Getting Started Guide

JBoss Enterprise Application Platform 4.3

for Use with JBoss Enterprise Application Platform 4.3

Edition 4.3.10

Red Hat Documentation Group


This book provides post-installation information about JBoss Enterprise Application Platform 4.3 and its patch releases. Use this guide to familiarise yourself with the platform and the sample applications that demonstrate application development and deployment.

About this book

The goal of this book is to give you an overview of JBoss Enterprise Application Platform, and demonstrate some of its features and capability to provide a rapid application development and deployment environment for Enterprise Java Applications. You should use this version or later with the example applications. The example applications described in this book illustrate the development and deployment of Enterprise Java applications in JBoss Enterprise Application Platform. While the book is not intended to teach you Enterprise Java development, we will be covering the subject from quite a basic standpoint, so it will still be useful if you are new to Enterprise Java Application Development.
We will provide you a quick tour of the JBoss Directory Structure, basic Server Configuration, key configuration files and the JMX and Web Consoles. As we move on to the example applications, you will see JBoss Enterprise Application Platform in action and get some exposure in simple configuration and deployment issues. We will introduce the Seam framework and demonstrate the significant difference that Seam makes to application development.
Of course, that barely scratches the surface of what you can do with JBoss Enterprise Application Platform. Once you feel comfortable with the information here, the JBoss Enterprise Application Platform: Server Configuration Guide can take you through the rest of the way to total mastery of JBoss Enterprise Application Platform.

Chapter 1. Introduction

JBoss Enterprise Application Platform is easy to install and you can have it running in a few easy steps. Refer to the JBoss Enterprise Application Platform: Installation Guide for information on pre-requisites for installation and the detailed installation steps.
Once you have JBoss Enterprise Application Platform installed, use this guide to familiarize yourself with its layout and the example applications that demonstrate application development and deployment.

1.1. Feedback

If you spot a typo in this guide, or if you have thought of a way to make this manual better, we would love to hear from you! Submit a report in JIRA against the Product: JBoss Enterprise Application Platform, Version: <version>, Component: Doc. If you have a suggestion for improving the documentation, try to be as specific as possible. If you have found an error, include the section number and some of the surrounding text so we can find it easily.

1.2. Other Manuals

If you are looking for detailed product information refer to the manuals available online at

Chapter 2. The JBoss Server - A Quick Tour

Let's explore the JBoss Enterprise Application Platform directory structure and help you understand how the installation is laid out and what goes where. It’s worth familiarizing yourself with the layout, locations of the key configuration files, log files, deployment and so on. It will help you understand the JBoss service architecture so that you’ll be able to find your way around when it comes to deploying your own applications.

2.1. Directory Structure

2.1.1. JBoss Top Level Directory Structure

Installing JBoss Enterprise Application Platform creates a top level directory, which will be named jboss-eap-<version> if you used the zip installation method, and will be named according to your specification if you used the GUI installer. Throughout this guide we refer to this top-level directory as the JBOSS_DIST directory. There are four sub-directories immediately below this:
  • doc: contains the product documentation.
  • jboss-as: contains sub directories that contain server start scripts, JARs, server configuration sets and working directories. You need to know your way around the distribution layout to locate JARs for compiling code, updating configurations, deploying your code, etc.
  • seam: contains the files for Hibernate and the JBoss Seam Framework.
  • Uninstaller: contains the uninstaller program uninstaller.jar.
Below is the layout of the installation directory of JBoss Enterprise Application Platform. In the figure, the default server configuration file set is shown expanded. In a clean installation, within the server/default directory only the conf, deploy, and lib directories exist. The data, log, tmp and work sub-directories are created by JBoss and won’t exist until you’ve run the server at least once. Section 2.3, “Starting and Stopping the Server” will teach you to run the server.
jboss-eap-<version>                  // jboss.home_url
	|+ doc
	|+ jboss-as
		|+ bin
		|+ client
		|+ docs
		|+ lib                         // jboss.lib.url
		|+ server
			|+ all                //
			|+ default            // jboss.server.home.url
				|+ conf       // jboss.server.config.url
				|+ deploy
				|+ lib        // jboss.server.lib.url
				|+ data
				|+ log
				|+ tmp
				|+ work
			|+ minimal
			|+ production
	|+ seam
	|+ Uninstaller                      // jboss.uninstaller.url

Several of the locations may be overridden. For these locations, the org.jboss.system.server.ServerConfig interface constant and its corresponding system property string are shown in the figure. The names ending in URL correspond to locations that can be specified using a URL to access remote locations, for example, HTTP URLs against a web server.

2.1.2. JBOSS_DIST/jboss-as Directory Structure

The table below illustrates the contents of the jboss-as directory.

Table 2.1. Contents of JBOSS_DIST/jboss-as directory

Directory Description
bin Contains startup, shutdown and other system-specific scripts. Basically all the entry point JARs and start scripts included with the JBoss distribution are located in the bin directory.
client Stores configuration files and JAR files that may be used by a Java client application (running outside JBoss) or an external web container. You can select archives as required or use jbossall-client.jar.
docs Contains the XML DTDs used in JBoss for reference (these are also a useful source of documentation on JBoss configuration specifics). There are also example JCA (Java Connector Architecture) configuration files for setting up datasources for different databases (such as MySQL, Oracle, Postgres).
lib Contains startup JARs used by JBoss. Do not place your own JAR files in this directory.
server Contains the JBoss server configuration sets. Each of the subdirectories in here is a different server configuration. JBoss ships with minimal, default, production, and all configuration sets. The subdirectories and key configuration files contained in the default configuration set are discussed in more detail in subsequent sections.

2.2. Server Configurations

Fundamentally, the JBoss architecture consists of the JMX MBean server, the microkernel, and a set of pluggable component services - the MBeans. This makes it easy to assemble different configurations and gives you the flexibility to tailor them to meet your requirements.
You don’t have to run a large, monolithic server all the time; you can remove the components you don’t need (which can also reduce the server startup time considerably) and you can also integrate additional services into JBoss by writing your own MBeans. You certainly don’t need to do this to be able to run standard J2EE applications though. Everything you need is already there.
You don’t need a detailed understanding of JMX to use JBoss, but it’s worth keeping a picture of this basic architecture in mind as it is central to the way JBoss works.
The JBoss Enterprise Application Platform ships with four different server configurations. Within the JBOSS_DIST/jboss-as/server directory, you will find four subdirectories: minimal, default, production and all - one for each server configuration. Each of these configurations provide a different set of services. The production configuration is the one used if you don’t specify another one when starting up the server.
has a minimal configuration—the bare minimum services required to start JBoss. It starts the logging service, a JNDI server and a URL deployment scanner to find new deployments. This is what you would use if you want to use JMX/JBoss to start your own services without any other J2EE technologies. This is just the bare server. There is no web container, no EJB or JMS support. This is not a J2EE 1.4 compatible configuration.
is a base J2EE 1.4 server profile containing a default set of services. It has the most frequently used services required to deploy a J2EE application. It does not include the JAXR service, the IIOP service, or any of the clustering services. Please note that although this configuration is called "default", the actual default configuration for the server is the "production" configuration.
on the other hand has all the services configured to launch every single component. This is a full J2EE 1.4 server profile with enterprise extensions such as Clustering and RMI/IIOP.
is based on the "all" profile, tuned for production; with log verbosity reduced, deployment scanning every 60 seconds, and memory usage tuned to accomodate production deployment requirements, among other things. This is the configuration that will be used by the server when it is started, if no other configuration is specified.
If you want to know which services are configured in each of these instances, look at the jboss-service.xml file in the JBOSS_DIST/jboss-as/server/<instance-name>/conf/ directory and also the configuration files in the JBOSS_DIST/jboss-as/server/<instance-name>/deploy directory.
[vsr]$ls server/default/conf 
jbossjta-properties.xml   standardjbosscmp-jdbc.xml
jboss-log4j.xml          login-config.xml  standardjboss.xml
jboss-minimal.xml        props             xmdesc
jboss-service.xml        standardjaws.xml


The production configuration is the one used if you don’t specify another one when starting up the server.
To start the server using an alternate configuration refer to Section 2.3.2, “Start the Server With Alternate Configuration”.

2.2.1. Server Configuration Directory Structure

The directory server configuration you’re using, is effectively the server root while JBoss is running. It contains all the code and configuration information for the services provided by the particular server configuration. It’s where the log output goes, and it’s where you deploy your applications. Table 2.2, “Server Configuration Directory Structure” shows the directories inside the server configuration directory (JBOSS_DIST/jboss-as/server/<instance-name>) and their functions.

Table 2.2. Server Configuration Directory Structure

Directory Description
conf The conf directory contains the jboss-service.xml bootstrap descriptor file for a given server configuration. This defines the core services that are fixed for the lifetime of the server.
data The data directory is available for use by services that want to store content in the file system. It holds persistent data for services intended to survive a server restart. Serveral JBoss services, such as the embedded Hypersonic database instance, store data here.
deploy The deploy directory contains the hot-deployable services (those which can be added to or removed from the running server). It also contains applications for the current server configuration. You deploy your application code by placing application packages (JAR, WAR and EAR files) in the deploy directory. The directory is constantly scanned for updates, and any modified components will be re-deployed automatically. This may be overridden through the URLDeploymentScanner URLs attribute.
lib This directory contains JAR files (Java libraries that should not be hot deployed) needed by this server configuration. You can add required library files here for JDBC drivers etc. All JARs in this directory are loaded into the shared classpath at startup.
log This is where the log files are written. JBoss uses the Jakarta log4j package for logging and you can also use it directly in your own applications from within the server. This may be overridden through the conf/log4j.xml configuration file.
tmp The tmp directory is used for temporary storage by JBoss services. The deployer, for example, expands application archives in this directory.
work This directory is used by Tomcat for compilation of JSPs.

2.2.2. The "default" Server Configuration File Set

The "default" server configuration file set is located in the JBOSS_DIST/jboss-as/server/default directory. Let's take a look at the contents of the default server configuration file set:
jboss-eap-<version>                // jboss.home_url
	|+ doc
	|+ jboss-as
		|+ bin
		|+ client
		|+ docs
		|+ lib                        // jboss.lib.url
		|+ server
			|+ all               //
			|+ default           // jboss.server.home.url
				|+ conf      // jboss.server.config.url
					|+ props
					|+ xmdesc
					-  jbossjta-properties.xml  
					-  jboss-minimal.xml  
					-  standardjboss.xml
					-  jboss-log4j.xml
					-  jboss-service.xml
					-  login-config.xml
					-  standardjbosscmp-jdbc.xml
				|+ deploy
					|+ ejb3.deployer
					|+ http-invoker.sar
					|+ jboss-aop-jdk50.deployer
					|+ jboss-bean.deployer
					|+ jboss-web.deployer
					|+ jbossws.sar
					|+ jboss-messaging.sar
					|+ jmx-console.war
					|+ management
					|+ uuid-key-generator.sar
					-  bsh-deployer.xml
					-  cache-invalidation-service.xml
					-  client-deployer-service.xml
					-  ear-deployer.xml
					-  ejb3-interceptors-aop.xml
					-  ejb-deployer.xml
					-  hsqldb-ds.xml
					-  jboss-ha-local-jdbc.rar
					-  jboss-ha-xa-jdbc.rar
					-  jbossjca-service.xml
					-  jboss-local-jdbc.rar
					-  jboss-xa-jdbc.rar
					-  jms-ds.rar
					-  jms-ra.rar
					-  jmx-invoker-service.xml
					-  jsr88-service.xml
					-  mail-ra.rar
					-  mail-service.xml
					-  monitoring-service.xml
					-  properties-service.xml
					-  quartz-ra.rar
					-  schedule-manager-service.xml
					-  scheduler-service.xml
					-  sqlexception-service.xml
				|+ lib            // jboss.server.lib.url
			|+ minimal
			|+ production
	|+ seam
	|+ Uninstaller                          // jboss.uninstaller.url Contents of "conf" directory

The files in the conf directory are explained in the following table.

Table 2.3. Contents of "conf" directory

File Description
jboss-minimal.xml This is a minimalist example of the jboss-service.xml configuration file. (This is the jboss-service.xml file used in the minimal configuration file set)
jboss-service.xml jboss-service.xml defines the core services and their configurations. The file specifies the JNDI InitialContext properties that are used within the JBoss server when an InitialContext is created using the no-arg constructor.
jboss-log4j.xml This file configures the Apache log4j framework category priorities and appenders used by the JBoss server code.
jbossjta-properties.xml This file provides the default configuration for the transaction manager.
login-config.xml This file contains sample server side authentication configurations that are applicable when using JAAS based security.
props/* The props directory contains the users and roles property files for the jmx-console.
standardjboss.xml This file provides the default container configurations.
standardjbosscmp-jdbc.xml This file provides a default configuration file for the JBoss CMP engine.
xmdesc/*-mbean.xml The xmdesc directory contains XMBean descriptors for several services configured in the jboss-service.xml file. Contents of "deploy" directory

The files in the default deploy directory are explained in the following table.

Table 2.4. Contents of "deploy" directory

File Description
bsh-deployer.xml This file configures the bean shell deployer, which deploys bean shell scripts as JBoss services.
cache-invalidation-service.xml This is a service that allows for custom invalidation of the EJB caches via JMS notifications. It is disabled by default.
client-deployer-service.xml This is a service that provides support for J2EE application clients. It manages the java:comp/env enterprise naming context for client applications based on the application-client.xml descriptor.
ear-deployer.xml The EAR deployer is the service responsible for deploying J2EE EAR files.
ejb-deployer.xml The EJB deployer is the service responsible for deploying J2EE EJB JAR files.
ejb3.deployer.xml Contains implementation and the configuration of the EJB3 container.
ejb3-interceptors-aop.xml Contains standard configuration of the EJB3 interceptor stacks.
hsqldb-ds.xml hsqldb-ds.xml configures the Hypersonic embedded database service configuration file. It sets up the embedded database and related connection factories.
http-invoker.sar http-invoker.sar contains the detached invoker that supports RMI over HTTP. It also contains the proxy bindings for accessing JNDI over HTTP.
jboss-aop-jdk50.deployer This service configures the AspectManagerService and deploys JBoss AOP applications.
jboss-bean.deployer jboss-bean.deployer provides the JBoss microcontainer, which deploys POJO services wrapped in .beans files.
jboss-ha-local-jdbc.rar jboss-ha-local-jdbc.rar is a version of jboss-local-jdbc.rar that supports datasource failover.
jboss-ha-xa-jdbc.rar jboss-ha-xa-jdbc.rar is a version of jboss-xa-jdbc.rar that supports datasource failover.
jboss-local-jdbc.rar jboss-local-jdbc.rar is a JCA resource adaptor that implements the JCA ManagedConnectionFactory interface for JDBC drivers that support the DataSource interface but not JCA.
jboss-xa-jdbc.rar jboss-xa-jdbc.rar is a JCA resource adaptor that implements the JCA ManagedConnectionFactory interface for JDBC drivers that support the XADataSource interface.
jbossjca-service.xml jbossjca-service.xml is the application server implementation of the JCA specification. It provides the connection management facilities for integrating resource adaptors into the JBoss server.
jboss-web.deployer The jboss-web.deployer directory provides the Tomcat servlet engine.
jbossws.sar jbossws.sar provides J2EE web services support.
jboss-messaging.sar/hsqldb-persistence-service.xml hsqldb-persistencee-service.xml provides JMS state management using Hypersonic.
jboss-messaging.sar/destinations-service.xml destinations-service.xml configures a number of JMS queues and topics used by the JMS unit tests.
jboss-messaging.sar/messaging-service.xml The messaging-service.xml file configures the core JBoss Messaging JMS service.
jms-ra.rar jms-ra.rar is a JCA resource adaptor that implements the JCA ManagedConnectionFactory interface for JMS connection factories.
jms-ds.xml Contains configuration of the JMS resource adapter.
jmx-console.war The jmx-console.war directory provides the JMX Console. The JMX Console provides a simple web interface for managing the MBean server.
jmx-invoker-service.sar jmx-invoker-service.sar is an unpacked MBean service archive that exposes a subset of the JMX MBeanServer interface methods as an RMI interface to enable remote access to the JMX core functionality. This is similar to the legacy jmx-rmi-adaptor.sar, with the difference that the transport is handled by the detached invoker architecture.
jsr-88-service.xml jsr-88-service.xml provides the JSR 88 remote deployment service.
mail-ra.rar mail-ra.rar is a resource adaptor that provides a JavaMail connector.
mail-service.xml The mail-service.xml file is an MBean service descriptor that provides JavaMail sessions for use inside the JBoss server.
management/console-mgr.sar console-mgr.sar provides the Web Console. It is a web application/applet that provides a richer view of the JMX server management data than the JMX console. You may view the console using the URL http://localhost:8080/web-console/.
monitoring-service.xml The monitoring-service.xml file configures alert monitors like the console listener and email listener used by JMX notifications.
properties-service.xml The properties-service.xml file is an MBean service descriptor that allows for customization of the JavaBeans PropertyEditors as well as the definition of system properties.
quartz-ra.rar Contains Quartz scheduler resource adapter.
scheduler-manager-service.xml Contains sample scheduler configurations. Disabled by default.
scheduler-service.xml The scheduler-service.xml and schedule-manager-service.xml files are MBean service descriptors that provide a scheduling type of service.
sqlexception-service.xml The sqlexception-service.xml file is an MBean service descriptor for the handling of vendor specific SQLExceptions.
uuid-key-generator.sar The uuid-key-generator.sar service provides a UUID-based key generation facility.

2.2.3. The "all" Server Configuration File Set

The "all" server configuration file set is located in the JBOSS_DIST/jboss-as/server/all directory. In addition to the services in the "default" set, the all configuration contains several other services in the conf/ directory as shown below.

Table 2.5. Additional Services in "deploy" directory for "all" configuration

File Description
cluster-service.xml This service configures clustering communication for most clustered services in JBoss.
deploy-hasingleton-service.xml This provides the HA singleton service, allowing JBoss to manage services that must be active on only one node of a cluster.
deploy.last/farm-service.xml farm-service.xml provides the farm service, which allows for cluster-wide deployment and undeployment of services.
ejb3-clustered-sfsbcache-service.xml Contains EJB3 stateful session bean clustering configuration.
ejb3-entity-cache-service.xml Contains EJB3 entity bean clusteing configuration.
httpha-invoker.sar This service provides HTTP tunneling support for clustered environments.
iiop-service.xml This provides IIOP invocation support.
jboss-web-cluster.sar Contains configuration of the http session replication service.
juddi-service.sar This service provides UDDI lookup services.
snmp-adaptor.sar This is a JMX to SNMP adaptor. It allows for the mapping of JMX notifications onto SNMP traps.

2.2.4. EJB3 Services

The following table explains the files providing ejb3 services.

Table 2.6. EJB3 Services

File Description
ejb3-interceptors-aop.xml This service provides the AOP interceptor stack configurations for EJB3 bean types.
ejb3.deployer This service deploys EJB3 applications into JBoss.
jboss-aop-jdk50.deployer This is a Java 5 version of the AOP deployer. The AOP deployer configures the AspectManagerService and deploys JBoss AOP applications.
jbossws.sar This provides Java EE 5 web services support.
Finally, in the EJB3 "all" configuration there are two additional services.

Table 2.7. Additional Services in EJB3 "all" Configuration

File Description
ejb3-clustered-sfsbcache-service.xml This provides replication and failover for EJB3 stateful session beans.
ejb3-entity-cache-service.xml This provides a clustered cache for EJB3 entity beans.

2.2.5. Adding Your Own Configuration

You can add your own configurations too. The best way to do this is to copy an existing one that is closest to your needs and modify the contents. For example, if you weren’t interested in using messaging, you could copy the production directory, renaming it as myconfig, remove the jms subdirectory and then start JBoss with the new configuration.
run -c myconfig

2.3. Starting and Stopping the Server

2.3.1. Start the Server

Move to JBOSS_DIST/jboss-as/bin directory and execute the run.bat (for Windows) or (for Linux) script, as appropriate for your operating system. Your output should look like the following (accounting for installation directory differences) and contain no error or exception messages:

[vrenish@vinux bin]$ ./

  JBoss Bootstrap Environment

  JBOSS_HOME: /home/vrenish/EnterprisePlatform-4.3.0/jboss-as

  JAVA: /usr/java/jdk1.5.0_11/bin/java

  JAVA_OPTS: -server -Xms1503m -Xmx1503m 
             -Dsun.rmi.dgc.client.gcInterval=3600000 -Dsun.rmi.dgc.server.gcInterval=3600000 

  CLASSPATH: /home/vrenish/EnterprisePlatform-4.3.0/jboss-as/bin/run.jar:/u sr/java/jdk1.5.0_11/lib/tools.jar


14:52:06,251 INFO  [Server] Starting JBoss (MX MicroKernel)...
14:52:07,630 INFO  [ServerInfo] Java version: 1.5.0_11,Sun Microsystems Inc.
14:52:07,631 INFO  [ServerInfo] Java VM: Java HotSpot(TM) Server VM 1.5.0_11-b03 ,Sun Microsystems Inc.
14:52:07,631 INFO  [ServerInfo] OS-System: Linux 2.6.9-42.0.3.EL,i386
14:52:11,251 INFO  [Server] Core system initialized
14:52:18,230 INFO  [WebService] Using RMI server codebase:
14:52:18,233 INFO  [Log4jService$URLWatchTimerTask] Configuring from URL: resource:jboss-log4j.xml


Note that there is no "Server Started" message shown at the console when the server is started using the production profile, which is the default profile used when no other is specified. This message may be observed in the server.log file located in the server/production/log subdirectory.

2.3.2. Start the Server With Alternate Configuration

Using without any arguments starts the server using the production server configuration file set. To start with an alternate configuration file set, pass the name of the server configuration file set [same as the name of the server configuration directory under JBOSS_DIST/jboss-as/server] that you want to use, as the value to the -c command line option. For example, to start with the minimal configuration file set you should specify:
[bin]$ ./ -c minimal
14:56:30,842 INFO  [Server] JBoss (MX MicroKernel) 
                [4.3.0.GA (build: SVNTag=JBPAPP_4_3_0_GA date=200711141859)] Started in 3s:930ms

2.3.3. Using

The run script supports the following options:
usage: [options]
-h, --help                          Show help message
-V, --version                       Show version information
--                                  Stop processing options
-D<name>[=<value>]      Set a system property
-d, --bootdir=<dir>           Set the boot patch directory; Must be absolute or url
-p, --patchdir=<dir>          Set the patch directory; Must be absolute or url
-n, --netboot=<url>           Boot from net with the given url as base
-c, --configuration=<name>    Set the server configuration name
-B, --bootlib=<filename>      Add an extra library to the front bootclasspath
-L, --library=<filename>      Add an extra library to the loaders classpath
-C, --classpath=<url>         Add an extra url to the loaders classpath
-P, --properties=<url>        Load system properties from the given url
-b, --host=<host or ip>       Bind address for all JBoss services
-g, --partition=<name>        HA Partition name (default=DefaultDomain)
-u, --udp=<ip>                UDP multicast address
-l, --log=<log4j|jdk>         Specify the logger plugin type

2.3.4. Stopping the Server

To shutdown the server, you simply issue a Ctrl-C sequence in the console in which JBoss was started. Alternatively, you can use the command.
[bin]$ ./ -S
The shutdown script supports the following options:
A JMX client to shutdown (exit or halt) a remote JBoss server.

usage: shutdown [options] <operation>

-h, --help                Show this help message (default)
-D<name>[=<value>]        Set a system property
--                        Stop processing options
-s, --server=<url>        Specify the JNDI URL of the remote server
-n, --serverName=<url>    Specify the JMX name of the ServerImpl
-a, --adapter=<name>      Specify JNDI name of the MBeanServerConnection to use
-u, --user=<name>         Specify the username for authentication
-p, --password=<name>     Specify the password for authentication

-S, --shutdown            Shutdown the server
-e, --exit=<code>         Force the VM to exit with a status code
-H, --halt=<code>         Force the VM to halt with a status code
Using the shutdown command requires a server configuration that contains the jmx-invoker-service.xml service. Hence you cannot use the shutdown command with the minimal configuration.

2.3.5.  Running as a Service under Microsoft Windows

You can configure the server to run as a service under Microsoft Windows, and configure it to start automatically if desired.
There are two ways that the JBoss Enterprise Application Server can be run under Windows.
Option 1. Use JBoss Native for Windows

You can use JBossNative. Download the appropriate version based on your system and go through the README-service.txt which lists down the steps for running JBoss as a service.

Option 2. Use the JavaServiceWrapper

You can use Java Service Wrapper and manage it using the JMX.

Unzip the wrapper zip file, and do the following:
copy WRAPPER_HOME\bin\Wrapper.exe %JBOSS_HOME%\bin\Wrapper.exe
copy WRAPPER_HOME\lib\Wrapper.DLL %JBOSS_HOME%\lib\Wrapper.DLL
copy WRAPPER_HOME\lib\wrapper.jar %JBOSS_HOME%\lib\wrapper.jar
mkdir %JBOSS_HOME%\server\YOURCONFIG\wrapper
Create a wrapper.conf file inside the %JBOSS_HOME%\server\YOURCONFIG\wrapper directory, with the below contents:
# these are the JAVA_OPTS
# enviroment variables - define the ones that match your desired environment
# memory parameters - define the ones that match your desired environment
# If you need serialization suppport
# Parameters to be passed to the application (Jboss) 
# Define server name (configuration) - If you need a config that is different than the "default" or need to run multiple configs YOURCONFIG
# Define listening IP - If you have more than one IP or want to indicate to listen on a specific IP aaa.bbb.ccc.ddd
# wrapper log location
# You must not change below parameters without first uninstall the service
# service name
# service display name
wrapper.ntservice.displayname=JBoss Server YOURCONFIG
The service can be tested by running the following commands:
cd %JBOSS_HOME%\bin\
wrapper.exe -c %JBOSS_HOME%\server\YOURCONFIG\wrapper\wrapper.conf
To now install the service, execute:
cd %JBOSS_HOME%\bin\
wrapper.exe -i %JBOSS_HOME%\server\YOURCONFIG\wrapper\wrapper.conf
If at some point you wish to uninstall the JavaServiceWrapper, execute:
cd %JBOSS_HOME%\bin\
wrapper.exe -r %JBOSS_HOME%\server\YOURCONFIG\wrapper\wrapper.conf


Make sure your JBOSS_HOME environment variable is set correctly as the wrapper does not set this automatically.
As a final check, make sure that your java-service-wrapper-service.xml file looks like the following:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE server>
<mbean code="org.tanukisoftware.wrapper.jmx.WrapperManager"
<mbean code="org.tanukisoftware.wrapper.jmx.WrapperManagerTesting"


Using JavaService is no longer a recommended way to run JBoss as a service on Windows.
JavaService has a bug where it will not pass either Xss or XX:ThreadStackStize? arguemnts to the jvm properly. This results are that each thread stack is 1MB. Under load this will most likely fail with an "java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: unable to create new native thread" error. The fix for this error is to lower the thread stack size. Since JavaService does not allow the thread stack size to be set, there will be no solution once an application has run into this error.
The limit on memory allocation can also cause tiles to slow down in JBoss when many applications are deployed.

2.3.6. Enabling Remote Connectivity to the JBoss Server

Older versions of the JBoss Server always bound to the address (for instance, all network interfaces). This resulted in many unprotected instances of JBoss on the Internet. This is no longer the case as JBoss now only binds to the local interface (typically by default. To change this, the -b command line option can be used.
In order to execute this under Linux run:
./ -b <ip address>
In order to execute this under Windows run:
run.bat -b <ip address>


Using -b as part of the JBoss Server's command line is equivalent to setting these individual properties: -Djboss.bind.address -Djava.rmi.server.hostname -Djgroups.bind_addr and -Dbind.address. Also note that passing -Djboss.bind.address to the Java process as part of the JAVA_OPTS variable in the run scripts will not work as it is a JBoss property not a JVM property.

2.3.7. User credentials locally and remotely

This section will explain how to halt the server locally or remotely with a ZIP installation as username and password combinations required for each can be different. .
Starting and halting the server locally

When starting or halting the Application Server locally, the file should be used via the command line and it will ask for a user name and password for a user with an account on the operating system.


Though is used to start and stop the server locally for a ZIP installation; this file along with and are provided as-is with not support.
Halting the server remotely

When halting the Application Server remotely, the file should be used via the command line and it will ask for a user name and password for a user with an account on the Application Server. The reason why a user on the server is required is because the file is linked to the JMX Console.

For the file to work correctly though, the file must have a user name and password combination present within it for the file to read.

2.4. The JMX Console

When the JBoss Server is running, you can get a live view of the server by going to the JMX console application at http://localhost:8080/jmx-console. You should see something similar to Figure 2.1, “View of the JMX Management Console Web Application”.
By default the access rights to the JMX console are commented out. If you cannot access the JMX console using the address stated above because of a permissions error go to the conf/props/ directory of the server configuration you are deploying and uncomment the admin userid and password code within the file. This will now allow the admin user to access the JMX console using the user name and password combination specified within the file.
The JMX Console is the JBoss Management Console which provides a raw view of the JMX MBeans which make up the server. They can provide a lot of information about the running server and allow you to modify its configuration, start and stop components and so on.
For example, find the service=JNDIView link and click on it. This particular MBean provides a service to allow you to view the structure of the JNDI namespaces within the server. Now find the operation called list near the bottom of the MBean view page and click the invoke button. The operation returns a view of the current names bound into the JNDI tree, which is very useful when you start deploying your own applications and want to know why you can’t resolve a particular EJB name.
View of the JMX Management Console Web Application

Figure 2.1. View of the JMX Management Console Web Application

Look at some of the other MBeans and their listed operations; try changing some of the configuration attributes and see what happens. With a very few exceptions, none of the changes made through the console are persistent. The original configuration will be reloaded when you restart JBoss, so you can experiment freely without doing any permanent damage.


If you installed JBoss using the graphical installer, the JMX Console will prompt you for a user name and password before you can access it. If you installed using other modes, you can still configure JMX Security manually. We will show you how to secure your console in Section 2.6.3, “Security Service”.

2.5. Hot-deployment of services in JBoss

Hot-deployable services are those which can be added to or removed from the running server. These are placed in the JBOSS_DIST/jboss-as/server/<instance-name>/deploy directory. Let’s have a look at a practical example of hot-deployment of services in JBoss before we go on to look at server configuration issues in more detail.
Start JBoss if it is not already running and take a look at the server/production/deploy directory. Remove the mail-service.xml file and watch the output from the server:
13:10:05,235 INFO  [MailService] Mail service 'java:/Mail' removed from JNDI
Then replace the file and watch JBoss re-install the service:
13:58:54,331 INFO  [MailService] Mail Service bound to java:/Mail
This is hot-deployment in action.

2.6. Basic Configuration Issues

Now that we have examined the JBoss server, we will take a look at some of the main configuration files and what they are used for. All paths are relative to the server configuration directory (server/production, for example).

2.6.1. Core Services

The core services specified in the conf/jboss-service.xml file are started first when the server starts up. If you have a look at this file in an editor you will see MBeans for various services including logging, security, JNDI, JNDIView etc. Try commenting out the entry for the JNDIView service.
Note that because the MBean definition had nested comments, we had to comment out the MBean in two sections, leaving the original comment as it was.
<!-- Section 1 commented out
<mbean code="org.jboss.naming.JNDIView"
    <!-- The HANamingService service name -->
<!-- Section two commented out
    <attribute name="HANamingService">jboss:service=HAJNDI</attribute></mbean>

If you then restart JBoss, you will see that the JNDIView service no longer appears in the JMX Management Console (JMX Console) listing. In practice, you should rarely, if ever, need to modify this file, though there is nothing to stop you adding extra MBean entries in here if you want to. The alternative is to use a separate file in the deploy directory, which allows your service to be hot deployable.

2.6.2. Logging Service

In JBoss, log4j is used for logging. If you are not familiar with the log4j package and would like to use it in your applications, you can read more about it at the Jakarta web site (
For more information, see Chapter 3, Logging Conventions.

2.6.3. Security Service

The security domain information is stored in the file login-config.xml as a list of named security domains, each of which specifies a number of JAAS [1] login modules which are used for authentication purposes in that domain. When you want to use security in an application, you specify the name of the domain you want to use in the application’s JBoss-specific deployment descriptors, jboss.xml and/or jboss-web.xml. We will quickly look at how to do this to secure the JMX Console application.
Almost every aspect of the JBoss server can be controlled through the JMX Console, so it is important to make sure that, at the very least, the application is password protected. Otherwise, any remote user could completely control your server. To protect it, we will add a security domain to cover the application. [2] This can be done in the jboss-web.xml file for the JMX Console, which can be found in deploy/jmx-console.war/WEB-INF/ directory. Uncomment the security-domain in that file, as shown below.
This links the security domain to the web application, but it doesn't tell the web application what security policy to enforce, what URLs are we trying to protect, and who is allowed to access them. To configure this, go to the web.xml file in the same directory and uncomment the security-constraint that is already there. This security constraint will require a valid user name and password for a user in the JBossAdmin group.
   A security constraint that restricts access to the HTML JMX console
   to users with the role JBossAdmin. Edit the roles to what you want and
   uncomment the WEB-INF/jboss-web.xml/security-domain element to enable
   secured access to the HTML JMX console.
            An example security config that only allows users with the
            role JBossAdmin to access the HTML JMX console web application
That's great, but where do the user names and passwords come from? They come from the jmx-console security domain we linked the application to. We have provided the configuration for this in the conf/login-config.xml.
<application-policy name="jmx-console">
        <login-module code=""
            <module-option name="usersProperties">
            <module-option name="rolesProperties">
This configuration uses a simple file based security policy. The configuration files are found in the conf/props directory of your server configuration. The user names and passwords are stored in the conf/props/ file and take the form "username=password". To assign a user to the JBossAdmin group add "username=JBossAdmin" to the file. The existing file creates an admin user with the password admin. For security, please either remove the user or change the password to a stronger one.
JBoss will re-deploy the JMX Console whenever you update its web.xml. You can check the server console to verify that JBoss has seen your changes. If you have configured everything correctly and re-deployed the application, the next time you try to access the JMX Console, it will ask you for a name and password. [3]
The JMX Console isn't the only web based management interface to JBoss. There is also the Web Console. Although it's a Java applet, the corresponding web application can be secured in the same way as the JMX Console. The Web Console is in the file deploy/management/web-console.war. The only difference is that the Web Console is provided as a simple WAR file instead of using the exploded directory structure that the JMX Console did. The only real difference between the two is that editing the files inside the WAR file is a bit more cumbersome.

2.6.4. Additional Services

The non-core, hot-deployable services are added to the deploy directory. They can be either XML descriptor files, *-service.xml, or JBoss Service Archive (SAR) files. SARs contain both the XML descriptor and additional resources the service requires (e.g. classes, library JAR files or other archives), all packaged up into a single archive.
Detailed information on all these services can be found in the JBoss Enterprise Application Platform: Server Configuration Guide, which also provides comprehensive information on server internals and the implementation of services such as JTA and the J2EE Connector Architecture (JCA).

2.7. The Web Container - Tomcat

JBoss Enterprise Application Platform comes with Tomcat as the default web container. The embedded Tomcat service is found in the deploy/jboss-web.deployer directory. All the necessary jar files needed by Tomcat can be found in there, as well as a web.xml file which provides a default configuration set for web applications.
If you are already familiar with configuring Tomcat, have a look at the server.xml, which contains a subset of the standard Tomcat format configuration information. As it stands, this includes setting up the HTTP connector on the default port 8080, an AJP connector on port 8009 (can be used if you want to connect via a web server such as Apache) and an example of how to configure an SSL connector (commented out by default).
You should not need to modify any of this other than for advanced use. If you have used Tomcat before as a stand-alone server you should be aware that things are a bit different when using the embedded service. JBoss is in charge and you shouldn’t need to access the Tomcat directory at all. Web applications are deployed by putting them in the JBoss deploy directory and logging output from Tomcat can be found in the JBoss log directory.

[1] The Java Authentication and Authorization Service. JBoss uses JAAS to provide pluggable authentication modules. You can use the ones that are provided or write your own if you have more specific requirements.
[2] If you installed JBoss using the Graphical Installer and set the JMX Security up, then you will not have to uncomment the sections, because they are already uncommented. Additionally, the admin password will be set up to whatever you had specified.
[3] Since the user name and password are session variables in the web browser you may need to shut down your browser and come back in to see the login dialog come back up.

Chapter 3. Logging Conventions

Persisted diagnostic logs can be very helpful when it comes to debugging software issues. The logging service used in JBoss Enterprise Application Platform is log4j.
log4j is controlled from a central conf/log4j.xml file. This file defines a set of appenders that specify the name of the log files, the category of message that should be stored in each log file, the message format, and the level of filtering. By default, JBoss Application server produces output for both the console and a log file (server.log in the log directory).
This chapter teaches you some of the conventions that should be observed when configuring diagnostic logging.

3.1. Obtaining a Logger

You can obtain a logger with the following code:
package org.jboss.X.Y;
import org.jboss.logging.Logger;

public class TestABCWrapper
   private static final Logger log = Logger.getLogger(TestABCWrapper.class.getName());

   // Hereafter, the logger may be used with whatever priority level as appropriate.

3.2. Logging Levels

There are six basic levels of logging: FATAL, ERROR, WARN, INFO, DEBUG, and TRACE. This section describes some of the situations in which each level should be used.

Use the FATAL priority level for events that indicate a critical service failure. If a service issues a FATAL error, it is completely unable to service requests of any kind.


Use the ERROR priority level for events that indicate a disruption in the request, or in the ability to service a request. A service should have some capacity to continue to service requests in the presence of an ERROR.


Use the WARN priority level for events that may indicate a non-critical service error, such as a resumable error or a minor breach in a request exception. The difference between the WARN priority and the ERROR priority can be difficult to discern, and is left to the developer's judgement. The simplest criterion is to ask whether a failure would result in a user calling support. If yes, we recommend using ERROR. If not, WARN is recommended.


Use the INFO priority level for service life-cycle events and other crucial related information. The INFO log messages for a particular service category should accurately represent the state of the service.


Use the DEBUG priority level to log messages that convey additional information regarding life-cycle events. This priority level is concerned with developer or in-depth information required for support. When DEBUG priority is enabled, the JBoss server log should not grow proportionally with the number of server requests. The DEBUG and INFO log messages for a particular service category should accurately represent the state of the service, and the server resources being used: ports, interfaces, log files, etc.


Use the TRACE priority level for log messages that are directly associated with activities that correspond to requests. These messages should not be submitted to a Logger unless the Logger category priority threshold indicates that the message will be rendered. Use the Logger.isTraceEnabled() method to determine whether the category priority threshold is enabled. The TRACE priority allows deep probing of JBoss server behavior where required. When TRACE is enabled, the number of messages in the JBoss server log is expected to grow at least a x N, where N is the number of requests received by the server, and a is some constant. The server log may grow as a power of N, depending on the request-handling layer being traced.

3.3. Log4j Configuration

The log4j configuration is loaded from the conf/log4j.xml file. You can edit this file to add or change the default appenders and logging thresholds.

3.3.1. Separating Application Logs

You can divide or segment logging output by assigning log4j categories to specific appenders in the conf/log4j.xml configuration file, like so:
  <appender name="App1Log" class="org.apache.log4j.FileAppender">
      <param name="Append" value="false"/>
      <param name="File" 
      <layout class="org.apache.log4j.PatternLayout">
         <param name="ConversionPattern" 
                value="%d{ABSOLUTE} %-5p [%c{1}] %m%n"/>


   <category name="com.app1">
     <appender-ref ref="App1Log"/>
   <category name="com.util">
     <appender-ref ref="App1Log"/>


      <appender-ref ref="CONSOLE"/>
      <appender-ref ref="FILE"/>
      <appender-ref ref="App1Log"/>

3.3.2. Specifying appenders and filters

If you have multiple applications that make use of shared classes or categories, or you want to include JBoss categories in your application logs, the previous approach will not work. The TCLFilter, a new appender filter, was created to assist in these situations.
You can specify a filter by adding a <filter> element to your <appender> element in conf/log4j.xml. For example, if your app1 deployment was app1.ear, you would use the following additions to the conf/log4j.xml:
<appender name="App1Log" class="org.apache.log4j.FileAppender">
      <param name="Append" value="false"/>
      <param name="File" 
      <layout class="org.apache.log4j.PatternLayout">
         <param name="ConversionPattern" 
                value="%d{ABSOLUTE} %-5p [%c{1}] %m%n"/>
      <filter class="org.jboss.logging.filter.TCLFilter">
         <param name="AcceptOnMatch" value="true"/>
         <param name="DeployURL" value="app1.ear"/>


      <appender-ref ref="CONSOLE"/>
      <appender-ref ref="FILE"/>
      <appender-ref ref="App1Log"/>

3.3.3. Logging to a Separate Server

The log4j framework has a number of appenders that let you send log messages to an external server. Common appenders include:
You can find more information about configuring these appenders at Apache Logging Services. Setting up and using the Log4jSocketServer service

The org.jboss.logging.Log4jSocketServer is an MBean service that allows one to collect output from multiple log4j clients (including JBoss servers) that use the
The Log4jSocketServer creates a server socket to accept SocketAppender connections, and logs incoming messages based on the local log4j.xml configuration.
You can create a minimal JBoss configuration that includes a Log4jSocketServer to act as your log server. A Log4jSocketServer MBean configuration

You can add the following MBean configuration to your conf/jboss-service.xml
    <mbean code="org.jboss.logging.Log4jSocketServer"
        <attribute name="Port">12345</attribute>
        <attribute name="BindAddress">${jboss.bind.address}</attribute>

The Log4jSocketServer adds an MDC entry under the key 'host' which includes the client socket InetAddress.getHostName value on every client connection. This allows you to differentiate logging output based on the client hostname using the MDC pattern. Augmenting the log server console output with the logging client socket hostname

<appender name="CONSOLE" class="org.apache.log4j.ConsoleAppender">
  <errorHandler class="org.jboss.logging.util.OnlyOnceErrorHandler"/>
  <param name="Target" value="System.out"/>
  <param name="Threshold" value="INFO"/>

  <layout class="org.apache.log4j.PatternLayout">
      <param name="ConversionPattern" 
          value="%d{ABSOLUTE} %-5p [%c{1},%X{host}] %m%n"/>

All other JBoss servers that should send log messages to the log server would add an appender configuration that uses the SocketAppender. log4j.xml appender for the Log4jSocketServer

<appender name="SOCKET" class="">
  <param name="Port" value="12345"/>
  <param name="RemoteHost" value="loghost"/>
  <param name="ReconnectionDelay" value="60000"/>
  <param name="Threshold" value="INFO"/>

3.3.4. Key JBoss Subsystem Categories

Some of the key subsystem category names are given in the following table. These are just the top level category names. Generally you can specify much more specific category names to enable very targeted logging.

Table 3.1. JBoss Subsystem Categories

Subsystem Category
CMP org.jboss.ejb. plugins.cmp
Core Service org.jboss.system
Cluster org.jboss.ha
EJB org.jboss.ejb
JCA org.jboss.resource
MDB org.jboss.ejb.plugins, org.jboss.jms
Tomcat org.jboss.web, org.jboss.catalina
Apache org.apache
JGroups org.jgroups

3.3.5. Redirecting Category Output

When you increase the level of logging for one or more categories, it is often useful to redirect the output to a separate file for easier investigation. To do this you add an appender-ref to the category as shown here:
<appender name="JSR77" class="org.apache.log4j.FileAppender">
  <param name="File"

<!-- Limit the JSR77 categories -->
<category name="" additivity="false">
  <priority value="DEBUG"/>
  <appender-ref ref="JSR77"/>

This sends output to the jsr77.log file. The additivity attribute controls whether output continues to go to the root category appender. If false, output only goes to the appenders referred to by the category.

3.4. Using your own file - class loader scoping

To use your own log4j.xml file you must initialize log4j in your application. If you use the default singleton initialization method where the first use of log4j triggers a search for the log4j initialization files, you must configure a ClassLoader to use scoped class loading with overrides for JBoss classes. You also have to include the log4j.jar in your application so that new log4j singletons are created in your application's scope.


You cannot use a file using this approach, at least using log4j-1.2.8 because it preferentially searches for a log4j.xml resource and will find the conf/log4j.xml ahead of the application file. You could rename the conf/log4j.xml to something like conf/jboss-log4j.xml and then change the ConfigurationURL attribute of the Log4jService in the conf/jboss-service.xml to get around this.

3.5. Using your own file - class loader scoping

To use a file, you have to make the following change in conf/jboss-service.xml, for the reasons mentioned in the previous section.
<!-- Log4j Initialization                                           -->

<mbean code="org.jboss.logging.Log4jService"
   <attribute name="ConfigurationURL">
 <!-- Set the org.apache.log4j.helpers.LogLog.setQuiteMode. 
   As of log4j1.2.8 this needs to be set to avoid a possible deadlock 
   on exception at the appender level. See bug#696819.
 <attribute name="Log4jQuietMode">true</attribute>
 <!-- How frequently in seconds the ConfigurationURL is checked for changes -->
 <attribute name="RefreshPeriod">60</attribute>

This changes the log4j resource file that JBoss Application Server looks for. After making the change in jboss-service.xml make sure you rename the conf/log4j.xml to match the name of the resource you specified in jboss-service.xml (in this case jboss-log4j.xml).
Include log4j.jar in your myapp.war/WEB-INF directory. Make the change in jboss-web.xml for class loading, as shown in the section above. In this case, myapp.war/WEB-INF/jboss-web.xml looks like this:
  <class-loading java2ClassLoadingCompliance="false">

Now, create a file in your deploy/myapp.war/WEB-INF/classes directory.

3.5.1. Sample

# Debug log4j
log4j.rootLogger=debug, myapp

log4j.appender.myapp.layout.Title='All' Log

This property file sets the log4j debug system to true, which enables the display of log4j messages in your JBoss log. You can use this to discover any errors in your properties file. It then produces a HTML log file and places it in your application's WEB-INF/logs directory. In your application, you can call this logger with the following syntax:
private static Logger log = Logger.getLogger("myapp");
log.debug("############## A debug message from myapp logger #########");
You should then see the message in myapp.html.
After JBoss Application Server has reloaded conf/jboss-service.xml (you may need to restart JBoss AS), touch myapp.war/WEB-INF/web.xml so that JBoss reloads the configuration for your application. As the application loads, you should see log4j debug messages, which confirms that JBoss AS is reading your file. This lets you have your own logging system independent of the JBoss AS log.

3.6. Using your own log4j.xml file - Log4j RepositorySelector

Another way to achieve this is to write a custom RepositorySelector that changes how the LogManager gets a logger. Using this technique, Logger.getLogger() will return a different logger based on the context class loader. Each context class loader has its own configuration set up with its own log4j.xml file.
  * JBoss, Home of Professional Open Source
  * Copyright 2005, JBoss Inc., and individual contributors as indicated
  * by the @authors tag. See the copyright.txt in the distribution for a
  * full listing of individual contributors.
  * This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
  * under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as
  * published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of
  * the License, or (at your option) any later version.
  * This software is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
  * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
  * Lesser General Public License for more details.
  * You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
  * License along with this software; if not, write to the Free
  * Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA
  * 02110-1301 USA, or see the FSF site:
package org.jboss.repositoryselectorexample;

import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;
import javax.servlet.ServletConfig;
import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.xml.parsers.DocumentBuilderFactory;
import org.apache.log4j.Hierarchy;
import org.apache.log4j.Level;
import org.apache.log4j.LogManager;
import org.apache.log4j.spi.LoggerRepository;
import org.apache.log4j.spi.RepositorySelector;
import org.apache.log4j.spi.RootCategory;
import org.apache.log4j.xml.DOMConfigurator;
import org.w3c.dom.Document;

 * This RepositorySelector is for use with web applications.  
 * It assumes that your log4j.xml file is in the WEB-INF directory.
 * @author  Stan Silvert
public class MyRepositorySelector implements RepositorySelector
   private static boolean initialized = false;

   // This object is used for the guard because it doesn't get
   // recycled when the application is redeployed.
   private static Object guard = LogManager.getRootLogger();
   private static Map repositories = new HashMap();
   private static LoggerRepository defaultRepository;

    * Register your web-app with this repository selector.
   public static synchronized void init(ServletConfig config) 
        throws ServletException {
      if( !initialized ) // set the global RepositorySelector
         defaultRepository = LogManager.getLoggerRepository();
         RepositorySelector theSelector = new MyRepositorySelector();
         LogManager.setRepositorySelector(theSelector, guard);
         initialized = true;
      Hierarchy hierarchy = new Hierarchy(new
      loadLog4JConfig(config, hierarchy);
      ClassLoader loader = 
      repositories.put(loader, hierarchy);

   // load log4j.xml from WEB-INF
   private static void loadLog4JConfig(ServletConfig config, 
                                       Hierarchy hierarchy) 
                                            throws ServletException {
        try {
            String log4jFile = "/WEB-INF/log4j.xml";
            InputStream log4JConfig = 
            Document doc = DocumentBuilderFactory.newInstance()
            DOMConfigurator conf = new DOMConfigurator();
            conf.doConfigure(doc.getDocumentElement(), hierarchy);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            throw new ServletException(e);

   private MyRepositorySelector() {

   public LoggerRepository getLoggerRepository() {
      ClassLoader loader = 
      LoggerRepository repository = 
      if (repository == null) {
          return defaultRepository;
      } else {
          return repository;

3.7. JDK java.util.logging

The choice of the actual logging implementation is determined by the org.jboss.logging.Logger.pluginClass system property. This property specifies the class name of an implementation of the org.jboss.logging.LoggerPlugin interface. The default value for this is the org.jboss.logging.Log4jLoggerPlugin class.
If you want to use the JDK 1.4+ java.util.logging framework instead of log4j, you can create your own Log4jLoggerPlugin to do this. The attached file shows an example implementation.
To use this, you must specify the following system properties:
  • To specify the custom JDK1.4 plugin:
    org.jboss.logging.Logger.pluginClass = logging.JDK14LoggerPlugin
  • To specify the JDK1.4 logging configuration file:
    java.util.logging.config.file =
You can specify these properties using the JAVA_OPTS environment variable, like so:
You need to make your custom Log4jLoggerPlugin available to JBoss by placing it in a JAR in the JBOSS_DIST/lib directory, and then telling JBoss to load this as part of the bootstrap libraries by passing in -L $JARNAME on the command line as follows:
[user@host bin] $ -c minimal -L logger.jar

3.8. Debugging with server.log

The logging threshold on the console is set to INFO, which means that you will see informative messages, warning messages and error messages on the console, but not general debug messages. However, there is no threshold set for the server.log file, so all messages generated will be logged there.
If you are experiencing difficulties and the console is not displaying useful information, always check the server.log file for debug messages that might help to solve the problem. However, keep in mind that not all of your components will produce detailed debug information for the log file. You must also boost the logging limits set for individual categories.
The following category limits the level of logging to INFO for all JBoss classes, apart from those which have more specific overrides provided.
<!-- Limit JBoss categories to INFO --> 
<category name="org.jboss"> 
<priority value="INFO"/> 
If you were to change this to DEBUG, it would produce much more detailed logging output.
As an example, say you want to set the output from the container-managed persistence engine to DEBUG level and to redirect it to a separate file, cmp.log, in order to analyze the generated SQL commands. You would add the following code to the log4j.xml file:
<appender name="CMP" class="org.jboss.logging.appender.RollingFileAppender"> 
<errorHandler class="org.jboss.logging.util.OnlyOnceErrorHandler"/> 
<param name="File" value="${jboss.server.home.dir}/log/cmp.log"/> 
<param name="Append" value="false"/> 
<param name="MaxFileSize" value="500KB"/> 
<param name="MaxBackupIndex" value="1"/> 

<layout class="org.apache.log4j.PatternLayout"> 
<param name="ConversionPattern" value="%d %-5p [%c] %m%n"/> 

<category name="org.jboss.ejb.plugins.cmp"> 
<priority value="DEBUG" /> 
<appender-ref ref="CMP"/> 
This creates a new file appender and specifies that it should be used by the logger (or category) for the package org.jboss.ejb.plugins.cmp.
The file appender is set up to produce a new log file every day rather than producing a new one every time you restart the server or writing to a single file indefinitely. The current log file is cmp.log. Older files have the date they were written added to the name. You will notice that the log directory also contains HTTP request logs which are produced by the web container.


If you edit the jboss-log4j.xml file, be aware that the log4j configuration will be reloaded as if the server was restarted. Before editing the file, be aware that if the file appender is not configured to append to an existing log file, then the process will delete the current log and create a new file in its place.

Chapter 4.  EJB3 Caveats in JBoss Enterprise Application Platform

There are a number of implementation features that you should be aware of when developing applications for JBoss Enterprise Application Platform .

4.1.  Unimplemented features

The Release Notes for JBoss Enterprise Application Platform contain information on EJB3 features that are not yet implemented, or partially implemented. The Release Notes include links to issues in JIRA for information on workarounds and further details.

4.2.  Referencing EJB3 Session Beans from non-EJB3 Beans

JBoss Enterprise Application Platform 5 will fully support the entire Java 5 Enterprise Edition specification. In the meantime JBoss Enterprise Application Platform implements EJB3 functionality by way of an EJB MBean container running as a plugin in the JBoss Application Server. This has certain implications for application development.
The EJB3 plugin injects references to an EntityManager and @EJB references from one EJB object to another. However this support is limited to the EJB3 MBean and the JAR files it manages. Any JAR files which are loaded from a WAR (such as Servlets, JSF backing beans, and so forth) do not undergo this processing. The Java 5 Enterprise Edition standard specifies that a Servlet can reference a Session Bean through an @EJB annotated reference, however this is not implemented in JBoss Enterprise Application Platform.
In order to access an EJB3 Session Bean from a Servlet or JSF Backing Bean you will need to do one of two things:
  1. Without Seam - JNDI Lookup

    Without utilizing the Seam framework that is part of JBoss Enterprise Application Platform you will need to use an explicit JNDI lookup to access the EJB3 Session Bean. You can see an example of this being done in the file in the jsfejb3 example application, described in Chapter 6, Sample JSF-EJB3 Application.

    private TodoDaoInt getDao () {
     try {
     InitialContext ctx = new InitialContext();
     return (TodoDaoInt) ctx.lookup("jsfejb3/TodoDao/local");
     } catch (Exception e) {
     throw new RuntimeException("couldn't lookup Dao", e);
    ctx.lookup("jsfejb3/TodoDao/local"); is the method used to reference the EJB3 Session Bean. The form is: AppName/SessionBeanName/local.
  2. With Seam - Leave it to the Seam Framework

    When you are using the Seam Framework you don't need to worry about this. Because the Seam framework manages the interaction of Beans anyway, it already automates this type of interaction.

    Refer to Chapter 7, Using Seam for a more detailed explanation of achieving this using the Seam framework.

Chapter 5. About the Example Applications

In this guide, we make use of a simple web application to illustrate the use of JSF-EJB3 components. We then illustrate how to use Seam to integrate the JSF and EJB3 components.


The example applications (source code) are delivered in the documentation packages:
  • jboss-eap-docs-[release].zip
  • rh-eap-docs.rpm
The examples are located in the JBOSS_DIST/doc/examples/gettingstarted directory. We use two examples in this book:
  • A simple "TODO" application to create, view and edit tasks - implemented using JSF and EJB3;
  • The same application using the SEAM framework.
If you installed the documentation on your hard drive, then the first example can be found in the JBOSS_DIST/doc/examples/gettingstarted/jsfejb3 directory. We will see how to build this example using the build.xml file present here and also how to deploy the application. We will also cover in detail the working of the .java, .xml and .properties files.
The second example used in this guide can be found in the JBOSS_DIST/doc/examples/gettingstarted/seamejb3 directory. Using a simple "TODO" application we will illustrate how Seam ties together the database, the web interface and the EJB3 business logic in a web application. We will use the build.xml file present here to compile and build our Seam application.
Within the JBOSS_DIST/doc/examples/gettingstarted/<seamejb3|jsfejb3> directory, you will find the following sub-directories:
  • src: contains the Java source code files.
  • view: contains the web pages.
  • resources: contains all the configuration files used.

5.1. Install Ant

To compile and package the examples, you must have Apache Ant 1.6+ installed in your machine. You can download it from and have it installed in few steps:
  • Unzip the downloaded file to the directory of your choice.
  • Create an environment variable called ANT_HOME pointing to the Ant installation directory. You can do this by adding the following line to your .bashrc file (substituting with the actual location of the ant directory on your system):
    export ANT_HOME=/home/user/apache-ant-1.7.0
    On Windows you do this by opening the Control Panel from the Start Menu, switching it to classic view if necessary, then opening System/Advanced/Environment Variables. Create a new variable, call it ANT_HOME and set it to be the ant directory.
  • Add $ANT_HOME/bin to the system path to be able to run ant from the command line. You can do this by adding the following line to your .bashrc file:
    export PATH=$PATH:$ANT_HOME/bin
    On Windows you do this by opening the Control Panel from the Start Menu, switching it to classic view if necessary, then editing the PATH environment variable found in System/Advanced/Environment Variables/System Variables/Path. Add a semicolon and the path to the ant bin directory.
  • Verify your Ant installation. To do this type ant -version at the command prompt. Your output should look something like this:
    Apache Ant version 1.7.0 compiled on December 13 2006

Chapter 6. Sample JSF-EJB3 Application

We use a simple "TODO" application to show how JSF and EJB3 work together in a web application. The "TODO" application works like this: You can create a new 'todo' task item using the "Create" web form. Each 'todo' item has a 'title' and a 'description'. When you submit the form, the application saves your task to a relational database. Using the application, you can view all 'todo' items, edit/delete an existing 'todo' item and update the task in the database.
The sample application comprises the following components:
  • Entity objects - These objects represent the data model; the properties in the object are mapped to column values in relational database tables.
  • JSF web pages - The web interface used to capture input data and display result data. The data fields on these web pages are mapped to the data model via the JSF Expression Language (EL).
  • EJB3 Session Bean - This is where the functionality is implemented. We make use of a Stateless Session Bean.

6.1. Data Model

Let's take a look at the contents of the Data Model represented by the Todo class in the file. Each instance of the Todo class corresponds to a row in the relational database table. The 'Todo' class has three properties: id, title and description. Each of these correspond to a column in the database table.
The 'Entity class' to 'Database Table' mapping information is specified using EJB3 Annotations in the 'Todo' class. This eliminates the need for XML configuration and makes it a lot clearer. The @Entity annotation defines the Todo class as an Entity Bean. The @Id and @GeneratedValue annotations on the id property indicate that the id column is the primary key and that the server automatically generates its value for each Todo object saved into the database.
public class Todo implements Serializable {

  private long id;
  private String title;
  private String description;

  public Todo () {
    title ="";
    description ="";

  @Id @GeneratedValue
  public long getId() { return id;}
  public void setId(long id) { = id; }

  public String getTitle() { return title; }
  public void setTitle(String title) {this.title = title;}

  public String getDescription() { return description; }
  public void setDescription(String description) {
    this.description = description;


6.2. JSF Web Pages

In this section we will show you how the web interface is defined using JSF pages. We will also see how the data model is mapped to the web form using JSF EL. Using the #{...} notation to reference Java objects is called JSF EL (JSF Expression Language). Lets take a look at the pages used in our application:
  • index.xhtml: This page displays two options: 1. Create New Todo 2. Show all Todos. When you click on the Submit button the corresponding action is invoked.
      <li><h:commandLink type="submit" value="Create New Todo" action="create"/></li>
      <li><h:commandLink type="submit" value="Show All Todos" action="todos"/></li>
  • create.xhtml: When you try to create a new task, this JSF page captures the input data. We use the todoBean to back the form input text fields. The #{todoBean.todo.title} symbol refers to the "title" property of the "todo" object in the "TodoBean" class. The #{todoBean.todo.description} symbol refers to the "description" property of the "todo" object in the "TodoBean" class. The #{todoBean.persist} symbol refers to the "persist" method in the "TodoBean" class. This method creates the "Todo" instance with the input data (title and description) and persists the data.
    <h:form id="create">
          <h:inputText id="title" value="#{todoBean.todo.title}" size="15">
            <f:validateLength minimum="2"/>
          <h:inputTextarea id="description" value="#{todoBean.todo.description}">
            <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="250"/>
    <h:commandButton type="submit" id="create" value="Create"
    Figure 6.1, “The "Create Todo" web page ” shows the "Create Todo" web page with the input fields mapped to the data model.
    The "Create Todo" web page

    Figure 6.1. The "Create Todo" web page

  • todos.xhtml: This page displays the list of all "todos" created. There is also an option to choose a "todo" item for 'edit' or 'delete'.
    The list of all 'todos' is fetched by #{todoBean.todos} symbol referring to the 'getTodos()' property in the 'TodoBean' class. The JSF dataTable iterates through the list and displays each Todo object in a row. The 'Edit' option is available across each row. The #{} symbol represents the "id" property of the "todo" object.
    <h:dataTable value="#{todoBean.todos}" var="todo">
        <f:facet name="header">Title</f:facet>
        <f:facet name="header">Description</f:facet>
        <a href="edit.faces?tid=#{}">Edit</a>
      <h:commandButton action="create"
                value="Create New Todo" type="submit"/>
    Figure 6.2, “The "Show All Todos" web page ” shows the "Show All Todos" web page with the data fields mapped to the data model.
    The "Show All Todos" web page

    Figure 6.2. The "Show All Todos" web page

  • edit.xhtml: This page allows you to edit the "todo" item's 'title' and 'description' properties. The #{todoBean.update} and #{todoBean.delete} symbols represent the "update" and "delete" methods in the "TodoBean" class.
    <h2>Edit #{todoBean.todo.title}</h2>
    <h:form id="edit">
    <input type="hidden" name="tid" value="#{}"/>
          <h:inputText id="title" value="#{todoBean.todo.title}" size="15">
            <f:validateLength minimum="2"/>
          <h:inputTextarea id="description" value="#{todoBean.todo.description}">
            <f:validateLength minimum="2" maximum="250"/>
    <h:commandButton type="submit" id="update" value="Update"
    <h:commandButton type="submit" id="delete" value="Delete"
    Figure 6.3, “The "Edit Todo" web page ” shows the "Edit Todo" web page with the mapping to the data model.
    The "Edit Todo" web page

    Figure 6.3. The "Edit Todo" web page


We have used XHTML pages in the sample applications because we recommend using Facelets instead of JSP to render JSF view pages.

6.3. EJB3 Session Beans

EJB 3.0 is one of the major improvements introduced with Java EE 5.0. It aims at reducing the complexity of older versions of EJB and simplifies Enterprise Java development and deployment. You will notice that to declare a class as a 'Session Bean' you simply have to annotate it. Using annotations eliminates the complexity involved with too many deployment descriptors. Also the only interface an EJB3 Session Bean requires is a business interface that declares all the business methods that must be implemented by the bean.
We will explore the two important source files associated with the Bean implementation in our application: and
  • Business interface:
    We define here the methods that need to be implemented by the bean implementation class. Basically, the business methods that will be used in our application are defined here.
    public interface TodoDaoInt {
      public void persist (Todo todo);
      public void delete (Todo todo);
      public void update (Todo todo);
      public List <Todo> findTodos ();
      public Todo findTodo (String id);
  • Stateless Session Bean:
    The @Stateless annotation marks the bean as a stateless session bean. In this class, we need to access the Entity bean Todo defined earlier. For this we need an EntityManager. The @PersistenceContext annotation tells the JBoss Server to inject an entity manager during deployment.
    public class TodoDao implements TodoDaoInt {
      private EntityManager em;
      public void persist (Todo todo) {
        em.persist (todo);
      public void delete (Todo todo) {
        Todo t = em.merge (todo);
        em.remove( t );
      public void update (Todo todo) {
        em.merge (todo);
      public List <Todo> findTodos () {
        return (List <Todo>) em.createQuery("select t from Todo t")
      public Todo findTodo (String id) {
        return (Todo) em.find(Todo.class, Long.parseLong(id));

6.4. Configuration and Packaging

We will build the sample application using Ant and explore the configuration and packaging details. If you haven't installed Ant yet, do so now.

6.4.1. Building The Application

Let's look at building the example application and then explore the configuration files in detail.
In Chapter 5, About the Example Applications, we looked at the directory structure of the jsfejb3 sample application. At the command line, go to the jsfejb3 directory. There you will see a build.xml file. This is our Ant build script for compiling and packaging the archives. To build the application, just type the command ant and your output should look like this:
[vrenish@vinux jsfejb3]$ ant
Buildfile: build.xml

    [mkdir] Created dir: /home/vrenish/jboss-eap-4.2/doc/examples/gettingstarted/jsfejb3/build/classes
    [javac] Compiling 4 source files to /home/vrenish/jboss-eap-4.2/doc/examples/gettingstarted/jsfejb3
    [javac] Note: /home/vrenish/jboss-eap-4.2/doc/examples/gettingstarted/jsfejb3/src/ uses
    unchecked or unsafe operations.
    [javac] Note: Recompile with -Xlint:unchecked for details.

    [mkdir] Created dir: /home/vrenish/jboss-eap-4.2/doc/examples/gettingstarted/jsfejb3/build/jars
      [war] Building war: /home/vrenish/jboss-eap-4.2/doc/examples/gettingstarted/jsfejb3/build/jars/

      [jar] Building jar: /home/vrenish/jboss-eap-4.2/doc/examples/gettingstarted/jsfejb3/build/jars/

      [ear] Building ear: /home/vrenish/jboss-eap-4.2/doc/examples/gettingstarted/jsfejb3/build/jars/


Total time: 2 seconds
(vrenish@vinux jsfejb3)$
If you get the BUILD SUCCESSFUL message, you will find a newly created build directory with 2 sub-directories in it:
  • classes: containing the compiled class files.
  • jars: containing three archives - app.jar, app.war and jsfejb3.ear.
    • app.jar : EJB code and descriptors.
    • app.war : web application which provides the front end to allow users to interact with the business components (the EJBs). The web source (HTML, images etc.) contained in the jsfejb3/view directory is added unmodified to this archive. The Ant task also adds the WEB-INF directory that contains the files which are not meant to be directly accessed by a web browser but are still part of the web application. These include the deployment descriptors (web.xml) and extra jars required by the web application.
    • jsfejb3.ear : The EAR file is the complete application, containing the EJB modules and the web module. It also contains an additional descriptor, application.xml. It is also possible to deploy EJBs and web application modules individually but the EAR provides a convenient single unit.

6.4.2. Configuration Files

Now that we have built the application, lets take a closer look at some of the important Configuration files. We have built the final archive ready for deployment - jsfejb3.ear. The contents of your EAR file should look like this:
|+ app.jar   // contains the EJB code
    |+ import.sql
    |+ Todo.class
    |+ TodoDao.class
    |+ TodoDaoInt.class
    |+ META-INF
        |+ persistence.xml
|+ app.war   // contains web UI
    |+ index.html
    |+ index.xhtml
    |+ create.xhtml
    |+ edit.xhtml
    |+ todos.xhtml
    |+ TodoBean.class
    |+ style.css
    |+ META-INF
    |+ WEB-INF
       |+ faces-config.xml
       |+ navigation.xml
       |+ web.xml
|+ META-INF  // contains the descriptors
    |+ application.xml
    |+ jboss-app.xml
  • application.xml: This file lists the JAR files in the EAR (in our case app.jar) and tells the JBoss server what files to look for and where. The root URL for the application is also specified in this file as 'context-root'.
      <display-name>Sample Todo</display-name>
  • jboss-app.xml: Every EAR application should specify a unique string name for the class loader. In our case, we use the application name 'jsfejb3' as the class loader name.
  • app.jar: This contains EJB3 Session Bean and Entity Bean classes and the related configuration files. In addition, the persistence.xml file configures the back-end data source (in our case the default HSQL database) for the EntityManager.
       <persistence-unit name="helloworld">
             <property name="hibernate.dialect" value="org.hibernate.dialect.HSQLDialect"/>
             <property name="" value="create-drop"/>
  • app.war: This contains the Web UI files packaged according to the Web Application aRchive (WAR) specification. It contains all the web pages and the required configuration files. The web.xml file is an important file for all JAVA EE web applications. It is the web deployment descriptor file. The faces-config.xml file is the configuration file for JSF. The navigation.xml file contains the rules for JSF page navigation.

6.5. The Database

6.5.1. Creating the Database Schema

To pre-populate the database, we have supplied SQL Code (import.sql) to run with HSQL in the examples/gettingstarted/jsfejb3/resources directory. When you build the application using Ant, this is packaged in the app.jar file within the jsfejb3.ear file. When the application is deployed, you should be able to view the pre-populated data.

6.5.2. The HSQL Database Manager Tool

Just as a quick aside at this point, start up the JMX console application and click on the service=Hypersonic link which you’ll find under the section jboss. If you can’t find this, make sure the Hypersonic service is enabled in the hsqldb-ds.xml file.
This will take you to the information for the Hypersonic service MBean. Scroll down to the bottom of the page and click the invoke button for the startDatabaseManager() operation. This starts up the HSQL Manager, a Java GUI application which you can use to manipulate the database directly.
The HSQL Database Manger

Figure 6.4. The HSQL Database Manger

6.6. Deploying the Application

Deploying an application in JBoss is simple and easy. You just have to copy the EAR file to the deploy directory in the 'server configuration' directory of your choice. Here, we will deploy it to the 'default' configuration, so we copy the EAR file to the JBOSS_DIST/jboss-as/server/default/deploy directory.
You should see something close to the following output from the server:
15:32:23,997 INFO  [EARDeployer] Init J2EE application: file:/home/vrenish/jboss-eap-4.2
15:32:24,212 INFO  [JmxKernelAbstraction] creating wrapper delegate for: org.jboss.ejb3.
15:32:24,213 INFO  [JmxKernelAbstraction] installing MBean: persistence.units:ear=
jsfejb3.ear,jar=app.jar,unitName=helloworld with dependencies:
15:32:24,213 INFO  [JmxKernelAbstraction]       jboss.jca:name=DefaultDS,service=
15:32:24,275 INFO  [PersistenceUnitDeployment] Starting persistence unit persistence.
15:32:24,392 INFO  [Ejb3Configuration] found EJB3 Entity bean: Todo
15:32:24,450 WARN  [Ejb3Configuration] Persistence provider caller does not implements 
the EJB3 spec correctly. PersistenceUnitInfo.getNewTempClassLoader() is null.
15:32:24,512 INFO  [Configuration] Reading mappings from resource : META-INF/orm.xml
15:32:24,512 INFO  [Ejb3Configuration] [PersistenceUnit: helloworld] no META-INF/orm.xml 
15:32:24,585 INFO  [AnnotationBinder] Binding entity from annotated class: Todo
15:32:24,586 INFO  [EntityBinder] Bind entity Todo on table Todo
15:32:26,311 INFO  [SchemaExport] Running hbm2ddl schema export
15:32:26,312 INFO  [SchemaExport] exporting generated schema to database
15:32:26,314 INFO  [SchemaExport] Executing import script: /import.sql
15:32:26,418 INFO  [SchemaExport] schema export complete
15:32:26,454 INFO  [NamingHelper] JNDI InitialContext properties:{java.naming.factory.
initial=org.jnp.interfaces.NamingContextFactory, java.naming.factory.url.pkgs=org.jboss.
15:32:26,484 INFO  [JmxKernelAbstraction] creating wrapper delegate for: org.jboss.ejb3.
15:32:26,485 INFO  [JmxKernelAbstraction] installing MBean: jboss.j2ee:ear=jsfejb3.ear,
jar=app.jar,name=TodoDao,service=EJB3 with dependencies:
15:32:26,513 INFO  [JmxKernelAbstraction]       persistence.units:ear=jsfejb3.ear,
15:32:26,557 INFO  [EJBContainer] STARTED EJB: TodoDao ejbName: TodoDao
15:32:26,596 INFO  [EJB3Deployer] Deployed: file:/home/vrenish/jboss-eap-4.2/jboss-as/
15:32:26,625 INFO  [TomcatDeployer] deploy, ctxPath=/jsfejb3, warUrl=.../tmp/deploy/
15:32:26,914 INFO  [EARDeployer] Started J2EE application: file:/home/vrenish/jboss-eap-
If there are any errors or exceptions, make a note of the error message. Check that the EAR is complete and inspect the WAR file and the EJB jar files to make sure they contain all the necessary components (classes, descriptors etc.).
You can safely redeploy the application if it is already deployed. To undeploy it you just have to remove the archive from the deploy directory. There’s no need to restart the server in either case. If everything seems to have gone OK, then point your browser at the application URL.
You will be forwarded to the application main page. Figure 6.5, “Sample TODO” shows the sample application in action.
Sample TODO

Figure 6.5. Sample TODO

Chapter 7. Using Seam

JBoss Seam is a framework that provides the glue between the new EJB3 and JSF frameworks that are part of the Java EE 5.0 standard. In fact, the name Seam refers to the seamless manner in which it enables developers to use these two frameworks in an integrated manner. Seam automates many of the common tasks, and makes extensive use of annotations to reduce the amount of xml code that needs to be written. The overall effect is to significantly reduce the total amount of coding that needs to be done.
We have included two versions of the example application, one coded using EJB3 / JSF without using Seam, and one using Seam, to demonstrate clearly the difference in application development using the Seam framework.


Refer to the "Seam Reference Guide" included in the documentation set (JBOSS_DIST/doc/seam/Seam_Reference_Guide.pdf) for important information regarding the deployment of Seam examples and detailed information on developing applications using Seam.

7.1.  Data Model

In the previous chapter we looked at the Data Model used in the EJB3/JSF implementation of this sample application. Let's start off our examination of the Seam implementation in the same way, by examining how the Data Model is implemented. This is done in the file.
public class Todo implements Serializable {

  private long id;
  private String title;
  private String description;

  public Todo () {
    title ="";
    description ="";

  @Id @GeneratedValue
  public long getId() { return id;}
  public void setId(long id) { = id; }

  public String getTitle() { return title; }
  public void setTitle(String title) {this.title = title;}

  public String getDescription() { return description; }
  public void setDescription(String description) {
    this.description = description;

The @Entity annotation defines the class as an EJB3 session bean, and tells the container to map the Todo class to a relational database table. Each property of the class will become a column in the table. Each instance of the class will become a row in this table. Since we have not used the @Table annotation, Seam's "configuration by exception" default will name the table after the class.
@Entity and @Table are both EJB3 annotations, and are not specific to Seam. It is possible to use Seam completely with POJOs (Plain Old Java Objects) without any EJB3-specific annotations. However, EJB3 brings a lot of advantages to the table, including container managed security, message-driven components, transaction and component level persistence context, and @PersistenceContext injection, which we will encounter a little further on.
The @Name annotation is specific to Seam, and defines the string name for Seam to use to register the Entity Bean. This will be the default name for the relational database table. Each component in a Seam application must have a unique name. In the other components in the Seam framework, such as JSF web pages and session beans, you can reference the managed Todo bean using this name. If no instance of this class exists when it is referenced from another component, then Seam will instantiate one.
The @Id annotation defines a primary key id field for the component. @GeneratedValue specifies that the server will automatically generate this value for the component when it is saved to the database.
Seam provides support for model-based constraints defined using Hibernate Validator, although Hibernate does not have to be the object persister used. The @NotNull annotation is a validation constraint that requires this property to have a value before the component can be persisted into the database. Using this annotation allows the validation to be enforced by the JSF code at the view level, without having to specify the exact validation constraint in the JSF code.
At this point the only apparent difference between the Seam version and the EJB3/JSF version of the app is the inclusion of the validator annotation @NotNull, and the @Name annotation. However, while the EJB3/JSF version of this application requires a further TodoBean class to be manually coded and managed in order to handle the interaction between the Todo class and the web interface, when using Seam the Seam framework takes care of this work for us. We'll see how this is done in practice as we examine the implementation of the user interface.

7.2.  JSF Web Pages - index.xhtml and create.xhtml

The index.xhtml file used is the same as in the EJB3/JSF example.
create.xhtml begins to reveal the difference that coding using the Seam framework makes.
<h:form id="create">

<f:facet name="beforeInvalidField">
  <h:graphicImage styleClass="errorImg" value="error.png"/>
<f:facet name="afterInvalidField">
  <s:message styleClass="errorMsg" />
<f:facet name="aroundInvalidField">
  <s:div styleClass="error"/>



        <h:inputText id="title" value="#{todo.title}" size="15"/>

        <h:inputTextarea id="description" value="#{todo.description}"/>



<h:commandButton type="submit" id="create" value="Create"
The first thing that is different here is the Java Server Facelet code at the beginning, which works with the @NotNull validation constraint of our todo class to enforce and indicate invalid input to the user.
Also notice here that rather than requiring the use of a TodoBean class as we did in the EJB3/JSF example we back the form directly with a Todo entity bean. When this page is called, JSF asks Seam to resolve the variable todo due to JSF EL references such as #{todo.title}. Since there is no value already bound to that variable name, Seam will instantiate an entity bean of the todo class and return it to JSF, after storing it in the Seam context. The Seam context replaces the need for an intermediary bean.
The form input values are validated against the Hibernate Validator constraints specified in the todo class. JSF will redisplay the page if the constraints are violated, or it will bind the form input values to the Todo entity bean.
Entity beans shouldn't do database access or transaction management, so we can't use the Todo entity bean as a JSF action listener. Instead, creation of a new todo item in the database is accomplished by calling the persist method of a TodoDao session bean. When JSF requests Seam to resolve the variable todoDao through the JSF EL expression #{todoDao.persist}, Seam will either instantiate an object if one does not already exist, or else pass the existing stateful todoDao object from the Seam context. Seam will intercept the persist method call and inject the todo entity from the session context.
Let's have a look at the TodoDao class (defined in to see how this injection capability is implemented.

7.3.  Data Access using a Session Bean

Let's go through a listing of the code for the TodoDao class.
public class TodoDao implements TodoDaoInt {

  @In (required=false) @Out (required=false)
  private Todo todo;

  @PersistenceContext (type=EXTENDED)
  private EntityManager em;

  // Injected from pages.xml
  Long id;
  public String persist () {
    em.persist (todo);
    return "persisted";

  private List <Todo> todos;

  public void findTodos () {
    todos = em.createQuery("select t from Todo t")

  public void setId (Long id) { = id;
    if (id != null) {
      todo = (Todo) em.find(Todo.class, id);
    } else {
      todo = new Todo ();
  public Long getId () {
    return id;

  public String delete () {
    em.remove( todo );
    return "removed";

  public String update () {
    return "updated";

  @Remove @Destroy
  public void destroy() {}

First of all notice that this is a stateful session bean. Seam can use both stateful and stateless session beans, the two most common types of EJB3 beans.
The @In and @Out annotations define an attribute that is injected by Seam. The attribute is injected to this object or from this object to another via a Seam context variable named todo, a reference to the Seam registered name of our Todo class defined in
The @PersistenceContext annotation injects the EJB3 Entity manager, allowing this object to persist objects to the database. Because this is a stateful session bean and the PersistenceContext type is set to EXTENDED, the same Entity Manager instance is used until the Remove method of the session bean is called. The database to be used (a persistence-unit) is defined in the file resources/META-INF/persistence.xml
Note that this session bean has simultaneous access to context associated with web request (the form values of the todo object), and state held in transactional resources (the EntityManager). This is a break from traditional J2EE architectures, but Seam does not force you to work this way. You can use more traditional forms of application layering if you wish.
The @DataModel annotation initializes the todos property, which is "exposed" to the view. The @Factory annotated method performs the work of generating the todos list, and is called by Seam if it attempts to access the exposed DataModel property and finds it to be null. Notice the absence of property access methods for the todos property. Seam takes care of this for you automatically.
Let's take a look at the JSF code that we use for displaying and editing the list of todos, to get an idea of how to use these interfaces in practice.

7.4.  JSF Web Pages - todos.xhtml and edit.xhtml

Using the DataModel exposed property of the Session Bean it becomes trivial to produce a list of todos:

<h:dataTable value="#{todos}" var="todo">
    <f:facet name="header">Title</f:facet>
    <f:facet name="header">Description</f:facet>
    <a href="edit.seam?tid=#{}">Edit</a>

  <h:commandButton action="create"
            value="Create New Todo" type="submit"/>

When the JSF variable resolver encounters {#todos} and requests todos, Seam finds that there is no "todos" component in the current scope, so it calls the @Factory("todos") method to make one. The todos object is then outjected once the factory method is done since it is annotated with the @DataModel annotation.
Constructing the view for the edit page is similarly straight forward:
<h:form id="edit">
<f:facet name="beforeInvalidField">
  <h:graphicImage styleClass="errorImg" value="error.png"/>
<f:facet name="afterInvalidField">
  <s:message styleClass="errorMsg" />
<f:facet name="aroundInvalidField">
  <s:div styleClass="error"/>



        <h:inputText id="title" value="#{todo.title}" size="15"/>

        <h:inputTextarea id="description" value="#{todo.description}"/>



<h:commandButton type="submit" id="update" value="Update"
<h:commandButton type="submit" id="delete" value="Delete"
Here we see the same factors in play. JSF validation code taking advantage of the validation constraints defined in our Entity Bean, and the use of the todoDao Session Bean's update and delete methods to update the database.
The call from todos.xhtml: edit.seam?tid=#{} causes Seam to create a todoDao and set it's id property to tid. Setting its id property causes the todoDao to retrieve the appropriate record from the database.
The functionality that allows the edit page to be called with a parameter in this way is implemented through pages.xml. Let's have a look at the pages.xml file and how it is used by Seam applications.

7.5. Building The Application

At the command line, go to JBOSS_DIST/doc/examples/gettingstarted/seamejb3 directory. There you will see a build.xml file. This is our Ant build script for compiling and packaging the archives. To build the application, just type the command ant and your output should look like this:
[vrenish@vinux jsfejb3]$ ant

Buildfile: build.xml

  [mkdir] Created dir: 
  [javac] Compiling 3 source files to 
  [javac] Note: /home/vrenish/jboss-eap-4.3/doc/examples/gettingstarted/seamejb3/src/ 
                   uses unchecked or unsafe operations.
  [javac] Note: Recompile with -Xlint:unchecked for details.

  [mkdir] Created dir: /home/vrenish/jboss-eap-4.3/doc/examples/gettingstarted/seamejb3/build/jars
  [war] Building war: /home/vrenish/jboss-eap-4.3/doc/examples/gettingstarted/seamejb3/build/jars/app. war

  [jar] Building jar: /home/vrenish/jboss-eap-4.3/doc/examples/gettingstarted/seamejb3/build/jars/app. jar

  [ear] Building ear: 
                 /home/vrenish/jboss-eap-4.3/doc/examples/gettingstarted/seamejb3/build/jars/seam ejb3.ear


Total time: 7 seconds
If you get the BUILD SUCCESSFUL message, you will find a newly created build directory with 2 sub-directories in it:
  • classes: containing the compiled class files.
  • jars: containing three archives - app.jar, app.war and seamejb3.ear.
    • app.jar
    • app.war
    • seamejb3.ear
    For more details on these files and their contents refer to Section 6.4, “Configuration and Packaging”.

7.6.  Xml Files

Seam drastically reduces the amount of xml coding that needs to be done. One file that is of interest is the pages.xml, packaged in the app.war file's WEB-INF directory. This file is available in the resources/WEB-INF directory in the source code bundle. The pages.xml file is used to define page descriptions including Seam page parameters (HTTP GET parameters), page actions, page navigation rules, error pages etc. Among other things it can be used in a Seam application to define exception handlers and redirections.
In the case of our sample application we are using it to define a Seam page parameter. The pages.xml in this example contains the following code:
<page view-id="/edit.xhtml">
    <param name="tid" value="#{}" 
This defines a parameter named tid for the edit.xhtml page. When the edit.xhtml page is loaded, the HTTP GET request parameter tid is converted to a Long value and assigned to the id property of the todoDao object. You can have as many page parameters as required to bind HTTP GET request parameters to the back-end components in your application.

7.7.  Further Information

This completes our walk-through of the sample Seam application. For further, detailed information on developing applications using the Seam framework, please refer to the "Seam Reference Guide".

Chapter 8. Using other Databases

In the previous chapters, we have been using the JBoss default datasource in our applications. This is provided by the embedded HSQL database instance and is bound to the JNDI name java:/DefaultDS. Having a database included with JBoss is very convenient for running examples and HSQL is adequate for many purposes. However, at some stage you will want to use another database, either to replace the default datasource or to access multiple databases from within the server.

8.1. DataSource Configuration Files

DataSource configuration file names end with the suffix -ds.xml so that they will be recognized correctly by the JCA deployer. The docs/example/jca directory contains sample files for a wide selection of databases and it is a good idea to use one of these as a starting point. For a full description of the configuration format the best place to look is the DTD file docs/dtd/jboss-ds_1_5.dtd. Additional documentation on the files and the JBoss JCA implementation can also be found in the JBoss 4 Application Server Guide.
Local transaction data sources are configured using the local-tx-datasource element and XA-compliant ones using xa-tx-datasource. The example file generic-ds.xml shows how to use both types and also some of the other elements that are available for things like connection pool configuration. Examples of both local and XA configurations are available for Oracle, DB2 and Informix.
If you look at the example files firebird-ds.xml, facets-ds.xml and sap3-ds.xml, you’ll notice that they have a completely different format, with the root element being connection-factories rather than datasources. These use an alternative, more generic JCA configuration syntax used with a pre-packaged JCA resource adapter. The syntax is not specific to datasource configuration and is used, for example, in the jms-ds.xml file to configure the JMS resource adapter.
Next, we’ll work through some step-by-step examples to illustrate what’s involved setting up a datasource for a specific database.

8.2. Using MySQL as the Default DataSource

MySQL is a one of the most popular open source databases around and is used by many prominent organizations from Yahoo to NASA. The official JDBC driver for it is called Connector/J. For this example we have used MySQL 4.1.7 and Connector/J 3.0.15. You can download them both from .

8.2.1. Creating a Database and User

We will assume that you have already installed MySQL and that you have it running and are familiar with the basics. Run the mysql client program from the command line so we can execute some administration commands. You should make sure that you are connected as a user with sufficient privileges (e.g. by specifying the -u root option to run as the MySQL root user).
First create a database called jboss within MySQL for use by JBoss.
mysql> CREATE DATABASE jboss; 
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.05 sec)
Then check that it has been created.
| Database | 
| jboss    | 
| mysql    | 
| test     | 
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)
Next, create a user called jboss with password password to access the database.
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON jboss.* TO jboss@localhost IDENTIFIED BY 'password'; 
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.06 sec)
Again, you can check that everything has gone smoothly.
mysql> select User,Host,Password from mysql.User; 
| User  | Host      | Password         | 
| root  | localhost |                  |
| root  | %         |                  | 
|       | localhost |                  | 
|       | %         |                  | 
| jboss | localhost | 5d2e19393cc5ef67 | 
5 rows in set (0.02 sec)

8.2.2. Installing the JDBC Driver and Deploying the DataSource

To make the JDBC driver classes available to JBoss, copy the file mysql-connector-java-3.0.15-ga-bin.jar from the Connector/J distribution to the lib directory in the default server configuration (assuming that is the configuration you’re running, of course). Then create a file in the deploy directory called mysql-ds.xml with the following datasource configuration. The database user name and password corresponds the MySql user we created in the previous section.
Because we have added a new JAR file to the lib directory, you will need to make sure that the server is able to find the MySQL driver classes.

8.2.3. Testing the MySQL DataSource

We’ll use the CMP roster application to test the new database connection. In order to use MySql in our application, we'll need to set the datasource name a nd type-mapping in the jbosscmp-jdbc.xml file in the dd/team directory of the CMP roster application. Edit the file and add the following datasource and datasource-mapping elements to the defaults element.

After restarting JBoss, you should be able to deploy the application and see the tables being created. . The tables should be visible from the MySQL client.
mysql> show tables; 
| Tables_in_jboss                   |
| LeagueBean                        |
| PlayerBean                        |
| PlayerBean_teams_TeamBean_players |
| TeamBean                          |
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)
You can see the JMS persistence tables in there too since we’re using MySQL as the default datasource.

8.3. Setting up an XADataSource with Oracle 10g

Oracle is one of the main players in the commercial database field and most readers will probably have come across it at some point. You can download it freely for non-commercial purposes from
Installing and configuring Oracle is not for the faint of heart. It isn’t really just a simple database, but it is heavy on extra features and technologies which you may not actually want (another Apache web server, multiple JDKs, Orbs etc.) but which are usually installed anyway. So we’ll assume you already have an Oracle installation available. For this example, we have used Oracle 10g.

8.3.1. Installing the JDBC Driver and Deploying the DataSource

The Oracle JDBC drivers can be found in the directory $ORACLE_HOME/jdbc/lib. Older versions, which may be more familiar to some users, had rather uninformative names like but at the time of writing the latest driver version can be found in the file ojdbc14.jar. There is also a debug version of the classes with _g appended to the name which may be useful if you run into problems. Again, you should copy one of these to the lib directory of the JBoss default configuration. The basic driver class you would use for the non-XA setup is called oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver. The XADataSource class, which we’ll use here, is called oracle.jdbc.xa.client.OracleXADataSource.
For the configuration file, make a copy of the oracle-xa-ds.xml example file and edit it to set the correct URL, user name and password.
        <xa-datasource-property name="URL">
        <xa-datasource-property name="User">jboss</xa-datasource-property> 
        <xa-datasource-property name="Password">password</xa-datasource-property> 
    <mbean code="" 
        <depends optional-attribute-name="TransactionManagerService">
We have used the Oracle thin (pure java) driver here and assumed the database is running on the host monkeymachine and that the database name (or SID in Oracle terminology) is jboss. We have also assumed that you created a user jboss with all the sufficient privileges. You can use dba privileges for this example.
SQL> connect / as sysdba 
SQL> create user jboss identified by password; 
User created. 
SQL> grant dba to jboss; 
Grant succeeded.
Now copy the file to the deploy directory. You should get the following output.
11:33:45,174 INFO  [WrapperDataSourceService] Bound connection factory for resource adapter
for ConnectionManager 'jboss.jca:name=XAOracleDS,service=DataSourceBinding to JNDI name
If you use the JNDIView service from the JMX console as before, you should see the name java:/XAOracleDS listed.

8.3.2. Testing the Oracle DataSource

Again we’ll use the CMP example to test out the new database connection. The jbosscmp-jdbc.xml file should contain the following.
There are other Oracle type-mappings available too. If you’re using an earlier version, have a look in the conf/standardjbosscmp-jdbc.xml file to find the correct name
Deploy the application as before, check the output for errors and then check that the tables have been created using Oracle SQLPlus again from the command line.
SQL> select table_name from user_tables;


Appendix A. Further Information Sources

For a longer introduction to JBoss, see JBoss: A Developer's Notebook. (O'Reilly, 2005. Norman Richards, Sam Griffith).
For more comprehensive JBoss documentation covering advanced JBoss topics, refer to the manuals available online at
For general EJB instruction, with thorough JBoss coverage, see Enterprise JavaBeans, 4th Edition. (O'Reilly, 2004. Richard Monson-Haeful, Bill Burke, Sacha Labourey)
To learn more about Hibernate, see Java Persistence With Hibernate. (Manning, 2007. Christian Bauer, Gavin King)
For complete coverage of the JBoss Seam framework, we recommend JBoss Seam: Simplicity And Power Beyond Java EE. (Prentice Hall, 2007. Michael Yuan, Thomas Heute).

Appendix B. Revision History

Revision History
Revision 4.3.10-100.33.4002013-10-30Rüdiger Landmann
Rebuild with publican 4.0.0
Revision 4.3.10-100.33July 24 2012Ruediger Landmann
Rebuild for Publican 3.0
Revision 4.3.10-100Mon Aug 29 2011Jared Morgan
Incorporated changes for the Enterprise Application Platform 4.3.0CP10 release. For more information, refer to the Documentation Resolved Issues in the Release Notes CP10.
Revision 4.3.9-100Tue Nov 30 2010Jared Morgan
Incorporated changes for the Enterprise Application Platform 4.3.0CP09 release. For more information, refer to the Documentation Resolved Issues in the Release Notes CP09.

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