Red Hat JBoss Fuse

Security Guide

Making it safe for your systems to work together

Red Hat

Version 6.1

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18 May 2015

Abstract

This guide describes how to secure the Red Hat JBoss Fuse container, the web console, message brokers, routing and integration components, web and RESTful services, and it provides a tutorial on LDAP authentication.

Chapter 1. Security Architecture

Abstract

In the OSGi container, it is possible to deploy applications supporting a variety of security features. Currently, only the Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) is based on a common, container-wide infrastructure. Other security features are provided separately by the individual products and components deployed in the container.

1. OSGi Container Security

Overview

Figure 1.1, “OSGi Container Security Architecture” shows an overview of the security infrastructure that is used across the container and is accessible to all bundles deployed in the container. This common security infrastructure currently consists of a mechanism for making JAAS realms (or login modules) available to all application bundles. Other aspects of security are currently implemented separately in each of the Red Hat JBoss Fuse component products (Apache ActiveMQ, Apache Camel, and Apache CXF).

Figure 1.1. OSGi Container Security Architecture

OSGi Container Security Architecture

JAAS realms

A JAAS realm or login module is a plug-in module that provides authentication and authorization data to Java applications, as defined by the Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) specification.
Red Hat JBoss Fuse supports a special mechanism for defining JAAS login modules (in either a Spring or a blueprint file), which makes the login module accessible to all bundles in the container. This makes it easy for multiple applications running in the OSGi container to consolidate their security data into a single JAAS realm.

karaf realm

The OSGi container has a predefined JAAS realm, the karaf realm. Red Hat JBoss Fuse uses the karaf realm to provide authentication for remote administration of the OSGi runtime, for the Fuse Management Console, and for JMX management. The karaf realm uses a simple file-based repository, where authentication data is stored in the InstallDir/etc/users.properties file.
You can use the karaf realm in your own applications. Simply configure karaf as the name of the JAAS realm that you want to use. Your application then performs authentication using the data from the users.properties file.

Console port

You can administer the OSGi container remotely either by connecting to the console port with a Karaf client or using the Karaf ssh:ssh command (see section "Using Remote Connections to Manage a Container" in "Configuring and Running Red Hat JBoss Fuse"). The console port is secured by a JAAS login feature that connects to the karaf realm. Users that try to connect to the console port will be prompted to enter a username and password that must match one of the accounts from the karaf realm.

JMX port

You can manage the OSGi container by connecting to the JMX port (for example, using Java's JConsole). The JMX port is also secured by a JAAS login feature that connects to the karaf realm.

Application bundles and JAAS security

Any application bundles that you deploy into the OSGi container can access the container's JAAS realms. The application bundle simply references one of the existing JAAS realms by name (which corresponds to an instance of a JAAS login module).
It is essential, however, that the JAAS realms are defined using the OSGi container's own login configuration mechanism—by default, Java provides a simple file-based login configuration implementation, but you cannot use this implementation in the context of the OSGi container.

2. Apache ActiveMQ Security

Overview

Figure 1.2, “Apache ActiveMQ Security Architecture” shows an overview of the Apache ActiveMQ security architecture. The main security features supported by Apache ActiveMQ are the SSL/TLS security layer and the JAAS security layer. The SSL/TLS security layer provides message encryption and identifies the broker to its clients, while the JAAS security layer identifies clients to the broker.

Figure 1.2. Apache ActiveMQ Security Architecture

Apache ActiveMQ Security Architecture

SSL/TLS security

Apache ActiveMQ supports the use of SSL/TLS to secure client-to-broker and broker-to-broker connections, where the underlying SSL/TLS implementation is provided by the Java Secure Socket Extension (JSSE). When deploying brokers and clients in an OSGi container, you cannot configure SSL/TLS security using JSSE system properties, however. You must either use XML configuration (for example, in a Spring or a blueprint file) or set the security properties by programming.

JAAS security

Apache ActiveMQ also supports JAAS security, which typically requires clients to log on to the broker by providing username and password credentials. When deployed in an OSGi container, the broker's JAAS security must be integrated with the container's JAAS security (as described in Section 1, “OSGi Container Security”).

JAAS plug-ins

To enable JAAS security in a broker, you install one of the supported JAAS plug-ins. Each of the JAAS plug-ins supports a different kind of credentials or implements a somewhat different login procedure. The following JAAS plug-ins are currently supported by Apache ActiveMQ:
  • jaasAuthenticationPlugin supports authentication using JMS username/password credentials.
  • jaasCertificateAuthenticationPlugin supports additional checking of the X.509 certificate received from a client (usable only in combination with SSL/TLS security).
  • jaasDualAuthenticationPlugin is a hybrid version of the other two plug-ins. This plug-in checks the client's X.509 certificate, if and only if SSL/TLS is enabled. Otherwise, it falls back to checking the JMS username/password credentials.

JAAS login modules

Apache ActiveMQ provides a number of different JAAS login module implementations, which are used to define JAAS realms. The role of a JAAS login module is to store authentication and authorization data. The following JAAS login modules are currently implemented by Apache ActiveMQ:
  • PropertiesLoginModule—stores username/password credentials and user group data in a pair of plain text files.
  • LDAPLoginModule—an adapter that enables you to store username/password credentials and group data in an LDAP database.
  • GuestLoginModule—logs all users into a default guest account. This login module is usually used in combination with a preceding login module (defined in the same login entry), where the guest login module is activated only when the preceding login attempt has failed.
  • TextFileCertificateLoginModule—tests the X.509 certificate received from the client by comparing the Distinguished Name (DN) embedded in the client certificate with the list of DNs stored in a plain text file.

3. Apache Camel Security

Overview

Figure 1.3, “Apache Camel Security Architecture” shows an overview of the basic options for securely routing messages between Apache Camel endpoints.

Figure 1.3. Apache Camel Security Architecture

Apache Camel Security Architecture

Alternatives for Apache Camel security

As shown in Figure 1.3, “Apache Camel Security Architecture”, you have the following options for securing messages:
  • Endpoint security—part (a) shows a message sent between two routes with secure endpoints. The producer endpoint on the left opens a secure connection (typically using SSL/TLS) to the consumer endpoint on the right. Both of the endpoints support security in this scenario.
    With endpoint security, it is typically possible to perform some form of peer authentication (and sometimes authorization).
  • Payload security—part (b) shows a message sent between two routes where the endpoints are both insecure. To protect the message from unauthorized snooping in this case, use a payload processor that encrypts the message before sending and decrypts the message after it is received.
    A limitation of payload security is that it does not provide any kind of authentication or authorization mechanisms.

Endpoint security

There are several Camel components that support security features. It is important to note, however, that these security features are implemented by the individual components, not by the Camel core. Hence, the kinds of security feature that are supported, and the details of their implementation, vary from component to component. Some of the Camel components that currently support security are, as follows:
  • JMS and ActiveMQ—SSL/TLS security and JAAS security for client-to-broker and broker-to-broker communication.
  • Jetty—HTTP Basic Authentication and SSL/TLS security.
  • CXF—SSL/TLS security and WS-Security.
  • Crypto—creates and verifies digital signatures in order to guarantee message integrity.
  • Netty—SSL/TLS security.
  • MINA—SSL/TLS security.
  • Cometd—SSL/TLS security.
  • glogin and gauth—authorization in the context of Google applications.

Payload security

Apache Camel provides the following payload security implementations, where the encryption and decryption steps are exposed as data formats on the marshal() and unmarshal() operations

XMLSecurity data format

The XMLSecurity data format is specifically designed to encrypt XML payloads. When using this data format, you can specify which XML element to encrypt. The default behavior is to encrypt all XML elements. This feature uses a symmetric encryption algorithm.

Crypto data format

The crypto data format is a general purpose encryption feature that can encrypt any kind of payload. It is based on the Java Cryptographic Extension and it uses asymmetric encryption.
For more details, see http://camel.apache.org/crypto.html.

Chapter 2. Securing the Red Hat JBoss Fuse Container

Abstract

The Red Hat JBoss Fuse container is secured using JAAS. By defining JAAS realms, you can configure the mechanism used to retrieve user credentials. You can also refine access to the container's administrative interfaces by changing the default roles.

1. JAAS Authentication

Abstract

The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a general framework for implementing authentication in a Java application. The implementation of authentication is modular, with individual JAAS modules (or plug-ins) providing the authentication implementations.
For background information about JAAS, see the JAAS Reference Guide.

1.1. Default JAAS Realm

Overview

This section describes how to manage user data in a for the default JAAS realm in a standalone container.

Default JAAS realm

The Red Hat JBoss Fuse container has a predefined JAAS realm, the karaf realm, which is used by default to secure all aspects of the container.

How to integrate an application with JAAS

You can use the karaf realm in your own applications. Simply configure karaf as the name of the JAAS realm that you want to use.

Default JAAS login modules

When you start JBoss Fuse for the first time, the container is configured as a standalone container and uses the karaf default realm. In this default configuration, the karaf realm deploys two JAAS login modules, which are enabled simultaneously. To see the deployed login modules, enter the jaas:realms console command, as follows:
JBossFuse:karaf@root> jaas:realms
Index Realm                Module Class                                                                    
    1 karaf                org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.properties.PropertiesLoginModule                  
    2 karaf                org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.publickey.PublickeyLoginModule
Important
In a standalone container, both the properties login module and the public key login module are enabled. When JAAS authenticates a user, it tries first of all to authenticate the user with the properties login module. If that fails, it then tries to authenticate the user with the public key login module. If that module also fails, an error is raised.

Configuring the properties login module

The properties login module is used to store username/password credentials in a flat file format. To create a new user in the properties login module, open the InstallDir/etc/users.properties file using a text editor and add a line with the following syntax:
Username=Password[,Role1][,Role2]...
For example, to create the jdoe user with password, topsecret, and role, admin, you could create an entry like the following:
jdoe=topsecret,admin
Where the admin role gives full administrative privileges to the jdoe user.

Configuring the public key login module

The public key login module is used to store SSH public key credentials in a flat file format. To create a new user in the public key login module, open the InstallDir/etc/keys.properties file using a text editor and add a line with the following syntax:
Username=PublicKey,Role1,Role2,...
For example, you can create the jdoe user with the admin role by adding the following entry to the InstallDir/etc/keys.properties file (on a single line):
jdoe=AAAAB3NzaC1kc3MAAACBAP1/U4EddRIpUt9KnC7s5Of2EbdSPO9EAMMeP4C2USZpRV1AIlH7WT2NWPq/xfW6MPbLm1Vs14E7
gB00b/JmYLdrmVClpJ+f6AR7ECLCT7up1/63xhv4O1fnfqimFQ8E+4P208UewwI1VBNaFpEy9nXzrith1yrv8iIDGZ3RSAHHAAAAFQCX
YFCPFSMLzLKSuYKi64QL8Fgc9QAAAnEA9+GghdabPd7LvKtcNrhXuXmUr7v6OuqC+VdMCz0HgmdRWVeOutRZT+ZxBxCBgLRJFnEj6Ewo
FhO3zwkyjMim4TwWeotifI0o4KOuHiuzpnWRbqN/C/ohNWLx+2J6ASQ7zKTxvqhRkImog9/hWuWfBpKLZl6Ae1UlZAFMO/7PSSoAAACB
AKKSU2PFl/qOLxIwmBZPPIcJshVe7bVUpFvyl3BbJDow8rXfskl8wO63OzP/qLmcJM0+JbcRU/53Jj7uyk31drV2qxhIOsLDC9dGCWj4
7Y7TyhPdXh/0dthTRBy6bqGtRPxGa7gJov1xm/UuYYXPIUR/3x9MAZvZ5xvE0kYXO+rx,admin
Important
Do not insert the entire contents of an id_rsa.pub file here. Insert just the block of symbols which represents the public key itself.

Encrypting the stored passwords

By default, passwords are stored in the InstallDir/etc/users.properties file in plaintext format. To protect the passwords in this file, you must set the file permissions of the users.properties file so that it can be read only by administrators. To provide additional protection, you can optionally encrypt the stored passwords using a message digest algorithm.
To enable the password encryption feature, edit the InstallDir/etc/org.apache.karaf.jaas.cfg file and set the encryption properties as described in the comments. For example, the following settings would enable basic encryption using the MD5 message digest algorithm:
encryption.enabled = true
encryption.name = basic
encryption.prefix = {CRYPT}
encryption.suffix = {CRYPT}
encryption.algorithm = MD5
encryption.encoding = hexadecimal
Note
The encryption settings in the org.apache.karaf.jaas.cfg file are applied only to the default karaf realm in a standalone container. The have no effect on a fabric container and no effect on a custom realm.
For more details about password encryption, see Section 1.8, “Encrypting Stored Passwords”.

Overriding the default realm

If you want to customise the JAAS realm, the most convenient approach to take is to override the default karaf realm by defining a higher ranking karaf realm. This ensures that all of the Red Hat JBoss Fuse security components switch to use your custom realm. For details of how to define and deploy custom JAAS realms, see Section 1.2, “Defining JAAS Realms”.

1.2. Defining JAAS Realms

Overview

When defining a JAAS realm in the OSGi container, you cannot put the definitions in a conventional JAAS login configuration file. Instead, the OSGi container uses a special jaas:config element for defining JAAS realms in a blueprint configuration file. The JAAS realms defined in this way are made available to all of the application bundles deployed in the container, making it possible to share the JAAS security infrastructure across the whole container.

Namespace

Example 2.1. JAAS Blueprint Namespace

xmlns:jaas="http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jaas/v1.0.0"

Configuring a JAAS realm

Example 2.2. Defining a JAAS Realm in Blueprint XML

<blueprint xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0"
           xmlns:jaas="http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jaas/v1.0.0">

    <jaas:config name="JaasRealmName"
                 [rank="IntegerRank"]>
        <jaas:module className="LoginModuleClassName"
                     [flags="[required|requisite|sufficient|optional]"]>
            Property=Value
            ...
        </jaas:module>
        ...
        <!-- Can optionally define multiple modules -->
        ...
    </jaas:config>

</blueprint>
The elements are used as follows:
jaas:config
Defines the JAAS realm. It has the following attributes:
  • name—specifies the name of the JAAS realm.
  • rank—specifies an optional rank for resolving naming conflicts between JAAS realms . When two or more JAAS realms are registered under the same name, the OSGi container always picks the realm instance with the highest rank.
jaas:module
Defines a JAAS login module in the current realm. jaas:module has the following attributes:
The contents of a jaas:module element is a space separated list of property settings, which are used to initialize the JAAS login module instance. The specific properties are determined by the JAAS login module and must be put into the proper format.
Note
You can define multiple login modules in a realm.

Converting standard JAAS login properties to XML

Example 2.3. Standard JAAS Properties

PropertiesLogin {
    org.apache.activemq.jaas.PropertiesLoginModule required
        org.apache.activemq.jaas.properties.user="users.properties"
        org.apache.activemq.jaas.properties.group="groups.properties";
};
The equivalent JAAS realm definition, using the jaas:config element in a blueprint file, is shown in Example 2.4, “Blueprint JAAS Properties”.

Example 2.4. Blueprint JAAS Properties

<blueprint xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0"
           xmlns:jaas="http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jaas/v1.0.0"
           xmlns:ext="http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-ext/v1.0.0">

    <jaas:config name="PropertiesLogin">
        <jaas:module className="org.apache.activemq.jaas.PropertiesLoginModule"
                     flags="required">
            org.apache.activemq.jaas.properties.user=users.properties
            org.apache.activemq.jaas.properties.group=groups.properties
        </jaas:module>
    </jaas:config>

</blueprint>
Important
You do not use double quotes for JAAS properties in the blueprint configuration.

Example

Red Hat JBoss Fuse also provides an adapter that enables you to store JAAS authentication data in an X.500 server. Example 2.5, “Configuring a JAAS Realm” defines the LDAPLogin realm to use JBoss Fuse's LDAPLoginModule class, which connects to the LDAP server located at ldap://localhost:10389.

Example 2.5. Configuring a JAAS Realm

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<blueprint xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0"
  xmlns:jaas="http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jaas/v1.0.0"
  xmlns:ext="http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-ext/v1.0.0">

  <jaas:config name="LDAPLogin" rank="1">
    <jaas:module className="org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.ldap.LDAPLoginModule"
                 flags="required">
      initialContextFactory=com.sun.jndi.ldap.LdapCtxFactory
      connection.username=uid=admin,ou=system
      connection.password=secret
      connection.protocol=
      connection.url = ldap://localhost:10389
      user.base.dn = ou=users,ou=system
      user.filter = (uid=%u)
      user.search.subtree = true
      role.base.dn = ou=users,ou=system
      role.filter = (uid=%u)
      role.name.attribute = ou
      role.search.subtree = true
      authentication = simple
    </jaas:module>
  </jaas:config>
</blueprint>
For a detailed description and example of using the LDAP login module, see Section 2, “Enabling LDAP Authentication”.

1.3. JAAS Properties Login Module

Overview

The JAAS properties login module stores user data in a flat file format (where the stored passwords can optionally be encrypted using a message digest algorithm). The user data can either be edited directly, using a simple text editor, or managed using the jaas:* console commands.
For example, a standalone container uses the JAAS properties login module by default and stores the associated user data in the InstallDir/etc/users.properties file.

Supported credentials

The JAAS properties login module authenticates username/password credentials, returning the list of roles associated with the authenticated user.

Implementation classes

The following classes implement the JAAS properties login module:
org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.properties.PropertiesLoginModule
Implements the JAAS login module.
org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.properties.PropertiesBackingEngineFactory
Must be exposed as an OSGi service. This service makes it possible for you to manage the user data using the jaas:* console commands from the Apache Karaf shell (see section "JAAS Console Commands" in "Console Reference").

Options

The JAAS properties login module supports the following options:
users
Location of the user properties file.

Format of the user properties file

The user properties file is used to store username, password, and role data for the properties login module. Each user is represented by a single line in the user properties file, where a line has the following form:
Username=Password[,Role][,Role]...

Sample Blueprint configuration

The following Blueprint configuration shows how to define a new karaf realm using the properties login module, where the default karaf realm is overridden by setting the rank attribute to 2:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<blueprint xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0"
           xmlns:jaas="http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jaas/v1.0.0"
           xmlns:cm="http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-cm/v1.1.0"
           xmlns:ext="http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-ext/v1.0.0">

    <type-converters>
        <bean class="org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.properties.PropertiesConverter"/>
    </type-converters>

    <!-- Allow usage of System properties, especially the karaf.base property -->
    <ext:property-placeholder placeholder-prefix="$[" placeholder-suffix="]"/>

    <jaas:config name="karaf" rank="2">
        <jaas:module className="org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.properties.PropertiesLoginModule"
                     flags="required">
            users = $[karaf.base]/etc/users.properties
        </jaas:module>
    </jaas:config>

    <!-- The Backing Engine Factory Service for the PropertiesLoginModule -->
    <service interface="org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.BackingEngineFactory">
        <bean class="org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.properties.PropertiesBackingEngineFactory"/>
    </service>

</blueprint>
Remember to export the BackingEngineFactory bean as an OSGi service, so that the jaas:* console commands can manage the user data.

1.4. JAAS OSGi Config Login Module

Overview

The JAAS OSGi config login modules leverages the OSGi Config Admin Service to store user data. This login module is fairly similar to the JAAS properties login module (for example, the syntax of the user entries is the same), but the mechanism for retrieving user data is based on the OSGi Config Admin Service.
The user data can be edited directly by creating a corresponding OSGi configuration file, etc/PersistentID.cfg or using any method of configuration that is supported by the OSGi Config Admin Service. The jaas:* console commands are not supported, however.

Supported credentials

The JAAS OSGi config login module authenticates username/password credentials, returning the list of roles associated with the authenticated user.

Implementation classes

The following classes implement the JAAS OSGi config login module:
org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.osgi.OsgiConfigLoginModule
Implements the JAAS login module.
Note
There is no backing engine factory for the OSGi config login module, which means that this module cannot be managed using the jaas:* console commands.

Options

The JAAS OSGi config login module supports the following options:
pid
The persistent ID of the OSGi configuration containing the user data. In the OSGi Config Admin standard, a persistent ID references a set of related configuration properties.

Location of the configuration file

The location of the configuration file follows the usual convention where the configuration for the persistent ID, PersistentID, is stored in the following file:
InstallDir/etc/PersistentID.cfg

Format of the configuration file

The PersistentID.cfg configuration file is used to store username, password, and role data for the OSGi config login module. Each user is represented by a single line in the configuration file, where a line has the following form:
Username=Password[,Role][,Role]...
This is the same format that is used in a users property file.

Sample Blueprint configuration

The following Blueprint configuration shows how to define a new karaf realm using the OSGi config login module, where the default karaf realm is overridden by setting the rank attribute to 2:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<blueprint xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0"
           xmlns:jaas="http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jaas/v1.0.0"
           xmlns:cm="http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-cm/v1.1.0"
           xmlns:ext="http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-ext/v1.0.0">

    <jaas:config name="karaf" rank="2">
        <jaas:module className="org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.osgi.OsgiConfigLoginModule"
                     flags="required">
            pid = org.jboss.example.osgiconfigloginmodule
        </jaas:module>
    </jaas:config>

</blueprint>
In this example, the user data will be stored in the file, InstallDir/etc/org.jboss.example.osgiconfigloginmodule.cfg, and it is not possible to edit the configuration using the jaas:* console commands.

1.5. JAAS Public Key Login Module

Overview

The JAAS public key login module stores user data in a flat file format, which can be edited directly using a simple text editor. The jaas:* console commands are not supported, however.
For example, a standalone container uses the JAAS public key login module by default and stores the associated user data in the InstallDir/etc/keys.properties file.

Supported credentials

The JAAS public key login module authenticates SSH key credentials. When a user tries to log in, the SSH protocol uses the stored public key to challenge the user. The user must possess the corresponding private key in order to answer the challenge. If login is successful, the login module returns the list of roles associated with the user.

Implementation classes

The following classes implement the JAAS public key login module:
org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.publickey.PublickeyLoginModule
Implements the JAAS login module.
Note
There is no backing engine factory for the public key login module, which means that this module cannot be managed using the jaas:* console commands.

Options

The JAAS public key login module supports the following options:
users
Location of the user properties file for the public key login module.

Format of the user properties file

The user properties file is used to store username, public key, and role data for the public key login module. Each user is represented by a single line in the user properties file, where a line has the following form:
Username=PublicKey[,Role][,Role]...
Where the PublicKey is the public key part of an SSH key pair (typically found in a user's home directory in ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub in a UNIX system).
For example, to create the user jdoe with the admin role, you would create an entry like the following:
jdoe=AAAAB3NzaC1kc3MAAACBAP1/U4EddRIpUt9KnC7s5Of2EbdSPO9EAMMeP4C2USZpRV1AIlH7WT2NWPq/xfW6MPbLm1Vs14E7
gB00b/JmYLdrmVClpJ+f6AR7ECLCT7up1/63xhv4O1fnfqimFQ8E+4P208UewwI1VBNaFpEy9nXzrith1yrv8iIDGZ3RSAHHAAAAFQCX
YFCPFSMLzLKSuYKi64QL8Fgc9QAAAnEA9+GghdabPd7LvKtcNrhXuXmUr7v6OuqC+VdMCz0HgmdRWVeOutRZT+ZxBxCBgLRJFnEj6Ewo
FhO3zwkyjMim4TwWeotifI0o4KOuHiuzpnWRbqN/C/ohNWLx+2J6ASQ7zKTxvqhRkImog9/hWuWfBpKLZl6Ae1UlZAFMO/7PSSoAAACB
AKKSU2PFl/qOLxIwmBZPPIcJshVe7bVUpFvyl3BbJDow8rXfskl8wO63OzP/qLmcJM0+JbcRU/53Jj7uyk31drV2qxhIOsLDC9dGCWj4
7Y7TyhPdXh/0dthTRBy6bqGtRPxGa7gJov1xm/UuYYXPIUR/3x9MAZvZ5xvE0kYXO+rx,admin
Important
Do not insert the entire contents of the id_rsa.pub file here. Insert just the block of symbols which represents the public key itself.

Sample Blueprint configuration

The following Blueprint configuration shows how to define a new karaf realm using the public key login module, where the default karaf realm is overridden by setting the rank attribute to 2:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<blueprint xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0"
           xmlns:jaas="http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jaas/v1.0.0"
           xmlns:cm="http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-cm/v1.1.0"
           xmlns:ext="http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-ext/v1.0.0">

    <!-- Allow usage of System properties, especially the karaf.base property -->
    <ext:property-placeholder placeholder-prefix="$[" placeholder-suffix="]"/>

    <jaas:config name="karaf" rank="2">
        <jaas:module className="org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.publickey.PublickeyLoginModule"
                     flags="required">
            users = $[karaf.base]/etc/keys.properties
        </jaas:module>
    </jaas:config>

</blueprint>
In this example, the user data will be stored in the file, InstallDir/etc/keys.properties, and it is not possible to edit the configuration using the jaas:* console commands.

1.6. JAAS JDBC Login Module

Overview

The JAAS JDBC login module enables you to store user data in a database back-end, using Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) to connect to the database. Hence, you can use any database that supports JDBC to store your user data. To manage the user data, you can use either the native database client tools or the jaas:* console commands (where the backing engine uses configured SQL queries to perform the relevant database updates).

Supported credentials

The JAAS JDBC Login Module authenticates username/password credentials, returning the list of roles associated with the authenticated user.

Implementation classes

The following classes implement the JAAS JDBC Login Module:
org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.jdbc.JDBCLoginModule
Implements the JAAS login module.
org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.jdbc.JDBCBackingEngineFactory
Must be exposed as an OSGi service. This service makes it possible for you to manage the user data using the jaas:* console commands from the Apache Karaf shell (see section "JAAS Console Commands" in "Console Reference").

Options

The JAAS JDBC login module supports the following options:
datasource
The JDBC data source, specified either as an OSGi service or as a JNDI name. You can specify a data source's OSGi service using the following syntax:
osgi:ServiceInterfaceName[/ServicePropertiesFilter]
The ServiceInterfaceName is the interface or class that is exported by the data source's OSGi service (usually javax.sql.DataSource).
Because multiple data sources can be exported as OSGi services in a container, it is usually necessary to specify a filter, ServicePropertiesFilter, to select the particular data source that you want. Filters on OSGi services are applied to the service property settings and follow a syntax that is borrowed from LDAP filter syntax.
query.password
The SQL query that retrieves the user's password. The query can contain a single question mark character, ?, which is substituted by the username at run time.
query.role
The SQL query that retrieves the user's roles. The query can contain a single question mark character, ?, which is substituted by the username at run time.
insert.user
The SQL query that creates a new user entry. The query can contain two question marks, ?, characters: the first question mark is substituted by the username and the second question mark is substituted by the password at run time.
insert.role
The SQL query that adds a role to a user entry. The query can contain two question marks, ?, characters: the first question mark is substituted by the username and the second question mark is substituted by the role at run time.
delete.user
The SQL query that deletes a user entry. The query can contain a single question mark character, ?, which is substituted by the username at run time.
delete.role
The SQL query that deletes a role from a user entry. The query can contain two question marks, ?, characters: the first question mark is substituted by the username and the second question mark is substituted by the role at run time.
delete.roles
The SQL query that deletes multiple roles from a user entry. The query can contain a single question mark character, ?, which is substituted by the username at run time.

Example of setting up a JDBC login module

To set up a JDBC login module, perform the following main steps:

Create the database tables

Before you can set up the JDBC login module, you must set up a users table and a roles table in the backing database to store the user data. For example, the following SQL commands show how to create a suitable users table and roles table:
CREATE TABLE users (
  username varchar(255) NOT NULL,
  password varchar(255) NOT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (username)
);
CREATE TABLE roles (
  username varchar(255) NOT NULL,
  role varchar(255) NOT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (username,role)
);
The users table stores username/password data and the roles table associates a username with one or more roles.

Create the data source

To use a JDBC datasource with the JDBC login module, the correct approach to take is to create a data source instance and export the data source as an OSGi service. The JDBC login module can then access the data source by referencing the exported OSGi service. For example, you could create a MySQL data source instance and expose it as an OSGi service (of javax.sql.DataSource type) using code like the following in a Blueprint file:
<blueprint xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
           xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0">
    <bean class="com.mysql.jdbc.jdbc2.optional.MysqlDataSource" id="mysqlDatasource">
        <property name="serverName" value="localhost"></property>
        <property name="databaseName" value="DBName"></property>
        <property name="port" value="3306"></property>
        <property name="user" value="DBUser"></property>
        <property name="password" value="DBPassword"></property>
   </bean>

    <service id="mysqlDS" interface="javax.sql.DataSource" ref="mysqlDatasource">
        <service-properties>
            <entry key="osgi.jndi.service.name" value="jdbc/karafdb"/>
        </service-properties>
    </service>
</blueprint>
The preceding Blueprint configuration should be packaged and installed in the container as an OSGi bundle.

Specify the data source as an OSGi service

After the data source has been instantiated and exported as an OSGi service, you are ready to configure the JDBC login module. In particular, the datasource option of the JDBC login module can reference the data source's OSGi service using the following syntax:
osgi:javax.sql.DataSource/(osgi.jndi.service.name=jdbc/karafdb)
Where javax.sql.DataSource is the interface type of the exported OSGi service and the filter, (osgi.jndi.service.name=jdbc/karafdb), selects the particular javax.sql.DataSource instance whose osgi.jndi.service.name service property has the value, jdbc/karafdb.
For example, you can use the following Blueprint configuration to override the karaf realm with a JDBC login module that references the sample MySQL data source:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<blueprint xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0"
           xmlns:jaas="http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jaas/v1.0.0"
           xmlns:cm="http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-cm/v1.1.0"
           xmlns:ext="http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-ext/v1.0.0">

    <!-- Allow usage of System properties, especially the karaf.base property -->
    <ext:property-placeholder placeholder-prefix="$[" placeholder-suffix="]"/>

    <jaas:config name="karaf" rank="2">
        <jaas:module className="org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.jdbc.JDBCLoginModule" 
                     flags="required">
            datasource = osgi:javax.sql.DataSource/(osgi.jndi.service.name=jdbc/karafdb)
            query.password = SELECT PASSWORD FROM USERS WHERE USERNAME=?
            query.role = SELECT ROLE FROM ROLES WHERE USERNAME=?
            insert.user = INSERT INTO USERS VALUES(?,?)
            insert.role = INSERT INTO ROLES VALUES(?,?)
            delete.user = DELETE FROM USERS WHERE USERNAME=?
            delete.role = DELETE FROM ROLES WHERE USERNAME=? AND ROLE=?
            delete.roles = DELETE FROM ROLES WHERE USERNAME=?
        </jaas:module>
    </jaas:config>

    <!-- The Backing Engine Factory Service for the JDBCLoginModule -->
    <service interface="org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.BackingEngineFactory">
        <bean class="org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.jdbc.JDBCBackingEngineFactory"/>
    </service>

</blueprint>
Note
The SQL statements shown in the preceding configuration are in fact the default values of these options. Hence, if you create user and role tables consistent with these SQL statements, you could omit the options settings and rely on the defaults.
In addition to creating a JDBCLoginModule, the preceding Blueprint configuration also instantiates and exports a JDBCBackingEngineFactory instance, which enables you to manage the user data using the jaas:* console commands.

1.7. JAAS LDAP Login Module

Overview

The JAAS LDAP login module enables you to store user data in an LDAP database. To manage the stored user data, use a standard LDAP client tool. The jaas:* console commands are not supported.
For more details about using LDAP with Red Hat JBoss Fuse, see Chapter 7, LDAP Authentication Tutorial.

Supported credentials

The JAAS LDAP Login Module authenticates username/password credentials, returning the list of roles associated with the authenticated user.

Implementation classes

The following classes implement the JAAS LDAP Login Module:
org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.ldap.LDAPLoginModule
Implements the JAAS login module.
Note
There is no backing engine factory for the LDAP Login Module, which means that this module cannot be managed using the jaas:* console commands.

Options

The JAAS LDAP login module supports the following options:
connection.url
The LDAP connection URL—for example, ldap://hostname.
connection.username
Admin username to connect to the LDAP server. This parameter is optional: if it is not provided, the LDAP connection will be anonymous.
connection.password
Admin password to connect to the LDAP server. Used only if the connection.username is also specified.
user.base.dn
The LDAP base DN used to look up roles—for example, ou=role,dc=apache,dc=org.
user.filter
The LDAP filter used to look up a user's role—for example, (member:=uid=%u).
user.search.subtree
If true, the user lookup is recursive (SUBTREE). If false, the user lookup is performed only at the first level (ONELEVEL).
role.base.dn
The LDAP base DN used to look up roles—for example, ou=role,dc=apache,dc=org.
role.filter
The LDAP filter used to look up a user's role—for example, (member:=uid=%u). It is also possible to use the placeholder %dn, which gets replaced by the DN of the user's LDAP entry at run time.
role.name.attribute
The LDAP role attribute containing the role value used by Apache Karaf—for example, cn.
role.search.subtree
If true, the role lookup is recursive (SUBTREE). If false, the role lookup is performed only at the first level (ONELEVEL).
authentication
Define the authentication back-end used on the LDAP server. The default is simple.
initial.context.factory
Define the initial context factory used to connect to the LDAP server. The default is com.sun.jndi.ldap.LdapCtxFactory.
ssl
If true or if the protocol on the connection.url is ldaps, an SSL connection will be used.
ssl.provider
Specifies the SSL provider.
ssl.protocol
The protocol version to use. You must set this property to TLSv1, in order to prevent the SSLv3 protocol from being used (POODLE vulnerability).
ssl.algorithm
The algorithm to use for the KeyManagerFactory and the TrustManagerFactory—for example, PKIX.
ssl.keystore
The ID of the keystore that stores the LDAP client's own X.509 certificate (required only if SSL client authentication is enabled on the LDAP server). The keystore must be deployed using a jaas:keystore element (see the section called “Sample Blueprint configuration”).
ssl.keyalias
The keystore alias of the LDAP client's own X.509 certificate (required only if there is more than one certificate stored in the keystore specified by ssl.keystore).
ssl.truststore
The ID of the keystore that stores trusted CA certificates, which are used to verify the LDAP server's certificate (the LDAP server's certificate chain must be signed by one of the certificates in the truststore). The keystore must be deployed using a jaas:keystore element.

Sample Blueprint configuration

The following Blueprint configuration shows how to define a new karaf realm using the LDAP login module, where the default karaf realm is overridden by setting the rank attribute to 2:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<blueprint xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0"
           xmlns:jaas="http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jaas/v1.0.0"
           xmlns:cm="http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-cm/v1.1.0"
           xmlns:ext="http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-ext/v1.0.0">

    <!-- Allow usage of System properties, for example the karaf.home property -->
    <ext:property-placeholder placeholder-prefix="${" placeholder-suffix="}"/>

    <jaas:config name="karaf" rank="2">
        <jaas:module className="org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.ldap.LDAPLoginModule"
                     flags="required">
            connection.url = ldaps://localhost:10636
            user.base.dn = ou=users,ou=system
            user.filter = (uid=%u)
            user.search.subtree = true
            role.base.dn = ou=groups,ou=system
            role.filter = (uniqueMember=uid=%u)
            role.name.attribute = cn
            role.search.subtree = true
            authentication = simple
            ssl.protocol=TLSv1
            ssl.truststore=ks
            ssl.algorithm=PKIX
        </jaas:module>
    </jaas:config>

    <jaas:keystore name="ks"
               path="file:///${karaf.home}/etc/trusted.ks"
               keystorePassword="secret" />

</blueprint>
Important
You must set ssl.protocol to TLSv1, in order to protect against the Poodle vulnerability (CVE-2014-3566)

1.8. Encrypting Stored Passwords

Overview

By default, the JAAS login modules store passwords in plaintext format. Although you can (and should) protect such data by setting file permissions appropriately, you can provide additional protection to passwords by storing them in an obscured format (using a message digest algorithm).
Red Hat JBoss Fuse provides a set of options for enabling password encryption, which can be combined with any of the JAAS login modules (except for the public key login module, where it is not needed).
Important
Although message digest algorithms are not easy to crack, they are not invulnerable to attack (for example, see the Wikipedia article on cryptographic hash functions). Always use file permissions to protect files containing passwords, in addition to using password encryption.

Options

Password encryption for JAAS login modules can optionally be enabled by setting the following login module properties:
encryption.enabled
Set to true, to enable password encryption.
encryption.name
Name of the encryption service, which has been registered as an OSGi service.
encryption.prefix
Prefix for encrypted passwords.
encryption.suffix
Suffix for encrypted passwords.
encryption.algorithm
Specifies the name of the encryption algorithm—for example, MD5 or SHA-1. You can specify one of the following encryption algorithms:
  • MD2
  • MD5
  • SHA-1
  • SHA-256
  • SHA-384
  • SHA-512
encryption.encoding
Encrypted passwords encoding: hexadecimal or base64.
encryption.providerName (Jasypt only)
Name of the java.security.Provider instance that is to provide the digest algorithm.
encryption.providerClassName (Jasypt only)
Class name of the security provider that is to provide the digest algorithm
encryption.iterations (Jasypt only)
Number of times to apply the hash function recursively.
encryption.saltSizeBytes (Jasypt only)
Size of the salt used to compute the digest.
encryption.saltGeneratorClassName (Jasypt only)
Class name of the salt generator.
role.policy
Specifies the policy for identifying role principals. Can have the values, prefix or group.
role.discriminator
Specifies the discriminator value to be used by the role policy.

Encryption services

An encryption service can be defined by inheriting from the org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.EncryptionService interface and exporting an instance of the encryption service as an OSGi service. Two alternative implementations of the encryption service are provided:

Basic encryption service

The basic encryption service is installed in the standalone container by default and you can reference it by setting the encryption.name property to the value, basic. In the basic encryption service, the message digest algorithms are provided by the SUN security provider (the default security provider in the Oracle JDK).

Jasypt encryption

The Jasypt encryption service can be installed in the standalone container by installing the jasypt-encryption feature. For example, you can install Jasypt encryption by entering the following console command:
JBossFuse:karaf@root> features:install jasypt-encryption
This command installs the requisite Jasypt bundles and exports Jasypt encryption as an OSGi service, so that it is available for use by JAAS login modules. To access the Jasypt encryption service, set the encryption.name property to the value, jasypt.
For more information about Jasypt encryption, see the Jasypt documentation.

Example of a login module with Jasypt encryption

Assuming that you have already installed the jasypt-encryption feature, you could deploy a properties login module with Jasypt encryption using the following Blueprint configuration:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<blueprint xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0"
           xmlns:jaas="http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jaas/v1.0.0"
           xmlns:cm="http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-cm/v1.1.0"
           xmlns:ext="http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-ext/v1.0.0">

    <type-converters>
        <bean class="org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.properties.PropertiesConverter"/>
    </type-converters>

    <!-- Allow usage of System properties, especially the karaf.base property -->
    <ext:property-placeholder placeholder-prefix="$[" placeholder-suffix="]"/>

    <jaas:config name="karaf" rank="2">
        <jaas:module className="org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.properties.PropertiesLoginModule"
                     flags="required">
            users = $[karaf.base]/etc/users.properties
            encryption.enabled = true
            encryption.name = jasypt
            encryption.algorithm = SHA-256
            encryption.encoding = base64
            encryption.iterations = 100000
            encryption.saltSizeBytes = 16
        </jaas:module>
    </jaas:config>

    <!-- The Backing Engine Factory Service for the PropertiesLoginModule -->
    <service interface="org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.BackingEngineFactory">
        <bean class="org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.properties.PropertiesBackingEngineFactory"/>
    </service>

</blueprint>

2. Enabling LDAP Authentication

Overview

Red Hat JBoss Fuse supplies a JAAS login module that enables it to use LDAP to authenticate users. The JBoss Fuse JAAS LDAP login module is implemented by the org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.ldap.LDAPLoginModule class. It is preloaded in the container, so you do not need to install its bundle.

Procedure

To enable JBoss Fuse to use LDAP for user authentication you need to create a JAAS realm that includes the JBoss Fuse LDAP login module. As shown in Example 2.6, “Red Hat JBoss Fuse LDAP JAAS Login Module”, this is done by adding a jaas:module element to the realm and setting its className attribute to org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.ldap.LDAPLoginModule.

Example 2.6. Red Hat JBoss Fuse LDAP JAAS Login Module

<jaas:config ... >
  <jaas:module className="org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.ldap.LDAPLoginModule"
               flags="required">
    ...
  </jaas:module>
</jaas:config>
You will also need to provide values for the properties described in Table 2.2, “Properties for the Red Hat JBoss Fuse LDAP Login Module”.

LDAP properties

Table 2.2, “Properties for the Red Hat JBoss Fuse LDAP Login Module” describes the properties used to configure the JBoss Fuse JAAS LDAP login module.

Table 2.2. Properties for the Red Hat JBoss Fuse LDAP Login Module

PropertyDescription
connection.url Specifies specify the location of the directory server using an ldap URL, ldap://Host:Port. You can optionally qualify this URL, by adding a forward slash, /, followed by the DN of a particular node in the directory tree.
connection.username Specifies the DN of the user that opens the connection to the directory server. For example, uid=admin,ou=system.
connection.password Specifies the password that matches the DN from connection.username. In the directory server, the password is normally stored as a userPassword attribute in the corresponding directory entry.
user.base.dn Specifies the DN of the subtree of the DIT to search for user entries.
user.filter Specifies the LDAP search filter used to locate user credentials. It is applied to the subtree selected by user.base.dn. Before being passed to the LDAP search operation, the value is subjected to string substitution such that all occurrences of %u are replaced by the user name extracted from the incoming credentials.
user.search.subtree Specifies if the user entry search's scope includes the subtrees of the tree selected by user.base.dn.
role.base.dn Specifies the DN of the subtree of the DIT to search for role entries.
role.filter
Specifies the LDAP search filter used to locate roles. It is applied to the subtree selected by role.base.dn. Before being passed to the LDAP search operation, the value is subjected to string substitution, as follows:
  • %u is replaced by the user name extracted from the incoming credentials, and
  • %dn is replaced by the DN of the corresponding user in the LDAP server (which was found by matching against the user.filter filter).
role.name.attribute Specifies the attribute type of the role entry that contains the name of the role/group. If you omit this option, the role search feature is effectively disabled.
role.search.subtree Specifies if the role entry search's scope includes the subtrees of the tree selected by role.base.dn.
authentication
Specifies the authentication method used when binding to the LDAP server. Valid values are
  • simple—bind with user name and password authentication
  • none—bind anonymously
initial.context.factory Specifies the class of the context factory used to connect to the LDAP server. This must always be set to com.sun.jndi.ldap.LdapCtxFactory.
ssl Specifies if the connection to the LDAP server is secured via SSL. If connection.url starts with ldaps:// SSL is used regardless of this property.
ssl.provider Specifies the SSL provider to use for the LDAP connection. If not specified, the default SSL provider is used.
ssl.protocol Specifies the protocol to use for the SSL connection. You must set this property to TLSv1, in order to prevent the SSLv3 protocol from being used (POODLE vulnerability).
ssl.algorithm Specifies the algorithm used by the trust store manager.
ssl.keystore Specifies the keystore name.
ssl.keyalias Specifies the name of the private key in the keystore.
ssl.truststore Specifies the trust keystore name.
All of the properties are mandatory except the SSL properties.

Example

Example 2.7, “Configuring a JAAS Realm that Uses LDAP Authentication” defines a JAAS realm that uses the LDAP server located at ldap://localhost:10389.

Example 2.7. Configuring a JAAS Realm that Uses LDAP Authentication

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<blueprint xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0"
  xmlns:jaas="http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jaas/v1.0.0"
  xmlns:ext="http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-ext/v1.0.0">

  <jaas:config name="karaf" rank="1">
    <jaas:module className="org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.ldap.LDAPLoginModule"
                 flags="sufficient">
      initialContextFactory=com.sun.jndi.ldap.LdapCtxFactory
      connection.username=uid=admin,ou=system
      connection.password=secret
      connection.protocol=
      connection.url = ldaps://localhost:10636
      user.base.dn = ou=users,ou=system
      user.filter = (uid=%u)
      user.search.subtree = true
      role.base.dn = ou=roles,ou=system,dc=jbossfuse
      role.filter = (uid=%u)
      role.name.attribute = cn
      role.search.subtree = true
      authentication = simple
      ssl.protocol=TLSv1
      ssl.truststore=truststore
      ssl.algorithm=PKIX
    </jaas:module>
    ...
  </jaas:config>
</blueprint>
Important
You must set ssl.protocol to TLSv1, in order to protect against the Poodle vulnerability (CVE-2014-3566)

3. Enabling Remote JMX SSL

Overview

Red Hat JBoss Fuse provides a JMX port that allows remote monitoring and management of Fuse containers via MBeans. To prevent unauthorized access to data and applications, you need to secure JMX communications by configuring JMX over SSL.
Warning
If you are planning to enable SSL/TLS security, you must ensure that you explicitly disable the SSLv3 protocol, in order to safeguard against the Poodle vulnerability (CVE-2014-3566). For more details, see Disabling SSLv3 in JBoss Fuse 6.x and JBoss A-MQ 6.x.
Note
If you configure JMX over SSL while Red Hat JBoss Fuse is running, you will need to restart it.

Prerequisites

If you haven't already done so, you need to:
  • Set your JAVA_HOME environment variable
  • Configure a JBoss Fuse user with the admin role
    Edit the <installDir>/jboss-fuse-6.1.0.redhat-379/etc/users.properties file to enable the default admin user by uncommenting the line #admin=admin,admin. Alternatively, you can define another user with the admin role.
  • cd to <installDir>/jboss-fuse-6.1.0.redhat-379/etc.

Create the jbossweb.keystore

At the command line, using -dname values appropriate for your application, type this command:
$JAVA_HOME/bin/keytool -genkey -v -alias jbossalias -keyalg RSA -keysize 1024 -keystore 
jbossweb.keystore -validity 3650 -keypass JbossPassword -storepass 
JbossPassword -dname "CN=127.0.0.1, OU=RedHat Software Unit, O=RedHat, 
L=Boston, S=Mass, C=USA"
Important
Type the entire command on the same command line.
The command returns output that looks like this:
Generating 1,024 bit RSA key pair and self-signed certificate (SHA256withRSA) with a validity of 3,650 days
	for: CN=127.0.0.1, OU=RedHat Software Unit, O=RedHat, L=Boston, ST=Mass, C=USA
New certificate (self-signed):
[
[
  Version: V3
  Subject: CN=127.0.0.1, OU=RedHat Software Unit, O=RedHat, L=Boston, ST=Mass, C=USA
  Signature Algorithm: SHA256withRSA, OID = 1.2.840.113549.1.1.11

  Key:  Sun RSA public key, 1024 bits
  modulus: 1123086025790567043604962990501918169461098372864273201795342440080393808
     1594100776075008647459910991413806372800722947670166407814901754459100720279046
     3944621813738177324031064260382659483193826177448762030437669318391072619867218
     036972335210839062722456085328301058362052369248473659880488338711351959835357
  public exponent: 65537
  Validity: [From: Thu Jun 05 12:19:52 EDT 2014,
               To: Sun Jun 02 12:19:52 EDT 2024]
  Issuer: CN=127.0.0.1, OU=RedHat Software Unit, O=RedHat, L=Boston, ST=Mass, C=USA
  SerialNumber: [    4666e4e6]

Certificate Extensions: 1
[1]: ObjectId: 2.5.29.14 Criticality=false
SubjectKeyIdentifier [
KeyIdentifier [
0000: AC 44 A5 F2 E6 2F B2 5A   5F 88 FE 69 60 B4 27 7D  .D.../.Z_..i`.'.
0010: B9 81 23 9C                                        ..#.
]
]

]
  Algorithm: [SHA256withRSA]
  Signature:
0000: 01 1D 95 C0 F2 03 B0 FD   CF 3A 1A 14 F5 2E 04 E5  .........:......
0010: DD 18 DD 0E 24 60 00 54   35 AE FE 36 7B 38 69 4C  ....$`.T5..6.8iL
0020: 1E 85 0A AF AE 24 1B 40   62 C9 F4 E5 A9 02 CD D3  .....$.@b.......
0030: 91 57 60 F6 EF D6 A4 84   56 BA 5D 21 11 F7 EA 09  .W`.....V.]!....
0040: 73 D5 6B 48 4A A9 09 93   8C 05 58 91 6C D0 53 81  s.kHJ.....X.l.S.
0050: 39 D8 29 59 73 C4 61 BE   99 13 12 89 00 1C F8 38  9.)Ys.a........8
0060: E2 BF D5 3C 87 F6 3F FA   E1 75 69 DF 37 8E 37 B5  ...<..?..ui.7.7.
0070: B7 8D 10 CC 9E 70 E8 6D   C2 1A 90 FF 3C 91 84 50  .....p.m....<..P

]
[Storing jbossweb.keystore]
Check whether <installDir>/jboss-fuse-6.1.0.redhat-379/etc now contains the file jbossweb.keystore.

Create the keystore.xml file

  1. Using your favorite xml editor, create and save the keystore.xml file in the <installDir>/jboss-fuse-6.1.0.redhat-379/etc directory.
  2. Include this text in the file:
    <blueprint xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0"
               xmlns:jaas="http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jaas/v1.0.0">
         <jaas:keystore name="sample_keystore"
                        rank="1"
                        path="file:etc/jbossweb.keystore"
                        keystorePassword="JbossPassword" 
                        keyPasswords="jbossalias=JbossPassword" />
    </blueprint>
    Check whether <installDir>/jboss-fuse-6.1.0.redhat-379/etc now contains the file keystore.xml.

Ensure that the keystore.xml file is loaded at the appropriate time

Create the org.apache.felix.fileinstall-keystore.cfg file.
  1. Using your favorite text editor, create and save the org.apache.felix.fileinstall-keystore.cfg file in the <installDir>/jboss-fuse-6.1.0.redhat-379/etc directory.
  2. Include these properties in the file:
    felix.fileinstall.dir        = ${karaf.base}/etc
    felix.fileinstall.filter     = keystore\\.xml
    felix.fileinstall.poll       = 1000
    felix.fileinstall.noInitialDelay  = true
    felix.fileinstall.log.level  = 3
    felix.fileinstall.start.level     = 25
    Check whether <installDir>/jboss-fuse-6.1.0.redhat-379/etc now contains the file org.apache.felix.fileinstall-keystore.cfg.

Add the required properties to org.apache.karaf.management.cfg

Edit the <installDir>/jboss-fuse-6.1.0.redhat-379/etc/org.apache.karaf.management.cfg file to include these properties at the end of the file:
secured = true
secureProtocol = TLSv1
keyAlias = jbossalias
keyStore = sample_keystore
trustStore = sample_keystore
Important
You must set secureProtocol to TLSv1, in order to protect against the Poodle vulnerability (CVE-2014-3566)

Testing the Secure JMX connection

  1. Restart Red Hat JBoss Fuse, if necessary.
    Note
    When you restart Red Hat JBoss Fuse, fuse.log will contain an INFO message that the OsgiKeystoreManager could not find the sample_keystore you configured in the org.apache.karaf.management.cfg file. This occurs because the sample_keystore was not loaded at the time the OSGi management bundle was loading.
    But the org.pache.felix.fileinstall-keystore.cfg file you created forces the OSGi management bundle to reload and scan the keystore, enabling JConsole to connect successfully to Red Hat JBoss Fuse over SSL.
  2. Open a terminal, and start up JConsole by entering this command:
    jconsole -J-Djavax.net.debug=all -J-Djavax.net.ssl.trustStore=/NotBackedUp/FuseSource/
    jboss-fuse-6.1.0.redhat-379/etc/jbossweb.keystore -J-Djavax.net.ssl.trustStoreType=JKS 
    -J-Djavax.net.ssl.trustStorePassword=JbossPassword
    Important
    Type the entire command on the same command line.
    Note
    The system property -J-Djavax.net.debug=all shows all transport information, including SSL handshake messages, confirming that communication between JConsole and Red Hat JBoss Fuse occurs over SSL.
  3. When JConsole opens, select the option Remote Process in the New Connection wizard.
  4. Under the Remote Process option, enter these values for the service:jmx:<protocol>:<sap> url, Username, and Password:
    service:jmx:<protocol>:<sap>: service:jmx:rmi://localhost:44444/jndi/rmi://localhost:1099/karaf-root
    Username: admin
    Password: admin

4. Configuring Roles for the Administrative Protocols

Overview

By configuring each of the administrative functions to use a different role for authorization, you can provide fine grained control over who can monitor and manipulate running containers.

Administration protocols

You can independently configure roles for the following different administrative protocols:
  • SSH (remote console login)
  • JMX management

Default role

The default role name for all of the administration protocols is set by the karaf.admin.role property in the Red Hat JBoss Fuse's etc/system.properties file. For example, the default setting of karaf.admin.role is:
karaf.admin.role=admin
You have the option of overriding the default admin role set by karaf.admin.role for each of the administrative protocols.
To override the default role for the remote console add a sshRole property to the org.apache.karaf.shell PID. The following sets the role to admin:
sshRole=admin
To override the default role for JMX add a jmxRole property to the org.apache.karaf.management PID. The following sets the role to jmx:
jmxRole=jmx

Example 2.8. Property File with an Encrypted Property

#ldap.properties
ldap.password=ENC(amIsvdqno9iSwnd7kAlLYQ==)
ldap.url=ldap://192.168.1.74:10389
Important
You will need to remember the password and algorithm used to encrypt the values. You will need this information to configure Jasypt.

Namespaces

To use encryted properties in your configuration, you will need to add the following namespaces to your blueprint file:
  • Aries extensions—http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-ext/v1.0.0
  • Apache Karaf Jasypt—http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jasypt/v1.0.0
Example 2.9, “Encrypted Property Namespaces” shows a blueprint file with the required namespaces.

Example 2.9. Encrypted Property Namespaces

<blueprint xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0"
 	xmlns:ext="http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-ext/v1.0.0"
 	xmlns:enc="http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jasypt/v1.0.0">
...
</blueprint>

Placeholder extension

Example 2.10. Aries Placeholder Extension

<blueprint xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0"
 	xmlns:ext="http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-ext/v1.0.0"
 	xmlns:enc="http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jasypt/v1.0.0">

  <ext:property-placeholder>
    <ext:location>file:etc/ldap.properties</ext:location>
  </ext:property-placeholder>

...
</blueprint>
The Aries property-placeholder element's ext:location child specifies the location of the property file that contains the properties to use for the configuration. You can specify multiple files by using multiple ext:location children.

Jasypt configuration

You configure Jasypt using the Apache Karaf property-placeholder element. It has one child, encoder, that contains the actual Jasypt configuration.
The encoder element's mandatory class attribute specifies the fully qualified classname of the Jasypt encryptor to use for decrypting the properties. The encoder element can take a property child that defines a Jasypt PBEConfig bean for configuring the encryptor.
Example 2.11, “Jasypt Blueprint Configuration” shows configuration for using the string encryptor and retrieving the password from an environment variable.

Example 2.11. Jasypt Blueprint Configuration

<blueprint xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0"
 	xmlns:ext="http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-ext/v1.0.0"
 	xmlns:enc="http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jasypt/v1.0.0">

  <ext:property-placeholder>
    <ext:location>file://ldap.properties</ext:location>
  </ext:property-placeholder>

  <enc:property-placeholder>
    <enc:encryptor class="org.jasypt.encryption.pbe.StandardPBEStringEncryptor">
      <property name="config">
        <bean class="org.jasypt.encryption.pbe.config.EnvironmentStringPBEConfig">
          <property name="algorithm" value="PBEWithMD5AndDES" />
          <property name="password" value="FUSE_ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD" />
        </bean>
      </property>
    </enc:encryptor>
  </enc:property-placeholder>
...
</blueprint>

Placeholders

The placeholder you use for encrypted properties are the same as you use for regular properties. The use the form ${prop.name}.

Example 2.12. Jasypt Blueprint Configuration

<blueprint xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0"
 	xmlns:ext="http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-ext/v1.0.0"
 	xmlns:enc="http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jasypt/v1.0.0">

  <ext:property-placeholder>
    <ext:location>file://ldap.properties</ext:location>
  </ext:property-placeholder>

  <enc:property-placeholder>
    <enc:encryptor class="org.jasypt.encryption.pbe.StandardPBEStringEncryptor">
      <property name="config">
        <bean class="org.jasypt.encryption.pbe.config.EnvironmentStringPBEConfig">
          <property name="algorithm" value="PBEWithMD5AndDES" />
          <property name="password" value="FUSE_ENCRYPTION_PASSWORD" />
        </bean>
      </property>
    </enc:encryptor>
  </enc:property-placeholder>

  <jaas:config name="karaf" rank="1">
    <jaas:module className="org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.ldap.LDAPLoginModule" flags="required">
      initialContextFactory=com.sun.jndi.ldap.LdapCtxFactory
      debug=true
        connectionURL=${ldap.url}
        connectionUsername=cn=mqbroker,ou=Services,ou=system,dc=jbossfuse,dc=com
        connectionPassword=${ldap.password}
        connectionProtocol=
        authentication=simple
        userRoleName=cn
        userBase = ou=User,ou=ActiveMQ,ou=system,dc=jbossfuse,dc=com
        userSearchMatching=(uid={0})
        userSearchSubtree=true
        roleBase = ou=Group,ou=ActiveMQ,ou=system,dc=jbossfuse,dc=com
        roleName=cn
        roleSearchMatching= (member:=uid={1})
        roleSearchSubtree=true
    </jaas:module>
  </jaas:config>

</blueprint>
The ${ldap.password} placeholder will be replaced with the decrypted value of the ldap.password property from the properties file.

Installing the Jasypt features

Example 2.13. Installing the Jasypt Feature

JBossFuse:karaf@root> features:install jasypt-encryption

Chapter 3. Securing the Jetty HTTP Server

Abstract

You can configure the built-in Jetty HTTP server to use SSL/TLS security by adding the relevant configuration properties to the etc/org.ops4j.pax.web.cfg configuration file. In particular, you can add SSL/TLS security to the Fuse Management Console in this way.

Jetty server

The JBoss Fuse container is pre-configured with a Jetty server, which acts as a general-purpose HTTP server and HTTP servlet container. Through a single HTTP port (by default, http://Host:8181), the Jetty container can host multiple services, for example:
  • Fuse Management Console (by default, http://Host:8181/hawtio)
  • Apache CXF Web services endpoints (if the host and port are left unspecified in the endpoint configuration)
  • Some Apache Camel endpoints
If you use the default Jetty server for all of your HTTP endpoints, you can conveniently add SSL/TLS security to these HTTP endpoints by following the steps described here.

Create X.509 certificate and private key

Before you can enable SSL, you must create an X.509 certificate and private key for the Web console. The certificate and private key must be in Java keystore format. For details of how to create a signed certificate and private key, see Appendix A, Managing Certificates.

Enabling SSL/TLS

To enable SSL/TLS:
  1. Open etc/org.ops4j.pax.web.cfg in a text editor.
  2. Disable the insecure HTTP port by adding the org.osgi.service.http.enabled and setting it to false as shown in Example 3.1, “Pax Web Property for Disabling the HTTP Port”.

    Example 3.1. Pax Web Property for Disabling the HTTP Port

    org.osgi.service.http.enabled=false
  3. Enable the secure HTTPS port by adding the org.osgi.service.http.secure.enabled and setting it to true as shown in Example 3.2, “Pax Web Property for Enabling the HTTPS Port”.

    Example 3.2. Pax Web Property for Enabling the HTTPS Port

    org.osgi.service.http.secure.enabled=true
  4. If you followed the preceding instructions, the etc/org.ops4j.pax.web.cfg file should now have the following contents:
    # Configures the SMX Web Console to use SSL
    org.ops4j.pax.web.config.file=etc/jetty.xml
    
    org.osgi.service.http.enabled=false
    org.osgi.service.http.port=8181
    
    org.osgi.service.http.secure.enabled=true
  5. Edit the etc/jetty.xml file and add the following Call element to configure the SSL connector for Jetty:
    <?xml version="1.0"?>
    <!DOCTYPE Configure PUBLIC "-//Mort Bay Consulting//
    DTD Configure//EN" "http://jetty.mortbay.org/configure.dtd">
    
    <Configure class="org.eclipse.jetty.server.Server">
    
        <!-- =========================================================== -->
        <!-- Set connectors                                              -->
        <!-- =========================================================== -->
        <!-- One of each type!                                           -->
        <!-- =========================================================== -->
        ...
        <Call name="addConnector">
            <Arg>
                <!-- The SslSelectChannelConnector class uses the Java NIO SslEngine -->
                <New class="org.eclipse.jetty.server.ssl.SslSelectChannelConnector">
                    <Arg>
                        <New class="org.eclipse.jetty.http.ssl.SslContextFactory">
                            <!-- Protect against the POODLE security vulnerability -->
                            <Set name="ExcludeProtocols">
                                <Array type="java.lang.String">
                                    <Item>SSLv3</Item>
                                </Array>
                            </Set>
                            <Set name="keyStore">/home/jdoe/Documents/server.keystore</Set>
                            <Set name="keyStorePassword">mykeystorepass</Set>
                            <Set name="keyManagerPassword">mykeypass</Set>
                        </New>
                    </Arg>
                    <Set name="port">8183</Set>
                    <Set name="maxIdleTime">30000</Set>
                </New>
            </Arg>
        </Call>
        <Call name="addConnector">
            ...
        </Call>
    
        <Call name="addBean">
            ...
        </Call>
    </Configure>
    Important
    The preceding configuration explicitly disables the SSLv3 protocol, in order to safeguard against the Poodle vulnerability (CVE-2014-3566). For more details, see Disabling SSLv3 in JBoss Fuse 6.x and JBoss A-MQ 6.x.
  6. Customize the properties of the SslSocketConnector instance defined in the etc/jetty.xml file, as follows:
    port
    The secure HTTPS port number.
    keyStore
    The location of the Java keystore file on the file system. Relative paths are resolved relative to the KARAF_HOME environment variable (by default, the install directory).
    keyStorePassword
    The store password that unlocks the Java keystore file.
    keyManagerPassword
    The key password that decrypts the private key stored in the keystore (usually the same as the store password).
  7. Restart the JBoss Fuse container, in order for the configuration changes to take effect.

Connect to the secure console

After configuring SSL security for the Jetty server in the Pax Web configuration file, you should be able to open the Fuse Management Console by browsing to the following URL:
Note
Remember to type the https: scheme, instead of http:, in this URL.
Initially, the browser will warn you that you are using an untrusted certificate. Skip this warning and you will be presented with the login screen for the Fuse Management Console.

Advanced Jetty security configuration

The Jetty server provides flexible and sophisticated options for configuring security. You can exploit these advanced options by editing the etc/jetty.xml file and configuring it as described in the Jetty security documentation:

Chapter 4. Securing the Camel ActiveMQ Component

Abstract

The Camel ActiveMQ component enables you to define JMS endpoints in your routes that can connect to an Apache ActiveMQ broker. In order to make your Camel ActiveMQ endpoints secure, you must create an instance of a Camel ActiveMQ component that uses a secure connection factory.

1. Secure ActiveMQ Connection Factory

Overview

Apache Camel provides an Apache ActiveMQ component for defining Apache ActiveMQ endpoints in a route. The Apache ActiveMQ endpoints are effectively Java clients of the broker and you can either define a consumer endpoint (typically used at the start of a route to poll for JMS messages) or define a producer endpoint (typically used at the end or in the middle of a route to send JMS messages to a broker).
When the remote broker is secure (SSL security, JAAS security, or both), the Apache ActiveMQ component must be configured with the required client security settings.

Programming the security properties

Apache ActiveMQ enables you to program SSL security settings (and JAAS security settings) by creating and configuring an instance of the ActiveMQSslConnectionFactory JMS connection factory. Programming the JMS connection factory is the correct approach to use in the context of the containers such as OSGi, J2EE, Tomcat, and so on, because these settings are local to the application using the JMS connection factory instance.
Note
A standalone broker can configure SSL settings using Java system properties. For clients deployed in a container, however, this is not a practical approach, because the configuration must apply only to individual bundles, not the entire OSGi container. A Camel ActiveMQ endpoint is effectively a kind of Apache ActiveMQ Java client, so this restriction applies also to Camel ActiveMQ endpoints.

Defining a secure connection factory

Example 4.1, “Defining a Secure Connection Factory Bean” shows how to create a secure connection factory bean in Spring XML, enabling both SSL/TLS security and JAAS authentication.

Example 4.1. Defining a Secure Connection Factory Bean

<bean id="jmsConnectionFactory"
      class="org.apache.activemq.ActiveMQSslConnectionFactory">
  <property name="brokerURL" value="ssl://localhost:61617" />
  <property name="userName" value="Username"/>
  <property name="password" value="Password"/>
  <property name="trustStore" value="/conf/client.ts"/>
  <property name="trustStorePassword" value="password"/>
</bean>
The following properties are specified on the ActiveMQSslConnectionFactory class:
brokerURL
The URL of the remote broker to connect to, where this example connects to an SSL-enabled OpenWire port on the local host. The broker must also define a corresponding transport connector with compatible port settings.
userName and password
Any valid JAAS login credentials, Username and Password.
trustStore
Location of the Java keystore file containing the certificate trust store for SSL connections. The location is specified as a classpath resource. If a relative path is specified, the resource location is relative to the org/jbossfuse/example directory on the classpath.
trustStorePassword
The password that unlocks the keystore file containing the trust store.
It is also possible to specify keyStore and keyStorePassword properties, but these would only be needed, if SSL mutual authentication is enabled (where the client presents an X.509 certificate to the broker during the SSL handshake).

2. Example Camel ActiveMQ Component Configuration

Overview

This section describes how to initialize and configure a sample Camel ActiveMQ component instance, which you can then use to define ActiveMQ endpoints in a Camel route. This makes it possible for a Camel route to send or receive messages from a broker.

Prerequisites

The activemq-camel feature, which defines the bundles required for the Camel ActiveMQ component, is not installed by default. To install the activemq-camel feature, enter the following console command:
JBossFuse:karaf@root> features:install activemq-camel

Sample Camel ActiveMQ component

The following Spring XML sample shows a complete configuration of a Camel ActiveMQ component that has both SSL/TLS security and JAAS authentication enabled. The Camel ActiveMQ component instance is defined to with the activemqssl bean ID, which means it is associated with the activemqssl scheme (which you use when defining endpoints in a Camel route).
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans ... >
  ...
  <!--
    Configure the activemqssl component:
  -->
  <bean id="jmsConnectionFactory"
        class="org.apache.activemq.ActiveMQSslConnectionFactory">
    <property name="brokerURL" value="ssl://localhost:61617" />
    <property name="userName" value="Username"/>
    <property name="password" value="Password"/>
    <property name="trustStore" value="/conf/client.ts"/>
    <property name="trustStorePassword" value="password"/>
  </bean>

  <bean id="pooledConnectionFactory"
        class="org.apache.activemq.pool.PooledConnectionFactory">
    <property name="maxConnections" value="8" />
    <property name="maximumActive" value="500" />
    <property name="connectionFactory" ref="jmsConnectionFactory" />
  </bean>

  <bean id="jmsConfig" class="org.apache.camel.component.jms.JmsConfiguration">
    <property name="connectionFactory" ref="pooledConnectionFactory"/>
    <property name="transacted" value="false"/>
    <property name="concurrentConsumers" value="10"/>
  </bean>

  <bean id="activemqssl"
        class="org.apache.activemq.camel.component.ActiveMQComponent">
    <property name="configuration" ref="jmsConfig"/>
  </bean>

</beans>

Sample Camel route

The following Camel route defines a sample endpoint that sends messages securely to the security.test queue on the broker, using the activemqssl scheme to reference the Camel ActiveMQ component defined in the preceding example:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans ...>
  ...
  <camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
    <route>
      <from uri="timer://myTimer?fixedRate=true&amp;period=5000"/>
      <transform><constant>Hello world!</constant></transform>
      <to uri="activemqssl:security.test"/>
    </route>
  </camelContext>
  ...
</beans>

Chapter 5. Securing the Camel Jetty Component

Abstract

1. Enabling SSL/TLS Security

Overview

This section explains how to enable SSL/TLS security on the Apache Camel Jetty component, which is used to create a HTTPS Web server. The key step is to customize the Jetty component by setting the sslSocketConnectorProperties property, which configures SSL/TLS. You must also change the protocol scheme on the Jetty URI from http to https.

Tutorial steps

To configure SSL/TLS security for a Camel Jetty endpoint deployed in the OSGi container, perform the following steps:

Generate a Maven project

The maven-archetype-quickstart archetype creates a generic Maven project, which you can then customize for whatever purpose you like. To generate a Maven project with the coordinates, org.jbossfuse.example:jetty-security, enter the following command:
mvn archetype:create
-DarchetypeArtifactId=maven-archetype-quickstart
-DgroupId=org.jbossfuse.example
-DartifactId=jetty-security
The result of this command is a directory, ProjectDir/jetty-security, containing the files for the generated project.
Note
Be careful not to choose a group ID for your artifact that clashes with the group ID of an existing product! This could lead to clashes between your project's packages and the packages from the existing product (because the group ID is typically used as the root of a project's Java package names).

Customize the POM file

You must customize the POM file in order to generate an OSGi bundle. Follow the POM customization steps described in section "Generating a Bundle Project" in "Deploying into the Container".
Alternatively, edit the jetty-security/pom.xml file and replace its contents with the following XML code:
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
  xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
  <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

  <groupId>org.jbossfuse.example</groupId>
  <artifactId>jetty-security</artifactId>
  <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
  <packaging>bundle</packaging>

  <name>jetty-security</name>
  <url>http://maven.apache.org</url>

  <properties>
    <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
  </properties>

  <dependencies>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>junit</groupId>
      <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
      <version>3.8.1</version>
      <scope>test</scope>
    </dependency>
  </dependencies>

  <build>
    <defaultGoal>install</defaultGoal>
    <plugins>
      <plugin>
        <groupId>org.apache.felix</groupId>
        <artifactId>maven-bundle-plugin</artifactId>
        <version>2.3.7</version>
        <extensions>true</extensions>
        <configuration>
          <instructions>
            <Bundle-SymbolicName>${project.groupId}.${project.artifactId}</Bundle-SymbolicName>
            <Import-Package>*</Import-Package>
          </instructions>
        </configuration>
      </plugin>

      <plugin>
        <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
        <artifactId>maven-compiler-plugin</artifactId>
        <configuration>
          <source>1.6</source>
          <target>1.6</target>
        </configuration>
      </plugin>
    </plugins>
  </build>

</project>

Install sample keystore files

The certificates used in this demonstration are taken from a sample in the Apache CXF 2.7.0.redhat-610379 distribution, which is included in the InstallDir/extras directory. Using a standard archive utility, expand the CXF archive file and extract the contents to a convenient location on your filesystem. You will find the sample certificates in the CXFInstallDir/samples/wsdl_first_https/src/main/config directory.
Copy the clientKeystore.jks certificate and the serviceKeystore.jks certificate from the CXFInstallDir/samples/wsdl_first_https/src/main/config directory to the EsbInstallDir/etc/certs directory (where you will need to create the etc/certs sub-directory). After copying, you should have the following directory structure under EsbInstallDir/etc/:
EsbInstallDir/etc/
    |
    \--certs/
        |
        \--clientKeystore.jks
           serviceKeystore.jks
Where clientKeystore.jks, and serviceKeystore.jks are the keystores that are used in this demonstration.
Warning
The demonstration key store and trust sture are provided for testing purposes only. Do not deploy these certificates in a production system. To set up a genuinely secure SSL/TLS system, you must generate custom certificates, as described in Appendix A, Managing Certificates.

Configure Jetty with SSL/TLS

The Jetty Web server is created by defining a Jetty endpoint at the start of an Apache Camel route. The route is then responsible for processing the incoming HTTP request and generating a reply. The current example simply sends back a small HTML page in the reply. For a more realistic application, you would typically process the incoming message using a bean, which accesses the message through the Java servlet API.
Create the following directory to hold the Spring configuration files:
ProjectDir/jetty-security/src/main/resources/META-INF/spring
In the spring directory that you just created, use your favorite text editor to create the file, jetty-spring.xml, containing the following XML configuration:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="
       http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-3.0.xsd
       http://activemq.apache.org/schema/core http://activemq.apache.org/schema/core/activemq-core-5.4.0.xsd
       http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring/camel-spring.xsd">

    <bean id="jetty" class="org.apache.camel.component.jetty.JettyHttpComponent">
        <property name="sslContextParameters" ref="sslContextParameters" />
    </bean>

    <sslContextParameters id="sslContextParameters" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
        <secureSocketProtocols>
            <!-- Do NOT enable SSLv3 (POODLE vulnerability) -->
            <secureSocketProtocol>TLSv1</secureSocketProtocol>
            <secureSocketProtocol>TLSv1.1</secureSocketProtocol>
            <secureSocketProtocol>TLSv1.2</secureSocketProtocol>
        </secureSocketProtocols>
        <keyManagers keyPassword="skpass">
            <keyStore resource="etc/certs/serviceKeystore.jks" password="sspass"/>
        </keyManagers>
        <trustManagers>
            <keyStore resource="etc/certs/serviceKeystore.jks" password="sspass"/>
        </trustManagers>
    </sslContextParameters>

    <camelContext trace="true" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
        <route>
            <from uri="jetty:https://0.0.0.0:8282/services?matchOnUriPrefix=true"/>
            <transform>
                <constant>&lt;html>&lt;body>Hello from Fuse ESB server&lt;/body>&lt;/html></constant>
            </transform>
        </route>
    </camelContext>

</beans>
The jetty bean defines a new instance of the Apache Camel Jetty component, overriding the default component defined in the camel-jetty JAR file. This Jetty component is configured using the sslContextParameters element, as follows:
secureSocketProtocols
Explicitly lists the SSL/TLS protocols supported by the Jetty server.
Important
This configuration explicitly disables the SSLv3 protocol, in order to safeguard against the Poodle vulnerability (CVE-2014-3566). For more details, see Disabling SSLv3 in JBoss Fuse 6.x and JBoss A-MQ 6.x.
keyManagers/@keyPassword
The password that decrypts the private key stored in the keystore (usually having the same value as password).
keyManagers/keyStore/@resource
The location of the Java keystore file (in JKS format) containing the Jetty server's own X.509 certificate and private key. This location is specified on the filesystem (not on the classpath), relative to the directory where the OSGi container is started.
keyManagers/keyStore/@password
The keystore password that unlocks the keystore.
trustManagers/@resource
The location of the Java keystore file containing one or more trusted certificates (that is, the CA certificates that have been used to sign X.509 certificates from trusted clients). This location is specified on the filesystem (not on the classpath), relative to the directory where the OSGi container is started.
Strictly speaking, this property is not needed, if clients do not send certificates to the Jetty service.
trustManagers/@password
The keystore password that unlocks the truststore trust store.
You must also modify the URI at the start of the route (the uri attribute of the from element). Make sure that the scheme of the URI matches the secure Jetty component, jetty, that you have just created. You must also change the protocol scheme from http to https.
Note
Always double-check you have changed the protocol scheme to https. This is such a small change, it is easy to forget.

Build the bundle

Use Maven to build the bundle. Open a command prompt, switch the current directory to ProjectDir/jetty-security, and enter the following command:
mvn install -Dmaven.test.skip=true
This command builds the bundle and installs it in your local Maven repository.

Install the camel-jetty feature

If you have not already done so, start up the Apache ServiceMix console (and container instance) by entering the following command in a new command prompt:
./fuse
The camel-jetty feature, which defines the bundles required for the Camel/Jetty component, is not installed by default. To install the camel-jetty feature, enter the following console command:
JBossFuse:karaf@root> features:install camel-jetty

Deploy the bundle

To deploy and activate the bundle, enter the following console command:
JBossFuse:karaf@root> osgi:install -s mvn:org.jbossfuse.example/jetty-security
The preceding command loads the bundle from your local Maven repository. You might need to configure the Mvn URL handler with the location of your local Maven repository, if the bundle cannot be found (see section "Mvn URL Handler" in "Deploying into the Container").

Test the bundle

To test the Jetty service, open your favorite Web browser and navigate to the following URL:
https://localhost:8282/services
Note
Don't forget to use https: instead of http: in the URL!
Because the Jetty service uses an untrusted certificate, your browser will initially present you with a warning about the untrusted certificate. For example, the Firefox browser displays the following warning screen:

Figure 5.1. Untrusted Certificate Warning

Untrusted Certificate Warning
To proceed with contacting the Jetty service, click I Understand the Risks and then click Add Exception, which brings up the Add Security Exception dialog. In the Add Security Exception dialog, make sure that the Permanently store this exception option is unchecked and click Confirm Security Exception.
The browser window should now display the following text:
Hello from Fuse ESB server

Uninstall the bundle

To uninstall the broker bundle, you need to know its bundle ID, BundleID, in which case you can uninstall it by entering the following console command:
JBossFuse:karaf@root> osgi:uninstall BundleID

2. BASIC Authentication with JAAS

Overview

The HTTP BASIC authentication protocol is a simple username/password authentication mechanism that is integrated into HTTP and is supported by most Web browsers. To enable BASIC authentication in Jetty, you use the Jetty security API, which enables BASIC authentication by associating a security handler with the Jetty endpoint.
Jetty also enables you to plug in a JAAS login module to perform the credentials check. Using this feature, it is possible to integrate credentials checking with any JAAS realm provided by the Red Hat JBoss Fuse OSGi container. In the example shown here, the Jetty authentication is integrated with the default JAAS realm, karaf.

Prerequisites

This example builds on the project created in Section 1, “Enabling SSL/TLS Security”. You must complete the steps in the Jetty SSL/TLS example before proceeding with this tutorial.
Note
In any case, it is highly recommended that you always enable SSL/TLS in combination with BASIC authentication, in order to protect against password snooping.

Authentication steps

To configure HTTP BASIC authentication for a Camel Jetty endpoint deployed in the OSGi container, perform the following steps:

Add the Jetty security handler configuration

In the jetty-security project, edit the jetty-spring.xml file from the src/main/resources/META-INF/spring directory. To configure the Jetty security handler with BASIC authentication, add the following bean definitions:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans ...>
    ...
    <!--  -->
    <bean id="loginService" class="org.eclipse.jetty.plus.jaas.JAASLoginService">
        <property name="name" value="karaf"/>
        <property name="loginModuleName" value="karaf"/>
        <property name="roleClassNames">
            <list>
                <value>org.apache.karaf.jaas.boot.principal.RolePrincipal</value>
            </list>
        </property>
    </bean>

    <bean id="identityService" class="org.eclipse.jetty.security.DefaultIdentityService"/>

    <bean id="constraint" class="org.eclipse.jetty.util.security.Constraint">
        <property name="name" value="BASIC"/>
        <property name="roles" value="admin"/>
        <property name="authenticate" value="true"/>
    </bean>

    <bean id="constraintMapping" class="org.eclipse.jetty.security.ConstraintMapping">
        <property name="constraint" ref="constraint"/>
        <property name="pathSpec" value="/*"/>
    </bean>

    <bean id="securityHandler" class="org.eclipse.jetty.security.ConstraintSecurityHandler">
        <property name="authenticator">
            <bean class="org.eclipse.jetty.security.authentication.BasicAuthenticator"/>
        </property>
        <property name="constraintMappings">
            <list>
                <ref bean="constraintMapping"/>
            </list>
        </property>
        <property name="loginService" ref="loginService"/>
        <property name="strict" value="false"/>
        <property name="identityService" ref="identityService"/>
    </bean>
    ...
</beans>
Two aspects of Jetty authentication are configured by the preceding bean definitions:
  • HTTP BASIC authentication—the constraint bean enables HTTP BASIC authentication on the Jetty security handler.
  • JAAS login service—the loginService bean specifies that the requisite authentication data is extracted from a JAAS realm. The loginModuleName property specifies that the Jetty login service uses the karaf JAAS realm, which is the OSGi container's default JAAS realm (see Section 1, “OSGi Container Security”).

Modify Camel Jetty endpoint

After creating the Jetty securityHandler bean, you must modify the Jetty endpoint URI in the Apache Camel route, so that it hooks into the security handler. To add the security handler to the Jetty endpoint, set the handlers option equal to the security handler's bean ID, as shown in the following example:
<beans ...>
    <camelContext trace="true" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
        <route>
            <from uri="jetty:https://0.0.0.0:8282/services?handlers=securityHandler&amp;matchOnUriPrefix=true"/>
            <transform>
                <constant>&lt;html>&lt;body>Hello from Fuse ESB server&lt;/body>&lt;/html></constant>
            </transform>
        </route>
    </camelContext>
</beans>
Note
URI options must be separated by the &amp; entity, instead of the plain & character, in the context of an XML file.

Add required package imports to POM

Edit the jetty-security project's POM file, jetty-security/pom.xml. Near the start of the POM file, define the jetty-version property as follows:
<project ... >
  ...
  <properties>
    ...
 <jetty-version>7.2.2.v20101205</jetty-version>
  </properties>
  ...
</project>
Further down the POM file, in the configuration of the Maven bundle plug-in, modify the bundle instructions to import additional Java packages, as follows:
<project ... >
  ...
  <build>
    ...
      <plugin>
        <groupId>org.apache.felix</groupId>
        <artifactId>maven-bundle-plugin</artifactId>
        <extensions>true</extensions>
        <configuration>
          <instructions>
            <Bundle-SymbolicName>
              ${project.artifactId}
            </Bundle-SymbolicName>
            <Import-Package>
                javax.security.auth,
                javax.security.auth.callback,
                javax.security.auth.login,
                javax.security.auth.spi,
                org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules,
                org.apache.karaf.jaas.boot.principal,
                org.eclipse.jetty.plus.jaas;version=${jetty-version},
                org.eclipse.jetty.security;version=${jetty-version},
                *
            </Import-Package>
            <Private-Package>org.apache.camel.jaas</Private-Package>

          </instructions>
        </configuration>
      </plugin>
    </plugins>
  </build>
  ...
</project>
Note
These extra imports are required, because the Maven bundle plug-in is not capable of scanning Spring files to determine their package dependencies automatically.

Build the bundle

Use Maven to build the bundle. Open a command prompt, switch the current directory to ProjectDir/jetty-security, and enter the following command:
mvn install

Install the required features

If you have not already done so, start up the Apache ServiceMix console (and container instance) by entering the following command in a new command prompt:
servicemix
Install the jetty and camel-jetty features, by entering the following console commands:
karaf@root> features:install jetty
karaf@root> features:install camel-jetty

Deploy the bundle

To deploy and activate the bundle, enter the following console command:
JBossFuse:karaf@root> osgi:install -s mvn:org.jbossfuse.example/jetty-security

Test the bundle

To test the Jetty service, open your favorite Web browser and navigate to the following URL:
https://localhost:8282/services
Note
Don't forget to use https: instead of http: in the URL!
If you closed your browser since running the Jetty SSL/TLS demonstration (thus re-initializing the security status of your browser), your browser will initially present you with a warning about the untrusted certificate. For example, the Firefox browser displays the following warning screen:

Figure 5.2. Untrusted Certificate Warning

Untrusted Certificate Warning
To proceed with contacting the Jetty service, click I Understand the Risks and then click Add Exception, which brings up the Add Security Exception dialog. In the Add Security Exception dialog, make sure that the Permanently store this exception option is unchecked and click Confirm Security Exception.
You will now be prompted to authenticate yourself with a username and password (this is the BASIC authentication step). Enter the username, smx, and the password, smx, and click Ok (the valid credentials you can use for this step are specified in the EsbInstallDir/etc/users.properties file). The browser window should now display the following text:
Hello from Fuse ESB server

Chapter 6. Securing the Camel CXF Component

Abstract

This chapter explains how to enable SSL/TLS security on a Camel CXF endpoint, using the Camel CXF proxy demonstration as the starting point. The Camel CXF component enables you to add Apache CXF endpoints to your Apache Camel routes. This makes it possible to simulate a Web service in Apache Camel or you could interpose a route between a WS client and a Web service to perform additional processing (which is the case considered here).

1. The Camel CXF Proxy Demonstration

Overview

In order to explain how to secure a Camel CXF endpoint in OSGi, this tutorial builds on an example available from the standalone distribution of Apache Camel, the Camel CXF proxy demonstration. Figure 6.1, “Camel CXF Proxy Overview” gives an overview of how this demonstration works

Figure 6.1. Camel CXF Proxy Overview

Camel CXF Proxy Overview
The report incident Web service, which is implemented by the RealWebServiceBean, receives details of an incident (for example, a traffic accident) and returns a tracking code to the client. Instead of sending its requests directly to the real Web service, however, the WS client connects to a Camel CXF endpoint, which is interposed between the WS client and the real Web service. The Apache Camel route performs some processing on the WSDL message (using the enrichBean) before forwarding it to the real Web service.
Warning
If you enable SSL/TLS security, you must ensure that you explicitly disable the SSLv3 protocol, in order to safeguard against the Poodle vulnerability (CVE-2014-3566). For more details, see Disabling SSLv3 in JBoss Fuse 6.x and JBoss A-MQ 6.x.

Modifications

In order to demonstrate how to enable SSL/TLS on a Camel CXF endpoint in the context of OSGi, this chapter contains instructions on how to modify the basic demonstration as follows:
  1. SSL/TLS security is enabled on the connection between the WS client and the Camel CXF endpoint.
  2. The Apache Camel route and the RealWebServiceBean bean are both deployed into the OSGi container.

Obtaining the demonstration code

The Camel CXF proxy demonstration is available only from the standalone distribution of Apache Camel, which is included in the InstallDir/extras directory. Using a standard archive utility, expand the Camel archive file and extract the contents to a convenient location on your filesystem.
Assuming that you have installed Apache Camel in CamelInstallDir, you can find the Camel CXF proxy demonstration in the following directory:
CamelInstallDir/examples/camel-example-cxf-proxy

Obtaining the sample certificates

This demonstration needs X.509 certificates. In a real deployment, you should generate these certificates yourself using a private certificate authority. For this demonstration, however, we use some sample certificates from the Apache CXF wsdl_first_http example. This demonstration is available from the standalone distribution of Apache CXF, which is included in the InstallDir/extras directory. Using a standard archive utility, expand the CXF archive file and extract the contents to a convenient location on your filesystem.
Assuming that you have installed Apache CXF in CXFInstallDir, you can find the wsdl_first_http demonstration in the following directory:
CXFInstallDir/samples/wsdl_first_http

Physical part of the WSDL contract

The physical part of the WSDL contract refers to the wsdl:service and wsdl:port elements. These elements specify the transport details that are needed to connect to a specific Web services endpoint. For the purposes of this demonstration, this is the most interesting part of the contract and it is shown in Example 6.1, “The ReportIncidentEndpointService WSDL Service”.

Example 6.1. The ReportIncidentEndpointService WSDL Service

<wsdl:definitions xmlns:soap="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/soap/"
    ...
	xmlns:wsdl="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/"
	targetNamespace="http://reportincident.example.camel.apache.org">
    ...
    <!-- Service definition -->
    <wsdl:service name="ReportIncidentEndpointService">
        <wsdl:port name="ReportIncidentEndpoint" binding="tns:ReportIncidentBinding">
            <soap:address location="http://localhost:9080/camel-example-cxf-proxy/webservices/incident"/>
        </wsdl:port>
    </wsdl:service>

</wsdl:definitions>
Note
The address URL appearing in the WSDL contract (the value of the soap:address element's location attribute) is not important here, because the application code overrides the default value of the address URL.

WSDL addressing details

A WS client needs three pieces of information to connect to a WSDL service: the WSDL service name, the WSDL port name, and the address URL of the Web service. The following addressing details are used to connect to the proxy Web service and to the real Web service in this example:
WSDL service name
The full QName of the WSDL service is as follows:
{http://reportincident.example.camel.apache.org}ReportIncidentEndpointService
WSDL port name
The full QName of the WSDL port is as follows:
{http://reportincident.example.camel.apache.org}ReportIncidentEndpoint
Address URL
The address URL of the proxy Web service endpoint (which uses the HTTPS protocol) is as follows:
https://localhost:9080/camel-example-cxf-proxy/webservices/incident
Note
The preceding address is specified when the reportIncident bean is created using a cxf:cxfEndpoint element in the bundle's Spring configuration file, src/main/resources/META-INF/spring/camel-config.xml.
The address URL of the real Web service endpoint (using the HTTP protocol) is as follows:
http://localhost:9081/real-webservice
Note
The preceding address is specified when the realWebService bean is created in the bundle's Spring configuration file, src/main/resources/META-INF/spring/camel-config.xml.

2. Securing the Web Services Proxy

Overview

This section explains how to enable SSL/TLS security on the Camel CXF endpoint, which acts as a proxy for the real Web service. Assuming that you already have the X.509 certificates available, all that is required is to add a block of configuration data to the Spring configuration file (where the configuration data is contained in a httpj:engine-factory element). There is just one slightly subtle aspect to this, however: you need to understand how the Camel CXF endpoint gets associated with the SSL/TLS configuration details.

Implicit configuration

A WS endpoint can be configured by creating the endpoint in Spring and then configuring SSL/TLS properties on its Jetty container. The configuration can be somewhat confusing, however, for the following reason: the Jetty container (which is configured by a httpj:engine-factory element in Spring) does not explicitly reference the WS endpoints it contains and the WS endpoints do not explicitly reference the Jetty container either. The connection between the Jetty container and its contained endpoints is established implicitly, in that they are both configured to use the same IP port, as illustrated by Figure 6.2, “WS Endpoint Implicitly Configured by httpj:engine-factory Element”.

Figure 6.2. WS Endpoint Implicitly Configured by httpj:engine-factory Element

WS Endpoint Implicitly Configured by httpj:engine-factory Element
The connection between the Web service endpoint and the httpj:engine-factory element is established as follows:
  1. The Spring container loads and parses the file containing the httpj:engine-factory element.
  2. When the httpj:engine-factory bean is created, a corresponding entry is created in the registry, storing a reference to the bean. The httpj:engine-factory bean is also used to initialize a Jetty container that listens on the specified IP port.
  3. When the WS endpoint is created, it scans the registry to see if it can find a httpj:engine-factory bean with the same IP port as the IP port in the endpoint's address URL.
  4. If one of the beans matches the endpoint's IP port, the WS endpoint installs itself into the corresponding Jetty container. If the Jetty container has SSL/TLS enabled, the WS endpoint shares those security settings.

Steps to add SSL/TLS security to the Jetty container

To add SSL/TLS security to the Jetty container, thereby securing the WS proxy endpoint, perform the following steps:

Add certificates to the bundle resources

The certificates used in this demonstration are taken from a sample in the Apache CXF 2.7.0.redhat-610379 product. If you install the standalone version of Apache CXF (available in the InstallDir/extras/ directory), you will find the sample certificates in the CXFInstallDir/samples/wsdl_first_https/src/main/config directory.
Copy the clientKeystore.jks and serviceKeystore.jks keystores from the CXFInstallDir/samples/wsdl_first_https/src/main/config directory to the CamelInstallDir/examples/camel-example-cxf-proxy/src/main/resources/certs directory (you must first create the certs sub-directory).

Modify POM to switch off resource filtering

Including the certificates directly in the bundle as resource is the most convenient way to deploy them. But when you deploy certificates as resources in a Maven project, you must remember to disable Maven resource filtering, which corrupts binary files.
To disable filtering of .jks files in Maven, open the project POM file, CamelInstallDir/examples/camel-example-cxf-proxy/pom.xml, with a text editor and add the following resources element as a child of the build element:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
...
<project ...>
  ...
  <build>
    <plugins>
      ...
    </plugins>

    <resources>
      <resource>
        <directory>src/main/resources</directory>
        <filtering>true</filtering>
        <excludes>
          <exclude>**/*.jks</exclude>
        </excludes>
      </resource>
      <resource>
        <directory>src/main/resources</directory>
        <filtering>false</filtering>
        <includes>
          <include>**/*.jks</include>
        </includes>
      </resource>
    </resources>
  </build>

</project>

Instantiate the CXF Bus

You should instantiate the CXF bus explicitly in the Spring XML (this ensures that it will be available to the Jetty container, which is instantiated by the httpj:engine-factory element in the next step). Edit the camel-config.xml file in the src/main/resources/META-INF/spring directory, adding the cxfcore:bus element as a child of the beans element, as follows:
<beans ... >
    ...
 <cxfcore:bus/>
    ...
</beans>
Note
The cxfcore: namespace prefix will be defined in a later step.

Add the httpj:engine-factory element to Spring configuration

To configure the Jetty container that listens on IP port 9080 to use SSL/TLS security, edit the camel-config.xml file in the src/main/resources/META-INF/spring directory, adding the httpj:engine-factory element as shown in Example 6.2, “httpj:engine-factory Element with SSL/TLS Enabled”.
In this example, the required attribute of the sec:clientAuthentication element is set to false, which means that a connecting client is not required to present an X.509 certificate to the server during the SSL/TLS handshake (although it may do so, if it has such a certificate).

Example 6.2. httpj:engine-factory Element with SSL/TLS Enabled

<beans ... >
    ...
    <httpj:engine-factory bus="cxf">
      <httpj:engine port="${proxy.port}">
        <httpj:tlsServerParameters secureSocketProtocol="TLSv1">
          <sec:keyManagers keyPassword="skpass">
            <sec:keyStore resource="certs/serviceKeystore.jks" password="sspass" type="JKS"/>
          </sec:keyManagers>
          <sec:trustManagers>
            <sec:keyStore resource="certs/serviceKeystore.jks" password="sspass" type="JKS"/>
          </sec:trustManagers>
          <sec:cipherSuitesFilter>
            <sec:include>.*_WITH_3DES_.*</sec:include>
            <sec:include>.*_WITH_DES_.*</sec:include>
            <sec:exclude>.*_WITH_NULL_.*</sec:exclude>
            <sec:exclude>.*_DH_anon_.*</sec:exclude>
          </sec:cipherSuitesFilter>
          <sec:clientAuthentication want="true" required="false"/>
        </httpj:tlsServerParameters>
      </httpj:engine>
    </httpj:engine-factory>

</beans>
Important
You must set secureSocketProtocol to TLSv1 on the server side, in order to protect against the Poodle vulnerability (CVE-2014-3566)

Define the cxfcore:, sec: and httpj: prefixes

Define the cxfcore:, sec: and httpj: namespace prefixes, which appear in the definitions of the cxfcore:bus element and the httpj:engine-factory element, by adding the following highlighted lines to the beans element in the camel-config.xml file:
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
       xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
       xmlns:camel="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring"
       xmlns:cxf="http://camel.apache.org/schema/cxf"
       xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
       xmlns:cxfcore="http://cxf.apache.org/core"
       xmlns:sec="http://cxf.apache.org/configuration/security"
       xmlns:httpj="http://cxf.apache.org/transports/http-jetty/configuration"
       xsi:schemaLocation="
       http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
       http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring/camel-spring.xsd
       http://camel.apache.org/schema/cxf http://camel.apache.org/schema/cxf/camel-cxf.xsd
       http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context.xsd
       http://cxf.apache.org/core http://cxf.apache.org/schemas/core.xsd
       http://cxf.apache.org/configuration/security http://cxf.apache.org/schemas/configuration/security.xsd
       http://cxf.apache.org/transports/http-jetty/configuration http://cxf.apache.org/schemas/configuration/http-jetty.xsd
       ">
Note
It is essential to specify the locations of the http://cxf.apache.org/configuration/security schema and the http://cxf.apache.org/transports/http-jetty/configuration schema in the xsi:schemaLocation attribute. These will not automatically be provided by the OSGi container.

Modify proxy address URL to use HTTPS

The proxy endpoint at the start of the Apache Camel route is configured by the cxf:cxfEndpoint element in the camel-config.xml file. By default, this proxy endpoint is configured to use the HTTP protocol. You must modify the address URL to use the secure HTTPS protocol instead, however. In the camel-config.xml file, edit the address attribute of the cxf:cxfEndpoint element, replacing the http: prefix by the https: prefix, as shown in the following fragment:
<beans ...>
    ...
    <cxf:cxfEndpoint id="reportIncident"
                     address="https://localhost:${proxy.port}/camel-example-cxf-proxy/webservices/incident"
                     endpointName="s:ReportIncidentEndpoint"
                     serviceName="s:ReportIncidentEndpointService"
                     wsdlURL="etc/report_incident.wsdl"
                     xmlns:s="http://reportincident.example.camel.apache.org"/>
    ...
</beans>
Notice also that the address URL is configured to use the IP port, ${proxy.port} (which has the value 9080 by default). This IP port value is the same as the value set for the Jetty container (configured by the http:engine-factory element), thus ensuring that this endpoint is deployed into the Jetty container. The attributes of the cxf:cxfEndpoint specify the WSDL addressing details as described in the section called “WSDL addressing details”:
serviceName
Specifies the WSDL service name.
endpointName
Specifies the WSDL port name.
address
Specifies the address URL of the proxy Web service.

3. Deploying the Apache Camel Route

Overview

The Maven POM file in the basic Camel CXF proxy demonstration is already configured to generate an OSGi bundle. Hence, after building the demonstration using Maven, the demonstration bundle (which contains the Apache Camel route and the RealWebServicesBean bean) is ready for deployment into the OSGi container.

Prerequisites

Before deploying the Apache Camel route into the OSGi container, you must configure the proxy Web service to use SSL/TLS security, as described in the previous section, Section 2, “Securing the Web Services Proxy”.

Steps to deploy the Camel route

To deploy the Web services proxy demonstration into the OSGi container, perform the following steps:

Build the demonstration

Use Maven to build and install the demonstration as an OSGi bundle. Open a command prompt, switch the current directory to CamelInstallDir/examples/camel-example-cxf-proxy, and enter the following command:
mvn install -Dmaven.test.skip=true

Start the OSGi container

If you have not already done so, start up the Apache ServiceMix console (and container instance) by entering the following command in a new command prompt:
./fuse

Install the required features

The camel-cxf feature, which defines the bundles required for the Camel/CXF component, is not installed by default. To install the camel-cxf feature, enter the following console command:
JBossFuse:karaf@root> features:install camel-cxf
You also need the camel-http feature, which defines the bundles required for the Camel/HTTP component. To install the camel-http feature, enter the following console command:
JBossFuse:karaf@root> features:install camel-http

Deploy the bundle

Deploy the camel-example-cxf-proxy bundle, by entering the following console command:
JBossFuse:karaf@root> install -s mvn:org.apache.camel/camel-example-cxf-proxy/2.12.0.redhat-610379
Note
In this case, it is preferable to deploy the bundle directly using install, rather than using hot deploy, so that you can see the bundle output on the console screen.
If you have any difficulty using the mvn URL handler, see section "Mvn URL Handler" in "Deploying into the Container" for details of how to set it up.

Check the console output

After the bundle is successfully deployed, you should see output like the following in the console window:
JBossFuse:karaf@root> Starting real web service...
Started real web service at: http://localhost:9081/real-webservice

4. Securing the Web Services Client

Overview

In the basic Camel CXF proxy demonstration, the Web services client is actually implemented as a JUnit test under the src/test directory. This means that the client can easily be run using the Maven command, mvn test. To enable SSL/TLS security on the client, the Java implementation of the test client is completely replaced and a Spring file, containing the SSL/TLS configuration, is added to the src/test/resources/META-INF/spring directory. Before describing the steps you need to perform to set up the client, this section explains some details of the client's Java code and Spring configuration.

Implicit configuration

Apart from changing the URL scheme on the endpoint address to https:, most of the configuration to enable SSL/TLS security on a client proxy is contained in a http:conduit element in Spring configuration. The way in which this configuration is applied to the client proxy, however, is potentially confusing, for the following reason: the http:conduit element does not explicitly reference the client proxy and the client proxy does not explicitly reference the http:conduit element. The connection between the http:conduit element and the client proxy is established implicitly, in that they both reference the same WSDL port, as illustrated by Figure 6.3, “Client Proxy Implicitly Configured by http:conduit Element”.

Figure 6.3. Client Proxy Implicitly Configured by http:conduit Element

Client Proxy Implicitly Configured by http:conduit Element
The connection between the client proxy and the http:conduit element is established as follows:
  1. The client loads and parses the Spring configuration file containing the http:conduit element.
  2. When the http:conduit bean is created, a corresponding entry is created in the registry, which stores a reference to the bean under the specified WSDL port name (where the name is stored in QName format).
  3. When the JAX-WS client proxy is created, it scans the registry to see if it can find a http:conduit bean associated with the proxy's WSDL port name. If it finds such a bean, it automatically injects the configuration details into the proxy.

Certificates needed on the client side

The client is configured with the following clientKeystore.jks keystore file from the src/main/resources/certs directory. This keystore contains two entries, as follows:
Trusted cert entry
A trusted certificate entry containing the CA certificate that issued and signed both the server certificate and the client certificate.
Private key entry
A private key entry containing the client's own X.509 certificate and private key. In fact, this certificate is not strictly necessary to run the current example, because the server does not require the client to send a certificate during the TLS handshake (see Example 6.2, “httpj:engine-factory Element with SSL/TLS Enabled”).

Loading Spring definitions into the client

The example client is not deployed directly into a Spring container, but it requires some Spring definitions in order to define a secure HTTP conduit. So how can you create the Spring definitions without a Spring container? It turns out that it is easy to read Spring definitions into a Java-based client using the org.apache.cxf.bus.spring.SpringBusFactory class.
The following code shows how to read Spring definitions from the file, META-INF/spring/cxf-client.xml, and create an Apache CXF Bus object that incorporates those definitions:
// Java
import org.apache.cxf.bus.spring.SpringBusFactory;
...
protected void startCxfBus() throws Exception {
    bf = new SpringBusFactory();
    Bus bus = bf.createBus("META-INF/spring/cxf-client.xml");
    bf.setDefaultBus(bus);
}

Creating the client proxy

In principle, there are several different ways of creating a WSDL proxy: you could use the JAX-WS API to create a proxy based on the contents of a WSDL file; you could use the JAX-WS API to create a proxy without a WSDL file; or you could use the Apache CXF-specific class, JaxWsProxyFactoryBean, to create a proxy.
For this SSL/TLS client, the most convenient approach is to use the JAX-WS API to create a proxy without using a WSDL file, as shown in the following Java sample:
// Java
import javax.xml.ws.Service;
import org.apache.camel.example.reportincident.ReportIncidentEndpoint;
...
// create the webservice client and send the request
Service s = Service.create(SERVICE_NAME);
s.addPort(
    PORT_NAME,
    "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/",
    ADDRESS_URL
  );
ReportIncidentEndpoint client =
  s.getPort(PORT_NAME, ReportIncidentEndpoint.class);
Note
In this example, you cannot use the JaxWsProxyFactoryBean approach to create a proxy, because a proxy created in this way fails to find the HTTP conduit settings specified in the Spring configuration file.
The SERVICE_NAME and PORT_NAME constants are the QNames of the WSDL service and the WSDL port respectively, as defined in Example 6.1, “The ReportIncidentEndpointService WSDL Service”. The ADDRESS_URL string has the same value as the proxy Web service address and is defined as follows:
private static final String ADDRESS_URL =
  "https://localhost:9080/camel-example-cxf-proxy/webservices/incident";
In particular, note that the address must be defined with the URL scheme, https, which selects HTTP over SSL/TLS.

Steps to add SSL/TLS security to the client

To define a JAX-WS client with SSL/TLS security enabled, perform the following steps:

Create the Java client as a test case

Example 6.3, “ReportIncidentRoutesTest Java client” shows the complete code for a Java client that is implemented as a JUnit test case. This client replaces the existing test, ReportIncidentRoutesTest.java, in the src/test/java/org/apache/camel/example/reportincident sub-directory of the examples/camel-example-cxf-proxy demonstration.
To add the client to the CamelInstallDir/examples/camel-example-cxf-proxy demonstration, go to the src/test/java/org/apache/camel/example/reportincident sub-directory, move the existing ReportIncidentRoutesTest.java file to a backup location, then create a new ReportIncidentRoutesTest.java file and paste the code from Example 6.3, “ReportIncidentRoutesTest Java client” into this file.

Example 6.3. ReportIncidentRoutesTest Java client

// Java
package org.apache.camel.example.reportincident;

import org.apache.camel.spring.Main;
import org.apache.cxf.jaxws.JaxWsProxyFactoryBean;
import org.junit.Test;

import java.net.URL;
import javax.xml.namespace.QName;
import javax.xml.ws.Service;

import org.apache.cxf.Bus;
import org.apache.cxf.bus.spring.SpringBusFactory;
import org.apache.camel.example.reportincident.ReportIncidentEndpoint;
import org.apache.camel.example.reportincident.ReportIncidentEndpointService;

import static org.junit.Assert.assertEquals;

/**
 * Unit test of our routes
 */
public class ReportIncidentRoutesTest {

    private static final QName SERVICE_NAME
        = new QName("http://reportincident.example.camel.apache.org", "ReportIncidentEndpointService");

    private static final QName PORT_NAME =
        new QName("http://reportincident.example.camel.apache.org", "ReportIncidentEndpoint");

    private static final String WSDL_URL = "file:src/main/resources/etc/report_incident.wsdl";

    // should be the same address as we have in our route
    private static final String ADDRESS_URL = "https://localhost:9080/camel-example-cxf-proxy/webservices/incident";

    protected SpringBusFactory bf;

    protected void startCxfBus() throws Exception {
        bf = new SpringBusFactory();
        Bus bus = bf.createBus("META-INF/spring/cxf-client.xml");
        bf.setDefaultBus(bus);
    }

    @Test
    public void testRendportIncident() throws Exception {
        startCxfBus();
        runTest();
    }
    
    protected void runTest() throws Exception {
       
        // create input parameter
        InputReportIncident input = new InputReportIncident();
        input.setIncidentId("123");
        input.setIncidentDate("2008-08-18");
        input.setGivenName("Claus");
        input.setFamilyName("Ibsen");
        input.setSummary("Bla");
        input.setDetails("Bla bla");
        input.setEmail("davsclaus@apache.org");
        input.setPhone("0045 2962 7576");

        // create the webservice client and send the request
        Service s = Service.create(SERVICE_NAME);
        s.addPort(PORT_NAME, "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/", ADDRESS_URL);
        ReportIncidentEndpoint client = s.getPort(PORT_NAME, ReportIncidentEndpoint.class);
	
        OutputReportIncident out = client.reportIncident(input);

        // assert we got a OK back
        assertEquals("OK;456", out.getCode());
    }
}

Add the http:conduit element to Spring configuration

Example 6.4, “http:conduit Element with SSL/TLS Enabled” shows the Spring configuration that defines a http:conduit element for the ReportIncidentEndpoint WSDL port. The http:conduit element is configured to enable SSL/TLS security for any client proxies that use the specified WSDL port.
To add the Spring configuration to the client test case, create the src/test/resources/META-INF/spring sub-directory, use your favorite text editor to create the file, cxf-client.xml, and then paste the contents of Example 6.4, “http:conduit Element with SSL/TLS Enabled” into the file.

Example 6.4. http:conduit Element with SSL/TLS Enabled

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
       xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
       xmlns:cxf="http://camel.apache.org/schema/cxf"
       xmlns:sec="http://cxf.apache.org/configuration/security"
       xmlns:http="http://cxf.apache.org/transports/http/configuration"
       xsi:schemaLocation="
       http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
       http://camel.apache.org/schema/cxf http://camel.apache.org/schema/cxf/camel-cxf.xsd
       http://cxf.apache.org/configuration/security http://cxf.apache.org/schemas/configuration/security.xsd
       http://cxf.apache.org/transports/http/configuration http://cxf.apache.org/schemas/configuration/http-conf.xsd
       ">

  <http:conduit name="{http://reportincident.example.camel.apache.org}ReportIncidentEndpoint.http-conduit">
    <http:tlsClientParameters disableCNCheck="true" secureSocketProtocol="TLSv1">
      <sec:keyManagers keyPassword="ckpass">
          <sec:keyStore password="cspass" type="JKS"
          resource="certs/clientKeystore.jks" />
      </sec:keyManagers>
      <sec:trustManagers>
          <sec:keyStore password="cspass" type="JKS"
          resource="certs/clientKeystore.jks" />
      </sec:trustManagers>
      <sec:cipherSuitesFilter>
        <sec:include>.*_WITH_3DES_.*</sec:include>
        <sec:include>.*_WITH_DES_.*</sec:include>
        <sec:exclude>.*_WITH_NULL_.*</sec:exclude>
        <sec:exclude>.*_DH_anon_.*</sec:exclude>
      </sec:cipherSuitesFilter>
    </http:tlsClientParameters>
   </http:conduit>

</beans>
Please note the following points about the preceding configuration:
  • The http: and sec: namespace prefixes are needed to define the http:conduit element. In the xsi:schemaLocation element, it is also essential to specify the locations of the corresponding http://cxf.apache.org/configuration/security and http://cxf.apache.org/transports/http/configuration namespaces.
  • The disableCNCheck attribute of the http:tlsClientParameters element is set to true. This means that the client does not check whether the Common Name in the server's X.509 certificate matches the server hostname. For more details, see Appendix A, Managing Certificates.
    Important
    Disabling the CN check is not recommended in a production deployment.
  • In the sec:keystore elements, the certificate locations are specified using the resource attribute, which finds the certificates on the classpath. When Maven runs the test, it automatically makes the contents of src/main/resources available on the classpath, so that the certificates can be read from the src/main/resources/certs directory.
    Note
    You also have the option of specifying a certificate location using the file attribute, which looks in the filesystem. But the resource attribute is more suitable for use with applications packaged in bundles.
  • The sec:cipherSuitesFilter element is configured to exclude cipher suites matching .*_WITH_NULL_.* and .*_DH_anon_.*. These cipher suites are effectively incomplete and are not intended for normal use.
    Important
    It is recommended that you always exclude the ciphers matching .*_WITH_NULL_.* and .*_DH_anon_.*.
  • The secureSocketProtocol attribute should be set to TLSv1, to match the server protocol and to ensure that the SSLv3 protocol is not used (POODLE security vulnerability (CVE-2014-3566)).

Run the client

Because the client is defined as a test case, you can run the client using the standard Maven test goal. To run the client, open a new command window, change directory to CamelInstallDir/examples/camel-example-cxf-proxy, and enter the following Maven command:
mvn test
If the test runs successfully, you should see the following output in the OSGi console window:
Incident was 123, changed to 456

Invoked real web service: id=456 by Claus Ibsen

Chapter 7. LDAP Authentication Tutorial

Abstract

This tutorial explains how to set up an X.500 directory server and configure the OSGi container to use LDAP authentication.

1. Tutorial Overview

Goals

In this tutorial you will:
  • install Apache Directory Server and Apache Directory Studio
  • add user entries into the LDAP server
  • add a group to manage security roles
  • configure Red Hat JBoss Fuse to use LDAP authentication
  • configure JBoss Fuse to use roles for authorization
  • configure an instance of Apache ActiveMQ to use LDAP authentication
  • configure SSL/TLS connections to the LDAP server

Tutorial stages

The tutorial consists of the following stages:

2. Set-up a Directory Server and Browser

Overview

In this stage of the tutorial you will install an X.500 directory server and browser client from the Apache Directory project. These applications will be used throughout the rest of this tutorial.

Procedure

To set-up the directory server and browser:
  1. Download Apache Directory Server from http://directory.apache.org/apacheds/1.5/downloads.html.
  2. Run the downloaded installer.
    Important
    During the installation process, you will be asked whether or not to install a default instance of the directory server. Choose the default instance.
  3. Start the directory service as described in the section called “Starting Apache Directory Server”.
  4. Install Apache Directory Studio as described in the section called “Install Apache Directory Studio”.
  5. Start Apache Directory Studio.
    • If you installed the standalone version of Apache Directory Studio, double-click the relevant icon to launch the application.
    • If you installed Apache Directory Studio into an existing Eclipse IDE:
      1. Start Eclipse.
      2. Select WindowOpen PerspectiveOther.
      3. In the Open Perspective dialog, select LDAP.
      4. Click OK.
  6. Connect the browser to the server as described in the section called “Connecting the browser to the server”.

Starting Apache Directory Server

If you install Apache Directory Server on Windows, the default instance of the directory server is configured as a Windows service. Hence, you can stop and start the directory server using the standard Services administrative tool.
If you install on a Linux or Mac OS platform, follow the instructions in Installing and Starting the Server for starting and stopping the directory server.

Install Apache Directory Studio

The Apache Directory Studio is an Eclipse-based suite of tools for administering an X.500 directory server. In particular, for this tutorial, you need the LDAP Browser feature, which enables you to create new entries in the Directory Information Tree (DIT).
There are two alternative ways of installing Apache Directory Studio:
  • Standalone application—download the standalone distribution from the Directory Studio downloads page and follow the installation instructions from the Apache Directory Studio User Guide.
  • Eclipse plug-in—if you already use Eclipse as your development environment, you can install Apache Directory Studio as a set of Eclipse plug-ins. The only piece of Apache Directory Studio that you need for this tutorial is the LDAP Browser plug-in.
    To install the LDAP Browser as an Eclipse plug-in, follow the install instructions from the LDAP Browser Plug-In User Guide.

Connecting the browser to the server

To connect the LDAP browser to the LDAP server:
  1. Right-click inside the Connections view.
  2. Select New Connection....
    The New LDAP Connection wizard opens.
  3. In the Connection name field, enter Apache Directory Server.
  4. In the Hostname field enter localhost.
  5. In the Port field, enter 10389.

    Figure 7.1. New LDAP Connection Wizard

    LDAP connection wizard
  6. Click Next.
  7. In the Bind DN or user field, enter uid=admin,ou=system).
  8. In the Bind password field, enter secret).

    Figure 7.2. Authentication Step of New LDAP Connection

    form for adding LDAP connection information
  9. Click Finish.
If the connection is successfully established, you should see an outline of the Directory Information Tree (DIT) in the LDAP Browser view.

3. Add User Entries to the Directory Server

Overview

The basic prerequisite for using LDAP authentication with the OSGi container is to have an X.500 directory server running and configured with a collection of user entries. For many use cases, you will also want to configure a number of groups to manage user roles.

Goals

In this portion of the tutorial you will

Adding user entries

Perform the following steps to add user entries to the directory server:
  1. Ensure that the LDAP server and browser are running.
  2. In the LDAP Browser view, drill down to the ou=users node.
    directory information tree in the LDAP browser
  3. Select the ou=users node.
  4. Open the context menu.
  5. Select NewNew Entry.
    The New Entry wizard appears.
  6. In the Entry Creation Method pane, check Create entry from scratch.
  7. Click Next.
    The Object Classes pane opens.
  8. In the Object Classes pane, select inetOrgPerson from the list of Available object classes on the left.
  9. Click Add to populate the list of Selected object classes.

    Figure 7.3. New Entry Wizard

    form for adding a new object
  10. Click Next.
    The Distinguished Name pane opens.
  11. In the the RDN field, enter uid in front and jdoe after the equals sign.

    Figure 7.4. Distinguished Name Step of New Entry Wizard

    form for adding a DN to an object
  12. Click Next.
    The Attributes pane opens.
  13. Fill in the remaining mandatory attributes in the Attributes pane.
    1. Set the cn (common name) attribute to John Doe
    2. Set the sn (surname) attribute to Doe.

    Figure 7.5. Attributes Step of New Entry Wizard

    form for adding attributes to a new object
  14. Add a userPassword attribute to the user entry.
    1. Open the context menu in the Attributes pane.
    2. Select New Attribute.
      The New Attribute wizard appears.
    3. From the Attribute type drop-down list, select userPassword.
    4. Click Finish.
      The Password Editor dialog appears.
    5. In the Enter New Password field, enter the password, secret.
    6. Click OK.
      The userPassword attribute will appear in the attributes editor.
  15. Click Finish.
  16. Add a user Jane Doe by following Step 3 to Step 15.
    In Step 11, use janedoe for the new user's uid.
  17. Add a user Camel Rider by following Step 3 to Step 15.
    In Step 11, use crider for the new user's uid.

Adding groups for the roles

To add the groups that define the roles:
  1. Create a new organizational unit to contain the role groups.
    1. In the LDAP Browser view, select the ou=system node.
    2. Open the context menu.
    3. Select NewNew Entry.
      The New Entry wizard appears.
    4. In the Entry Creation Method pane, check Create entry from scratch.
    5. Click Next.
      The Object Classes pane opens.
    6. Select organizationalUnit from the list of Available object classes on the left.
    7. Click Add to populate the list of Selected object classes.
    8. Click Next>.
      The Distinguished Name pane opens.
    9. In the the RDN field, enter ou in front and roles after the equals sign.
    10. Click Next>.
      The Attributes pane opens.
    11. Click Finish.
    Note
    This step is required because Apache DS only allows administrators access to entries in ou=system,ou=groups.
  2. In the LDAP Browser view, drill down to the ou=roles node.
  3. Select the ou=roles node.
  4. Open the context menu.
  5. Select NewNew Entry.
    The New Entry wizard appears.
  6. In the Entry Creation Method pane, check Create entry from scratch.
  7. Click Next.
    The Object Classes pane opens.
  8. Select groupOfNames from the list of Available object classes on the left.
  9. Click Add to populate the list of Selected object classes.
  10. Click Next.
    The Distinguished Name pane opens.
  11. In the the RDN field, enter cn in front and admin after the equals sign.
  12. Click Next.
    The Attributes pane opens and you are presented with a DN editor.
  13. Enter uid=jdoe.
  14. Click OK.
  15. Click Finish.
  16. Add a sshConsole role by following Step 3 to Step 15.
    In Step 11, use sshConsole for the new group's cn.
    In Step 13, use uid=janedoe.
  17. Add a webconsole role by following Step 3 to Step 15.
    In Step 11, use webconsole for the new group's cn.
    In Step 13, use uid=janedoe.
  18. Add a jmxUser role by following Step 3 to Step 15.
    In Step 11, use jmxUser for the new group's cn.
    In Step 13, use uid=crider.

4. Enable LDAP Authentication in the OSGi Container

Overview

In this part of the tutorial you will configure an LDAP realm in the OSGi container. The new realm overrides the default karaf realm, so that the container authenticates credentials based on user entries stored in the X.500 directory server.

Procedure for standalone OSGi container

To enable LDAP authentication in a standalone OSGi container:
  1. Ensure that the X.500 directory server is running.
  2. Start Red Hat JBoss Fuse by entering the following command in a terminal window:
    fuse
  3. Create a Blueprint configuration file called ldap-module.xml.
  4. Example 7.1. JAAS Realm for Standalone

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <blueprint xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0"
      xmlns:jaas="http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jaas/v1.0.0"
      xmlns:ext="http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-ext/v1.0.0">
    
      <jaas:config name="karaf" rank="1">
        <jaas:module className="org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.ldap.LDAPLoginModule"
                     flags="required">
          initialContextFactory=com.sun.jndi.ldap.LdapCtxFactory
          connection.username=uid=admin,ou=system
          connection.password=secret
          connection.protocol=
          connection.url=ldap://localhost:10389
          user.base.dn=ou=users,ou=system
          user.filter=(uid=%u)
          user.search.subtree=true
          role.base.dn=ou=roles,ou=system
          role.name.attribute=cn
          role.filter=(member=uid=%u)
          role.search.subtree=true
          authentication=simple
        </jaas:module>
      </jaas:config>
    </blueprint>
    This login module creates a JAAS realm called karaf, which is the same name as the default JAAS realm used by Red Hat JBoss Fuse. By redefining this realm with a rank attribute value greater than 0, it overrides the standard karaf realm which has the rank 0. For more information on configuring a JAAS realm see Section 1.2, “Defining JAAS Realms”.
    For a detailed description of configuring JBoss Fuse to use LDAP see Section 2, “Enabling LDAP Authentication”.
    Important
    When setting the JAAS properties above, do not enclose the property values in double quotes.
    Tip
    If you use OpenLDAP, the syntax of the role filter is (member:=uid=%u).
  5. To deploy the new LDAP module, copy the ldap-module.xml into the JBoss Fuse deploy/ directory.
    The LDAP module is automatically activated.

Procedure for a Fabric

To enable LDAP authentication in a Fabric (affecting all of the containers in the current fabric):
  1. Ensure that the X.500 directory server is running.
  2. If your local Fabric container is not already running, start it now, by entering the following command in a terminal window:
    ./fuse
    Note
    If the Fabric container you want to connect to is running on a remote host, you can connect to it using the client command-line utility in the InstallDir/bin directory.
  3. Create a new version of the Fabric profile data, by entering the following console command:
    JBossFuse:karaf@root> version-create
    Created version: 1.1 as copy of: 1.0
    Note
    In effect, this command creates a new branch named 1.1 in the Git repository underlying the ZooKeeper registry.
  4. Create the new profile resource, ldap-module.xml (a Blueprint configuration file), in version 1.1 of the default profile, as follows:
    JBossFuse:karaf@root> profile-edit --resource ldap-module.xml default 1.1
    The built-in profile editor opens automatically, which you can use to edit the contents of the ldap-module.xml resource.
  5. Copy Example 7.2, “JAAS Realm for Fabric” into the ldap-module.xml resource, customizing the value of the rank attribute and the connection.url property, as necessary.

    Example 7.2. JAAS Realm for Fabric

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <blueprint xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0"
      xmlns:jaas="http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jaas/v1.0.0"
      xmlns:ext="http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-ext/v1.0.0">
    
      <jaas:config name="karaf" rank="2">
        <jaas:module className="org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.ldap.LDAPLoginModule"
                     flags="required">
          initialContextFactory=com.sun.jndi.ldap.LdapCtxFactory
          connection.username=uid=admin,ou=system
          connection.password=secret
          connection.protocol=
          connection.url=ldap://LDAPHost:10389
          user.base.dn=ou=users,ou=system
          user.filter=(uid=%u)
          user.search.subtree=true
          role.base.dn=ou=roles,ou=system
          role.name.attribute=cn
          role.filter=(member=uid=%u)
          role.search.subtree=true
          authentication=simple
        </jaas:module>
      </jaas:config>
    </blueprint>
    Where LDAPHost is the name of the host where the LDAP server is running. You must be sure to use a hostname that is accessible to all of the containers in the fabric (for example, you cannot use localhost as the hostname here).
    Save and close the ldap-module.xml resource by typing Ctrl-S and Ctrl-X.
    This login module creates a JAAS realm called karaf, which is the same name as the default JAAS realm used by Red Hat JBoss Fuse. By redefining this realm with a rank of 2, it overrides all of the previously installed karaf realms. For more information on configuring a JAAS realm see Section 1.2, “Defining JAAS Realms”.
    For a detailed description of configuring JBoss Fuse to use LDAP see Section 2, “Enabling LDAP Authentication”.
    Important
    Pay particular attention to the value of the rank to ensure that it is higher than all previously installed karaf realms. If the rank is not sufficiently high, the new realm will not be used by the fabric.
    Important
    When setting the JAAS properties above, do not enclose the property values in double quotes.
    Tip
    If you use OpenLDAP, the syntax of the role filter is (member:=uid=%u).
  6. Edit the agent properties of version 1.1 of the default profile, adding an instruction to deploy the Blueprint resource file defined in the previous step. Enter the following console command:
    JBossFuse:karaf@root> profile-edit default 1.1
    The built-in profile editor opens automatically. Add the following line to the agent properties:
    bundle.ldap-realm=blueprint:profile:ldap-module.xml
    Save and close the agent properties by typing Ctrl-S and Ctrl-X.
  7. The new LDAP realm is not activated, until you upgrade a container to use the new version, 1.1. To activate LDAP on a single container (for example, on a container called root), enter the following console command:
    JBossFuse:karaf@root> container-upgrade 1.1 root
    To activate LDAP on all containers in the fabric, enter the following console command:
    JBossFuse:karaf@root> container-upgrade --all 1.1
    Important
    It is advisable to upgrade just a single container initially, to make sure that everything is working properly. This is particularly important, if you have only remote access to the fabric: if you upgrade all of the containers at once, you might not be able to reconnect to the fabric.

Test the LDAP authentication

Test the new LDAP realm by connecting to the running container using the Red Hat JBoss Fuse client utility, as follows:
  1. Open a new command prompt.
  2. change directory to the JBoss Fuse InstallDir/bin directory.
  3. Enter the following command to log on to the running container instance using the identity janedoe:
    client -u janedoe -p secret
    You should receive the following message:
    Authentication failure
    This fails because janedoe does not have the admin role which is required for using the remote console.
  4. Enter the following command to log on to the running container instance using the identity jdoe:
    client -u jdoe -p secret
    You should successfully log into the container's remote console because jdoe does have the admin role.
  5. Log off the remote console by entering the logout command.

5. Configuring Access to OSGi Administrative Functions

Overview

This tutorial explains how to configure the OSGi administrative functions to use specific roles for authorization. By configuring each of the administrative functions to use a different role for access, you can provide fine grained control over who can monitor and manipulate running containers.
When LDAP is enabled, the OSGi container expects the user role data to be stored along with the user authentication data in the LDAP directory server. The LDAP search query to extract the role data is specified by the role.* properties in the jaas:module element.
The JAAS LDAP login module used in this tutorial, shown in Example 7.1, “JAAS Realm for Standalone”, is configured to extract the role name from the cn property of all entries selected by the filter member=uid=%u which is run on the tree selected using the base DN uo=roles,ou=system. In the section called “Adding groups for the roles”, you added three groups to the uo=roles,ou=system tree. The filter will match with any group that has a member specified by uid=%u.
For example, when you attempted to connect to the remote console as user jdoe the filter searched for a group with a member uid=jdoe and matched on the group cn=admin,uo=roles,ou=system. The LDAP module extracted the cn property's value of admin and used it as the role for authorizing user jdoe.

Goals

You will change the role used for each of the administrative functions:

Prerequisites

Before you can perfrom any of the following tutorials, you must ensure that the ApacheDS server is running.

Configure a role for the remote console

To configure a role for the remote console:
  1. Open InstallDir/etc/org.apache.karaf.shell.cfg in a text editor.
  2. Add the following line:
    sshRole=sshConsole
  3. Save the changes.
  4. Start Red Hat JBoss Fuse by entering the following command in a terminal window:
    > fuse
  5. Open a new command prompt.
  6. Change directory to the JBoss Fuse install directory.
  7. Enter the following command to log on to the running container instance using the identity janedoe:
    client -u janedoe -p secret
    You should successfully log into the container's remote console because janedoe does have the sshConsole role.

Configure a role for JMX access

To configure a role for JMX access:
  1. Open InstallDir/etc/org.apache.karaf.management.cfg in a text editor.
  2. Add the following line:
    jmxRole=jmxUser
  3. Save the changes.
  4. Start JBoss Fuse by entering the following command in a terminal window:
    > fuse
  5. Start JConsole or another JMX console.
  6. Connect to JBoss Fuse's JMX server using the following settings:
    • JMX URL: service:jmx:rmi:///jndi/rmi://localhost:1099/karaf-root
    • User: jdoe
    • Password: secret
    The connection will fail because jdoe user does not have the jmxUser role.
  7. Connect to JBoss Fuse's JMX server as using the following settings:
    • JMX URL: service:jmx:rmi:///jndi/rmi://localhost:1099/karaf-root
    • User: crider
    • Password: secret
    The connection will succeed because crider user does have the jmxUser role.

More information

See the following links for more information:

6. Enable SSL/TLS on the LDAP Connection

Overview

This tutorial explains how to enable SSL/TLS security on the connection between the LDAP login module and the Apache Directory Server.
The Apache Directory Server is already configured with an SSL endpoint. The default configuration creates an LDAPS endpoint that listens on the IP port 10636. The directory server automatically generates a self-signed X.509 certificate which it uses to identify itself during the SSL/TLS handshake.
Important
You can use the default SSL configuration for simple demonstrations, but it is not suitable for real deployments. For advice on how to configure a real deployment, see the section called “Tightening up security”.

Procedure

To enable SSL/TLS security on the connection to the Apache Directory Server:
  1. Obtain a copy of the server's self-signed certificate.
    1. Using a Web browser , navigate to the following URL:
      https://localhost:10636
      Important
      Remember to specify the scheme as https, not just http.
      The Web browser now signals an error, because the certificate it receives from the server is untrusted. In the case of Firefox, you will see the following error in the browser window:

      Figure 7.6. Obtaining the Certificate

      invalid certificate warning
    2. Click I Understand the Risks.
    3. Click Add Exception.
      The Add Security Exception dialog opens.
    4. In the Add Security Exception dialog, click Get Certificate.
    5. Click View.
      The Certificate Viewer dialog opens.
    6. In the Certificate Viewer dialog, select the Details tab.
    7. Click Export.
      The Save Certificate To File dialog opens.
    8. In the Save Certificate To File dialog, use the drop-down list to set the Save as type to X.509 Certificate (DER).
    9. Save the certificate, ApacheDS.der, to a convenient location on the filesystem.
  2. Convert the DER format certificate into a keystore.
    1. From a command prompt, change directory to the directory where you have stored the ApacheDS.der file.
    2. Enter the following keytool command:
      keytool -import -file ApacheDS.der -alias server -keystore truststore.ks -storepass secret
  3. Copy the newly created keystore file, truststore.ks, into the Red Hat JBoss Fuse etc/ directory.
  4. Open the ldap-module.xml file you created in Section 4, “Enable LDAP Authentication in the OSGi Container” in a text editor.
  5. Edit the connection.url to use ldaps://localhost:10636.
  6. Example 7.3. LDAP Configuration for Using SSL/TLS

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <blueprint xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0"
      xmlns:jaas="http://karaf.apache.org/xmlns/jaas/v1.0.0"
      xmlns:ext="http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-ext/v1.0.0">
    
      <!-- Example configuration for using LDAP based authentication.
      	   This example uses an JAAS LoginModule from Karaf. 
      	   It supports authentication of users and also supports
      	   retrieving user roles for authorization.
    
           Note, this config overwrite the default karaf domain
    	   that is defined inside some JAR file
           by using a rank > 0 attribute.
      -->
      <jaas:config name="karaf" rank="1">
        <jaas:module className="org.apache.karaf.jaas.modules.ldap.LDAPLoginModule" flags="required">
          initialContextFactory=com.sun.jndi.ldap.LdapCtxFactory
          connection.username=uid=admin,ou=system
          connection.password=secret
          connection.protocol=
          connection.url = ldaps://localhost:10636
          user.base.dn = ou=users,ou=system
          user.filter = (uid=%u)
          user.search.subtree = true
          role.base.dn = ou=users,ou=system
          role.filter = (uid=%u)
          role.name.attribute = ou
          role.search.subtree = true
          authentication = simple
          ssl.protocol=TLSv1
          ssl.truststore=truststore
          ssl.algorithm=PKIX
        </jaas:module>
      </jaas:config>
      
      <jaas:keystore name="truststore"
            path="file:///InstallDir/etc/truststore.ks" keystorePassword="secret" />
    </blueprint>
  7. Copy the ldap-module.xml file into the Red Hat JBoss Fuse deploy/ directory.
    The LDAP module is automatically activated.
  8. Test the new LDAP realm by connecting to the running container using the JBoss Fuse client utility.
    1. Open a new command prompt.
    2. Change to the JBoss Fuse install directory.
    3. Enter the following command to log on to the running container instance using the identity jdoe:
      client -u jdoe -p secret
      You should successfully log into the container's remote console because jdoe does have the admin role.

Tightening up security

The SSL set-up described here is suitable only as a proof-of-concept demonstration. For a real deployment, you must make the following changes to tighten up security:
  • Delete all entries from the Red Hat JBoss Fuse's etc/users.properties file.
    If the ldap-module.xml bundle fails to start up properly, JAAS authentication reverts to the built-in file-based karaf realm, which takes its user data from the users.properties file.
  • Disable the insecure LDAP endpoint on the Apache Directory Server.
  • Create and deploy a properly signed X.509 certificate on the Apache Directory Server.
  • Make sure that the LDAP server is configured to use the TLSv1 protocol (POODLE vulnerability). Do not enable the SSLv3 protocol. For more information, see Poodle vulnerability (CVE-2014-3566).

Apache Directory Server Reference

For more details of how to configure SSL/TLS security on the Apache Directory Server, see How to enable SSL.

Appendix A. Managing Certificates

Abstract

TLS authentication uses X.509 certificates—a common, secure and reliable method of authenticating your application objects. You can create X.509 certificates that identify your Apache ActiveMQ applications.

1. What is an X.509 Certificate?

Role of certificates

An X.509 certificate binds a name to a public key value. The role of the certificate is to associate a public key with the identity contained in the X.509 certificate.
Authentication of a secure application depends on the integrity of the public key value in the application's certificate. If an impostor replaces the public key with its own public key, it can impersonate the true application and gain access to secure data.
To prevent this type of attack, all certificates must be signed by a certification authority (CA). A CA is a trusted node that confirms the integrity of the public key value in a certificate.
An X.509 certificate contains information about the certificate subject and the certificate issuer (the CA that issued the certificate). A certificate is encoded in Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1), a standard syntax for describing messages that can be sent or received on a network.
The role of a certificate is to associate an identity with a public key value. In more detail, a certificate includes:
  • A subject distinguished name (DN) that identifies the certificate owner.
  • The public key associated with the subject.
  • X.509 version information.
  • A serial number that uniquely identifies the certificate.
  • An issuer DN that identifies the CA that issued the certificate.
  • The digital signature of the issuer.
  • Information about the algorithm used to sign the certificate.
  • Some optional X.509 v.3 extensions; for example, an extension exists that distinguishes between CA certificates and end-entity certificates.

2. Certification Authorities

A CA consists of a set of tools for generating and managing certificates and a database that contains all of the generated certificates. When setting up a system, it is important to choose a suitable CA that is sufficiently secure for your requirements.
There are two types of CA you can use:
  • commercial CAs are companies that sign certificates for many systems.
  • private CAs are trusted nodes that you set up and use to sign certificates for your system only.

2.1. Commercial Certification Authorities

Signing certificates

There are several commercial CAs available. The mechanism for signing a certificate using a commercial CA depends on which CA you choose.

Advantages of commercial CAs

An advantage of commercial CAs is that they are often trusted by a large number of people. If your applications are designed to be available to systems external to your organization, use a commercial CA to sign your certificates. If your applications are for use within an internal network, a private CA might be appropriate.

Criteria for choosing a CA

Before choosing a commercial CA, consider the following criteria:
  • What are the certificate-signing policies of the commercial CAs?
  • Are your applications designed to be available on an internal network only?
  • What are the potential costs of setting up a private CA compared to the costs of subscribing to a commercial CA?

Choosing a CA software package

If you want to take responsibility for signing certificates for your system, set up a private CA. To set up a private CA, you require access to a software package that provides utilities for creating and signing certificates. Several packages of this type are available.

OpenSSL software package

One software package that allows you to set up a private CA is OpenSSL, http://www.openssl.org. OpenSSL is derived from SSLeay, an implementation of SSL developed by Eric Young (). The OpenSSL package includes basic command line utilities for generating and signing certificates. Complete documentation for the OpenSSL command line utilities is available at http://www.openssl.org/docs.

Setting up a private CA using OpenSSL

To set up a private CA, see the instructions in Section 5, “Creating Your Own Certificates” .

Choosing a host for a private certification authority

Choosing a host is an important step in setting up a private CA. The level of security associated with the CA host determines the level of trust associated with certificates signed by the CA.
If you are setting up a CA for use in the development and testing of Apache ActiveMQ applications, use any host that the application developers can access. However, when you create the CA certificate and private key, do not make the CA private key available on any hosts where security-critical applications run.
If you are setting up a CA to sign certificates for applications that you are going to deploy, make the CA host as secure as possible. For example, take the following precautions to secure your CA:
  • Do not connect the CA to a network.
  • Restrict all access to the CA to a limited set of trusted users.
  • Use an RF-shield to protect the CA from radio-frequency surveillance.
A certificate chain is a sequence of certificates, where each certificate in the chain is signed by the subsequent certificate.
Figure A.1, “A Certificate Chain of Depth 2” shows an example of a simple certificate chain.

Figure A.1. A Certificate Chain of Depth 2

a certificate chain of depth 2 has only one CA signature

Self-signed certificate

The last certificate in the chain is normally a self-signed certificate—a certificate that signs itself.
The purpose of a certificate chain is to establish a chain of trust from a peer certificate to a trusted CA certificate. The CA vouches for the identity in the peer certificate by signing it. If the CA is one that you trust (indicated by the presence of a copy of the CA certificate in your root certificate directory), this implies you can trust the signed peer certificate as well.
A CA certificate can be signed by another CA. For example, an application certificate could be signed by the CA for the finance department of Progress Software, which in turn is signed by a self-signed commercial CA.
Figure A.2, “A Certificate Chain of Depth 3” shows what this certificate chain looks like.

Figure A.2. A Certificate Chain of Depth 3

a certificate chain of depth 3 has two CA signatures

Trusted CAs

An application can accept a peer certificate, provided it trusts at least one of the CA certificates in the signing chain.

How to specify the certificate identity

The certificate identity used in the URL integrity check can be specified in one of the following ways:

Using commonName

The usual way to specify the certificate identity (for the purpose of the URL integrity check) is through the Common Name (CN) in the subject DN of the certificate.
For example, if a server supports secure TLS connections at the following URL:
https://www.redhat.com/secure
The corresponding server certificate would have the following subject DN:
C=IE,ST=Co. Dublin,L=Dublin,O=RedHat,
OU=System,CN=www.redhat.com
Where the CN has been set to the host name, www.redhat.com.
For details of how to set the subject DN in a new certificate, see the section called “Generate a certificate and private key pair”.

Using subjectAltName (multi-homed hosts)

Using the subject DN’s Common Name for the certificate identity has the disadvantage that only one host name can be specified at a time. If you deploy a certificate on a multi-homed host, however, you might find it is practical to allow the certificate to be used with any of the multi-homed host names. In this case, it is necessary to define a certificate with multiple, alternative identities, and this is only possible using the subjectAltName certificate extension.
For example, if you have a multi-homed host that supports connections to either of the following host names:
www.redhat.com
www.jboss.org
Then you can define a subjectAltName that explicitly lists both of these DNS host names. If you generate your certificates using the openssl utility, edit the relevant line of your openssl.cnf configuration file to specify the value of the subjectAltName extension, as follows:
subjectAltName=DNS:www.redhat.com,DNS:www.jboss.org
Where the HTTPS protocol matches the server host name against either of the DNS host names listed in the subjectAltName (the subjectAltName takes precedence over the Common Name).
The HTTPS protocol also supports the wildcard character, *, in host names. For example, you can define the subjectAltName as follows:
subjectAltName=DNS:*.jboss.org
This certificate identity matches any three-component host name in the domain jboss.org.
Warning
You must never use the wildcard character in the domain name (and you must take care never to do this accidentally by forgetting to type the dot, ., delimiter in front of the domain name). For example, if you specified *jboss.org, your certificate could be used on any domain that ends in the letters jboss.

5. Creating Your Own Certificates

Overview

If you choose to use a private CA you will need to generate your own certificates for your applications to use. The OpenSSL project provides free command-line utilities for setting up a private CA, creating signed certificates, and adding the CA to your Java keystore.

OpenSSL utilities

This section describes using the OpenSSL command-line utilities to create certificates. Further documentation of the OpenSSL command-line utilities can be obtained at http://www.openssl.org/docs.

Procedure

To create your own CA and certificates:
  1. Add the OpenSSL bin directory to your path.
  2. Create your own private CA.
    1. Create the directory structure for the CA.
      The directory structure should be:
      • X509CA/ca
      • X509CA/certs
      • X509CA/newcerts
      • X509CA/crl
      Where X509CA is the name of the CA's home directory.
    2. Copy the openssl.cnf file from your OpenSSL installation to your X509CA directory.
    3. Open your copy of openssl.cnf in a text editor.
    4. Example A.1. OpenSSL Configuration

      #############################################################
      [ CA_default ]
          
      dir        = X509CA            # Where CA files are kept
      certs      = $dir/certs  # Where issued certs are kept
      crl_dir    = $dir/crl          # Where the issued crl are kept
      database   = $dir/index.txt    # Database index file
      new_certs_dir = $dir/newcerts  # Default place for new certs
          
      certificate   = $dir/ca/new_ca.pem # The CA certificate
      serial        = $dir/serial        # The current serial number
      crl           = $dir/crl.pem       # The current CRL
      private_key   = $dir/ca/new_ca_pk.pem  # The private key
      RANDFILE      = $dir/ca/.rand
      # Private random number file
      
      x509_extensions = usr_cert  # The extensions to add to the cert
      ...
      Note
      You might decide to edit other details of the OpenSSL configuration at this point. For more details, see the OpenSSL documentation.
    5. Initialize the CA database as described in the section called “CA database files”.
    6. Create a new self-signed CA certificate and private key with the command:
      openssl req -x509 -new -config X509CA/openssl.cnf -days 365 -out X509CA/ca/new_ca.pem -keyout X509CA/ca/new_ca_pk.pem

      Example A.2. Creating a CA Certificate

      Using configuration from X509CA/openssl.cnf Generating a 512 bit RSA private key ....+++++ .+++++ writing new private key to 'new_ca_pk.pem' Enter PEM pass phrase: Verifying password - Enter PEM pass phrase: ----- You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated into your certificate request. What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN. There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank. For some fields there will be a default value, If you enter '.', the field will be left blank. ----- Country Name (2 letter code) []:IE
      State or Province Name (full name) []:Co. Dublin
      Locality Name (eg, city) []:Dublin
      Organization Name (eg, company) []:Red Hat
      Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:Content Services
      Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []:Dita Pressgang
      Email Address []:nobody@redhat.com
      Note
      The security of the CA depends on the security of the private key file and the private key pass phrase used in this step.
      You must ensure that the file names and location of the CA certificate and private key, new_ca.pem and new_ca_pk.pem, are the same as the values specified in openssl.cnf during Step 2.d.
  3. Create signed certificates in a Java keystore.
    1. Generate a certificate and private key pair using the keytool -genkeypair command.
      For details on the options to use when using keytool -genkeypair see the section called “Generate a certificate and private key pair”.
    2. Create a certificate signing request using the keystore -certreq command.
      Example A.3, “Creating a CSR” creates a new certificate signing request for the fusesample.jks certificate and exports it to the fusesample_csr.pem file.

      Example A.3. Creating a CSR

      keytool -certreq -alias fuse -file fusesample_csr.pem -keypass fusepass -keystore fusesample.jks -storepass fusestorepass
    3. Sign the CSR using the openssl ca command.
      See the section called “Signing a CSR” for details on the options to use when signing the CSR.
    4. Convert the signed certificate to PEM only format using the openssl x509 command with the -outform option set to PEM.
      Example A.4, “Converting a Signed Certificate to PEM” converts the signed certificate fusesigned.pem.

      Example A.4. Converting a Signed Certificate to PEM

      openssl x509 -in fusesigned.pem -out fusesigned.pem -outform PEM
    5. Concatenate the CA certificate file and the converted, signed certificate file to form a certificate chain.
      The CA certificate file is stored in the CA's ca directory. For example, the certificate file for the CA created in Step 2.f would be ca/new_ca.pem.
    6. Import the new certificate's full certificate chain into the Java keystore using the keytool -import command.
      Example A.5, “Importing a Certificate Chain” imports the chain fusesample.chain into the fusesample.jks keystore.

      Example A.5. Importing a Certificate Chain

      keytool -import -file fusesample.chain -keypass fusepass -keystore fusesample.jks -storepass fusestorepass
  4. Repeat Step 3 to create a full set of certificates for your system.
  5. Add trusted CAs to your Java trust store.
    1. Assemble the collection of trusted CA certificates that you want to deploy.
      The trusted CA certificates can be obtained from public CAs or private CAs. The trusted CA certificates can be in any format that is compatible with the Java keystore utility; for example, PEM format. All you need are the certificates themselves—the private keys and passwords are not required.
    2. Add a CA certificate to the trust store using the keytool -import command.
      Example A.6, “Adding a CA to the Trust Store” adds the CA certificate cacert.pem, in PEM format, to a JKS trust store.

      Example A.6. Adding a CA to the Trust Store

      keytool -import -file cacert.pem -alias CAAlias -keystore truststore.ts -storepass StorePass
      truststore.ts is a keystore file containing CA certificates. If this file does not already exist, the keytool command creates one. StorePass is the password required to access the keystore file.
    3. Repeat Step 5.b to add all of the CA certificates to the trust store.

CA database files

The CA uses two files, serial and index.txt to maintain its database of certificate files. Both files must be stored in the X509CA directory.
When you first create your CA the OpenSSL tools require that they have very specific initial contents:
  • serial
    The initial contents of this file must be 01.
  • index.txt
    Initially this file must be completely empty. It cannot even contain white space.
To generate a certificate and private key pair you use the keytool -genkeypair command. For example, Example A.7, “Creating a Certificate and Private Key using Keytool” creates a certificate and key pair that are valid for 365 days and is stored in the keystore file fusesample.jks. The generated key store entry will use the alias fuse and the password fusepass.

Example A.7. Creating a Certificate and Private Key using Keytool

keytool -genkeypair -dname "CN=Alice, OU=Engineering, O=Progress, ST=Co. Dublin, C=IE" -validity 365 -alias fuse -keypass fusepass -keystore fusesample.jks -storepass fusestorepass
Because the specified keystore, fusessample.jks, did not exist prior to issuing the command implicitly creates a new keystore and sets its password to fusestorepass.
The -dname and -validity flags define the contents of the newly created X.509 certificate.
The -dname flag specifies the subject DN. For more details about DN format, see Appendix B, ASN.1 and Distinguished Names. Some parts of the subject DN must match the values in the CA certificate (specified in the CA Policy section of the openssl.cnf file). The default openssl.cnf file requires the following entries to match:
  • Country Name (C)
  • State or Province Name (ST)
  • Organization Name (O)
Note
If you do not observe the constraints, the OpenSSL CA will refuse to sign the certificate (see Step 2.f ).
The -validity flag specifies the number of days for which the certificate is valid.

Signing a CSR

To sign a CSR using your CA, you use the openssl ca command. At a minimum you will need to specify the following options:
  • -config—the path to the CA's openssl.cnf file
  • -in—the path to certificate to be signed
  • -out—the path to the signed certificates
Example A.8, “Signing a CSR” signs the fusesample_csr.pem certificate using the CA stored at /etc/fuseCA.

Example A.8. Signing a CSR

openssl ca -config /etc/fuse/openssl.cnf -days 365 -in fusesample_csr.pem -out fusesigned.pem
For more details on the openssl ca command see http://www.openssl.org/docs/apps/ca.html#.

Appendix B. ASN.1 and Distinguished Names

Abstract

The OSI Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) and X.500 Distinguished Names play an important role in the security standards that define X.509 certificates and LDAP directories.

1. ASN.1

Overview

The Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) was defined by the OSI standards body in the early 1980s to provide a way of defining data types and structures that are independent of any particular machine hardware or programming language. In many ways, ASN.1 can be considered a forerunner of modern interface definition languages, such as the OMG’s IDL and WSDL, which are concerned with defining platform-independent data types.
ASN.1 is important, because it is widely used in the definition of standards (for example, SNMP, X.509, and LDAP). In particular, ASN.1 is ubiquitous in the field of security standards—the formal definitions of X.509 certificates and distinguished names are described using ASN.1 syntax. You do not require detailed knowledge of ASN.1 syntax to use these security standards, but you need to be aware that ASN.1 is used for the basic definitions of most security-related data types.

BER

The OSI’s Basic Encoding Rules (BER) define how to translate an ASN.1 data type into a sequence of octets (binary representation). The role played by BER with respect to ASN.1 is, therefore, similar to the role played by GIOP with respect to the OMG IDL.
The OSI’s Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER) are a specialization of the BER. The DER consists of the BER plus some additional rules to ensure that the encoding is unique (BER encodings are not).
Historically, distinguished names (DN) are defined as the primary keys in an X.500 directory structure. However, DNs have come to be used in many other contexts as general purpose identifiers. In Apache CXF, DNs occur in the following contexts:
  • X.509 certificates—for example, one of the DNs in a certificate identifies the owner of the certificate (the security principal).
  • LDAP—DNs are used to locate objects in an LDAP directory tree.
Although a DN is formally defined in ASN.1, there is also an LDAP standard that defines a UTF-8 string representation of a DN (see RFC 2253). The string representation provides a convenient basis for describing the structure of a DN.
Note
The string representation of a DN does not provide a unique representation of DER-encoded DN. Hence, a DN that is converted from string format back to DER format does not always recover the original DER encoding.
C=US,O=IONA Technologies,OU=Engineering,CN=A. N. Other

OID

An OBJECT IDENTIFIER (OID) is a sequence of bytes that uniquely identifies a grammatical construct in ASN.1.

Table B.1. Commonly Used Attribute Types

String RepresentationX.500 Attribute TypeSize of DataEquivalent OID
C
countryName
2
2.5.4.6
O
organizationName
1...64
2.5.4.10
OU
organizationalUnitName
1...64
2.5.4.11
CN
commonName
1...64
2.5.4.3
ST
stateOrProvinceName
1...64
2.5.4.8
L
localityName
1...64
2.5.4.7
STREET
streetAddress
  
DC
domainComponent
  
UID
userid
  

AVA

An attribute value assertion (AVA) assigns an attribute value to an attribute type. In the string representation, it has the following syntax:
<attr-type>=<attr-value>
For example:
CN=A. N. Other
2.5.4.3=A. N. Other

RDN

A relative distinguished name (RDN) represents a single node of a DN (the bit that appears between the commas in the string representation). Technically, an RDN might contain more than one AVA (it is formally defined as a set of AVAs). However, this almost never occurs in practice. In the string representation, an RDN has the following syntax:
<attr-type>=<attr-value>[+<attr-type>=<attr-value> ...]
Here is an example of a (very unlikely) multiple-value RDN:
OU=Eng1+OU=Eng2+OU=Eng3
Here is an example of a single-value RDN:
OU=Engineering

B

Basic Encoding Rules (see BER)
BER, BER

C

CA, Integrity of the public key
choosing a host, Choosing a host for a private certification authority
commercial CAs, Commercial Certification Authorities
index file, CA database files
list of trusted, Trusted CAs
multiple CAs, Certificates signed by multiple CAs
private CAs, Private Certification Authorities
private key, creating, Procedure
security precautions, Security precautions
self-signed, Procedure
serial file, CA database files
setting up, Procedure
certificate signing request, Procedure
signing, Procedure
certificates
chaining, Certificate chain
peer, Chain of trust
public key, Contents of an X.509 certificate
self-signed, Self-signed certificate, Procedure
signing, Integrity of the public key, Procedure
signing request, Procedure
X.509, Role of certificates
chaining of certificates, Certificate chain
connection.password, LDAP properties
connection.url, LDAP properties
connection.username, LDAP properties
CSR, Procedure

D

DER, DER
Distinguished Encoding Rules (see DER)
distinguished names
definition, Overview
DN
definition, Overview
string representation, String representation of DN

I

index file, CA database files
initial.context.factory, LDAP properties

J

JAAS
configuration syntax, Configuring a JAAS realm
converting to blueprint, Converting standard JAAS login properties to XML
namespace, Namespace
jaas:config, Configuring a JAAS realm
jaas:module, Configuring a JAAS realm
Jasypt
configuration, Jasypt configuration
libraries, Installing the Jasypt features
namespaces, Namespaces
jasypt-encryption, Installing the Jasypt features
JMX
roles, Changing the JMX role
JMX SSL connection, enabling, Enabling Remote JMX SSL

L

LDAP
authentication, LDAP properties
configuration, LDAP properties
connection.password, LDAP properties
connection.url, LDAP properties
connection.username, LDAP properties
enabling, Enabling LDAP Authentication
initial.context.factory, LDAP properties
properties, LDAP properties
role.base.dn, LDAP properties
role.filter, LDAP properties
role.name.attribute, LDAP properties
role.search.subtree, LDAP properties
ssl, LDAP properties
ssl.algorithm, LDAP properties
ssl.keyalias, LDAP properties
ssl.keystore, LDAP properties
ssl.protocol, LDAP properties
ssl.provider, LDAP properties
ssl.truststore, LDAP properties
user.base.dn, LDAP properties
user.filter, LDAP properties
user.search.subtree, LDAP properties
LDAPLoginModule, Enabling LDAP Authentication

N

namespaces
Aries, Namespaces
Jasypt, Namespaces

O

OpenSSL, OpenSSL software package
OpenSSL command-line utilities, OpenSSL utilities

P

peer certificate, Chain of trust
private key, Procedure
properties
Apache Karaf placeholder extension, Jasypt configuration
Aries placeholder extension, Placeholder extension
encrypted, Encrypted properties
LDAP, LDAP properties
placeholder, Placeholders
property-placeholder, Placeholder extension, Jasypt configuration
public keys, Contents of an X.509 certificate

R

RDN, RDN
relative distinguished name (see RDN)
remote console
roles, Changing the remote console's role
role.base.dn, LDAP properties
role.filter, LDAP properties
role.name.attribute, LDAP properties
role.search.subtree, LDAP properties
roles
default, Default role
JMX, Changing the JMX role
LDAP configuration, LDAP properties
remote console, Changing the remote console's role
root certificate directory, Trusted CAs

S

self-signed CA, Procedure
self-signed certificate, Self-signed certificate
serial file, CA database files
signing certificates, Integrity of the public key
ssl, LDAP properties
ssl.algorithm, LDAP properties
ssl.keyalias, LDAP properties
ssl.keystore, LDAP properties
ssl.protocol, LDAP properties
ssl.provider, LDAP properties
ssl.truststore, LDAP properties
SSLeay, OpenSSL software package

T

trusted CAs, Trusted CAs

U

user.base.dn, LDAP properties
user.filter, LDAP properties
user.search.subtree, LDAP properties

X

X.500, ASN.1 and Distinguished Names
X.509 certificate
definition, Role of certificates