11.4.15. About the IN Predicate
INpredicate performs a check that a particular value is in a list of values. Its syntax is:
in_expression ::= single_valued_expression [NOT] IN single_valued_list single_valued_list ::= constructor_expression | (subquery) | collection_valued_input_parameter constructor_expression ::= (expression[, expression]*)
The types of the
single_valued_expressionand the individual values in the
single_valued_listmust be consistent. JPQL limits the valid types here to string, numeric, date, time, timestamp, and enum types. In JPQL,
single_valued_expressioncan only refer to:
- "state fields", which is its term for simple attributes. Specifically this excludes association and component/embedded attributes.
- entity type expressions.
single_valued_expressioncan refer to a far more broad set of expression types. Single-valued association are allowed. So are component/embedded attributes, although that feature depends on the level of support for tuple or "row value constructor syntax" in the underlying database. Additionally, HQL does not limit the value type in any way, though application developers should be aware that different types may incur limited support based on the underlying database vendor. This is largely the reason for the JPQL limitations.
The list of values can come from a number of different sources. In the
collection_valued_input_parameter, the list of values must not be empty; it must contain at least one value.
Example 11.19. In Predicate Examples
select p from Payment p where type(p) in (CreditCardPayment, WireTransferPayment) select c from Customer c where c.hqAddress.state in ('TX', 'OK', 'LA', 'NM') select c from Customer c where c.hqAddress.state in ? select c from Customer c where c.hqAddress.state in ( select dm.state from DeliveryMetadata dm where dm.salesTax is not null ) // Not JPQL compliant! select c from Customer c where c.name in ( ('John','Doe'), ('Jane','Doe') ) // Not JPQL compliant! select c from Customer c where c.chiefExecutive in ( select p from Person p where ... )