->tun_dst (for outgoing VXLAN traffic to that node).
  2. Every local pod should have flows matching arp_spa=<pod_IP_address> and arp_tpa=<pod_IP_address> (for incoming and outgoing ARP traffic for that pod), and flows matching nw_src=<pod_IP_address> and nw_dst=<pod_IP_address> (for incoming and outgoing IP traffic for that pod).

If there are flows missing, please look in the Section 36.10, “Reading the Logs” section.

36.7.4.1. Is the iptables configuration correct?

Check the output from iptables-save to make sure you are not filtering traffic. However, OpenShift Container Platform sets up iptables rules during normal operation, so do not be surprised to see entries there.

36.7.4.2. Is your external network correct?

Check external firewalls, if any, allow traffic to the target address (this is site-dependent, and beyond the purview of this guide).

36.8. Debugging Virtual Networking

36.8.1. Builds on a Virtual Network are Failing

If you are installing OpenShift Container Platform using a virtual network (for example, OpenStack), and a build is failing, the maximum transmission unit (MTU) of the target node host might not be compatible with the MTU of the primary network interface (for example, eth0).

For a build to complete successfully, the MTU of an SDN must be less than the eth0 network MTU in order to pass data to between node hosts.

  1. Check the MTU of your network by running the ip addr command:

    # ip addr
    ---
    2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
        link/ether fa:16:3e:56:4c:11 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
        inet 172.16.0.0/24 brd 172.16.0.0 scope global dynamic eth0
           valid_lft 168sec preferred_lft 168sec
        inet6 fe80::f816:3eff:fe56:4c11/64 scope link
           valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    ---

    The MTU of the above network is 1500.

  2. The MTU in your node configuration must be lower than the network value. Check the mtu in the node configuration of the targeted node host:

    # cat /etc/origin/node/node-config.yaml
    ...
    networkConfig:
       mtu: 1450
       networkPluginName: company/openshift-ovs-subnet
    ...

    In the above node configuration file, the mtu value is lower than the network MTU, so no configuration is needed. If the mtu value was higher, edit the file and lower the value to at least 50 units fewer than the MTU of the primary network interface, then restart the node service. This would allow larger packets of data to pass between nodes.

36.9. Debugging Pod Egress

If you are trying to access an external service from a pod, e.g.:

curl -kv github.com

Make sure that the DNS is resolving correctly:

dig +search +noall +answer github.com

That should return the IP address for the github server, but check that you got back the correct address. If you get back no address, or the address of one of your machines, then you may be matching the wildcard entry in yoir local DNS server.

To fix that, you either need to make sure that DNS server that has the wildcard entry is not listed as a nameserver in your /etc/resolv.conf or you need to make sure that the wildcard domain is not listed in the search list.

If the correct IP address was returned, then try the debugging advice listed above in Section 36.7, “Debugging Local Networking”. Your traffic should leave the Open vSwitch on port 2 to pass through the iptables rules, then out the route table normally.

36.10. Reading the Logs

Run: journalctl -u atomic-openshift-node.service --boot | less

Look for the Output of setup script: line. Everything starting with '+' below that are the script steps. Look through that for obvious errors.

Following the script you should see lines with Output of adding table=0. Those are the OVS rules, and there should be no errors.

36.11. Debugging Kubernetes

Check iptables -t nat -L to make sure that the service is being NAT’d to the right port on the local machine for the kubeproxy.

Warning

This is all changing soon…​ Kubeproxy is being eliminated and replaced with an iptables-only solution.

36.12. Finding Network Issues Using the Diagnostics Tool

As a cluster administrator, run the diagnostics tool to diagnose common network issues:

# oadm diagnostics NetworkCheck

The diagnostics tool runs a series of checks for error conditions for the specified component. See the Diagnostics Tool section for more information.

Note

Currently, the diagnostics tool cannot diagnose IP failover issues. As a workaround, you can run the script at https://raw.githubusercontent.com/openshift/openshift-sdn/master/hack/ipf-debug.sh on the master (or from another machine with access to the master) to generate useful debugging information. However, this script is unsupported.

By default, oadm diagnostics NetworkCheck logs errors into /tmp/openshift/. This can be configured with the --network-logdir option:

# oc adm diagnostics NetworkCheck --network-logdir=<path/to/directory>

36.13. Miscellaneous Notes

36.13.1. Other clarifications on ingress

  • Kube - declare a service as NodePort and it will claim that port on all machines in the cluster (on what interface?) and then route into kube-proxy and then to a backing pod. See https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/services-networking/service/#type-nodeport (some node must be accessible from outside)
  • Kube - declare as a LoadBalancer and something you have to write does the rest
  • OS/AE - Both use the router

36.13.2. TLS Handshake Timeout

When a pod fails to deploy, check its docker log for a TLS handshake timeout:

$ docker log <container_id>
...
[...] couldn't get deployment [...] TLS handshake timeout
...

This condition, and generally, errors in establishing a secure connection, may be caused by a large difference in the MTU values between tun0 and the primary interface (e.g., eth0), such as when tun0 MTU is 1500 and eth0 MTU is 9000 (jumbo frames).

36.13.3. Other debugging notes

  • Peer interfaces (of a Linux virtual ethernet pair) can be determined with ethtool -S ifname
  • Driver type: ethtool -i ifname

Chapter 37. Diagnostics Tool

37.1. Overview

The oc adm diagnostics command runs a series of checks for error conditions in the host or cluster. Specifically, it:

  • Verifies that the default registry and router are running and correctly configured.
  • Checks ClusterRoleBindings and ClusterRoles for consistency with base policy.
  • Checks that all of the client configuration contexts are valid and can be connected to.
  • Checks that SkyDNS is working properly and the pods have SDN connectivity.
  • Validates master and node configuration on the host.
  • Checks that nodes are running and available.
  • Analyzes host logs for known errors.
  • Checks that systemd units are configured as expected for the host.

37.2. Using the Diagnostics Tool

OpenShift Container Platform can be deployed in many ways: built from source, included in a VM image, in a container image, or as enterprise RPMs. Each method implies a different configuration and environment. To minimize environment assumptions, the diagnostics were added to the openshift binary so that wherever there is an OpenShift Container Platform server or client, the diagnostics can run in the exact same environment.

To use the diagnostics tool, preferably on a master host and as cluster administrator, run:

$ oc adm diagnostics

This runs all available diagnostics, skipping any that do not apply.

You can run one or multiple specific diagnostics by name, or run specific diagnostics by name as you work to address issues. For example:

$ oc adm diagnostics <name1> <name2>

The options mostly require working configuration files. For example, the NodeConfigCheck does not run unless a node configuration is available.

Diagnostics look for configuration files in standard locations:

  • Client:

    • As indicated by the $KUBECONFIG environment variable variable
    • ~/.kube/config file
  • Master:

    • /etc/origin/master/master-config.yaml
  • Node:

    • /etc/origin/node/node-config.yaml

Non-standard locations can be specified with flags (respectively, --config, --master-config, and --node-config). If a configuration file is not found or specified, related diagnostics are skipped.

Available diagnostics include:

Diagnostic NamePurpose

AggregatedLogging

Check the aggregated logging integration for proper configuration and operation.

AnalyzeLogs

Check systemd service logs for problems. Does not require a configuration file to check against.

ClusterRegistry

Check that the cluster has a working Docker registry for builds and image streams.

ClusterRoleBindings

Check that the default cluster role bindings are present and contain the expected subjects according to base policy.

ClusterRoles

Check that cluster roles are present and contain the expected permissions according to base policy.

ClusterRouter

Check for a working default router in the cluster.

ConfigContexts

Check that each context in the client configuration is complete and has connectivity to its API server.

DiagnosticPod

Creates a pod that runs diagnostics from an application standpoint, which checks that DNS within the pod is working as expected and the credentials for the default service account authenticate correctly to the master API.

EtcdWriteVolume

Check the volume of writes against etcd for a time period and classify them by operation and key. This diagnostic only runs if specifically requested, because it does not run as quickly as other diagnostics and can increase load on etcd.

MasterConfigCheck

Check this host’s master configuration file for problems.

MasterNode

Check that the master running on this host is also running a node to verify that it is a member of the cluster SDN.

MetricsApiProxy

Check that the integrated Heapster metrics can be reached via the cluster API proxy.

NetworkCheck

Create diagnostic pods on multiple nodes to diagnose common network issues from an application standpoint. For example, this checks that pods can connect to services, other pods, and the external network.

If there are any errors, this diagnostic stores results and retrieved files in a local directory (/tmp/openshift/, by default) for further analysis. The directory can be specified with the --network-logdir flag.

NodeConfigCheck

Checks this host’s node configuration file for problems.

NodeDefinitions

Check that the nodes defined in the master API are ready and can schedule pods.

RouteCertificateValidation

Check all route certificates for those that might be rejected by extended validation.

ServiceExternalIPs

Check for existing services that specify external IPs, which are disallowed according to master configuration.

UnitStatus

Check systemd status for units on this host related to OpenShift Container Platform. Does not require a configuration file to check against.

37.3. Running Diagnostics in a Server Environment

Master and node diagnostics are most useful in an Ansible-deployed cluster. This provides some diagnostic benefits:

  • Master and node configuration is based on a configuration file in a standard location.
  • Systemd units are configured to manage the server(s).
  • All components log to journald.

Having configuration files where Ansible places them means that you will generally not need to specify where to find them. Running oc adm diagnostics without flags will look for master and node configurations in the standard locations and use them if found; this should make the Ansible-installed use case as simple as possible. Also, it is easy to specify configuration files that are not in the expected locations:

$ oc adm diagnostics --master-config=<file_path> --node-config=<file_path>

Systemd units and logs entries in journald are necessary for the current log diagnostic logic. For other deployment types, logs may be going into files, to stdout, or may combine node and master. At this time, for these situations, log diagnostics are not able to work properly and will be skipped.

37.4. Running Diagnostics in a Client Environment

You may have access as an ordinary user, and/or as a cluster-admin user, and/or may be running on a host where OpenShift Container Platform master or node servers are operating. The diagnostics attempt to use as much access as the user has available.

A client with ordinary access should be able to diagnose its connection to the master and run a diagnostic pod. If multiple users or masters are configured, connections will be tested for all, but the diagnostic pod only runs against the current user, server, or project.

A client with cluster-admin access available (for any user, but only the current master) should be able to diagnose the status of infrastructure such as nodes, registry, and router. In each case, running oc adm diagnostics looks for the client configuration in its standard location and uses it if available.

37.5. Ansible-based Health Checks

Additional diagnostic health checks are available through the Ansible-based tooling used to install and manage OpenShift Container Platform clusters. They can report common deployment problems for the current OpenShift Container Platform installation.

These checks can be run either using the ansible-playbook command (the same method used during Advanced Installation) or as a containerized version of openshift-ansible. For the ansible-playbook method, the checks are provided by the atomic-openshift-utils RPM package. For the containerized method, the openshift3/ose-ansible container image is distributed via the Red Hat Container Registry. Example usage for each method are provided in subsequent sections.

The following health checks are a set of diagnostic tasks that are meant to be run against the Ansible inventory file for a deployed OpenShift Container Platform cluster using the provided health.yml playbook.

Warning

Due to potential changes the health check playbooks could make to hosts, they should only be used on clusters that have been deployed using Ansible and using the same inventory file with which it was deployed. Changes mostly involve installing dependencies so that the checks can gather required information, but it is possible for certain system components (for example, docker or networking) to be altered if their current state differs from the configuration in the inventory file. Only run these health checks if you would not expect your inventory file to make any changes to your current cluster configuration.

Table 37.1. Diagnostic Health Checks

Check NamePurpose

etcd_imagedata_size

This check measures the total size of OpenShift Container Platform image data in an etcd cluster. The check fails if the calculated size exceeds a user-defined limit. If no limit is specified, this check will fail if the size of image data amounts to 50% or more of the currently used space in the etcd cluster.

A failure from this check indicates that a significant amount of space in etcd is being taken up by OpenShift Container Platform image data, which can eventually result in your etcd cluster crashing.

A user-defined limit may be set by passing the etcd_max_image_data_size_bytes variable. For example, setting etcd_max_image_data_size_bytes=40000000000 will cause the check to fail if the total size of image data stored in etcd exceeds 40 GB.

etcd_traffic

This check detects higher-than-normal traffic on an etcd host. It fails if a journalctl log entry with an etcd sync duration warning is found.

For further information on improving etcd performance, see Recommended Practices for OpenShift Container Platform etcd Hosts and the Red Hat Knowledgebase.

etcd_volume

This check ensures that the volume usage for an etcd cluster is below a maximum user-specified threshold. If no maximum threshold value is specified, it is defaulted to 90% of the total volume size.

A user-defined limit may be set by passing the etcd_device_usage_threshold_percent variable.

docker_storage

Only runs on hosts that depend on the docker daemon (nodes and containerized installations). Checks that docker's total usage does not exceed a user-defined limit. If no user-defined limit is set, docker's maximum usage threshold defaults to 90% of the total size available.

The threshold limit for total percent usage can be set with a variable in your inventory file, for example max_thinpool_data_usage_percent=90.

This also checks that docker's storage is using a supported configuration.

curator, elasticsearch, fluentd, kibana

This set of checks verifies that Curator, Kibana, Elasticsearch, and Fluentd pods have been deployed and are in a running state, and that a connection can be established between the control host and the exposed Kibana URL. These checks will only run if the openshift_logging_install_logging inventory variable is set to true, to ensure that they are executed in a deployment where cluster logging has been enabled.

logging_index_time

This check detects higher than normal time delays between log creation and log aggregation by Elasticsearch in a logging stack deployment. It fails if a new log entry cannot be queried through Elasticsearch within a timeout (by default, 30 seconds). The check only runs if logging is enabled.

A user-defined timeout may be set by passing the openshift_check_logging_index_timeout_seconds variable. For example, setting openshift_check_logging_index_timeout_seconds=45 will cause the check to fail if a newly-created log entry is not able to be queried via Elasticsearch after 45 seconds.

Note

A similar set of checks meant to run as part of the installation process can be found in Configuring Cluster Pre-install Checks. Another set of checks for checking certificate expiration can be found in Redeploying Certificates.

37.5.1. Running Health Checks via ansible-playbook

To run the openshift-ansible health checks using the ansible-playbook command, specify your cluster’s inventory file and run the health.yml playbook:

# ansible-playbook -i <inventory_file> \
    /usr/share/ansible/openshift-ansible/playbooks/byo/openshift-checks/health.yml

To set variables in the command line, include the -e flag with any desired variables in key=value format. For example:

# ansible-playbook -i <inventory_file> \
    /usr/share/ansible/openshift-ansible/playbooks/byo/openshift-checks/health.yml
    -e openshift_check_logging_index_timeout_seconds=45
    -e etcd_max_image_data_size_bytes=40000000000

To disable specific checks, include the variable openshift_disable_check with a comma-delimited list of check names in your inventory file before running the playbook. For example:

openshift_disable_check=etcd_traffic,etcd_volume

Alternatively, set any checks you want to disable as variables with -e openshift_disable_check=<check1>,<check2> when running the ansible-playbook command.

37.5.2. Running Health Checks via Docker CLI

It is possible to run the openshift-ansible playbooks in a Docker container, avoiding the need for installing and configuring Ansible, on any host that can run the ose-ansible image via the Docker CLI.

To do so, specify your cluster’s inventory file and the health.yml playbook when running the following docker run command as a non-root user that has privileges to run containers:

# docker run -u `id -u` \ 1
    -v $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa:/opt/app-root/src/.ssh/id_rsa:Z,ro \ 2
    -v /etc/ansible/hosts:/tmp/inventory:ro \ 3
    -e INVENTORY_FILE=/tmp/inventory \
    -e PLAYBOOK_FILE=playbooks/byo/openshift-checks/health.yml \ 4
    -e OPTS="-v -e openshift_check_logging_index_timeout_seconds=45 -e etcd_max_image_data_size_bytes=40000000000" \ 5
    openshift3/ose-ansible
1
These options make the container run with the same UID as the current user, which is required for permissions so that the SSH key can be read inside the container (SSH private keys are expected to be readable only by their owner).
2
Mount SSH keys as a volume under /opt/app-root/src/.ssh under normal usage when running the container as a non-root user.
3
Change /etc/ansible/hosts to the location of your cluster’s inventory file, if different. This file will be bind-mounted to /tmp/inventory, which is used according to the INVENTORY_FILE environment variable in the container.
4
The PLAYBOOK_FILE environment variable is set to the location of the health.yml playbook relative to /usr/share/ansible/openshift-ansible inside the container.
5
Set any variables desired for a single run with the -e key=value format.

In the above command, the SSH key is mounted with the :Z flag so that the container can read the SSH key from its restricted SELinux context; this means that your original SSH key file will be relabeled to something like system_u:object_r:container_file_t:s0:c113,c247. For more details about :Z, see the docker-run(1) man page.

Keep this in mind for these volume mount specifications because it could have unexpected consequences. For example, if you mount (and therefore relabel) your $HOME/.ssh directory, sshd will become unable to access your public keys to allow remote login. To avoid altering the original file labels, mounting a copy of the SSH key (or directory) is recommended.

You might want to mount an entire .ssh directory for various reasons. For example, this would allow you to use an SSH configuration to match keys with hosts or modify other connection parameters. It would also allow you to provide a known_hosts file and have SSH validate host keys, which is disabled by the default configuration and can be re-enabled with an environment variable by adding -e ANSIBLE_HOST_KEY_CHECKING=True to the docker command line.

Chapter 38. Idling Applications

38.1. Overview

As an OpenShift Container Platform administrator, you can idle applications to reduce resource consumption. This is useful when deployed on a public cloud where cost is related to resource consumption.

If any scalable resources are not in use, OpenShift Container Platform discovers, then idles them, by scaling them to 0 replicas. When network traffic is directed to the resources, they are unidled by scaling up the replicas, then operation continues.

Applications are made of services, as well as other scalable resources, such as deployment configurations. The action of idling an application involves idling all associated resources.

38.2. Idling Applications

Idling an application involves finding the scalable resources (deployment configurations, replication controllers, and others) associated with a service. Idling an application finds the service and marks it as idled, scaling down the resources to zero replicas.

You can use the oc idle command to idle a single service, or use the --resource-names-file option to idle multiple services.

38.2.1. Idling Single Services

Idle a single service with the following command:

$ oc idle <service>

38.2.2. Idling Multiple Services

Idle multiple services by creating a list of the desired services, then using the --resource-names-file option with the oc idle command.

This is helpful if an application spans across a set of services, or when idling multiples services in conjunction with a script in order to idle applications in bulk.

  1. Create a file containing a list of the services, each on their own line.
  2. Idle the services using the --resource-names-file option:

    $ oc idle --resource-names-file <filename>

38.3. Unidling Applications

Application services become active again when they receive network traffic and will be scaled back up their previous state. This includes both traffic to the services and traffic passing through routes.

Note

Automatic unidling by a router is currently only supported by the default HAProxy router.

Chapter 39. Analyzing Cluster Capacity

39.1. Overview

As a cluster administrator, you can use the cluster capacity tool to view the number of pods that can be scheduled to increase the current resources before they become exhausted, and to ensure any future pods can be scheduled. This capacity comes from an individual node host in a cluster, and includes CPU, memory, disk space, and others.

The cluster capacity tool simulates a sequence of scheduling decisions to determine how many instances of an input pod can be scheduled on the cluster before it is exhausted of resources to provide a more accurate estimation.

Note

The remaining allocatable capacity is a rough estimation, because it does not count all of the resources being distributed among nodes. It analyzes only the remaining resources and estimates the available capacity that is still consumable in terms of a number of instances of a pod with given requirements that can be scheduled in a cluster.

Also, pods might only have scheduling support on particular sets of nodes based on its selection and affinity criteria. As a result, the estimation of which remaining pods a cluster can schedule can be difficult.

You can run the cluster capacity analysis tool as a stand-alone utility from the command line, or as a job in a pod inside an OpenShift Container Platform cluster. Running it as job inside of a pod enables you to run it multiple times without intervention.

39.2. Running Cluster Capacity Analysis on the Command Line

To run the tool on the command line:

$ cluster-capacity --kubeconfig <path-to-kubeconfig> \
    --podspec <path-to-pod-spec>

The --kubeconfig option indicates your Kubernetes configuration file, and the --podspec option indicates a sample pod specification file, which the tool uses for estimating resource usage. The podspec specifies its resource requirements as limits or requests. The cluster capacity tool takes the pod’s resource requirements into account for its estimation analysis.

An example of the pod specification input is:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: small-pod
  labels:
    app: guestbook
    tier: frontend
spec:
  containers:
  - name: php-redis
    image: gcr.io/google-samples/gb-frontend:v4
    imagePullPolicy: Always
    resources:
      limits:
        cpu: 150m
        memory: 100Mi
      requests:
        cpu: 150m
        memory: 100Mi

You can also add the --verbose option to output a detailed description of how many pods can be scheduled on each node in the cluster:

$ cluster-capacity --kubeconfig <path-to-kubeconfig> \
    --podspec <path-to-pod-spec> --verbose

The output will look similar to the following:

small-pod pod requirements:
	- CPU: 150m
	- Memory: 100Mi

The cluster can schedule 52 instance(s) of the pod small-pod.

Termination reason: Unschedulable: No nodes are available that match all of the
following predicates:: Insufficient cpu (2).

Pod distribution among nodes:
small-pod
	- 192.168.124.214: 26 instance(s)
	- 192.168.124.120: 26 instance(s)

In the above example, the number of estimated pods that can be scheduled onto the cluster is 52.

39.3. Running Cluster Capacity as a Job Inside of a Pod

Running the cluster capacity tool as a job inside of a pod has the advantage of being able to be run multiple times without needing user intervention. Running the cluster capacity tool as a job involves using a ConfigMap.

  1. Create the cluster role:

    $ cat << EOF| oc create -f -
    kind: ClusterRole
    apiVersion: v1
    metadata:
      name: cluster-capacity-role
    rules:
    - apiGroups: [""]
      resources: ["pods", "nodes", "persistentvolumeclaims", "persistentvolumes", "services"]
      verbs: ["get", "watch", "list"]
    EOF
  2. Create the service account:

    $ oc create sa cluster-capacity-sa
  3. Add the role to the service account:

    $ oadm policy add-cluster-role-to-user cluster-capacity-role \
        system:serviceaccount:default:cluster-capacity-sa
  4. Define and create the pod specification:

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      name: small-pod
      labels:
        app: guestbook
        tier: frontend
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: php-redis
        image: gcr.io/google-samples/gb-frontend:v4
        imagePullPolicy: Always
        resources:
          limits:
            cpu: 150m
            memory: 100Mi
          requests:
            cpu: 150m
            memory: 100Mi
  5. The cluster capacity analysis is mounted in a volume using a ConfigMap named cluster-capacity-configmap to mount input pod spec file pod.yaml into a volume test-volume at the path /test-pod.

    If you haven’t created a ConfigMap, create one before creating the job:

    $ oc create configmap cluster-capacity-configmap \
        --from-file=pod.yaml=pod.yaml
  6. Create the job using the below example of a job specification file:

    apiVersion: batch/v1
    kind: Job
    metadata:
      name: cluster-capacity-job
    spec:
      parallelism: 1
      completions: 1
      template:
        metadata:
          name: cluster-capacity-pod
        spec:
            containers:
            - name: cluster-capacity
              image: openshift/origin-cluster-capacity
              imagePullPolicy: "Always"
              volumeMounts:
              - mountPath: /test-pod
                name: test-volume
              env:
              - name: CC_INCLUSTER 1
                value: "true"
              command:
              - "/bin/sh"
              - "-ec"
              - |
                /bin/cluster-capacity --podspec=/test-pod/pod.yaml --verbose
            restartPolicy: "Never"
            serviceAccountName: cluster-capacity-sa
            volumes:
            - name: test-volume
              configMap:
                name: cluster-capacity-configmap
    1
    A required environment variable letting the cluster capacity tool know that it is running inside a cluster as a pod.
    The pod.yaml key of the ConfigMap is the same as the pod specification file name, though it is not required. By doing this, the input pod spec file can be accessed inside the pod as /test-pod/pod.yaml.
  7. Run the cluster capacity image as a job in a pod:

    $ oc create -f cluster-capacity-job.yaml
  8. Check the job logs to find the number of pods that can be scheduled in the cluster:

    $ oc logs jobs/cluster-capacity-job
    small-pod pod requirements:
            - CPU: 150m
            - Memory: 100Mi
    
    The cluster can schedule 52 instance(s) of the pod small-pod.
    
    Termination reason: Unschedulable: No nodes are available that match all of the
    following predicates:: Insufficient cpu (2).
    
    Pod distribution among nodes:
    small-pod
            - 192.168.124.214: 26 instance(s)
            - 192.168.124.120: 26 instance(s)

Chapter 40. Labeling Clusters for Amazon Web Services (AWS)

40.1. Overview

This topic describes how to label an existing OpenShift Container Platform cluster running on Amazon Web Services (AWS).

To correctly identify which resources are associated with a cluster, tag resources with the key kubernetes.io/cluster/<name>, where <name> is a unique name for the cluster. Tagging all resources with the kubernetes.io/cluster/<name> tag avoids potential issues with multiple zones or multiple clusters.

See Configuring AWS for guidance on configuring AWS variables and OpenShift Container Platform masters for AWS.

See Pods and Services to learn more about labeling and tagging in OpenShift Container Platform.

40.2. Resources That Need Tags

There are four types of resources that need to be tagged:

  • Instances
  • Security Groups
  • Load Balancers
  • EBS Volumes

40.3. Tagging an Existing Cluster

A cluster will use the value of the kubernetes.io/cluster/<name> tag to determine which resources belong to the cluster. Therefore, you must tag all resources with the key kubernetes.io/cluster/<name> and have th