16.3. Custom SQL for create, update and delete

Hibernate3 can use custom SQL statements for create, update, and delete operations. The class and collection persisters in Hibernate already contain a set of configuration time generated strings (insertsql, deletesql, updatesql etc.). The mapping tags <sql-insert>, <sql-delete>, and <sql-update> override these strings:
<class name="Person">
    <id name="id">
        <generator class="increment"/>
    </id>
    <property name="name" not-null="true"/>
    <sql-insert>INSERT INTO PERSON (NAME, ID) VALUES ( UPPER(?), ? )</sql-insert>
    <sql-update>UPDATE PERSON SET NAME=UPPER(?) WHERE ID=?</sql-update>
    <sql-delete>DELETE FROM PERSON WHERE ID=?</sql-delete>
</class>
The SQL is directly executed in your database, so you can use any dialect you like. This will reduce the portability of your mapping if you use database specific SQL.
Stored procedures are supported if the callable attribute is set:
<class name="Person">
    <id name="id">
        <generator class="increment"/>
    </id>
    <property name="name" not-null="true"/>
    <sql-insert callable="true">{call createPerson (?, ?)}</sql-insert>
    <sql-delete callable="true">{? = call deletePerson (?)}</sql-delete>
    <sql-update callable="true">{? = call updatePerson (?, ?)}</sql-update>
</class>
The order of the positional parameters is vital, as they must be in the same sequence as Hibernate expects them.
You can view the expected order by enabling debug logging for the org.hibernate.persister.entity level. With this level enabled, Hibernate will print out the static SQL that is used to create, update, delete etc. entities. To view the expected sequence, do not include your custom SQL in the mapping files, as this will override the Hibernate generated static SQL.
The stored procedures are in most cases required to return the number of rows inserted, updated and deleted, as Hibernate has some runtime checks for the success of the statement. Hibernate always registers the first statement parameter as a numeric output parameter for the CUD operations:
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION updatePerson (uid IN NUMBER, uname IN VARCHAR2)
    RETURN NUMBER IS
BEGIN

    update PERSON
    set
        NAME = uname,
    where
        ID = uid;

    return SQL%ROWCOUNT;

END updatePerson;