Red Hat JBoss Fuse

Apache Camel Development Guide

Develop applications with Apache Camel

Red Hat

Version 6.1

Legal Notice

Trademark Disclaimer

The text of and illustrations in this document are licensed by Red Hat under a Creative Commons Attribution–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license ("CC-BY-SA"). An explanation of CC-BY-SA is available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/. In accordance with CC-BY-SA, if you distribute this document or an adaptation of it, you must provide the URL for the original version.
Red Hat, as the licensor of this document, waives the right to enforce, and agrees not to assert, Section 4d of CC-BY-SA to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law.
Red Hat, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the Shadowman logo, JBoss, MetaMatrix, Fedora, the Infinity Logo, and RHCE are trademarks of Red Hat, Inc., registered in the United States and other countries.
Apache, ServiceMix, Camel, CXF, and ActiveMQ are trademarks of Apache Software Foundation. Any other names contained herein may be trademarks of their respective owners.

Legal Notice

Third Party Acknowledgements

One or more products in the Red Hat JBoss Fuse release includes third party components covered by licenses that require that the following documentation notices be provided:
  • JLine (http://jline.sourceforge.net) jline:jline:jar:1.0
    License: BSD (LICENSE.txt) - Copyright (c) 2002-2006, Marc Prud'hommeaux
    All rights reserved.
    Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
    • Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
    • Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
    • Neither the name of JLine nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
    THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
  • Stax2 API (http://woodstox.codehaus.org/StAX2) org.codehaus.woodstox:stax2-api:jar:3.1.1
    Copyright (c) <YEAR>, <OWNER> All rights reserved.
    Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
    • Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
    • Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
    THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
  • jibx-run - JiBX runtime (http://www.jibx.org/main-reactor/jibx-run) org.jibx:jibx-run:bundle:1.2.3
    License: BSD (http://jibx.sourceforge.net/jibx-license.html) Copyright (c) 2003-2010, Dennis M. Sosnoski.
    All rights reserved.
    Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
    • Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
    • Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
    • Neither the name of JiBX nor the names of its contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
    THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
  • JavaAssist (http://www.jboss.org/javassist) org.jboss.javassist:com.springsource.javassist:jar:3.9.0.GA:compile
  • HAPI-OSGI-Base Module (http://hl7api.sourceforge.net/hapi-osgi-base/) ca.uhn.hapi:hapi-osgi-base:bundle:1.2
    License: Mozilla Public License 1.1 (http://www.mozilla.org/MPL/MPL-1.1.txt)
21 May 2015

Abstract

Guide to developing routes with Apache Camel.

Part I. Implementing Enterprise Integration Patterns

Abstract

This part describes how to build routes using Apache Camel. It covers the basic building blocks and EIP components.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Building Blocks for Route Definitions

Abstract

Apache Camel supports two alternative Domain Specific Languages (DSL) for defining routes: a Java DSL and a Spring XML DSL. The basic building blocks for defining routes are endpoints and processors, where the behavior of a processor is typically modified by expressions or logical predicates. Apache Camel enables you to define expressions and predicates using a variety of different languages.

1. Implementing a RouteBuilder Class

Overview

To use the Domain Specific Language (DSL), you extend the RouteBuilder class and override its configure() method (where you define your routing rules).
You can define as many RouteBuilder classes as necessary. Each class is instantiated once and is registered with the CamelContext object. Normally, the lifecycle of each RouteBuilder object is managed automatically by the container in which you deploy the router.

RouteBuilder classes

As a router developer, your core task is to implement one or more RouteBuilder classes. There are two alternative RouteBuilder classes that you can inherit from:
  • org.apache.camel.builder.RouteBuilder—this is the generic RouteBuilder base class that is suitable for deploying into any container type. It is provided in the camel-core artifact.
  • org.apache.camel.spring.SpringRouteBuilder—this base class is specially adapted to the Spring container. In particular, it provides extra support for the following Spring specific features: looking up beans in the Spring registry (using the beanRef() Java DSL command) and transactions (see the Transactions Guide for details). It is provided in the camel-spring artifact.
The RouteBuilder class defines methods used to initiate your routing rules (for example, from(), intercept(), and exception()).

Implementing a RouteBuilder

Example 1.1, “Implementation of a RouteBuilder Class” shows a minimal RouteBuilder implementation. The configure() method body contains a routing rule; each rule is a single Java statement.

Example 1.1. Implementation of a RouteBuilder Class

import org.apache.camel.builder.RouteBuilder;

public class MyRouteBuilder extends RouteBuilder {

public void configure() {
  // Define routing rules here:
  from("file:src/data?noop=true").to("file:target/messages");

  // More rules can be included, in you like.
  // ...
}
}
The form of the rule from(URL1).to(URL2) instructs the router to read files from the directory src/data and send them to the directory target/messages. The option ?noop=true instructs the router to retain (not delete) the source files in the src/data directory.

2. Basic Java DSL Syntax

What is a DSL?

A Domain Specific Language (DSL) is a mini-language designed for a special purpose. A DSL does not have to be logically complete but needs enough expressive power to describe problems adequately in the chosen domain. Typically, a DSL does not require a dedicated parser, interpreter, or compiler. A DSL can piggyback on top of an existing object-oriented host language, provided DSL constructs map cleanly to constructs in the host language API.
Consider the following sequence of commands in a hypothetical DSL:
command01;
command02;
command03;
You can map these commands to Java method invocations, as follows:
command01().command02().command03()
You can even map blocks to Java method invocations. For example:
command01().startBlock().command02().command03().endBlock()
The DSL syntax is implicitly defined by the data types of the host language API. For example, the return type of a Java method determines which methods you can legally invoke next (equivalent to the next command in the DSL).

Router rule syntax

Apache Camel defines a router DSL for defining routing rules. You can use this DSL to define rules in the body of a RouteBuilder.configure() implementation. Figure 1.1, “Local Routing Rules” shows an overview of the basic syntax for defining local routing rules.

Figure 1.1. Local Routing Rules

Local routing rules
A local rule always starts with a from("EndpointURL") method, which specifies the source of messages (consumer endpoint) for the routing rule. You can then add an arbitrarily long chain of processors to the rule (for example, filter()). You typically finish off the rule with a to("EndpointURL") method, which specifies the target (producer endpoint) for the messages that pass through the rule. However, it is not always necessary to end a rule with to(). There are alternative ways of specifying the message target in a rule.
Note
You can also define a global routing rule, by starting the rule with a special processor type (such as intercept(), exception(), or errorHandler()). Global rules are outside the scope of this guide.

Consumers and producers

A local rule always starts by defining a consumer endpoint, using from("EndpointURL"), and typically (but not always) ends by defining a producer endpoint, using to("EndpointURL"). The endpoint URLs, EndpointURL, can use any of the components configured at deploy time. For example, you could use a file endpoint, file:MyMessageDirectory, an Apache CXF endpoint, cxf:MyServiceName, or an Apache ActiveMQ endpoint, activemq:queue:MyQName. For a complete list of component types, see .

Message exchange patterns

Using an Exchange object makes it easy to generalize message processing to different message exchange patterns. For example, an asynchronous protocol might define an MEP that consists of a single message that flows from the consumer endpoint to the producer endpoint (an InOnly MEP). An RPC protocol, on the other hand, might define an MEP that consists of a request message and a reply message (an InOut MEP). Currently, Apache Camel supports the following MEPs:
  • InOnly
  • RobustInOnly
  • InOut
  • InOptionalOut
  • OutOnly
  • RobustOutOnly
  • OutIn
  • OutOptionalIn
Where these message exchange patterns are represented by constants in the enumeration type, org.apache.camel.ExchangePattern.

Grouped exchanges

Sometimes it is useful to have a single exchange that encapsulates multiple exchange instances. For this purpose, you can use a grouped exchange. A grouped exchange is essentially an exchange instance that contains a java.util.List of Exchange objects stored in the Exchange.GROUPED_EXCHANGE exchange property. For an example of how to use grouped exchanges, see Section 5, “Aggregator”.

Processors

A processor is a node in a route that can access and modify the stream of exchanges passing through the route. Processors can take expression or predicate arguments, that modify their behavior. For example, the rule shown in Figure 1.1, “Local Routing Rules” includes a filter() processor that takes an xpath() predicate as its argument.

Expressions and predicates

Expressions (evaluating to strings or other data types) and predicates (evaluating to true or false) occur frequently as arguments to the built-in processor types. For example, the following filter rule propagates In messages, only if the foo header is equal to the value bar:
from("seda:a").filter(header("foo").isEqualTo("bar")).to("seda:b");
Where the filter is qualified by the predicate, header("foo").isEqualTo("bar"). To construct more sophisticated predicates and expressions, based on the message content, you can use one of the expression and predicate languages (see Expression and Predicate Languages).

3. Router Schema in a Spring XML File

Namespace

The router schema—which defines the XML DSL—belongs to the following XML schema namespace:
http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring

Specifying the schema location

The location of the router schema is normally specified to be http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring/camel-spring.xsd, which references the latest version of the schema on the Apache Web site. For example, the root beans element of an Apache Camel Spring file is normally configured as shown in Example 1.2, “ Specifying the Router Schema Location”.

Example 1.2.  Specifying the Router Schema Location

<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
       xmlns:camel="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring"
       xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
       xsi:schemaLocation="
       http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-2.0.xsd
       http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring/camel-spring.xsd">

  <camelContext id="camel" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
    <!-- Define your routing rules here -->
  </camelContext>
</beans>

Runtime schema location

At run time, Apache Camel does not download the router schema from schema location specified in the Spring file. Instead, Apache Camel automatically picks up a copy of the schema from the root directory of the camel-spring JAR file. This ensures that the version of the schema used to parse the Spring file always matches the current runtime version. This is important, because the latest version of the schema posted up on the Apache Web site might not match the version of the runtime you are currently using.

Using an XML editor

Generally, it is recommended that you edit your Spring files using a full-feature XML editor. An XML editor's auto-completion features make it much easier to author XML that complies with the router schema and the editor can warn you instantly, if the XML is badly-formed.
XML editors generally do rely on downloading the schema from the location that you specify in the xsi:schemaLocation attribute. In order to be sure you are using the correct schema version whilst editing, it is usually a good idea to select a specific version of the camel-spring.xsd file. For example, to edit a Spring file for the 2.3 version of Apache Camel, you could modify the beans element as follows:
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
       xmlns:camel="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring"
       xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
       xsi:schemaLocation="
       http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-2.0.xsd
       http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring/camel-spring-2.3.0.xsd">
...
Change back to the default, camel-spring.xsd, when you are finished editing. To see which schema versions are currently available for download, navigate to the Web page, http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring.

4. Endpoints

Overview

Apache Camel endpoints are the sources and sinks of messages in a route. An endpoint is a very general sort of building block: the only requirement it must satisfy is that it acts either as a source of messages (a consumer endpoint) or as a sink of messages (a producer endpoint). Hence, there are a great variety of different endpoint types supported in Apache Camel, ranging from protocol supporting endpoints, such as HTTP, to simple timer endpoints, such as Quartz, that generate dummy messages at regular time intervals. One of the major strengths of Apache Camel is that it is relatively easy to add a custom component that implements a new endpoint type.

Endpoint URIs

Endpoints are identified by endpoint URIs, which have the following general form:
scheme:contextPath[?queryOptions]
The URI scheme identifies a protocol, such as http, and the contextPath provides URI details that are interpreted by the protocol. In addition, most schemes allow you to define query options, queryOptions, which are specified in the following format:
?option01=value01&option02=value02&...
For example, the following HTTP URI can be used to connect to the Google search engine page:
http://www.google.com
The following File URI can be used to read all of the files appearing under the C:\temp\src\data directory:
file://C:/temp/src/data
Not every scheme represents a protocol. Sometimes a scheme just provides access to a useful utility, such as a timer. For example, the following Timer endpoint URI generates an exchange every second (=1000 milliseconds). You could use this to schedule activity in a route.
timer://tickTock?period=1000

Specifying time periods in a URI

Many of the Apache Camel components have options whose value is a time period (for example, for specifying timeout values and so on). By default, such time period options are normally specified as a pure number, which is interpreted as a millisecond time period. But Apache Camel also supports a more readable syntax for time periods, which enables you to express the period in hours, minutes, and seconds. Formally, the human-readable time period is a string that conforms to the following syntax:
[NHour(h|hour)][NMin(m|minute)][NSec(s|second)]
Where each term in square brackets, [], is optional and the notation, (A|B), indicates that A and B are alternatives.
For example, you can configure timer endpoint with a 45 minute period as follows:
from("timer:foo?period=45m")
  .to("log:foo");
You can also use arbitrary combinations of the hour, minute, and second units, as follows:
from("timer:foo?period=1h15m")
  .to("log:foo");
from("timer:bar?period=2h30s")
  .to("log:bar");
from("timer:bar?period=3h45m58s")
  .to("log:bar");

Specifying raw values in URI options

By default, the option values that you specify in a URI are automatically URI-encoded. In some cases this is undesirable beahavior. For example, when setting a password option, it is preferable to transmit the raw character string without URI encoding.
It is possible to switch of URI encoding by specifying an option value with the syntax, RAW(RawValue). For example,
from("SourceURI")
 .to("ftp:joe@myftpserver.com?password=RAW(se+re?t&23)&binary=true")
In this example, the password value is transmitted as the literal value, se+re?t&23.

Apache Camel components

Each URI scheme maps to a Apache Camel component, where a Apache Camel component is essentially an endpoint factory. In other words, to use a particular type of endpoint, you must deploy the corresponding Apache Camel component in your runtime container. For example, to use JMS endpoints, you would deploy the JMS component in your container.
Apache Camel provides a large variety of different components that enable you to integrate your application with various transport protocols and third-party products. For example, some of the more commonly used components are: File, JMS, CXF (Web services), HTTP, Jetty, Direct, and Mock. For the full list of supported components, see the Apache Camel component documentation.
Most of the Apache Camel components are packaged separately to the Camel core. If you use Maven to build your application, you can easily add a component (and its third-party dependencies) to your application simply by adding a dependency on the relevant component artifact. For example, to include the HTTP component, you would add the following Maven dependency to your project POM file:
<!-- Maven POM File -->
  <properties>
    <camel-version>2.12.0.redhat-610379</camel-version>
    ...
  </properties>

  <dependencies>
    ...
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.apache.camel</groupId>
      <artifactId>camel-http</artifactId>
      <version>${camel-version}</version>
    </dependency>
    ...
  </dependencies>
The following components are built-in to the Camel core (in the camel-core artifact), so they are always available:
  • Bean
  • Browse
  • Dataset
  • Direct
  • File
  • Log
  • Mock
  • Properties
  • Ref
  • SEDA
  • Timer
  • VM

Consumer endpoints

A consumer endpoint is an endpoint that appears at the start of a route (that is, in a from() DSL command). In other words, the consumer endpoint is responsible for initiating processing in a route: it creates a new exchange instance (typically, based on some message that it has received or obtained), and provides a thread to process the exchange in the rest of the route.
For example, the following JMS consumer endpoint pulls messages off the payments queue and processes them in the route:
from("jms:queue:payments")
  .process(SomeProcessor)
  .to("TargetURI");
Or equivalently, in Spring XML:
<camelContext id="CamelContextID"
              xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="jms:queue:payments"/>
    <process ref="someProcessorId"/>
    <to uri="TargetURI"/>
  </route>
</camelContext>
Some components are consumer only—that is, they can only be used to define consumer endpoints. For example, the Quartz component is used exclusively to define consumer endpoints. The following Quartz endpoint generates an event every second (1000 milliseconds):
from("quartz://secondTimer?trigger.repeatInterval=1000")
  .process(SomeProcessor)
  .to("TargetURI");
If you like, you can specify the endpoint URI as a formatted string, using the fromF() Java DSL command. For example, to substitute the username and password into the URI for an FTP endpoint, you could write the route in Java, as follows:
fromF("ftp:%s@fusesource.com?password=%s", username, password)
  .process(SomeProcessor)
  .to("TargetURI");
Where the first occurrence of %s is replaced by the value of the username string and the second occurrence of %s is replaced by the password string. This string formatting mechanism is implemented by String.format() and is similar to the formatting provided by the C printf() function. For details, see java.util.Formatter.

Producer endpoints

A producer endpoint is an endpoint that appears in the middle or at the end of a route (for example, in a to() DSL command). In other words, the producer endpoint receives an existing exchange object and sends the contents of the exchange to the specified endpoint.
For example, the following JMS producer endpoint pushes the contents of the current exchange onto the specified JMS queue:
from("SourceURI")
  .process(SomeProcessor)
  .to("jms:queue:orderForms");
Or equivalently in Spring XML:
<camelContext id="CamelContextID" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="SourceURI"/>
    <process ref="someProcessorId"/>
    <to uri="jms:queue:orderForms"/>
  </route>
</camelContext>
Some components are producer only—that is, they can only be used to define producer endpoints. For example, the HTTP endpoint is used exclusively to define producer endpoints.
from("SourceURI")
  .process(SomeProcessor)
  .to("http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=camel+router");
If you like, you can specify the endpoint URI as a formatted string, using the toF() Java DSL command. For example, to substitute a custom Google query into the HTTP URI, you could write the route in Java, as follows:
from("SourceURI")
  .process(SomeProcessor)
  .toF("http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=%s", myGoogleQuery);
Where the occurrence of %s is replaced by your custom query string, myGoogleQuery. For details, see java.util.Formatter.

5. Processors

Overview

To enable the router to do something more interesting than simply connecting a consumer endpoint to a producer endpoint, you can add processors to your route. A processor is a command you can insert into a routing rule to perform arbitrary processing of messages that flow through the rule. Apache Camel provides a wide variety of different processors, as shown in Table 1.1, “Apache Camel Processors”.

Table 1.1. Apache Camel Processors

Java DSLXML DSLDescription
aggregate()aggregate
Aggregator EIP: Creates an aggregator, which combines multiple incoming exchanges into a single exchange.
aop()aop
Use Aspect Oriented Programming (AOP) to do work before and after a specified sub-route. See Section 8, “Aspect Oriented Programming”.
bean(), beanRef()bean
Process the current exchange by invoking a method on a Java object (or bean). See Section 4, “Bean Integration”.
choice()choice
Content Based Router EIP: Selects a particular sub-route based on the exchange content, using when and otherwise clauses.
convertBodyTo()convertBodyTo
Converts the In message body to the specified type.
delay()delay
Delayer EIP: Delays the propagation of the exchange to the latter part of the route.
doTry()doTry
Creates a try/catch block for handling exceptions, using doCatch, doFinally, and end clauses.
end()N/AEnds the current command block.
enrich(),enrichRef()enrich
Content Enricher EIP: Combines the current exchange with data requested from a specified producer endpoint URI.
filter()filter
Message Filter EIP: Uses a predicate expression to filter incoming exchanges.
idempotentConsumer()idempotentConsumer
Idempotent Consumer EIP: Implements a strategy to suppress duplicate messages.
inheritErrorHandler()@inheritErrorHandlerBoolean option that can be used to disable the inherited error handler on a particular route node (defined as a sub-clause in the Java DSL and as an attribute in the XML DSL).
inOnly()inOnly
Either sets the current exchange's MEP to InOnly (if no arguments) or sends the exchange as an InOnly to the specified endpoint(s).
inOut()inOut
Either sets the current exchange's MEP to InOut (if no arguments) or sends the exchange as an InOut to the specified endpoint(s).
loadBalance()loadBalance
Load Balancer EIP: Implements load balancing over a collection of endpoints.
log()logLogs a message to the console.
loop()loop
Loop EIP: Repeatedly resends each exchange to the latter part of the route.
markRollbackOnly()@markRollbackOnly(Transactions) Marks the current transaction for rollback only (no exception is raised). In the XML DSL, this option is set as a boolean attribute on the rollback element. See "Transaction Guide".
markRollbackOnlyLast()@markRollbackOnlyLast(Transactions) If one or more transactions have previously been associated with this thread and then suspended, this command marks the latest transaction for rollback only (no exception is raised). In the XML DSL, this option is set as a boolean attribute on the rollback element. See "Transaction Guide".
marshal()marshal
Transforms into a low-level or binary format using the specified data format, in preparation for sending over a particular transport protocol.
multicast()multicast
Multicast EIP: Multicasts the current exchange to multiple destinations, where each destination gets its own copy of the exchange.
onCompletion()onCompletion
Defines a sub-route (terminated by end() in the Java DSL) that gets executed after the main route has completed. For conditional execution, use the onWhen sub-clause. Can also be defined on its own line (not in a route).
onException()onException
Defines a sub-route (terminated by end() in the Java DSL) that gets executed whenever the specified exception occurs. Usually defined on its own line (not in a route).
pipeline()pipeline
Pipes and Filters EIP: Sends the exchange to a series of endpoints, where the output of one endpoint becomes the input of the next endpoint. See also Section 1, “Pipeline Processing”.
policy()policy
Apply a policy to the current route (currently only used for transactional policies—see "Transaction Guide").
pollEnrich(),pollEnrichRef()pollEnrich
Content Enricher EIP: Combines the current exchange with data polled from a specified consumer endpoint URI.
process(),processRefprocess
Execute a custom processor on the current exchange. See the section called “Custom processor” and Part IV, “Programming EIP Components”.
recipientList()recipientList
Recipient List EIP: Sends the exchange to a list of recipients that is calculated at runtime (for example, based on the contents of a header).
removeHeader()removeHeader
Removes the specified header from the exchange's In message.
removeHeaders()removeHeadersRemoves the headers matching the specified pattern from the exchange's In message. The pattern can have the form, prefix*—in which case it matches every name starting with prefix—otherwise, it is interpreted as a regular expression.
removeProperty()removeProperty
Removes the specified exchange property from the exchange.
resequence()resequence
Resequencer EIP: Re-orders incoming exchanges on the basis of a specified comparotor operation. Supports a batch mode and a stream mode.
rollback()rollback
(Transactions) Marks the current transaction for rollback only (also raising an exception, by default). See "Transaction Guide".
routingSlip()routingSlip
Routing Slip EIP: Routes the exchange through a pipeline that is constructed dynamically, based on the list of endpoint URIs extracted from a slip header.
sample()sampleCreates a sampling throttler, allowing you to extract a sample of exchanges from the traffic on a route.
setBody()setBody
Sets the message body of the exchange's In message.
setExchangePattern()setExchangePattern
Sets the current exchange's MEP to the specified value. See the section called “Message exchange patterns”.
setHeader()setHeader
Sets the specified header in the exchange's In message.
setOutHeader()setOutHeader
Sets the specified header in the exchange's Out message.
setProperty()setProperty()
Sets the specified exchange property.
sort()sort
Sorts the contents of the In message body (where a custom comparator can optionally be specified).
split()split
Splitter EIP: Splits the current exchange into a sequence of exchanges, where each split exchange contains a fragment of the original message body.
stop()stop
Stops routing the current exchange and marks it as completed.
threads()threads
Creates a thread pool for concurrent processing of the latter part of the route.
throttle()throttle
Throttler EIP: Limit the flow rate to the specified level (exchanges per second).
throwException()throwException
Throw the specified Java exception.
to()to
Send the exchange to one or more endpoints. See Section 1, “Pipeline Processing”.
toF()N/ASend the exchange to an endpoint, using string formatting. That is, the endpoint URI string can embed substitutions in the style of the C printf() function.
transacted()transacted
Create a Spring transaction scope that encloses the latter part of the route. See "Transaction Guide".
transform()transform
Message Translator EIP: Copy the In message headers to the Out message headers and set the Out message body to the specified value.
unmarshal()unmarshal
Transforms the In message body from a low-level or binary format to a high-level format, using the specified data format.
validate()validateTakes a predicate expression to test whether the current message is valid. If the predicate returns false, throws a PredicateValidationException exception.
wireTap()wireTap
Wire Tap EIP: Sends a copy of the current exchange to the specified wire tap URI, using the ExchangePattern.InOnly MEP.

Some sample processors

To get some idea of how to use processors in a route, see the following examples:

Choice

The choice() processor is a conditional statement that is used to route incoming messages to alternative producer endpoints. Each alternative producer endpoint is preceded by a when() method, which takes a predicate argument. If the predicate is true, the following target is selected, otherwise processing proceeds to the next when() method in the rule. For example, the following choice() processor directs incoming messages to either Target1, Target2, or Target3, depending on the values of Predicate1 and Predicate2:
from("SourceURL")
    .choice()
        .when(Predicate1).to("Target1")
        .when(Predicate2).to("Target2")
        .otherwise().to("Target3");
Or equivalently in Spring XML:
<camelContext id="buildSimpleRouteWithChoice" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="SourceURL"/>
    <choice>
      <when>
        <!-- First predicate -->
        <simple>header.foo = 'bar'</simple>
        <to uri="Target1"/>
      </when>
      <when>
        <!-- Second predicate -->
        <simple>header.foo = 'manchu'</simple>
        <to uri="Target2"/>
      </when>
      <otherwise>
        <to uri="Target3"/>
      </otherwise>
    </choice>
  </route>
</camelContext>
In the Java DSL, there is a special case where you might need to use the endChoice() command. Some of the standard Apache Camel processors enable you to specify extra parameters using special sub-clauses, effectively opening an extra level of nesting which is usually terminated by the end() command. For example, you could specify a load balancer clause as loadBalance().roundRobin().to("mock:foo").to("mock:bar").end(), which load balances messages between the mock:foo and mock:bar endpoints. If the load balancer clause is embedded in a choice condition, however, it is necessary to terminate the clause using the endChoice() command, as follows:
from("direct:start")
    .choice()
        .when(bodyAs(String.class).contains("Camel"))
            .loadBalance().roundRobin().to("mock:foo").to("mock:bar").endChoice()
        .otherwise()
            .to("mock:result");

Filter

The filter() processor can be used to prevent uninteresting messages from reaching the producer endpoint. It takes a single predicate argument: if the predicate is true, the message exchange is allowed through to the producer; if the predicate is false, the message exchange is blocked. For example, the following filter blocks a message exchange, unless the incoming message contains a header, foo, with value equal to bar:
from("SourceURL").filter(header("foo").isEqualTo("bar")).to("TargetURL");
Or equivalently in Spring XML:
<camelContext id="filterRoute" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="SourceURL"/>
    <filter>
      <simple>header.foo = 'bar'</simple>
      <to uri="TargetURL"/>
    </filter>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Throttler

The throttle() processor ensures that a producer endpoint does not get overloaded. The throttler works by limiting the number of messages that can pass through per second. If the incoming messages exceed the specified rate, the throttler accumulates excess messages in a buffer and transmits them more slowly to the producer endpoint. For example, to limit the rate of throughput to 100 messages per second, you can define the following rule:
from("SourceURL").throttle(100).to("TargetURL");
Or equivalently in Spring XML:
<camelContext id="throttleRoute" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="SourceURL"/>
    <throttle maximumRequestsPerPeriod="100" timePeriodMillis="1000">
      <to uri="TargetURL"/>
    </throttle>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Custom processor

If none of the standard processors described here provide the functionality you need, you can always define your own custom processor. To create a custom processor, define a class that implements the org.apache.camel.Processor interface and overrides the process() method. The following custom processor, MyProcessor, removes the header named foo from incoming messages:

Example 1.3. Implementing a Custom Processor Class

public class MyProcessor implements org.apache.camel.Processor {
public void process(org.apache.camel.Exchange exchange) {
  inMessage = exchange.getIn();
  if (inMessage != null) {
      inMessage.removeHeader("foo");
  }
}
};
To insert the custom processor into a router rule, invoke the process() method, which provides a generic mechanism for inserting processors into rules. For example, the following rule invokes the processor defined in Example 1.3, “Implementing a Custom Processor Class”:
org.apache.camel.Processor myProc = new MyProcessor();

from("SourceURL").process(myProc).to("TargetURL");

Chapter 2. Basic Principles of Route Building

Abstract

Apache Camel provides several processors and components that you can link together in a route. This chapter provides a basic orientation by explaining the principles of building a route using the provided building blocks.

1. Pipeline Processing

Overview

In Apache Camel, pipelining is the dominant paradigm for connecting nodes in a route definition. The pipeline concept is probably most familiar to users of the UNIX operating system, where it is used to join operating system commands. For example, ls | more is an example of a command that pipes a directory listing, ls, to the page-scrolling utility, more. The basic idea of a pipeline is that the output of one command is fed into the input of the next. The natural analogy in the case of a route is for the Out message from one processor to be copied to the In message of the next processor.

Processor nodes

Every node in a route, except for the initial endpoint, is a processor, in the sense that they inherit from the org.apache.camel.Processor interface. In other words, processors make up the basic building blocks of a DSL route. For example, DSL commands such as filter(), delayer(), setBody(), setHeader(), and to() all represent processors. When considering how processors connect together to build up a route, it is important to distinguish two different processing approaches.
The first approach is where the processor simply modifies the exchange's In message, as shown in Figure 2.1, “Processor Modifying an In Message”. The exchange's Out message remains null in this case.

Figure 2.1. Processor Modifying an In Message

Processor modifying an in message
The following route shows a setHeader() command that modifies the current In message by adding (or modifying) the BillingSystem heading:
from("activemq:orderQueue")
    .setHeader("BillingSystem", xpath("/order/billingSystem"))
    .to("activemq:billingQueue");
The second approach is where the processor creates an Out message to represent the result of the processing, as shown in Figure 2.2, “Processor Creating an Out Message”.

Figure 2.2. Processor Creating an Out Message

Processor creating an out message
The following route shows a transform() command that creates an Out message with a message body containing the string, DummyBody:
from("activemq:orderQueue")
    .transform(constant("DummyBody"))
    .to("activemq:billingQueue");
where constant("DummyBody") represents a constant expression. You cannot pass the string, DummyBody, directly, because the argument to transform() must be an expression type.

Pipeline for InOnly exchanges

Figure 2.3, “Sample Pipeline for InOnly Exchanges” shows an example of a processor pipeline for InOnly exchanges. Processor A acts by modifying the In message, while processors B and C create an Out message. The route builder links the processors together as shown. In particular, processors B and C are linked together in the form of a pipeline: that is, processor B's Out message is moved to the In message before feeding the exchange into processor C, and processor C's Out message is moved to the In message before feeding the exchange into the producer endpoint. Thus the processors' outputs and inputs are joined into a continuous pipeline, as shown in Figure 2.3, “Sample Pipeline for InOnly Exchanges”.

Figure 2.3. Sample Pipeline for InOnly Exchanges

sample pipeline for InOnly exchanges
Apache Camel employs the pipeline pattern by default, so you do not need to use any special syntax to create a pipeline in your routes. For example, the following route pulls messages from a userdataQueue queue, pipes the message through a Velocity template (to produce a customer address in text format), and then sends the resulting text address to the queue, envelopeAddressQueue:
from("activemq:userdataQueue")
    .to(ExchangePattern.InOut, "velocity:file:AdressTemplate.vm")
    .to("activemq:envelopeAddresses");
Where the Velocity endpoint, velocity:file:AdressTemplate.vm, specifies the location of a Velocity template file, file:AdressTemplate.vm, in the file system. The to() command changes the exchange pattern to InOut before sending the exchange to the Velocity endpoint and then changes it back to InOnly afterwards. For more details of the Velocity endpoint, see .
Figure 2.4, “Sample Pipeline for InOut Exchanges” shows an example of a processor pipeline for InOut exchanges, which you typically use to support remote procedure call (RPC) semantics. Processors A, B, and C are linked together in the form of a pipeline, with the output of each processor being fed into the input of the next. The final Out message produced by the producer endpoint is sent all the way back to the consumer endpoint, where it provides the reply to the original request.

Figure 2.4. Sample Pipeline for InOut Exchanges

Sample pipeline for InOut exchanges
Note that in order to support the InOut exchange pattern, it is essential that the last node in the route (whether it is a producer endpoint or some other kind of processor) creates an Out message. Otherwise, any client that connects to the consumer endpoint would hang and wait indefinitely for a reply message. You should be aware that not all producer endpoints create Out messages.
Consider the following route that processes payment requests, by processing incoming HTTP requests:
from("jetty:http://localhost:8080/foo")
    .to("cxf:bean:addAccountDetails")
    .to("cxf:bean:getCreditRating")
    .to("cxf:bean:processTransaction");
Where the incoming payment request is processed by passing it through a pipeline of Web services, cxf:bean:addAccountDetails, cxf:bean:getCreditRating, and cxf:bean:processTransaction. The final Web service, processTransaction, generates a response (Out message) that is sent back through the JETTY endpoint.
When the pipeline consists of just a sequence of endpoints, it is also possible to use the following alternative syntax:
from("jetty:http://localhost:8080/foo")
    .pipeline("cxf:bean:addAccountDetails", "cxf:bean:getCreditRating", "cxf:bean:processTransaction");

Pipeline for InOptionalOut exchanges

The pipeline for InOptionalOut exchanges is essentially the same as the pipeline in Figure 2.4, “Sample Pipeline for InOut Exchanges”. The difference between InOut and InOptionalOut is that an exchange with the InOptionalOut exchange pattern is allowed to have a null Out message as a reply. That is, in the case of an InOptionalOut exchange, a null Out message is copied to the In message of the next node in the pipeline. By contrast, in the case of an InOut exchange, a null Out message is discarded and the original In message from the current node would be copied to the In message of the next node instead.

2. Multiple Inputs

Overview

A standard route takes its input from just a single endpoint, using the from(EndpointURL) syntax in the Java DSL. But what if you need to define multiple inputs for your route? Apache Camel provides several alternatives for specifying multiple inputs to a route. The approach to take depends on whether you want the exchanges to be processed independently of each other or whether you want the exchanges from different inputes to be combined in some way (in which case, you should use the the section called “Content enricher pattern”).

Multiple independent inputs

The simplest way to specify multiple inputs is using the multi-argument form of the from() DSL command, for example:
from("URI1", "URI2", "URI3").to("DestinationUri");
Or you can use the following equivalent syntax:
from("URI1").from("URI2").from("URI3").to("DestinationUri");
In both of these examples, exchanges from each of the input endpoints, URI1, URI2, and URI3, are processed independently of each other and in separate threads. In fact, you can think of the preceding route as being equivalent to the following three separate routes:
from("URI1").to("DestinationUri");
from("URI2").to("DestinationUri");
from("URI3").to("DestinationUri");

Segmented routes

For example, you might want to merge incoming messages from two different messaging systems and process them using the same route. In most cases, you can deal with multiple inputs by dividing your route into segments, as shown in Figure 2.5, “Processing Multiple Inputs with Segmented Routes”.

Figure 2.5. Processing Multiple Inputs with Segmented Routes

Processing multiple inputs with segmented routes
The initial segments of the route take their inputs from some external queues—for example, activemq:Nyse and activemq:Nasdaq—and send the incoming exchanges to an internal endpoint, InternalUrl. The second route segment merges the incoming exchanges, taking them from the internal endpoint and sending them to the destination queue, activemq:USTxn. The InternalUrl is the URL for an endpoint that is intended only for use within a router application. The following types of endpoints are suitable for internal use:
The main purpose of these endpoints is to enable you to glue together different segments of a route. They all provide an effective way of merging multiple inputs into a single route.

Direct endpoints

The direct component provides the simplest mechanism for linking together routes. The event model for the direct component is synchronous, so that subsequent segments of the route run in the same thread as the first segment. The general format of a direct URL is direct:EndpointID, where the endpoint ID, EndpointID, is simply a unique alphanumeric string that identifies the endpoint instance.
For example, if you want to take the input from two message queues, activemq:Nyse and activemq:Nasdaq, and merge them into a single message queue, activemq:USTxn, you can do this by defining the following set of routes:
from("activemq:Nyse").to("direct:mergeTxns");
from("activemq:Nasdaq").to("direct:mergeTxns");

from("direct:mergeTxns").to("activemq:USTxn");
Where the first two routes take the input from the message queues, Nyse and Nasdaq, and send them to the endpoint, direct:mergeTxns. The last queue combines the inputs from the previous two queues and sends the combined message stream to the activemq:USTxn queue.
The implementation of the direct endpoint behaves as follows: whenever an exchange arrives at a producer endpoint (for example, to("direct:mergeTxns")), the direct endpoint passes the exchange directly to all of the consumers endpoints that have the same endpoint ID (for example, from("direct:mergeTxns")). Direct endpoints can only be used to communicate between routes that belong to the same CamelContext in the same Java virtual machine (JVM) instance.

SEDA endpoints

The SEDA component provides an alternative mechanism for linking together routes. You can use it in a similar way to the direct component, but it has a different underlying event and threading model, as follows:
  • Processing of a SEDA endpoint is not synchronous. That is, when you send an exchange to a SEDA producer endpoint, control immediately returns to the preceding processor in the route.
  • SEDA endpoints contain a queue buffer (of java.util.concurrent.BlockingQueue type), which stores all of the incoming exchanges prior to processing by the next route segment.
  • Each SEDA consumer endpoint creates a thread pool (the default size is 5) to process exchange objects from the blocking queue.
  • The SEDA component supports the competing consumers pattern, which guarantees that each incoming exchange is processed only once, even if there are multiple consumers attached to a specific endpoint.
One of the main advantages of using a SEDA endpoint is that the routes can be more responsive, owing to the built-in consumer thread pool. The stock transactions example can be re-written to use SEDA endpoints instead of direct endpoints, as follows:
from("activemq:Nyse").to("seda:mergeTxns");
from("activemq:Nasdaq").to("seda:mergeTxns");

from("seda:mergeTxns").to("activemq:USTxn");
The main difference between this example and the direct example is that when using SEDA, the second route segment (from seda:mergeTxns to activemq:USTxn) is processed by a pool of five threads.
Note
There is more to SEDA than simply pasting together route segments. The staged event-driven architecture (SEDA) encompasses a design philosophy for building more manageable multi-threaded applications. The purpose of the SEDA component in Apache Camel is simply to enable you to apply this design philosophy to your applications. For more details about SEDA, see http://www.eecs.harvard.edu/~mdw/proj/seda/.

VM endpoints

The VM component is very similar to the SEDA endpoint. The only difference is that, whereas the SEDA component is limited to linking together route segments from within the same CamelContext, the VM component enables you to link together routes from distinct Apache Camel applications, as long as they are running within the same Java virtual machine.
The stock transactions example can be re-written to use VM endpoints instead of SEDA endpoints, as follows:
from("activemq:Nyse").to("vm:mergeTxns");
from("activemq:Nasdaq").to("vm:mergeTxns");
And in a separate router application (running in the same Java VM), you can define the second segment of the route as follows:
from("vm:mergeTxns").to("activemq:USTxn");

Content enricher pattern

The content enricher pattern defines a fundamentally different way of dealing with multiple inputs to a route. When an exchange enters the enricher processor, the enricher contacts an external resource to retrieve information, which is then added to the original message. In this pattern, the external resource effectively represents a second input to the message.
For example, suppose you are writing an application that processes credit requests. Before processing a credit request, you need to augment it with the data that assigns a credit rating to the customer, where the ratings data is stored in a file in the directory, src/data/ratings. You can combine the incoming credit request with data from the ratings file using the pollEnrich() pattern and a GroupedExchangeAggregationStrategy aggregation strategy, as follows:
from("jms:queue:creditRequests")
    .pollEnrich("file:src/data/ratings?noop=true", new GroupedExchangeAggregationStrategy())
    .bean(new MergeCreditRequestAndRatings(), "merge")
    .to("jms:queue:reformattedRequests");
Where the GroupedExchangeAggregationStrategy class is a standard aggregation strategy from the org.apache.camel.processor.aggregate package that adds each new exchange to a java.util.List instance and stores the resulting list in the Exchange.GROUPED_EXCHANGE exchange property. In this case, the list contains two elements: the original exchange (from the creditRequests JMS queue); and the enricher exchange (from the file endpoint).
To access the grouped exchange, you can use code like the following:
public class MergeCreditRequestAndRatings {
    public void merge(Exchange ex) {
        // Obtain the grouped exchange
        List<Exchange> list = ex.getProperty(Exchange.GROUPED_EXCHANGE, List.class);

        // Get the exchanges from the grouped exchange
        Exchange originalEx = list.get(0);
        Exchange ratingsEx  = list.get(1);

        // Merge the exchanges
        ...
    }
}
An alternative approach to this application would be to put the merge code directly into the implementation of the custom aggregation strategy class.
For more details about the content enricher pattern, see Section 1, “Content Enricher”.

3. Exception Handling

Abstract

Apache Camel provides several different mechanisms, which let you handle exceptions at different levels of granularity: you can handle exceptions within a route using doTry, doCatch, and doFinally; or you can specify what action to take for each exception type and apply this rule to all routes in a RouteBuilder using onException; or you can specify what action to take for all exception types and apply this rule to all routes in a RouteBuilder using errorHandler.
For more details about exception handling, see Section 3, “Dead Letter Channel”.

3.1. onException Clause

Overview

The onException clause is a powerful mechanism for trapping exceptions that occur in one or more routes: it is type-specific, enabling you to define distinct actions to handle different exception types; it allows you to define actions using essentially the same (actually, slightly extended) syntax as a route, giving you considerable flexibility in the way you handle exceptions; and it is based on a trapping model, which enables a single onException clause to deal with exceptions occurring at any node in any route.

Trapping exceptions using onException

The onException clause is a mechanism for trapping, rather than catching exceptions. That is, once you define an onException clause, it traps exceptions that occur at any point in a route. This contrasts with the Java try/catch mechanism, where an exception is caught, only if a particular code fragment is explicitly enclosed in a try block.
What really happens when you define an onException clause is that the Apache Camel runtime implicitly encloses each route node in a try block. This is why the onException clause is able to trap exceptions at any point in the route. But this wrapping is done for you automatically; it is not visible in the route definitions.

Java DSL example

In the following Java DSL example, the onException clause applies to all of the routes defined in the RouteBuilder class. If a ValidationException exception occurs while processing either of the routes (from("seda:inputA") or from("seda:inputB")), the onException clause traps the exception and redirects the current exchange to the validationFailed JMS queue (which serves as a deadletter queue).
// Java
public class MyRouteBuilder extends RouteBuilder {

  public void configure() {
    onException(ValidationException.class)
      .to("activemq:validationFailed");
  
    from("seda:inputA")
      .to("validation:foo/bar.xsd", "activemq:someQueue");

    from("seda:inputB").to("direct:foo")
      .to("rnc:mySchema.rnc", "activemq:anotherQueue");
  }
}

XML DSL example

The preceding example can also be expressed in the XML DSL, using the onException element to define the exception clause, as follows:
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
    xmlns:camel="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring"
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xsi:schemaLocation="
    http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-2.0.xsd
    http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring/camel-spring.xsd">
    
    <camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
        <onException>
            <exception>com.mycompany.ValidationException</exception>
            <to uri="activemq:validationFailed"/>
        </onException>
        <route>
            <from uri="seda:inputA"/>
            <to uri="validation:foo/bar.xsd"/>
            <to uri="activemq:someQueue"/>
        </route>
        <route>
            <from uri="seda:inputB"/>
            <to uri="rnc:mySchema.rnc"/>
            <to uri="activemq:anotherQueue"/>
        </route>
    </camelContext>
    
</beans>

Trapping multiple exceptions

You can define multiple onException clauses to trap exceptions in a RouteBuilder scope. This enables you to take different actions in response to different exceptions. For example, the following series of onException clauses defined in the Java DSL define different deadletter destinations for ValidationException, ValidationException, and Exception:
onException(ValidationException.class).to("activemq:validationFailed");
onException(java.io.IOException.class).to("activemq:ioExceptions");
onException(Exception.class).to("activemq:exceptions");
You can define the same series of onException clauses in the XML DSL as follows:
<onException>
    <exception>com.mycompany.ValidationException</exception>
    <to uri="activemq:validationFailed"/>
</onException>
<onException>
    <exception>java.io.IOException</exception>
    <to uri="activemq:ioExceptions"/>
</onException>
<onException>
    <exception>java.lang.Exception</exception>
    <to uri="activemq:exceptions"/>
</onException>
You can also group multiple exceptions together to be trapped by the same onException clause. In the Java DSL, you can group multiple exceptions as follows:
onException(ValidationException.class, BuesinessException.class)
  .to("activemq:validationFailed");
In the XML DSL, you can group multiple exceptions together by defining more than one exception element inside the onException element, as follows:
<onException>
    <exception>com.mycompany.ValidationException</exception>
    <exception>com.mycompany.BuesinessException</exception>
    <to uri="activemq:validationFailed"/>
</onException>
When trapping multiple exceptions, the order of the onException clauses is significant. Apache Camel initially attempts to match the thrown exception against the first clause. If the first clause fails to match, the next onException clause is tried, and so on until a match is found. Each matching attempt is governed by the following algorithm:
  1. If the thrown exception is a chained exception (that is, where an exception has been caught and rethrown as a different exception), the most nested exception type serves initially as the basis for matching. This exception is tested as follows:
    1. If the exception-to-test has exactly the type specified in the onException clause (tested using instanceof), a match is triggered.
    2. If the exception-to-test is a sub-type of the type specified in the onException clause, a match is triggered.
  2. If the most nested exception fails to yield a match, the next exception in the chain (the wrapping exception) is tested instead. The testing continues up the chain until either a match is triggered or the chain is exhausted.

Deadletter channel

The basic examples of onException usage have so far all exploited the deadletter channel pattern. That is, when an onException clause traps an exception, the current exchange is routed to a special destination (the deadletter channel). The deadletter channel serves as a holding area for failed messages that have not been processed. An administrator can inspect the messages at a later time and decide what action needs to be taken.
For more details about the deadletter channel pattern, see Section 3, “Dead Letter Channel”.

Use original message

By the time an exception is raised in the middle of a route, the message in the exchange could have been modified considerably (and might not even by readable by a human). Often, it is easier for an administrator to decide what corrective actions to take, if the messages visible in the deadletter queue are the original messages, as received at the start of the route.
In the Java DSL, you can replace the message in the exchange by the original message, using the useOriginalMessage() DSL command, as follows:
onException(ValidationException.class)
  .useOriginalMessage()
  .to("activemq:validationFailed");
In the XML DSL, you can retrieve the original message by setting the useOriginalMessage attribute on the onException element, as follows:
<onException useOriginalMessage="true">
    <exception>com.mycompany.ValidationException</exception>
    <to uri="activemq:validationFailed"/>
</onException>

Redelivery policy

Instead of interrupting the processing of a message and giving up as soon as an exception is raised, Apache Camel gives you the option of attempting to redeliver the message at the point where the exception occurred. In networked systems, where timeouts can occur and temporary faults arise, it is often possible for failed messages to be processed successfully, if they are redelivered shortly after the original exception was raised.
The Apache Camel redelivery supports various strategies for redelivering messages after an exception occurs. Some of the most important options for configuring redelivery are as follows:
maximumRedeliveries()
Specifies the maximum number of times redelivery can be attempted (default is 0). A negative value means redelivery is always attempted (equivalent to an infinite value).
retryWhile()
Specifies a predicate (of Predicate type), which determines whether Apache Camel ought to continue redelivering. If the predicate evaluates to true on the current exchange, redelivery is attempted; otherwise, redelivery is stopped and no further redelivery attempts are made.
This option takes precedence over the maximumRedeliveries() option.
In the Java DSL, redelivery policy options are specified using DSL commands in the onException clause. For example, you can specify a maximum of six redeliveries, after which the exchange is sent to the validationFailed deadletter queue, as follows:
onException(ValidationException.class)
  .maximumRedeliveries(6)
  .retryAttemptedLogLevel(org.apache.camel.LogginLevel.WARN)
  .to("activemq:validationFailed");
In the XML DSL, redelivery policy options are specified by setting attributes on the redeliveryPolicy element. For example, the preceding route can be expressed in XML DSL as follows:
<onException useOriginalMessage="true">
    <exception>com.mycompany.ValidationException</exception>
    <redeliveryPolicy maximumRedeliveries="6"/>
    <to uri="activemq:validationFailed"/>
</onException>
The latter part of the route—after the redelivery options are set—is not processed until after the last redelivery attempt has failed. For detailed descriptions of all the redelivery options, see Section 3, “Dead Letter Channel”.
Alternatively, you can specify redelivery policy options in a redeliveryPolicyProfile instance. You can then reference the redeliveryPolicyProfile instance using the onException element's redeliverPolicyRef attribute. For example, the preceding route can be expressed as follows:
<redeliveryPolicyProfile id="redelivPolicy" maximumRedeliveries="6" retryAttemptedLogLevel="WARN"/>

<onException useOriginalMessage="true" redeliveryPolicyRef="redelivPolicy">
    <exception>com.mycompany.ValidationException</exception>
    <to uri="activemq:validationFailed"/>
</onException>
Note
The approach using redeliveryPolicyProfile is useful, if you want to re-use the same redelivery policy in multiple onException clauses.

Conditional trapping

Exception trapping with onException can be made conditional by specifying the onWhen option. If you specify the onWhen option in an onException clause, a match is triggered only when the thrown exception matches the clause and the onWhen predicate evaluates to true on the current exchange.
For example, in the following Java DSL fragment,the first onException clause triggers, only if the thrown exception matches MyUserException and the user header is non-null in the current exchange:
// Java

// Here we define onException() to catch MyUserException when
// there is a header[user] on the exchange that is not null
onException(MyUserException.class)
    .onWhen(header("user").isNotNull())
    .maximumRedeliveries(2)
    .to(ERROR_USER_QUEUE);

// Here we define onException to catch MyUserException as a kind
// of fallback when the above did not match.
// Noitce: The order how we have defined these onException is
// important as Camel will resolve in the same order as they
// have been defined
onException(MyUserException.class)
    .maximumRedeliveries(2)
    .to(ERROR_QUEUE);
The preceding onException clauses can be expressed in the XML DSL as follows:
<redeliveryPolicyProfile id="twoRedeliveries" maximumRedeliveries="2"/>

<onException redeliveryPolicyRef="twoRedeliveries">
    <exception>com.mycompany.MyUserException</exception>
    <onWhen>
        <simple>${header.user} != null</simple>
    </onWhen>
    <to uri="activemq:error_user_queue"/>
</onException>

<onException redeliveryPolicyRef="twoRedeliveries">
    <exception>com.mycompany.MyUserException</exception>
    <to uri="activemq:error_queue"/>
</onException>

Handling exceptions

By default, when an exception is raised in the middle of a route, processing of the current exchange is interrupted and the thrown exception is propagated back to the consumer endpoint at the start of the route. When an onException clause is triggered, the behavior is essentially the same, except that the onException clause performs some processing before the thrown exception is propagated back.
But this default behavior is not the only way to handle an exception. The onException provides various options to modify the exception handling behavior, as follows:
  • the section called “Suppressing exception rethrow”—you have the option of suppressing the rethrown exception after the onException clause has completed. In other words, in this case the exception does not propagate back to the consumer endpoint at the start of the route.
  • the section called “Continuing processing”—you have the option of resuming normal processing of the exchange from the point where the exception originally occurred. Implicitly, this approach also suppresses the rethrown exception.
  • the section called “Sending a response”—in the special case where the consumer endpoint at the start of the route expects a reply (that is, having an InOut MEP), you might prefer to construct a custom fault reply message, rather than propagating the exception back to the consumer endpoint.

Suppressing exception rethrow

To prevent the current exception from being rethrown and propagated back to the consumer endpoint, you can set the handled() option to true in the Java DSL, as follows:
onException(ValidationException.class)
  .handled(true)
  .to("activemq:validationFailed");
In the Java DSL, the argument to the handled() option can be of boolean type, of Predicate type, or of Expression type (where any non-boolean expression is interpreted as true, if it evaluates to a non-null value).
The same route can be configured to suppress the rethrown exception in the XML DSL, using the handled element, as follows:
<onException>
    <exception>com.mycompany.ValidationException</exception>
    <handled>
        <constant>true</constant>
    </handled>
    <to uri="activemq:validationFailed"/>
</onException>

Continuing processing

To continue processing the current message from the point in the route where the exception was originally thrown, you can set the continued option to true in the Java DSL, as follows:
onException(ValidationException.class)
  .continued(true);
In the Java DSL, the argument to the continued() option can be of boolean type, of Predicate type, or of Expression type (where any non-boolean expression is interpreted as true, if it evaluates to a non-null value).
The same route can be configured in the XML DSL, using the continued element, as follows:
<onException>
    <exception>com.mycompany.ValidationException</exception>
    <continued>
        <constant>true</constant>
    </continued>
</onException>

Sending a response

When the consumer endpoint that starts a route expects a reply, you might prefer to construct a custom fault reply message, instead of simply letting the thrown exception propagate back to the consumer. There are two essential steps you need to follow in this case: suppress the rethrown exception using the handled option; and populate the exchange's Out message slot with a custom fault message.
For example, the following Java DSL fragment shows how to send a reply message containing the text string, Sorry, whenever the MyFunctionalException exception occurs:
// we catch MyFunctionalException and want to mark it as handled (= no failure returned to client)
// but we want to return a fixed text response, so we transform OUT body as Sorry.
onException(MyFunctionalException.class)
    .handled(true)
    .transform().constant("Sorry");
If you are sending a fault response to the client, you will often want to incorporate the text of the exception message in the response. You can access the text of the current exception message using the exceptionMessage() builder method. For example, you can send a reply containing just the text of the exception message whenever the MyFunctionalException exception occurs, as follows:
// we catch MyFunctionalException and want to mark it as handled (= no failure returned to client)
// but we want to return a fixed text response, so we transform OUT body and return the exception message
onException(MyFunctionalException.class)
    .handled(true)
    .transform(exceptionMessage());
The exception message text is also accessible from the Simple language, through the exception.message variable. For example, you could embed the current exception text in a reply message, as follows:
// we catch MyFunctionalException and want to mark it as handled (= no failure returned to client)
// but we want to return a fixed text response, so we transform OUT body and return a nice message
// using the simple language where we want insert the exception message
onException(MyFunctionalException.class)
    .handled(true)
    .transform().simple("Error reported: ${exception.message} - cannot process this message.");
The preceding onException clause can be expressed in XML DSL as follows:
<onException>
    <exception>com.mycompany.MyFunctionalException</exception>
    <handled>
        <constant>true</constant>
    </handled>
    <transform>
        <simple>Error reported: ${exception.message} - cannot process this message.</simple>
    </transform>
</onException>

Exception thrown while handling an exception

An exception that gets thrown while handling an existing exception (in other words, one that gets thrown in the middle of processing an onException clause) is handled in a special way. Such an exception is handled by the special fallback exception handler, which handles the exception as follows:
  • All existing exception handlers are ignored and processing fails immediately.
  • The new exception is logged.
  • The new exception is set on the exchange object.
The simple strategy avoids complex failure scenarios which could otherwise end up with an onException clause getting locked into an infinite loop.

Scopes

The onException clauses can be effective in either of the following scopes:
  • RouteBuilder scopeonException clauses defined as standalone statements inside a RouteBuilder.configure() method affect all of the routes defined in that RouteBuilder instance. On the other hand, these onException clauses have no effect whatsoever on routes defined inside any other RouteBuilder instance. The onException clauses must appear before the route definitions.
    All of the examples up to this point are defined using the RouteBuilder scope.
  • Route scopeonException clauses can also be embedded directly within a route. These onException clauses affect only the route in which they are defined.

Route scope

You can embed an onException clause anywhere inside a route definition, but you must terminate the embedded onException clause using the end() DSL command.
For example, you can define an embedded onException clause in the Java DSL, as follows:
// Java
from("direct:start")
  .onException(OrderFailedException.class)
    .maximumRedeliveries(1)
    .handled(true)
    .beanRef("orderService", "orderFailed")
    .to("mock:error")
  .end()
  .beanRef("orderService", "handleOrder")
  .to("mock:result");
You can define an embedded onException clause in the XML DSL, as follows:
<route errorHandlerRef="deadLetter">
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <onException>
        <exception>com.mycompany.OrderFailedException</exception>
        <redeliveryPolicy maximumRedeliveries="1"/>
        <handled>
            <constant>true</constant>
        </handled>
        <bean ref="orderService" method="orderFailed"/>
        <to uri="mock:error"/>
    </onException>
    <bean ref="orderService" method="handleOrder"/>
    <to uri="mock:result"/>
</route>

3.2. Error Handler

Overview

The errorHandler() clause provides similar features to the onException clause, except that this mechanism is not able to discriminate between different exception types. The errorHandler() clause is the original exception handling mechanism provided by Apache Camel and was available before the onException clause was implemented.

Java DSL example

The errorHandler() clause is defined in a RouteBuilder class and applies to all of the routes in that RouteBuilder class. It is triggered whenever an exception of any kind occurs in one of the applicable routes. For example, to define an error handler that routes all failed exchanges to the ActiveMQ deadLetter queue, you can define a RouteBuilder as follows:
public class MyRouteBuilder extends RouteBuilder {

    public void configure() {
        errorHandler(deadLetterChannel("activemq:deadLetter"));

        // The preceding error handler applies 
        // to all of the following routes:
        from("activemq:orderQueue")
          .to("pop3://fulfillment@acme.com");
        from("file:src/data?noop=true")
          .to("file:target/messages");
        // ...
    }
}
Redirection to the dead letter channel will not occur, however, until all attempts at redelivery have been exhausted.

XML DSL example

In the XML DSL, you define an error handler within a camelContext scope using the errorHandler element. For example, to define an error handler that routes all failed exchanges to the ActiveMQ deadLetter queue, you can define an errorHandler element as follows:
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
    xmlns:camel="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring"
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xsi:schemaLocation="
    http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-2.0.xsd
    http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring/camel-spring.xsd">
    
    <camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
        <errorHandler type="DeadLetterChannel"
                      deadLetterUri="activemq:deadLetter"/>
        <route>
            <from uri="activemq:orderQueue"/>
            <to uri="pop3://fulfillment@acme.com"/>
        </route>
        <route>
            <from uri="file:src/data?noop=true"/>
            <to uri="file:target/messages"/>
        </route>
    </camelContext>
    
</beans>

Types of error handler

Table 2.1, “Error Handler Types” provides an overview of the different types of error handler you can define.

Table 2.1. Error Handler Types

Java DSL BuilderXML DSL Type AttributeDescription
defaultErrorHandler() DefaultErrorHandler Propagates exceptions back to the caller and supports the redelivery policy, but it does not support a dead letter queue.
deadLetterChannel() DeadLetterChannel Supports the same features as the default error handler and, in addition, supports a dead letter queue.
loggingErrorChannel() LoggingErrorChannel Logs the exception text whenever an exception occurs.
noErrorHandler() NoErrorHandler Dummy handler implementation that can be used to disable the error handler.
  TransactionErrorHandler An error handler for transacted routes. A default transaction error handler instance is automatically used for a route that is marked as transacted.

3.3. doTry, doCatch, and doFinally

Overview

To handle exceptions within a route, you can use a combination of the doTry, doCatch, and doFinally clauses, which handle exceptions in a similar way to Java's try, catch, and finally blocks.

Similarities between doCatch and Java catch

In general, the doCatch() clause in a route definition behaves in an analogous way to the catch() statement in Java code. In particular, the following features are supported by the doCatch() clause:
  • Multiple doCatch clauses—you can have multiple doCatch clauses within a single doTry block. The doCatch clauses are tested in the order they appear, just like Java catch() statements. Apache Camel executes the first doCatch clause that matches the thrown exception.
    Note
    This algorithm is different from the exception matching algorithm used by the onException clause—see Section 3.1, “onException Clause” for details.
  • Rethrowing exceptions—you can rethrow the current exception from within a doCatch clause using the handled sub-clause (see the section called “Rethrowing exceptions in doCatch”).

Special features of doCatch

There are some special features of the doCatch() clause, however, that have no analogue in the Java catch() statement. The following features are specific to doCatch():

Example

The following example shows how to write a doTry block in the Java DSL, where the doCatch() clause will be executed, if either the IOException exception or the IllegalStateException exception are raised, and the doFinally() clause is always executed, irrespective of whether an exception is raised or not.
from("direct:start")
    .doTry()
        .process(new ProcessorFail())
        .to("mock:result")
    .doCatch(IOException.class, IllegalStateException.class)
        .to("mock:catch")
    .doFinally()
        .to("mock:finally")
    .end();
Or equivalently, in Spring XML:
<route>
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <!-- here the try starts. its a try .. catch .. finally just as regular java code -->
    <doTry>
        <process ref="processorFail"/>
        <to uri="mock:result"/>
        <doCatch>
            <!-- catch multiple exceptions -->
            <exception>java.io.IOException</exception>
            <exception>java.lang.IllegalStateException</exception>
            <to uri="mock:catch"/>
        </doCatch>
        <doFinally>
            <to uri="mock:finally"/>
        </doFinally>
    </doTry>
</route>

Rethrowing exceptions in doCatch

It is possible to rethrow an exception in a doCatch() clause by calling the handled() sub-clause with its argument set to false, as follows:
from("direct:start")
    .doTry()
        .process(new ProcessorFail())
        .to("mock:result")
    .doCatch(IOException.class)
        // mark this as NOT handled, eg the caller will also get the exception
        .handled(false)
        .to("mock:io")
    .doCatch(Exception.class)
        // and catch all other exceptions
        .to("mock:error")
    .end();
In the preceding example, if the IOException is caught by doCatch(), the current exchange is sent to the mock:io endpoint, and then the IOException is rethrown. This gives the consumer endpoint at the start of the route (in the from() command) an opportunity to handle the exception as well.
The following example shows how to define the same route in Spring XML:
<route>
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <doTry>
        <process ref="processorFail"/>
        <to uri="mock:result"/>
        <doCatch>
            <exception>java.io.IOException</exception>
            <!-- mark this as NOT handled, eg the caller will also get the exception -->
            <handled>
                <constant>false</constant>
            </handled>
            <to uri="mock:io"/>
        </doCatch>
        <doCatch>
            <!-- and catch all other exceptions they are handled by default (ie handled = true) -->
            <exception>java.lang.Exception</exception>
            <to uri="mock:error"/>
        </doCatch>
    </doTry>
</route>

Conditional exception catching using onWhen

A special feature of the Apache Camel doCatch() clause is that you can conditionalize the catching of exceptions based on an expression that is evaluated at run time. In other words, if you catch an exception using a clause of the form, doCatch(ExceptionList).doWhen(Expression), an exception will only be caught, if the predicate expression, Expression, evaluates to true at run time.
For example, the following doTry block will catch the exceptions, IOException and IllegalStateException, only if the exception message contains the word, Severe:
from("direct:start")
    .doTry()
        .process(new ProcessorFail())
        .to("mock:result")
    .doCatch(IOException.class, IllegalStateException.class)
        .onWhen(exceptionMessage().contains("Severe"))
        .to("mock:catch")
    .doCatch(CamelExchangeException.class)
        .to("mock:catchCamel")
    .doFinally()
        .to("mock:finally")
    .end();
Or equivalently, in Spring XML:
<route>
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <doTry>
        <process ref="processorFail"/>
        <to uri="mock:result"/>
        <doCatch>
            <exception>java.io.IOException</exception>
            <exception>java.lang.IllegalStateException</exception>
            <onWhen>
                <simple>${exception.message} contains 'Severe'</simple>
            </onWhen>
            <to uri="mock:catch"/>
        </doCatch>
        <doCatch>
            <exception>org.apache.camel.CamelExchangeException</exception>
            <to uri="mock:catchCamel"/>
        </doCatch>
        <doFinally>
            <to uri="mock:finally"/>
        </doFinally>
    </doTry>
</route>

3.4. Propagating SOAP Exceptions

Overview

The Camel CXF component provides an integration with Apache CXF, enabling you to send and receive SOAP messages from Apache Camel endpoints. You can easily define Apache Camel endpoints in XML, which can then be referenced in a route using the endpoint's bean ID. For more details, see CXF.

How to propagate stack trace information

It is possible to configure a CXF endpoint so that, when a Java exception is thrown on the server side, the stack trace for the exception is marshalled into a fault message and returned to the client. To enable this feaure, set the dataFormat to PAYLOAD and set the faultStackTraceEnabled property to true in the cxfEndpoint element, as follows:
<cxf:cxfEndpoint id="router" address="http://localhost:9002/TestMessage"
    wsdlURL="ship.wsdl"
    endpointName="s:TestSoapEndpoint"
    serviceName="s:TestService"
    xmlns:s="http://test">
  <cxf:properties>
    <!-- enable sending the stack trace back to client; the default value is false-->
    <entry key="faultStackTraceEnabled" value="true" />
    <entry key="dataFormat" value="PAYLOAD" />
  </cxf:properties>
</cxf:cxfEndpoint>
For security reasons, the stack trace does not include the causing exception (that is, the part of a stack trace that follows Caused by). If you want to include the causing exception in the stack trace, set the exceptionMessageCauseEnabled property to true in the cxfEndpoint element, as follows:
<cxf:cxfEndpoint id="router" address="http://localhost:9002/TestMessage"
    wsdlURL="ship.wsdl"
    endpointName="s:TestSoapEndpoint"
    serviceName="s:TestService"
    xmlns:s="http://test">
  <cxf:properties>
    <!-- enable to show the cause exception message and the default value is false -->
 <entry key="exceptionMessageCauseEnabled" value="true" />
    <!-- enable to send the stack trace back to client,  the default value is false-->
    <entry key="faultStackTraceEnabled" value="true" />
    <entry key="dataFormat" value="PAYLOAD" />
  </cxf:properties>
</cxf:cxfEndpoint>
Warning
You should only enable the exceptionMessageCauseEnabled flag for testing and diagnostic purposes. It is normal practice for servers to conceal the original cause of an exception to make it harder for hostile users to probe the server.

4. Bean Integration

Overview

Bean integration provides a general purpose mechanism for processing messages using arbitrary Java objects. By inserting a bean reference into a route, you can call an arbitrary method on a Java object, which can then access and modify the incoming exchange. The mechanism that maps an exchange's contents to the parameters and return values of a bean method is known as parameter binding. Parameter binding can use any combination of the following approaches in order to initialize a method's parameters:
  • Conventional method signatures — If the method signature conforms to certain conventions, the parameter binding can use Java reflection to determine what parameters to pass.
  • Annotations and dependency injection — For a more flexible binding mechanism, employ Java annotations to specify what to inject into the method's arguments. This dependency injection mechanism relies on Spring 2.5 component scanning. Normally, if you are deploying your Apache Camel application into a Spring container, the dependency injection mechanism will work automatically.
  • Explicitly specified parameters — You can specify parameters explicitly (either as constants or using the Simple language), at the point where the bean is invoked.

Bean registry

Beans are made accessible through a bean registry, which is a service that enables you to look up beans using either the class name or the bean ID as a key. The way that you create an entry in the bean registry depends on the underlying framework—for example, plain Java, Spring, Guice, or Blueprint. Registry entries are usually created implicitly (for example, when you instantiate a Spring bean in a Spring XML file).

Registry plug-in strategy

Apache Camel implements a plug-in strategy for the bean registry, defining an integration layer for accessing beans which makes the underlying registry implementation transparent. Hence, it is possible to integrate Apache Camel applications with a variety of different bean registries, as shown in Table 2.2, “Registry Plug-Ins”.

Table 2.2. Registry Plug-Ins

Registry ImplementationCamel Component with Registry Plug-In
Spring bean registrycamel-spring
Guice bean registrycamel-guice
Blueprint bean registrycamel-blueprint
OSGi service registrydeployed in OSGi container
Normally, you do not have to worry about configuring bean registries, because the relevant bean registry is automatically installed for you. For example, if you are using the Spring framework to define your routes, the Spring ApplicationContextRegistry plug-in is automatically installed in the current CamelContext instance.
Deployment in an OSGi container is a special case. When an Apache Camel route is deployed into the OSGi container, the CamelContext automatically sets up a registry chain for resolving bean instances: the registry chain consists of the OSGi registry, followed by the Blueprint (or Spring) registry.

Accessing a bean created in Java

To process exchange objects using a Java bean (which is a plain old Java object or POJO), use the bean() processor, which binds the inbound exchange to a method on the Java object. For example, to process inbound exchanges using the class, MyBeanProcessor, define a route like the following:
from("file:data/inbound")
    .bean(MyBeanProcessor.class, "processBody")
    .to("file:data/outbound");
Where the bean() processor creates an instance of MyBeanProcessor type and invokes the processBody() method to process inbound exchanges. This approach is adequate if you only want to access the MyBeanProcessor instance from a single route. However, if you want to access the same MyBeanProcessor instance from multiple routes, use the variant of bean() that takes the Object type as its first argument. For example:
MyBeanProcessor myBean = new MyBeanProcessor();

from("file:data/inbound")
    .bean(myBean, "processBody")
    .to("file:data/outbound");
from("activemq:inboundData")
    .bean(myBean, "processBody")
    .to("activemq:outboundData");

Accessing overloaded bean methods

If a bean defines overloaded methods, you can choose which of the overloaded methods to invoke by specifying the method name along with its parameter types. For example, if the MyBeanBrocessor class has two overloaded methods, processBody(String) and processBody(String,String), you can invoke the latter overloaded method as follows:
from("file:data/inbound")
  .bean(MyBeanProcessor.class, "processBody(String,String)")
  .to("file:data/outbound");
Alternatively, if you want to identify a method by the number of parameters it takes, rather than specifying the type of each parameter explicitly, you can use the wildcard character, *. For example, to invoke a method named processBody that takes two parameters, irrespective of the exact type of the parameters, invoke the bean() processor as follows:
from("file:data/inbound")
.bean(MyBeanProcessor.class, "processBody(*,*)")
.to("file:data/outbound");
When specifying the method, you can use either a simple unqualified type name—for example, processBody(Exchange)—or a fully qualified type name—for example, processBody(org.apache.camel.Exchange).
Note
In the current implementation, the specified type name must be an exact match of the parameter type. Type inheritance is not taken into account.

Specify parameters explicitly

You can specify parameter values explicitly, when you call the bean method. The following simple type values can be passed:
  • Boolean: true or false.
  • Numeric: 123, 7, and so on.
  • String: 'In single quotes' or "In double quotes".
  • Null object: null.
The following example shows how you can mix explicit parameter values with type specifiers in the same method invocation:
from("file:data/inbound")
  .bean(MyBeanProcessor.class, "processBody(String, 'Sample string value', true, 7)")
  .to("file:data/outbound");
In the preceding example, the value of the first parameter would presumably be determined by a parameter binding annotation (see the section called “Basic annotations”).
In addition to the simple type values, you can also specify parameter values using the Simple language (Chapter 27, The Simple Language). This means that the full power of the Simple language is available when specifying parameter values. For example, to pass the message body and the value of the title header to a bean method:
from("file:data/inbound")
  .bean(MyBeanProcessor.class, "processBodyAndHeader(${body},${header.title})")
  .to("file:data/outbound");
You can also pass the entire header hash map as a parameter. For example, in the following example, the second method parameter must be declared to be of type java.util.Map:
from("file:data/inbound")
  .bean(MyBeanProcessor.class, "processBodyAndAllHeaders(${body},${header})")
  .to("file:data/outbound");

Basic method signatures

To bind exchanges to a bean method, you can define a method signature that conforms to certain conventions. In particular, there are two basic conventions for method signatures:

Method signature for processing message bodies

If you want to implement a bean method that accesses or modifies the incoming message body, you must define a method signature that takes a single String argument and returns a String value. For example:
// Java
package com.acme;

public class MyBeanProcessor {
    public String processBody(String body) {
        // Do whatever you like to 'body'...
        return newBody;
    }
}

Method signature for processing exchanges

For greater flexibility, you can implement a bean method that accesses the incoming exchange. This enables you to access or modify all headers, bodies, and exchange properties. For processing exchanges, the method signature takes a single org.apache.camel.Exchange parameter and returns void. For example:
// Java
package com.acme;

public class MyBeanProcessor {
    public void processExchange(Exchange exchange) {
        // Do whatever you like to 'exchange'...
        exchange.getIn().setBody("Here is a new message body!");
    }
}

Accessing a bean created in Spring XML

Instead of creating a bean instance in Java, you can create an instance using Spring XML. In fact, this is the only feasible approach if you are defining your routes in XML. To define a bean in XML, use the standard Spring bean element. The following example shows how to create an instance of MyBeanProcessor:
<beans ...>
    ...
    <bean id="myBeanId" class="com.acme.MyBeanProcessor"/>
</beans>
It is also possible to pass data to the bean's constructor arguments using Spring syntax. For full details of how to use the Spring bean element, see The IoC Container from the Spring reference guide.
When you create an object instance using the bean element, you can reference it later using the bean's ID (the value of the bean element's id attribute). For example, given the bean element with ID equal to myBeanId, you can reference the bean in a Java DSL route using the beanRef() processor, as follows:
from("file:data/inbound").beanRef("myBeanId", "processBody").to("file:data/outbound");
Where the beanRef() processor invokes the MyBeanProcessor.processBody() method on the specified bean instance. You can also invoke the bean from within a Spring XML route, using the Camel schema's bean element. For example:
<camelContext id="CamelContextID" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="file:data/inbound"/>
    <bean ref="myBeanId" method="processBody"/>
    <to uri="file:data/outbound"/>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Parameter binding annotations

The basic parameter bindings described in the section called “Basic method signatures” might not always be convenient to use. For example, if you have a legacy Java class that performs some data manipulation, you might want to extract data from an inbound exchange and map it to the arguments of an existing method signature. For this kind of parameter binding, Apache Camel provides the following kinds of Java annotation:

Basic annotations

Table 2.3, “Basic Bean Annotations” shows the annotations from the org.apache.camel Java package that you can use to inject message data into the arguments of a bean method.

Table 2.3. Basic Bean Annotations

AnnotationMeaningParameter?
@Attachments Binds to a list of attachments. 
@Body Binds to an inbound message body. 
@Header Binds to an inbound message header.String name of the header.
@Headers Binds to a java.util.Map of the inbound message headers. 
@OutHeaders Binds to a java.util.Map of the outbound message headers. 
@Property Binds to a named exchange property.String name of the property.
@Properties Binds to a java.util.Map of the exchange properties. 
For example, the following class shows you how to use basic annotations to inject message data into the processExchange() method arguments.
// Java
import org.apache.camel.*;

public class MyBeanProcessor {
    public void processExchange(
        @Header(name="user") String user,
        @Body String body,
        Exchange exchange
    ) {
        // Do whatever you like to 'exchange'...
        exchange.getIn().setBody(body + "UserName = " + user);
    }
}
Notice how you are able to mix the annotations with the default conventions. As well as injecting the annotated arguments, the parameter binding also automatically injects the exchange object into the org.apache.camel.Exchange argument.

Expression language annotations

The expression language annotations provide a powerful mechanism for injecting message data into a bean method's arguments. Using these annotations, you can invoke an arbitrary script, written in the scripting language of your choice, to extract data from an inbound exchange and inject the data into a method argument. Table 2.4, “Expression Language Annotations” shows the annotations from the org.apache.camel.language package (and sub-packages, for the non-core annotations) that you can use to inject message data into the arguments of a bean method.

Table 2.4. Expression Language Annotations

AnnotationDescription
@Bean Injects a Bean expression.
@Constant Injects a Constant expression
@EL Injects an EL expression.
@Groovy Injects a Groovy expression.
@Header Injects a Header expression.
@JavaScript Injects a JavaScript expression.
@OGNL Injects an OGNL expression.
@PHP Injects a PHP expression.
@Python Injects a Python expression.
@Ruby Injects a Ruby expression.
@Simple Injects a Simple expression.
@XPath Injects an XPath expression.
@XQuery Injects an XQuery expression.
For example, the following class shows you how to use the @XPath annotation to extract a username and a password from the body of an incoming message in XML format:
// Java
import org.apache.camel.language.*;

public class MyBeanProcessor {
    public void checkCredentials(
        @XPath("/credentials/username/text()") String user,
        @XPath("/credentials/password/text()") String pass
    ) {
        // Check the user/pass credentials...
        ...
    }
}
The @Bean annotation is a special case, because it enables you to inject the result of invoking a registered bean. For example, to inject a correlation ID into a method argument, you can use the @Bean annotation to invoke an ID generator class, as follows:
// Java
import org.apache.camel.language.*;

public class MyBeanProcessor {
    public void processCorrelatedMsg(
        @Bean("myCorrIdGenerator") String corrId,
        @Body String body
    ) {
        // Check the user/pass credentials...
        ...
    }
}
Where the string, myCorrIdGenerator, is the bean ID of the ID generator instance. The ID generator class can be instantiated using the spring bean element, as follows:
<beans ...>
    ...
    <bean id="myCorrIdGenerator" class="com.acme.MyIdGenerator"/>
</beans>
Where the MySimpleIdGenerator class could be defined as follows:
// Java
package com.acme;

public class MyIdGenerator {

    private UserManager userManager;

    public String generate(
        @Header(name = "user") String user,
        @Body String payload
    ) throws Exception {
       User user = userManager.lookupUser(user);
       String userId = user.getPrimaryId();
       String id = userId + generateHashCodeForPayload(payload);
       return id;
   }
}
Notice that you can also use annotations in the referenced bean class, MyIdGenerator. The only restriction on the generate() method signature is that it must return the correct type to inject into the argument annotated by @Bean. Because the @Bean annotation does not let you specify a method name, the injection mechanism simply invokes the first method in the referenced bean that has the matching return type.
Note
Some of the language annotations are available in the core component (@Bean, @Constant, @Simple, and @XPath). For non-core components, however, you will have to make sure that you load the relevant component. For example, to use the OGNL script, you must load the camel-ognl component.

Inherited annotations

Parameter binding annotations can be inherited from an interface or from a superclass. For example, if you define a Java interface with a Header annotation and a Body annotation, as follows:
// Java
import org.apache.camel.*;

public interface MyBeanProcessorIntf {
    void processExchange(
        @Header(name="user") String user,
        @Body String body,
        Exchange exchange
    );
}
The overloaded methods defined in the implementation class, MyBeanProcessor, now inherit the annotations defined in the base interface, as follows:
// Java
import org.apache.camel.*;

public class MyBeanProcessor implements MyBeanProcessorIntf {
    public void processExchange(
        String user,  // Inherits Header annotation
        String body,  // Inherits Body annotation
        Exchange exchange
    ) {
        ...
    }
}

Interface implementations

The class that implements a Java interface is often protected, private or in package-only scope. If you try to invoke a method on an implementation class that is restricted in this way, the bean binding falls back to invoking the corresponding interface method, which is publicly accessible.
For example, consider the following public BeanIntf interface:
// Java
public interface BeanIntf {
    void processBodyAndHeader(String body, String title);
}
Where the BeanIntf interface is implemented by the following protected BeanIntfImpl class:
// Java
protected class BeanIntfImpl implements BeanIntf {
    void processBodyAndHeader(String body, String title) {
        ...
    }
}
The following bean invocation would fall back to invoking the public BeanIntf.processBodyAndHeader method:
from("file:data/inbound")
  .bean(BeanIntfImpl.class, "processBodyAndHeader(${body}, ${header.title})")
  .to("file:data/outbound");

Invoking static methods

Bean integration has the capability to invoke static methods without creating an instance of the associated class. For example, consider the following Java class that defines the static method, changeSomething():
// Java
...
public final class MyStaticClass {
    private MyStaticClass() {
    }

    public static String changeSomething(String s) {
        if ("Hello World".equals(s)) {
            return "Bye World";
        }
        return null;
    }

    public void doSomething() {
        // noop
    }
}
You can use bean integration to invoke the static changeSomething method, as follows:
from("direct:a")
 .bean(MyStaticClass.class, "changeSomething")
  .to("mock:a");
Note that, although this syntax looks identical to the invocation of an ordinary function, bean integration exploits Java reflection to identify the method as static and proceeds to invoke the method without instantiating MyStaticClass.

Invoking an OSGi service

In the special case where a route is deployed into a Red Hat JBoss Fuse container, it is possible to invoke an OSGi service directly using bean integration. For example, assuming that one of the bundles in the OSGi container has exported the service, org.fusesource.example.HelloWorldOsgiService, you could invoke the sayHello method using the following bean integration code:
from("file:data/inbound")
  .bean(org.fusesource.example.HelloWorldOsgiService.class, "sayHello")
  .to("file:data/outbound");
You could also invoke the OSGi service from within a Spring or Blueprint XML file, using the bean component, as follows:
<to uri="bean:org.fusesource.example.HelloWorldOsgiService?method=sayHello"/>
The way this works is that Apache Camel sets up a chain of registries when it is deployed in the OSGi container. First of all, it looks up the specified class name in the OSGi service registry; if this lookup fails, it then falls back to the local Spring DM or Blueprint registry.

5. Creating Exchange Instances

Overview

When processing messages with Java code (for example, in a bean class or in a processor class), it is often necessary to create a fresh exchange instance. If you need to create an Exchange object, the easiest approach is to invoke the methods of the ExchangeBuilder class, as described here.

ExchangeBuilder class

The fully qualified name of the ExchangeBuilder class is as follows:
org.apache.camel.builder.ExchangeBuilder
The ExchangeBuilder exposes the static method, anExchange, which you can use to start building an exchange object.

Example

For example, the following code creates a new exchange object containing the message body string, Hello World!, and with headers containing username and password credentials:
// Java
import org.apache.camel.Exchange;
import org.apache.camel.builder.ExchangeBuilder;
...
Exchange exch = ExchangeBuilder.anExchange(camelCtx)
                    .withBody("Hello World!")
                    .withHeader("username", "jdoe")
                    .withHeader("password", "pass")
                    .build();

ExchangeBuilder methods

The ExchangeBuilder class supports the following methods:
ExchangeBuilder anExchange(CamelContext context)
(static method) Initiate building an exchange object.
Exchange build()
Build the exchange.
ExchangeBuilder withBody(Object body)
Set the message body on the exchange (that is, sets the exchange's In message body).
ExchangeBuilder withHeader(String key, Object value)
Set a header on the exchange (that is, sets a header on the exchange's In message).
ExchangeBuilder withPattern(ExchangePattern pattern)
Sets the exchange pattern on the exchange.
ExchangeBuilder withProperty(String key, Object value)
Sets a property on the exchange.

6. Transforming Message Content

Abstract

Apache Camel supports a variety of approaches to transforming message content. In addition to a simple native API for modifying message content, Apache Camel supports integration with several different third-party libraries and transformation standards.

6.1. Simple Message Transformations

Overview

The Java DSL has a built-in API that enables you to perform simple transformations on incoming and outgoing messages. For example, the rule shown in Example 2.1, “Simple Transformation of Incoming Messages” appends the text, World!, to the end of the incoming message body.

Example 2.1. Simple Transformation of Incoming Messages

from("SourceURL").setBody(body().append(" World!")).to("TargetURL");
Where the setBody() command replaces the content of the incoming message's body.

API for simple transformations

You can use the following API classes to perform simple transformations of the message content in a router rule:
  • org.apache.camel.model.ProcessorDefinition
  • org.apache.camel.builder.Builder
  • org.apache.camel.builder.ValueBuilder

ProcessorDefinition class

The org.apache.camel.model.ProcessorDefinition class defines the DSL commands you can insert directly into a router rule—for example, the setBody() command in Example 2.1, “Simple Transformation of Incoming Messages”. Table 2.5, “Transformation Methods from the ProcessorDefinition Class” shows the ProcessorDefinition methods that are relevant to transforming message content:

Table 2.5. Transformation Methods from the ProcessorDefinition Class

MethodDescription
Type convertBodyTo(Class type) Converts the IN message body to the specified type.
Type removeFaultHeader(String name) Adds a processor which removes the header on the FAULT message.
Type removeHeader(String name) Adds a processor which removes the header on the IN message.
Type removeProperty(String name) Adds a processor which removes the exchange property.
ExpressionClause<ProcessorDefinition<Type>> setBody() Adds a processor which sets the body on the IN message.
Type setFaultBody(Expression expression) Adds a processor which sets the body on the FAULT message.
Type setFaultHeader(String name, Expression expression) Adds a processor which sets the header on the FAULT message.
ExpressionClause<ProcessorDefinition<Type>> setHeader(String name) Adds a processor which sets the header on the IN message.
Type setHeader(String name, Expression expression) Adds a processor which sets the header on the IN message.
ExpressionClause<ProcessorDefinition<Type>> setOutHeader(String name) Adds a processor which sets the header on the OUT message.
Type setOutHeader(String name, Expression expression) Adds a processor which sets the header on the OUT message.
ExpressionClause<ProcessorDefinition<Type>> setProperty(String name) Adds a processor which sets the exchange property.
Type setProperty(String name, Expression expression) Adds a processor which sets the exchange property.
ExpressionClause<ProcessorDefinition<Type>> transform() Adds a processor which sets the body on the OUT message.
Type transform(Expression expression) Adds a processor which sets the body on the OUT message.

Builder class

The org.apache.camel.builder.Builder class provides access to message content in contexts where expressions or predicates are expected. In other words, Builder methods are typically invoked in the arguments of DSL commands—for example, the body() command in Example 2.1, “Simple Transformation of Incoming Messages”. Table 2.6, “Methods from the Builder Class” summarizes the static methods available in the Builder class.

Table 2.6. Methods from the Builder Class

MethodDescription
static <E extends Exchange> ValueBuilder<E> body() Returns a predicate and value builder for the inbound body on an exchange.
static <E extends Exchange,T> ValueBuilder<E> bodyAs(Class<T> type) Returns a predicate and value builder for the inbound message body as a specific type.
static <E extends Exchange> ValueBuilder<E> constant(Object value) Returns a constant expression.
static <E extends Exchange> ValueBuilder<E> faultBody() Returns a predicate and value builder for the fault body on an exchange.
static <E extends Exchange,T> ValueBuilder<E> faultBodyAs(Class<T> type) Returns a predicate and value builder for the fault message body as a specific type.
static <E extends Exchange> ValueBuilder<E> header(String name) Returns a predicate and value builder for headers on an exchange.
static <E extends Exchange> ValueBuilder<E> outBody() Returns a predicate and value builder for the outbound body on an exchange.
static <E extends Exchange> ValueBuilder<E> outBodyAs(Class<T> type) Returns a predicate and value builder for the outbound message body as a specific type.
static ValueBuilder property(String name) Returns a predicate and value builder for properties on an exchange.
static ValueBuilder regexReplaceAll(Expression content, String regex, Expression replacement) Returns an expression that replaces all occurrences of the regular expression with the given replacement.
static ValueBuilder regexReplaceAll(Expression content, String regex, String replacement) Returns an expression that replaces all occurrences of the regular expression with the given replacement.
static ValueBuilder sendTo(String uri) Returns an expression processing the exchange to the given endpoint uri.
static <E extends Exchange> ValueBuilder<E> systemProperty(String name) Returns an expression for the given system property.
static <E extends Exchange> ValueBuilder<E> systemProperty(String name, String defaultValue) Returns an expression for the given system property.

ValueBuilder class

The org.apache.camel.builder.ValueBuilder class enables you to modify values returned by the Builder methods. In other words, the methods in ValueBuilder provide a simple way of modifying message content. Table 2.7, “Modifier Methods from the ValueBuilder Class” summarizes the methods available in the ValueBuilder class. That is, the table shows only the methods that are used to modify the value they are invoked on (for full details, see the API Reference documentation).

Table 2.7. Modifier Methods from the ValueBuilder Class

MethodDescription
ValueBuilder<E> append(Object value) Appends the string evaluation of this expression with the given value.
Predicate contains(Object value) Create a predicate that the left hand expression contains the value of the right hand expression.
ValueBuilder<E> convertTo(Class type) Converts the current value to the given type using the registered type converters.
ValueBuilder<E> convertToString() Converts the current value a String using the registered type converters.
Predicate endsWith(Object value)  
<T> T evaluate(Exchange exchange, Class<T> type)  
Predicate in(Object... values)  
Predicate in(Predicate... predicates)  
Predicate isEqualTo(Object value) Returns true, if the current value is equal to the given value argument.
Predicate isGreaterThan(Object value) Returns true, if the current value is greater than the given value argument.
Predicate isGreaterThanOrEqualTo(Object value) Returns true, if the current value is greater than or equal to the given value argument.
Predicate isInstanceOf(Class type) Returns true, if the current value is an instance of the given type.
Predicate isLessThan(Object value) Returns true, if the current value is less than the given value argument.
Predicate isLessThanOrEqualTo(Object value) Returns true, if the current value is less than or equal to the given value argument.
Predicate isNotEqualTo(Object value) Returns true, if the current value is not equal to the given value argument.
Predicate isNotNull() Returns true, if the current value is not null.
Predicate isNull() Returns true, if the current value is null.
Predicate matches(Expression expression)  
Predicate not(Predicate predicate) Negates the predicate argument.
ValueBuilder prepend(Object value) Prepends the string evaluation of this expression to the given value.
Predicate regex(String regex)  
ValueBuilder<E> regexReplaceAll(String regex, Expression<E> replacement) Replaces all occurrencies of the regular expression with the given replacement.
ValueBuilder<E> regexReplaceAll(String regex, String replacement) Replaces all occurrencies of the regular expression with the given replacement.
ValueBuilder<E> regexTokenize(String regex) Tokenizes the string conversion of this expression using the given regular expression.
ValueBuilder sort(Comparator comparator) Sorts the current value using the given comparator.
Predicate startsWith(Object value) Returns true, if the current value matches the string value of the value argument.
ValueBuilder<E> tokenize() Tokenizes the string conversion of this expression using the comma token separator.
ValueBuilder<E> tokenize(String token) Tokenizes the string conversion of this expression using the given token separator.

6.2. Marshalling and Unmarshalling

Java DSL commands

You can convert between low-level and high-level message formats using the following commands:
  • marshal()— Converts a high-level data format to a low-level data format.
  • unmarshal() — Converts a low-level data format to a high-level data format.

Data formats

Apache Camel supports marshalling and unmarshalling of the following data formats:
  • Java serialization
  • JAXB
  • XMLBeans
  • XStream

Java serialization

Enables you to convert a Java object to a blob of binary data. For this data format, unmarshalling converts a binary blob to a Java object, and marshalling converts a Java object to a binary blob. For example, to read a serialized Java object from an endpoint, SourceURL, and convert it to a Java object, you use a rule like the following:
from("SourceURL").unmarshal().serialization()
.<FurtherProcessing>.to("TargetURL");
Or alternatively, in Spring XML:
<camelContext id="serialization" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="SourceURL"/>
    <unmarshal>
      <serialization/>
    </unmarshal>
    <to uri="TargetURL"/>
  </route>
</camelContext>

JAXB

Provides a mapping between XML schema types and Java types (see https://jaxb.dev.java.net/). For JAXB, unmarshalling converts an XML data type to a Java object, and marshalling converts a Java object to an XML data type. Before you can use JAXB data formats, you must compile your XML schema using a JAXB compiler to generate the Java classes that represent the XML data types in the schema. This is called binding the schema. After the schema is bound, you define a rule to unmarshal XML data to a Java object, using code like the following:
org.apache.camel.spi.DataFormat jaxb = new org.apache.camel.model.dataformat.JaxbDataFormat("GeneratedPackageName");

from("SourceURL").unmarshal(jaxb)
.<FurtherProcessing>.to("TargetURL");
where GeneratedPackagename is the name of the Java package generated by the JAXB compiler, which contains the Java classes representing your XML schema.
Or alternatively, in Spring XML:
<camelContext id="jaxb" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="SourceURL"/>
    <unmarshal>
      <jaxb prettyPrint="true" contextPath="GeneratedPackageName"/>
    </unmarshal>
    <to uri="TargetURL"/>
  </route>
</camelContext>

XMLBeans

Provides an alternative mapping between XML schema types and Java types (see http://xmlbeans.apache.org/). For XMLBeans, unmarshalling converts an XML data type to a Java object and marshalling converts a Java object to an XML data type. For example, to unmarshal XML data to a Java object using XMLBeans, you use code like the following:
from("SourceURL").unmarshal().xmlBeans()
.<FurtherProcessing>.to("TargetURL");
Or alternatively, in Spring XML:
<camelContext id="xmlBeans" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="SourceURL"/>
    <unmarshal>
      <xmlBeans prettyPrint="true"/>
    </unmarshal>
    <to uri="TargetURL"/>
  </route>
</camelContext>

XStream

Provides another mapping between XML types and Java types (see http://xstream.codehaus.org/). XStream is a serialization library (like Java serialization), enabling you to convert any Java object to XML. For XStream, unmarshalling converts an XML data type to a Java object, and marshalling converts a Java object to an XML data type.
from("SourceURL").unmarshal().xstream()
.<FurtherProcessing>.to("TargetURL");
Note
The XStream data format is currently not supported in Spring XML.

6.3. Endpoint Bindings

What is a binding?

In Apache Camel, a binding is a way of wrapping an endpoint in a contract—for example, by applying a Data Format, a Content Enricher or a validation step. A condition or transformation is applied to the messages coming in, and a complementary condition or transformation is applied to the messages going out.

DataFormatBinding

The DataFormatBinding class is useful for the specific case where you want to define a binding that marshals and unmarshals a particular data format (see Section 6.2, “Marshalling and Unmarshalling”). In this case, all that you need to do to create a binding is to create a DataFormatBinding instance, passing a reference to the relevant data format in the constructor.
For example, the XML DSL snippet in Example 2.2, “JAXB Binding” shows a binding (with ID, jaxb) that is capable of marshalling and unmarshalling the JAXB data format when it is associated with an Apache Camel endpoint:

Example 2.2. JAXB Binding

<beans ... >
    ...
    <bean id="jaxb" class="org.apache.camel.processor.binding.DataFormatBinding">
        <constructor-arg ref="jaxbformat"/>
    </bean>

    <bean id="jaxbformat" class="org.apache.camel.model.dataformat.JaxbDataFormat">
        <property name="prettyPrint" value="true"/>
        <property name="contextPath" value="org.apache.camel.example"/>
    </bean>

</beans>

Associating a binding with an endpoint

The following alternatives are available for associating a binding with an endpoint:

Binding URI

To associate a binding with an endpoint, you can prefix the endpoint URI with binding:NameOfBinding, where NameOfBinding is the bean ID of the binding (for example, the ID of a binding bean created in Spring XML).
For example, the following example shows how to associate ActiveMQ endpoints with the JAXB binding defined in Example 2.2, “JAXB Binding”.
<beans ...>
    ...    
    <camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
        <route>
            <from uri="binding:jaxb:activemq:orderQueue"/>
            <to uri="binding:jaxb:activemq:otherQueue"/>
        </route>
    </camelContext>
    ...    
</beans>

BindingComponent

Instead of using a prefix to associate a binding with an endpoint, you can make the association implicit, so that the binding does not need to appear in the URI. For existing endpoints that do not have an implicit binding, the easiest way to achieve this is to wrap the endpoint using the BindingComponent class.
For example, to associate the jaxb binding with activemq endpoints, you could define a new BindingComponent instance as follows:
<beans ... >
    ...
    <bean id="jaxbmq" class="org.apache.camel.component.binding.BindingComponent">
        <constructor-arg ref="jaxb"/>
        <constructor-arg value="activemq:foo."/>
    </bean>

    <bean id="jaxb" class="org.apache.camel.processor.binding.DataFormatBinding">
        <constructor-arg ref="jaxbformat"/>
    </bean>

    <bean id="jaxbformat" class="org.apache.camel.model.dataformat.JaxbDataFormat">
        <property name="prettyPrint" value="true"/>
        <property name="contextPath" value="org.apache.camel.example"/>
    </bean>

</beans>
Where the (optional) second constructor argument to jaxbmq defines a URI prefix. You can now use the jaxbmq ID as the scheme for an endpoint URI. For example, you can define the following route using this binding component:
<beans ...>
    ...    
    <camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
        <route>
            <from uri="jaxbmq:firstQueue"/>
            <to uri="jaxbmq:otherQueue"/>
        </route>
    </camelContext>
    ...    
</beans>
The preceding route is equivalent to the following route, which uses the binding URI approach:
<beans ...>
    ...    
    <camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
        <route>
            <from uri="binding:jaxb:activemq:foo.firstQueue"/>
            <to uri="binding:jaxb:activemq:foo.otherQueue"/>
        </route>
    </camelContext>
    ...    
</beans>
Note
For developers that implement a custom Apache Camel component, it is possible to achieve this by implementing an endpoint class that inherits from the org.apache.camel.spi.HasBinding interface.

BindingComponent constructors

The BindingComponent class supports the following constructors:
public BindingComponent()
No arguments form. Use property injection to configure the binding component instance.
public BindingComponent(Binding binding)
Associate this binding component with the specified Binding object, binding.
public BindingComponent(Binding binding, String uriPrefix)
Associate this binding component with the specified Binding object, binding, and URI prefix, uriPrefix. This is the most commonly used constructor.
public BindingComponent(Binding binding, String uriPrefix, String uriPostfix)
This constructor supports the additional URI post-fix, uriPostfix, argument, which is automatically appended to any URIs defined using this binding component.

Implementing a custom binding

In addition to the DataFormatBinding, which is used for marshalling and unmarshalling data formats, you can implement your own custom bindings. Define a custom binding as follows:
  1. Implement an org.apache.camel.Processor class to perform a transformation on messages incoming to a consumer endpoint (appearing in a from element).
  2. Implement a complementary org.apache.camel.Processor class to perform the reverse transformation on messages outgoing from a producer endpoint (appearing in a to element).
  3. Implement the org.apache.camel.spi.Binding interface, which acts as a factory for the processor instances.

Binding interface

Example 2.3, “The org.apache.camel.spi.Binding Interface” shows the definition of the org.apache.camel.spi.Binding interface, which you must implement to define a custom binding.

Example 2.3. The org.apache.camel.spi.Binding Interface

// Java
package org.apache.camel.spi;

import org.apache.camel.Processor;

/**
 * Represents a <a href="http://camel.apache.org/binding.html">Binding</a> or contract
 * which can be applied to an Endpoint; such as ensuring that a particular
 * <a href="http://camel.apache.org/data-format.html">Data Format</a> is used on messages in and out of an endpoint.
 */
public interface Binding {

    /**
     * Returns a new {@link Processor} which is used by a producer on an endpoint to implement
     * the producer side binding before the message is sent to the underlying endpoint.
     */
    Processor createProduceProcessor();

    /**
     * Returns a new {@link Processor} which is used by a consumer on an endpoint to process the
     * message with the binding before its passed to the endpoint consumer producer.
     */
    Processor createConsumeProcessor();
}

When to use bindings

Bindings are useful when you need to apply the same kind of transformation to many different kinds of endpoint.

7. Property Placeholders

Overview

The property placeholders feature can be used to substitute strings into various contexts (such as endpoint URIs and attributes in XML DSL elements), where the placeholder settings are stored in Java properties files. This feature can be useful, if you want to share settings between different Apache Camel applications or if you want to centralize certain configuration settings.
For example, the following route sends requests to a Web server, whose host and port are substituted by the placeholders, {{remote.host}} and {{remote.port}}:
from("direct:start").to("http://{{remote.host}}:{{remote.port}}");
The placeholder values are defined in a Java properties file, as follows:
# Java properties file
remote.host=myserver.com
remote.port=8080

Property files

Property settings are stored in one or more Java properties files and must conform to the standard Java properties file format. Each property setting appears on its own line, in the format Key=Value. Lines with # or ! as the first non-blank character are treated as comments.
For example, a property file could have content as shown in Example 2.4, “Sample Property File”.

Example 2.4. Sample Property File

# Property placeholder settings
# (in Java properties file format)
cool.end=mock:result
cool.result=result
cool.concat=mock:{{cool.result}}
cool.start=direct:cool
cool.showid=true

cheese.end=mock:cheese
cheese.quote=Camel rocks
cheese.type=Gouda

bean.foo=foo
bean.bar=bar

Resolving properties

The properties component must be configured with the locations of one or more property files before you can start using it in route definitions. You must provide the property values using one of the following resolvers:
classpath:PathName,PathName,...
(Default) Specifies locations on the classpath, where PathName is a file pathname delimited using forward slashes.
file:PathName,PathName,...
Specifies locations on the file system, where PathName is a file pathname delimited using forward slashes.
ref:BeanID
Specifies the ID of a java.util.Properties object in the registry.
blueprint:BeanID
Specifies the ID of a cm:property-placeholder bean, which is used in the context of an OSGi Blueprint file to access properties defined in the OSGi Configuration Admin service. For details, see the section called “Integration with OSGi Blueprint property placeholders”.
For example, to specify the com/fusesource/cheese.properties property file and the com/fusesource/bar.properties property file, both located on the classpath, you would use the following location string:
com/fusesource/cheese.properties,com/fusesource/bar.properties
Note
You can omit the classpath: prefix in this example, because the classpath resolver is used by default.

Specifying locations using system properties and environment variables

You can embed Java system properties and O/S environment variables in a location PathName.
Java system properties can be embedded in a location resolver using the syntax, ${PropertyName}. For example, if the root directory of Red Hat JBoss Fuse is stored in the Java system property, karaf.home, you could embed that directory value in a file location, as follows:
file:${karaf.home}/etc/foo.properties
O/S environment variables can be embedded in a location resolver using the syntax, ${env:VarName}. For example, if the root directory of JBoss Fuse is stored in the environment variable, SMX_HOME, you could embed that directory value in a file location, as follows:
file:${env:SMX_HOME}/etc/foo.properties

Configuring the properties component

Before you can start using property placeholders, you must configure the properties component, specifying the locations of one or more property files.
In the Java DSL, you can configure the properties component with the property file locations, as follows:
// Java
import org.apache.camel.component.properties.PropertiesComponent;
...
PropertiesComponent pc = new PropertiesComponent();
pc.setLocation("com/fusesource/cheese.properties,com/fusesource/bar.properties");
context.addComponent("properties", pc);
As shown in the addComponent() call, the name of the properties component must be set to properties.
In the XML DSL, you can configure the properties component using the dedicated propertyPlacholder element, as follows:
<camelContext ...>
   <propertyPlaceholder
      id="properties"
      location="com/fusesource/cheese.properties,com/fusesource/bar.properties"
   />
</camelContext>
If you want the properties component to ignore any missing .properties files when it is being initialized, you can set the ignoreMissingLocation option to true (normally, a missing .properties file would result in an error being raised).

Placeholder syntax

After it is configured, the property component automatically substitutes placeholders (in the appropriate contexts). The syntax of a placeholder depends on the context, as follows:
  • In endpoint URIs and in Spring XML files—the placeholder is specified as {{Key}}.
  • When setting XML DSL attributesxs:string attributes are set using the following syntax:
    AttributeName="{{Key}}"
    Other attribute types (for example, xs:int or xs:boolean) must be set using the following syntax:
    prop:AttributeName="Key"
    Where prop is associated with the http://camel.apache.org/schema/placeholder namespace.
  • When setting Java DSL EIP options—to set an option on an Enterprise Integration Pattern (EIP) command in the Java DSL, add a placeholder() clause like the following to the fluent DSL:
    .placeholder("OptionName", "Key")
  • In Simple language expressions—the placeholder is specified as ${properties:Key}.

Substitution in endpoint URIs

Wherever an endpoint URI string appears in a route, the first step in parsing the endpoint URI is to apply the property placeholder parser. The placeholder parser automatically substitutes any property names appearing between double braces, {{Key}}. For example, given the property settings shown in Example 2.4, “Sample Property File”, you could define a route as follows:
from("{{cool.start}}")
    .to("log:{{cool.start}}?showBodyType=false&showExchangeId={{cool.showid}}")
    .to("mock:{{cool.result}}");
By default, the placeholder parser looks up the properties bean ID in the registry to find the property component. If you prefer, you can explicitly specify the scheme in the endpoint URIs. For example, by prefixing properties: to each of the endpoint URIs, you can define the following equivalent route:
from("properties:{{cool.start}}")
    .to("properties:log:{{cool.start}}?showBodyType=false&showExchangeId={{cool.showid}}")
    .to("properties:mock:{{cool.result}}");
When specifying the scheme explicitly, you also have the option of specifying options to the properties component. For example, to override the property file location, you could set the location option as follows:
from("direct:start").to("properties:{{bar.end}}?location=com/mycompany/bar.properties");

Substitution in Spring XML files

You can also use property placeholders in the XML DSL, for setting various attributes of the DSL elements. In this context, the placholder syntax also uses double braces, {{Key}}. For example, you could define a jmxAgent element using property placeholders, as follows:
<camelContext id="camel" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
    <propertyPlaceholder id="properties" location="org/apache/camel/spring/jmx.properties"/>

    <!-- we can use property placeholders when we define the JMX agent -->
    <jmxAgent id="agent" registryPort="{{myjmx.port}}"
              usePlatformMBeanServer="{{myjmx.usePlatform}}"
              createConnector="true"
              statisticsLevel="RoutesOnly"
            />

    <route>
        <from uri="seda:start"/>
        <to uri="mock:result"/>
    </route>
</camelContext>

Substitution of XML DSL attribute values

You can use the regular placeholder syntax for specifying attribute values of xs:string type—for example, <jmxAgent registryPort="{{myjmx.port}}" ...>. But for attributes of any other type (for example, xs:int or xs:boolean), you must use the special syntax, prop:AttributeName="Key".
For example, given that a property file defines the stop.flag property to have the value, true, you can use this property to set the stopOnException boolean attribute, as follows:
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
       xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
 xmlns:prop="http://camel.apache.org/schema/placeholder"
       ... >

    <bean id="illegal" class="java.lang.IllegalArgumentException">
        <constructor-arg index="0" value="Good grief!"/>
    </bean>

    <camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">

        <propertyPlaceholder id="properties"
                             location="classpath:org/apache/camel/component/properties/myprop.properties"
                             xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring"/>

        <route>
            <from uri="direct:start"/>
            <multicast prop:stopOnException="stop.flag">
                <to uri="mock:a"/>
                <throwException ref="damn"/>
                <to uri="mock:b"/>
            </multicast>
        </route>

    </camelContext>

</beans>
Important
The prop prefix must be explicitly assigned to the http://camel.apache.org/schema/placeholder namespace in your Spring file, as shown in the beans element of the preceding example.

Substitution of Java DSL EIP options

When invoking an EIP command in the Java DSL, you can set any EIP option using the value of a property placeholder, by adding a sub-clause of the form, placeholder("OptionName", "Key").
For example, given that a property file defines the stop.flag property to have the value, true, you can use this property to set the stopOnException option of the multicast EIP, as follows:
from("direct:start")
    .multicast().placeholder("stopOnException", "stop.flag")
        .to("mock:a").throwException(new IllegalAccessException("Damn")).to("mock:b");

Substitution in Simple language expressions

You can also substitute property placeholders in Simple language expressions, but in this case the syntax of the placeholder is ${properties:Key}. For example, you can substitute the cheese.quote placehoder inside a Simple expression, as follows:
from("direct:start")
    .transform().simple("Hi ${body} do you think ${properties:cheese.quote}?");
It is also possible to override the location of the property file using the syntax, ${properties:Location:Key}. For example, to substitute the bar.quote placeholder using the settings from the com/mycompany/bar.properties property file, you can define a Simple expression as follows:
from("direct:start")
    .transform().simple("Hi ${body}. ${properties:com/mycompany/bar.properties:bar.quote}.");

Integration with OSGi Blueprint property placeholders

If you deploy your route into the Red Hat JBoss Fuse OSGi container, you can integrate the Apache Camel property placeholder mechanism with JBoss Fuse's Blueprint property placeholder mechanism (in fact, the integration is enabled by default). There are two basic approaches to setting up the integration, as follows:

Implicit Blueprint integration

If you define a camelContext element inside an OSGi Blueprint file, the Apache Camel property placeholder mechanism automatically integrates with the Blueprint property placeholder mechanism. That is, placeholders obeying the Apache Camel syntax (for example, {{cool.end}}) that appear within the scope of camelContext are implicitly resolved by looking up the Blueprint property placeholder mechanism.
For example, consider the following route defined in an OSGi Blueprint file, where the last endpoint in the route is defined by the property placeholder, {{result}}:
<blueprint xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0"
           xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
           xmlns:cm="http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-cm/v1.0.0"
           xsi:schemaLocation="
           http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0 http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0/blueprint.xsd">

    <!-- OSGI blueprint property placeholder -->
    <cm:property-placeholder id="myblueprint.placeholder" persistent-id="camel.blueprint">
        <!-- list some properties for this test -->
        <cm:default-properties>
            <cm:property name="result" value="mock:result"/>
        </cm:default-properties>
    </cm:property-placeholder>

    <camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/blueprint">
        <!-- in the route we can use {{ }} placeholders which will look up in blueprint,
             as Camel will auto detect the OSGi blueprint property placeholder and use it -->
        <route>
            <from uri="direct:start"/>
            <to uri="mock:foo"/>
            <to uri="{{result}}"/>
        </route>
    </camelContext>

</blueprint>
The Blueprint property placeholder mechanism is initialized by creating a cm:property-placeholder bean. In the preceding example, the cm:property-placeholder bean is associated with the camel.blueprint persistent ID, where a persistent ID is the standard way of referencing a group of related properties from the OSGi Configuration Adminn service. In other words, the cm:property-placeholder bean provides access to all of the properties defined under the camel.blueprint persistent ID. It is also possible to specify default values for some of the properties (using the nested cm:property elements).
In the context of Blueprint, the Apache Camel placeholder mechanism searches for an instance of cm:property-placeholder in the bean registry. If it finds such an instance, it automatically integrates the Apache Camel placeholder mechanism, so that placeholders like, {{result}}, are resolved by looking up the key in the Blueprint property placeholder mechanism (in this example, through the myblueprint.placeholder bean).
Note
The default Blueprint placeholder syntax (accessing the Blueprint properties directly) is ${Key}. Hence, outside the scope of a camelContext element, the placeholder syntax you must use is ${Key}. Whereas, inside the scope of a camelContext element, the placeholder syntax you must use is {{Key}}.

Explicit Blueprint integration

If you want to have more control over where the Apache Camel property placeholder mechanism finds its properties, you can define a propertyPlaceholder element and specify the resolver locations explicitly.
For example, consider the following Blueprint configuration, which differs from the previous example in that it creates an explicit propertyPlaceholder instance:
<blueprint xmlns="http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0"
           xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
           xmlns:cm="http://aries.apache.org/blueprint/xmlns/blueprint-cm/v1.0.0"
           xsi:schemaLocation="
           http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0 http://www.osgi.org/xmlns/blueprint/v1.0.0/blueprint.xsd">

    <!-- OSGI blueprint property placeholder -->
    <cm:property-placeholder id="myblueprint.placeholder" persistent-id="camel.blueprint">
        <!-- list some properties for this test -->
        <cm:default-properties>
            <cm:property name="result" value="mock:result"/>
        </cm:default-properties>
    </cm:property-placeholder>

    <camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/blueprint">

        <!-- using Camel properties component and refer to the blueprint property placeholder by its id -->
        <propertyPlaceholder id="properties" location="blueprint:myblueprint.placeholder"/>

        <!-- in the route we can use {{ }} placeholders which will lookup in blueprint -->
        <route>
            <from uri="direct:start"/>
            <to uri="mock:foo"/>
            <to uri="{{result}}"/>
        </route>

    </camelContext>

</blueprint>
In the preceding example, the propertyPlaceholder element specifies explicitly which cm:property-placeholder bean to use by setting the location to blueprint:myblueprint.placeholder. That is, the blueprint: resolver explicitly references the ID, myblueprint.placeholder, of the cm:property-placeholder bean.
This style of configuration is useful, if there is more than one cm:property-placeholder bean defined in the Blueprint file and you need to specify which one to use. It also makes it possible to source properties from multiple locations, by specifying a comma-separated list of locations. For example, if you wanted to look up properties both from the cm:property-placeholder bean and from the properties file, myproperties.properties, on the classpath, you could define the propertyPlaceholder element as follows:
<propertyPlaceholder id="properties"
  location="blueprint:myblueprint.placeholder,classpath:myproperties.properties"/>

Integration with Spring property placeholders

If you define your Apache Camel application using XML DSL in a Spring XML file, you can integrate the Apache Camel property placeholder mechanism with Spring property placeholder mechanism by declaring a Spring bean of type, org.apache.camel.spring.spi.BridgePropertyPlaceholderConfigurer.
Define a BridgePropertyPlaceholderConfigurer, which replaces both Apache Camel's propertyPlaceholder element and Spring's ctx:property-placeholder element in the Spring XML file. You can then refer to the configured properties using either the Spring ${PropName} syntax or the Apache Camel {{PropName}} syntax.
For example, defining a bridge property placeholder that reads its property settings from the cheese.properties file:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:ctx="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
    xsi:schemaLocation="
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context.xsd
>

  <!-- Bridge Spring property placeholder with Camel -->
  <!-- Do not use <ctx:property-placeholder ... > at the same time -->
  <bean id="bridgePropertyPlaceholder"
        class="org.apache.camel.spring.spi.BridgePropertyPlaceholderConfigurer">
    <property name="location"
              value="classpath:org/apache/camel/component/properties/cheese.properties"/>
  </bean>

  <!-- A bean that uses Spring property placeholder -->
  <!-- The ${hi} is a spring property placeholder -->
  <bean id="hello" class="org.apache.camel.component.properties.HelloBean">
    <property name="greeting" value="${hi}"/>
  </bean>

  <camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
    <!-- Use Camel's property placeholder {{ }} style -->
    <route>
      <from uri="direct:{{cool.bar}}"/>
      <bean ref="hello"/>
      <to uri="{{cool.end}}"/>
    </route>
  </camelContext>

</beans>
Note
Alternatively, you can set the location attribute of the BridgePropertyPlaceholderConfigurer to point at a Spring properties file. The Spring properties file syntax is fully supported.

8. Aspect Oriented Programming

Overview

The aspect oriented programming (AOP) feature in Apache Camel enables you to apply before and after processing to a specified portion of a route. As a matter of fact, AOP does not provide anything that you could not do with the regular route syntax. The advantage of the AOP syntax, however, is that it enables you to specify before and after processing at a single point in the route. In some cases, this gives a more readable syntax. The typical use case for AOP is the application of a symmetrical pair of operations before and after a route fragment is processed. For example, typical pairs of operations that you might want to apply using AOP are: encrypt and decrypt; begin transaction and commit transaction; allocate resources and deallocate resources; and so on.

Java DSL example

In Java DSL, the route fragment to which you apply before and after processing is bracketed between aop() and end(). For example, the following route performs AOP processing around the route fragment that calls the bean methods:
from("jms:queue:inbox")
   .aop().around("log:before", "log:after")
       .to("bean:order?method=validate")
       .to("bean:order?method=handle")
   .end()
   .to("jms:queue:order");
Where the around() subclause specifies an endpoint, log:before, where the exchange is routed before processing the route fragment and an endpoint, log:after, where the exchange is routed after processing the route fragment.

AOP options in the Java DSL

Starting an AOP block with aop().around() is probably the most common use case, but the AOP block supports other subclauses, as follows:
  • around()—specifies before and after endpoints.
  • begin()—specifies before endpoint only.
  • after()—specifies after endpoint only.
  • aroundFinally()—specifies a before endpoint, and an after endpoint that is always called, even when an exception occurs in the enclosed route fragment.
  • afterFinally()—specifies an after endpoint that is always called, even when an exception occurs in the enclosed route fragment.

Spring XML example

In the XML DSL, the route fragment to which you apply before and after processing is enclosed in the aop element. For example, the following Spring XML route performs AOP processing around the route fragment that calls the bean methods:
<route>
    <from uri="jms:queue:inbox"/>
    <aop beforeUri="log:before" afterUri="log:after">
        <to uri="bean:order?method=validate"/>
        <to uri="bean:order?method=handle"/>
    </aop>
    <to uri="jms:queue:order"/>
</route>
Where the beforeUri attribute specifies the endpoint where the exchange is routed before processing the route fragment, and the afterUri attribute specifies the endpoint where the exchange is routed after processing the route fragment.

AOP options in the Spring XML

The aop element supports the following optional attributes:
  • beforeUri
  • afterUri
  • afterFinallyUri
The various use cases described for the Java DSL can be obtained in Spring XML using the appropriate combinations of these attributes. For example, the aroundFinally() Java DSL subclause is equivalent to the combination of beforeUri and afterFinallyUri in Spring XML.

9. Threading Model

Java thread pool API

The Apache Camel threading model is based on the powerful Java concurrency API, java.util.concurrent, that first became available in Sun's JDK 1.5. The key interface in this API is the ExecutorService interface, which represents a thread pool. Using the concurrency API, you can create many different kinds of thread pool, covering a wide range of scenarios.

Apache Camel thread pool API

The Apache Camel thread pool API builds on the Java concurrency API by providing a central factory (of org.apache.camel.spi.ExecutorServiceManager type) for all of the thread pools in your Apache Camel application. Centralising the creation of thread pools in this way provides several advantages, including:
  • Simplified creation of thread pools, using utility classes.
  • Integrating thread pools with graceful shutdown.
  • Threads automatically given informative names, which is beneficial for logging and management.

Component threading model

Some Apache Camel components—such as SEDA, JMS, and Jetty—are inherently multi-threaded. These components have all been implemented using the Apache Camel threading model and thread pool API.
If you are planning to implement your own Apache Camel component, it is recommended that you integrate your threading code with the Apache Camel threading model. For example, if your component needs a thread pool, it is recommended that you create it using the CamelContext's ExecutorServiceManager object.

Processor threading model

Some of the standard processors in Apache Camel create their own thread pool by default. These threading-aware processors are also integrated with the Apache Camel threading model and they provide various options that enable you to customize customize the thread pools that they use.
Table 2.8, “Processor Threading Options” shows the various options for controlling and setting thread pools on the threading-aware processors built-in to Apache Camel.

Table 2.8. Processor Threading Options

ProcessorJava DSLXML DSL
aggregate
parallelProcessing()
executorService()
executorServiceRef()
@parallelProcessing
@executorServiceRef
multicast
parallelProcessing()
executorService()
executorServiceRef()
@parallelProcessing
@executorServiceRef
recipientList
parallelProcessing()
executorService()
executorServiceRef()
@parallelProcessing
@executorServiceRef
split
parallelProcessing()
executorService()
executorServiceRef()
@parallelProcessing
@executorServiceRef
threads
executorService()
executorServiceRef()
poolSize()
maxPoolSize()
keepAliveTime()
timeUnit()
maxQueueSize()
rejectedPolicy()
@executorServiceRef
@poolSize
@maxPoolSize
@keepAliveTime
@timeUnit
@maxQueueSize
@rejectedPolicy
wireTap
wireTap(String uri, ExecutorService executorService)
wireTap(String uri, String executorServiceRef)
@executorServiceRef

Creating a default thread pool

To create a default thread pool for one of the threading-aware processors, enable the parallelProcessing option, using the parallelProcessing() sub-clause, in the Java DSL, or the parallelProcessing attribute, in the XML DSL.
For example, in the Java DSL, you can invoke the multicast processor with a default thread pool (where the thread pool is used to process the multicast destinations concurrently) as follows:
from("direct:start")
  .multicast().parallelProcessing()
    .to("mock:first")
    .to("mock:second")
    .to("mock:third");
You can define the same route in XML DSL as follows
<camelContext id="camel" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
    <route>
        <from uri="direct:start"/>
        <multicast parallelProcessing="true">
            <to uri="mock:first"/>
            <to uri="mock:second"/>
            <to uri="mock:third"/>
        </multicast>
    </route>
</camelContext>

Default thread pool profile settings

The default thread pools are automatically created by a thread factory that takes its settings from the default thread pool profile. The default thread pool profile has the settings shown in Table 2.9, “Default Thread Pool Profile Settings” (assuming that these settings have not been modified by the application code).

Table 2.9. Default Thread Pool Profile Settings

Thread OptionDefault Value
maxQueueSize 1000
poolSize 10
maxPoolSize 20
keepAliveTime 60 (seconds)
rejectedPolicy CallerRuns

Changing the default thread pool profile

It is possible to change the default thread pool profile settings, so that all subsequent default thread pools will be created with the custom settings. You can change the profile either in Java or in Spring XML.
For example, in the Java DSL, you can customize the poolSize option and the maxQueueSize option in the default thread pool profile, as follows:
// Java
import org.apache.camel.spi.ExecutorServiceManager;
import org.apache.camel.spi.ThreadPoolProfile;
...
ExecutorServiceManager manager = context.getExecutorServiceManager();
ThreadPoolProfile defaultProfile = manager.getDefaultThreadPoolProfile();

// Now, customize the profile settings.
defaultProfile.setPoolSize(3);
defaultProfile.setMaxQueueSize(100);
...
In the XML DSL, you can customize the default thread pool profile, as follows:
<camelContext id="camel" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
    <threadPoolProfile
        id="changedProfile"
        defaultProfile="true"
        poolSize="3"
        maxQueueSize="100"/>
    ...
</camelContext>
Note that it is essential to set the defaultProfile attribute to true in the preceding XML DSL example, otherwise the thread pool profile would be treated like a custom thread pool profile (see the section called “Creating a custom thread pool profile”), instead of replacing the default thread pool profile.

Customizing a processor's thread pool

It is also possible to specify the thread pool for a threading-aware processor more directly, using either the executorService or executorServiceRef options (where these options are used instead of the parallelProcessing option). There are two approaches you can use to customize a processor's thread pool, as follows:
  • Specify a custom thread pool—explicitly create an ExecutorService (thread pool) instance and pass it to the executorService option.
  • Specify a custom thread pool profile—create and register a custom thread pool factory. When you reference this factory using the executorServiceRef option, the processor automatically uses the factory to create a custom thread pool instance.
When you pass a bean ID to the executorServiceRef option, the threading-aware processor first tries to find a custom thread pool with that ID in the registry. If no thread pool is registered with that ID, the processor then attempts to look up a custom thread pool profile in the registry and uses the custom thread pool profile to instantiate a custom thread pool.

Creating a custom thread pool

A custom thread pool can be any thread pool of java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService type. The following approaches to creating a thread pool instance are recommended in Apache Camel:
  • Use the org.apache.camel.builder.ThreadPoolBuilder utility to build the thread pool class.
  • Use the org.apache.camel.spi.ExecutorServiceManager instance from the current CamelContext to create the thread pool class.
Ultimately, there is not much difference between the two approaches, because the ThreadPoolBuilder is actually defined using the ExecutorServiceManager instance. Normally, the ThreadPoolBuilder is preferred, because it offers a simpler approach. But there is at least one kind of thread (the ScheduledExecutorService) that can only be created by accessing the ExecutorServiceManager instance directory.
Table 2.10, “Thread Pool Builder Options” shows the options supported by the ThreadPoolBuilder class, which you can set when defining a new custom thread pool.

Table 2.10. Thread Pool Builder Options

Builder OptionDescription
maxQueueSize() Sets the maximum number of pending tasks that this thread pool can store in its incoming task queue. A value of -1 specifies an unbounded queue. Default value is taken from default thread pool profile.
poolSize() Sets the minimum number of threads in the pool (this is also the initial pool size). Default value is taken from default thread pool profile.
maxPoolSize() Sets the maximum number of threads that can be in the pool. Default value is taken from default thread pool profile.
keepAliveTime() If any threads are idle for longer than this period of time (specified in seconds), they are terminated. This allows the thread pool to shrink when the load is light. Default value is taken from default thread pool profile.
rejectedPolicy()
Specifies what course of action to take, if the incoming task queue is full. You can specify four possible values:
CallerRuns
(Default value) Gets the caller thread to run the latest incoming task. As a side effect, this option prevents the caller thread from receiving any more tasks until it has finished processing the latest incoming task.
Abort
Aborts the latest incoming task by throwing an exception.
Discard
Quietly discards the latest incoming task.
DiscardOldest
Discards the oldest unhandled task and then attempts to enqueue the latest incoming task in the task queue.
build() Finishes building the custom thread pool and registers the new thread pool under the ID specified as the argument to build().
In Java DSL, you can define a custom thread pool using the ThreadPoolBuilder, as follows:
// Java
import org.apache.camel.builder.ThreadPoolBuilder;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService;
...
ThreadPoolBuilder poolBuilder = new ThreadPoolBuilder(context);
ExecutorService customPool = poolBuilder.poolSize(5).maxPoolSize(5).maxQueueSize(100).build("customPool");
...

from("direct:start")
  .multicast().executorService(customPool)
    .to("mock:first")
    .to("mock:second")
    .to("mock:third");
Instead of passing the object reference, customPool, directly to the executorService() option, you can look up the thread pool in the registry, by passing its bean ID to the executorServiceRef() option, as follows:
// Java
from("direct:start")
  .multicast().executorServiceRef("customPool")
    .to("mock:first")
    .to("mock:second")
    .to("mock:third");
In XML DSL, you access the ThreadPoolBuilder using the threadPool element. You can then reference the custom thread pool using the executorServiceRef attribute to look up the thread pool by ID in the Spring registry, as follows:
<camelContext id="camel" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
    <threadPool id="customPool"
                poolSize="5"
                maxPoolSize="5"
                maxQueueSize="100" />

    <route>
        <from uri="direct:start"/>
        <multicast executorServiceRef="customPool">
            <to uri="mock:first"/>
            <to uri="mock:second"/>
            <to uri="mock:third"/>
        </multicast>
    </route>
</camelContext>

Creating a custom thread pool profile

If you have many custom thread pool instances to create, you might find it more convenient to define a custom thread pool profile, which acts as a factory for thread pools. Whenever you reference a thread pool profile from a threading-aware processor, the processor automatically uses the profile to create a new thread pool instance. You can define a custom thread pool profile either in Java DSL or in XML DSL.
For example, in Java DSL you can create a custom thread pool profile with the bean ID, customProfile, and reference it from within a route, as follows:
// Java
import org.apache.camel.spi.ThreadPoolProfile;
import org.apache.camel.impl.ThreadPoolProfileSupport;
...
// Create the custom thread pool profile
ThreadPoolProfile customProfile = new ThreadPoolProfileSupport("customProfile");
customProfile.setPoolSize(5);
customProfile.setMaxPoolSize(5);
customProfile.setMaxQueueSize(100);
context.getExecutorServiceManager().registerThreadPoolProfile(customProfile);
...
// Reference the custom thread pool profile in a route
from("direct:start")
  .multicast().executorServiceRef("customProfile")
    .to("mock:first")
    .to("mock:second")
    .to("mock:third");
In XML DSL, use the threadPoolProfile element to create a custom pool profile (where you let the defaultProfile option default to false, because this is not a default thread pool profile). You can create a custom thread pool profile with the bean ID, customProfile, and reference it from within a route, as follows:
<camelContext id="camel" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
    <threadPoolProfile
                id="customProfile"
                poolSize="5"
                maxPoolSize="5"
                maxQueueSize="100" />

    <route>
        <from uri="direct:start"/>
        <multicast executorServiceRef="customProfile">
            <to uri="mock:first"/>
            <to uri="mock:second"/>
            <to uri="mock:third"/>
        </multicast>
    </route>
</camelContext>

Sharing a thread pool between components

Some of the standard poll-based components—such as File and FTP—allow you to specify the thread pool to use. This makes it possible for different components to share the same thread pool, reducing the overall number of threads in the JVM.
For example, the File component and the FTP component both expose the scheduledExecutorService property, which you can use to specify the component's ExecutorService object.

Customizing thread names

To make the application logs more readable, it is often a good idea to customize the thread names (which are used to identify threads in the log). To customize thread names, you can configure the thread name pattern by calling the setThreadNamePattern method on the ExecutorServiceStrategy class or the ExecutorServiceManager class. Alternatively, an easier way to set the thread name pattern is to set the threadNamePattern property on the CamelContext object.
The following placeholders can be used in a thread name pattern:
#camelId#
The name of the current CamelContext.
#counter#
A unique thread identifier, implemented as an incrementing counter.
#name#
The regular Camel thread name.
#longName#
The long thread name—which can include endpoint parameters and so on.
The following is a typical example of a thread name pattern:
Camel (#camelId#) thread #counter# - #name#
The following example shows how to set the threadNamePattern attribute on a Camel context using XML DSL:
<camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring"
              threadNamePattern="Riding the thread #counter#" >
  <route>
    <from uri="seda:start"/>
    <to uri="log:result"/>
    <to uri="mock:result"/>
  </route>
</camelContext>

10. Controlling Start-Up and Shutdown of Routes

Overview

By default, routes are automatically started when your Apache Camel application (as represented by the CamelContext instance) starts up and routes are automatically shut down when your Apache Camel application shuts down. For non-critical deployments, the details of the shutdown sequence are usually not very important. But in a production environment, it is often crucial that existing tasks should run to completion during shutdown, in order to avoid data loss. You typically also want to control the order in which routes shut down, so that dependencies are not violated (which would prevent existing tasks from running to completion).
For this reason, Apache Camel provides a set of features to support graceful shutdown of applications. Graceful shutdown gives you full control over the stopping and starting of routes, enabling you to control the shutdown order of routes and enabling current tasks to run to completion.

Setting the route ID

It is good practice to assign a route ID to each of your routes. As well as making logging messages and management features more informative, the use of route IDs enables you to apply greater control over the stopping and starting of routes.
For example, in the Java DSL, you can assign the route ID, myCustomerRouteId, to a route by invoking the routeId() command as follows:
from("SourceURI").routeId("myCustomRouteId").process(...).to(TargetURI);
In the XML DSL, set the route element's id attribute, as follows:
<camelContext id="CamelContextID" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route id="myCustomRouteId" >
    <from uri="SourceURI"/>
    <process ref="someProcessorId"/>
    <to uri="TargetURI"/>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Disabling automatic start-up of routes

By default, all of the routes that the CamelContext knows about at start time will be started automatically. If you want to control the start-up of a particular route manually, however, you might prefer to disable automatic start-up for that route.
To control whether a Java DSL route starts up automatically, invoke the autoStartup command, either with a boolean argument (true or false) or a String argument (true or false). For example, you can disable automatic start-up of a route in the Java DSL, as follows:
from("SourceURI")
  .routeId("nonAuto")
  .autoStartup(false)
  .to(TargetURI);
You can disable automatic start-up of a route in the XML DSL by setting the autoStartup attribute to false on the route element, as follows:
<camelContext id="CamelContextID" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route id="nonAuto" autoStartup="false">
    <from uri="SourceURI"/>
    <to uri="TargetURI"/>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Manually starting and stopping routes

You can manually start or stop a route at any time in Java by invoking the startRoute() and stopRoute() methods on the CamelContext instance. For example, to start the route having the route ID, nonAuto, invoke the startRoute() method on the CamelContext instance, context, as follows:
// Java
context.startRoute("nonAuto");
To stop the route having the route ID, nonAuto, invoke the stopRoute() method on the CamelContext instance, context, as follows:
// Java
context.stopRoute("nonAuto");

Startup order of routes

By default, Apache Camel starts up routes in a non-deterministic order. In some applications, however, it can be important to control the startup order. To control the startup order in the Java DSL, use the startupOrder() command, which takes a positive integer value as its argument. The route with the lowest integer value starts first, followed by the routes with successively higher startup order values.
For example, the first two routes in the following example are linked together through the seda:buffer endpoint. You can ensure that the first route segment starts after the second route segment by assigning startup orders (2 and 1 respectively), as follows:

Example 2.5. Startup Order in Java DSL

from("jetty:http://fooserver:8080")
    .routeId("first")
    .startupOrder(2)
    .to("seda:buffer");

from("seda:buffer")
    .routeId("second")
    .startupOrder(1)
    .to("mock:result");

// This route's startup order is unspecified
from("jms:queue:foo").to("jms:queue:bar");
Or in Spring XML, you can achieve the same effect by setting the route element's startupOrder attribute, as follows:

Example 2.6. Startup Order in XML DSL

<route id="first" startupOrder="2">
    <from uri="jetty:http://fooserver:8080"/>
    <to uri="seda:buffer"/>
</route>

<route id="second" startupOrder="1">
    <from uri="seda:buffer"/>
    <to uri="mock:result"/>
</route>

<!-- This route's startup order is unspecified -->
<route>
    <from uri="jms:queue:foo"/>
    <to uri="jms:queue:bar"/>
</route>
Each route must be assigned a unique startup order value. You can choose any positive integer value that is less than 1000. Values of 1000 and over are reserved for Apache Camel, which automatically assigns these values to routes without an explicit startup value. For example, the last route in the preceding example would automatically be assigned the startup value, 1000 (so it starts up after the first two routes).

Shutdown sequence

When a CamelContext instance is shutting down, Apache Camel controls the shutdown sequence using a pluggable shutdown strategy. The default shutdown strategy implements the following shutdown sequence:
  1. Routes are shut down in the reverse of the start-up order.
  2. Normally, the shutdown strategy waits until the currently active exchanges have finshed processing. The treatment of running tasks is configurable, however.
  3. Overall, the shutdown sequence is bound by a timeout (default, 300 seconds). If the shutdown sequence exceeds this timeout, the shutdown strategy will force shutdown to occur, even if some tasks are still running.

Shutdown order of routes

Routes are shut down in the reverse of the start-up order. That is, when a start-up order is defined using the startupOrder() command (in Java DSL) or startupOrder attribute (in XML DSL), the first route to shut down is the route with the highest integer value assigned by the start-up order and the last route to shut down is the route with the lowest integer value assigned by the start-up order.
For example, in Example 2.5, “Startup Order in Java DSL”, the first route segment to be shut down is the route with the ID, first, and the second route segment to be shut down is the route with the ID, second. This example illustrates a general rule, which you should observe when shutting down routes: the routes that expose externally-accessible consumer endpoints should be shut down first, because this helps to throttle the flow of messages through the rest of the route graph.
Note
Apache Camel also provides the option shutdownRoute(Defer), which enables you to specify that a route must be amongst the last routes to shut down (overriding the start-up order value). But you should rarely ever need this option. This option was mainly needed as a workaround for earlier versions of Apache Camel (prior to 2.3), for which routes would shut down in the same order as the start-up order.

Shutting down running tasks in a route

If a route is still processing messages when the shutdown starts, the shutdown strategy normally waits until the currently active exchange has finished processing before shutting down the route. This behavior can be configured on each route using the shutdownRunningTask option, which can take either of the following values:
ShutdownRunningTask.CompleteCurrentTaskOnly
(Default) Usually, a route operates on just a single message at a time, so you can safely shut down the route after the current task has completed.
ShutdownRunningTask.CompleteAllTasks
Specify this option in order to shut down batch consumers gracefully. Some consumer endpoints (for example, File, FTP, Mail, iBATIS, and JPA) operate on a batch of messages at a time. For these endpoints, it is more appropriate to wait until all of the messages in the current batch have completed.
For example, to shut down a File consumer endpoint gracefully, you should specify the CompleteAllTasks option, as shown in the following Java DSL fragment:
// Java
public void configure() throws Exception {
    from("file:target/pending")
        .routeId("first").startupOrder(2)
        .shutdownRunningTask(ShutdownRunningTask.CompleteAllTasks)
        .delay(1000).to("seda:foo");

    from("seda:foo")
        .routeId("second").startupOrder(1)
        .to("mock:bar");
}
The same route can be defined in the XML DSL as follows:
<camelContext id="camel" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
    <!-- let this route complete all its pending messages when asked to shut down -->
    <route id="first"
           startupOrder="2"
           shutdownRunningTask="CompleteAllTasks">
        <from uri="file:target/pending"/>
        <delay><constant>1000</constant></delay>
        <to uri="seda:foo"/>
    </route>

    <route id="second" startupOrder="1">
        <from uri="seda:foo"/>
        <to uri="mock:bar"/>
    </route>
</camelContext>

Shutdown timeout

The shutdown timeout has a default value of 300 seconds. You can change the value of the timeout by invoking the setTimeout() method on the shutdown strategy. For example, you can change the timeout value to 600 seconds, as follows:
// Java
// context = CamelContext instance
context.getShutdownStrategy().setTimeout(600);

Integration with custom components

If you are implementing a custom Apache Camel component (which also inherits from the org.apache.camel.Service interface), you can ensure that your custom code receives a shutdown notification by implementing the org.apache.camel.spi.ShutdownPrepared interface. This gives the component an opportunity execute custom code in preparation for shutdown.

11. Scheduled Route Policy

11.1. Overview of Scheduled Route Policies

Overview

A scheduled route policy can be used to trigger events that affect a route at runtime. In particular, the implementations that are currently available enable you to start, stop, suspend, or resume a route at any time (or times) specified by the policy.

Scheduling tasks

The scheduled route policies are capable of triggering the following kinds of event:
  • Start a route—start the route at the time (or times) specified. This event only has an effect, if the route is currently in a stopped state, awaiting activation.
  • Stop a route—stop the route at the time (or times) specified. This event only has an effect, if the route is currently active.
  • Suspend a route—temporarily de-activate the consumer endpoint at the start of the route (as specified in from()). The rest of the route is still active, but clients will not be able to send new messages into the route.
  • Resume a route—re-activate the consumer endpoint at the start of the route, returning the route to a fully active state.

Quartz component

The Quartz component is a timer component based on Terracotta's Quartz, which is an open source implementation of a job scheduler. The Quartz component provides the underlying implementation for both the simple scheduled route policy and the cron scheduled route policy.

11.2. Simple Scheduled Route Policy

Overview

The simple scheduled route policy is a route policy that enables you to start, stop, suspend, and resume routes, where the timing of these events is defined by providing the time and date of an initial event and (optionally) by specifying a certain number of subsequent repititions. To define a simple scheduled route policy, create an instance of the following class:
org.apache.camel.routepolicy.quartz.SimpleScheduledRoutePolicy

Dependency

The simple scheduled route policy depends on the Quartz component, camel-quartz. For example, if you are using Maven as your build system, you would need to add a dependency on the camel-quartz artifact.

Java DSL example

Example 2.7, “Java DSL Example of Simple Scheduled Route” shows how to schedule a route to start up using the Java DSL. The initial start time, startTime, is defined to be 3 seconds after the current time. The policy is also configured to start the route a second time, 3 seconds after the initial start time, which is configured by setting routeStartRepeatCount to 1 and routeStartRepeatInterval to 3000 milliseconds.
In Java DSL, you attach the route policy to the route by calling the routePolicy() DSL command in the route.

Example 2.7. Java DSL Example of Simple Scheduled Route

// Java
SimpleScheduledRoutePolicy policy = new SimpleScheduledRoutePolicy();
long startTime = System.currentTimeMillis() + 3000L;
policy.setRouteStartDate(new Date(startTime));
policy.setRouteStartRepeatCount(1);
policy.setRouteStartRepeatInterval(3000);
                
from("direct:start")
   .routeId("test")
   .routePolicy(policy)
   .to("mock:success");
Note
You can specify multiple policies on the route by calling routePolicy() with multiple arguments.

XML DSL example

Example 2.8, “XML DSL Example of Simple Scheduled Route” shows how to schedule a route to start up using the XML DSL.
In XML DSL, you attach the route policy to the route by setting the routePolicyRef attribute on the route element.

Example 2.8. XML DSL Example of Simple Scheduled Route

<bean id="date" class="java.util.Data"/>

<bean id="startPolicy" class="org.apache.camel.routepolicy.quartz.SimpleScheduledRoutePolicy">
    <property name="routeStartDate" ref="date"/>
    <property name="routeStartRepeatCount" value="1"/>
    <property name="routeStartRepeatInterval" value="3000"/>    	
</bean> 
 	
<camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
    <route id="myroute" routePolicyRef="startPolicy">
        <from uri="direct:start"/>
        <to uri="mock:success"/>
    </route>
</camelContext>
Note
You can specify multiple policies on the route by setting the value of routePolicyRef as a comma-separated list of bean IDs.

Defining dates and times

The initial times of the triggers used in the simple scheduled route policy are specified using the java.util.Date type.The most flexible way to define a Date instance is through the java.util.GregorianCalendar class. Use the convenient constructors and methods of the GregorianCalendar class to define a date and then obtain a Date instance by calling GregorianCalendar.getTime().
For example, to define the time and date for January 1, 2011 at noon, call a GregorianCalendar constructor as follows:
// Java
import java.util.GregorianCalendar;
import java.util.Calendar;
...
GregorianCalendar gc = new GregorianCalendar(
    2011,
    Calendar.JANUARY,
    1,
    12,  // hourOfDay
    0,   // minutes
    0    // seconds
);

java.util.Date triggerDate = gc.getTime();
The GregorianCalendar class also supports the definition of times in different time zones. By default, it uses the local time zone on your computer.

Graceful shutdown

When you configure a simple scheduled route policy to stop a route, the route stopping algorithm is automatically integrated with the graceful shutdown procedure (see Section 10, “Controlling Start-Up and Shutdown of Routes”). This means that the task waits until the current exchange has finished processing before shutting down the route. You can set a timeout, however, that forces the route to stop after the specified time, irrespective of whether or not the route has finished processing the exchange.

Scheduling tasks

You can use a simple scheduled route policy to define one or more of the following scheduling tasks:

Starting a route

The following table lists the parameters for scheduling one or more route starts.
ParameterTypeDefaultDescription
routeStartDate java.util.Date None Specifies the date and time when the route is started for the first time.
routeStartRepeatCount int 0 When set to a non-zero value, specifies how many times the route should be started.
routeStartRepeatInterval long 0 Specifies the time interval between starts, in units of milliseconds.

Stopping a route

The following table lists the parameters for scheduling one or more route stops.
ParameterTypeDefaultDescription
routeStopDate java.util.Date None Specifies the date and time when the route is stopped for the first time.
routeStopRepeatCount int 0 When set to a non-zero value, specifies how many times the route should be stopped.
routeStopRepeatInterval long 0 Specifies the time interval between stops, in units of milliseconds.
routeStopGracePeriod int 10000 Specifies how long to wait for the current exchange to finish processing (grace period) before forcibly stopping the route. Set to 0 for an infinite grace period.
routeStopTimeUnit long TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS Specifies the time unit of the grace period.

Suspending a route

The following table lists the parameters for scheduling the suspension of a route one or more times.
ParameterTypeDefaultDescription
routeSuspendDate java.util.Date None Specifies the date and time when the route is suspended for the first time.
routeSuspendRepeatCount int 0When set to a non-zero value, specifies how many times the route should be suspended.
routeSuspendRepeatInterval long 0Specifies the time interval between suspends, in units of milliseconds.

Resuming a route

The following table lists the parameters for scheduling the resumption of a route one or more times.
ParameterTypeDefaultDescription
routeResumeDate java.util.Date None Specifies the date and time when the route is resumed for the first time.
routeResumeRepeatCount int 0When set to a non-zero value, specifies how many times the route should be resumed.
routeResumeRepeatInterval long 0Specifies the time interval between resumes, in units of milliseconds.

11.3. Cron Scheduled Route Policy

Overview

The cron scheduled route policy is a route policy that enables you to start, stop, suspend, and resume routes, where the timing of these events is specified using cron expressions. To define a cron scheduled route policy, create an instance of the following class:
org.apache.camel.routepolicy.quartz.CronScheduledRoutePolicy

Dependency

The simple scheduled route policy depends on the Quartz component, camel-quartz. For example, if you are using Maven as your build system, you would need to add a dependency on the camel-quartz artifact.

Java DSL example

Example 2.9, “Java DSL Example of a Cron Scheduled Route” shows how to schedule a route to start up using the Java DSL. The policy is configured with the cron expression, */3 * * * * ?, which triggers a start event every 3 seconds.
In Java DSL, you attach the route policy to the route by calling the routePolicy() DSL command in the route.

Example 2.9. Java DSL Example of a Cron Scheduled Route

// Java
CronScheduledRoutePolicy policy = new CronScheduledRoutePolicy();
policy.setRouteStartTime("*/3 * * * * ?");
                
from("direct:start")
    .routeId("test")
    .routePolicy(policy)
    .to("mock:success");;
Note
You can specify multiple policies on the route by calling routePolicy() with multiple arguments.

XML DSL example

Example 2.10, “XML DSL Example of a Cron Scheduled Route”shows how to schedule a route to start up using the XML DSL.
In XML DSL, you attach the route policy to the route by setting the routePolicyRef attribute on the route element.

Example 2.10. XML DSL Example of a Cron Scheduled Route

<bean id="date" class="org.apache.camel.routepolicy.quartz.SimpleDate"/>

<bean id="startPolicy" class="org.apache.camel.routepolicy.quartz.CronScheduledRoutePolicy">
    <property name="routeStartTime" value="*/3 * * * * ?"/>
</bean>
    
<camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
    <route id="testRoute" routePolicyRef="startPolicy">
        <from uri="direct:start"/>
        <to uri="mock:success"/>
    </route>
</camelContext>
Note
You can specify multiple policies on the route by setting the value of routePolicyRef as a comma-separated list of bean IDs.

Defining cron expressions

The cron expression syntax has its origins in the UNIX cron utility, which schedules jobs to run in the background on a UNIX system. A cron expression is effectively a syntax for wildcarding dates and times that enables you to specify either a single event or multiple events that recur periodically.
A cron expression consists of 6 or 7 fields in the following order:
Seconds Minutes Hours DayOfMonth Month DayOfWeek [Year]
The Year field is optional and usually omitted, unless you want to define an event that occurs once and once only. Each field consists of a mixture of literals and special characters. For example, the following cron expression specifies an event that fires once every day at midnight:
0 0 24 * * ?
The * character is a wildcard that matches every value of a field. Hence, the preceding expression matches every day of every month. The ? character is a dummy placeholder that means ignore this field. It always appears either in the DayOfMonth field or in the DayOfWeek field, because it is not logically consistent to specify both of these fields at the same time. For example, if you want to schedule an event that fires once a day, but only from Monday to Friday, use the following cron expression:
0 0 24 ? * MON-FRI
Where the hyphen character specifies a range, MON-FRI. You can also use the forward slash character, /, to specify increments. For example, to specify that an event fires every 5 minutes, use the following cron expression:
0 0/5 * * * ?
For a full explanation of the cron expression syntax, see the Wikipedia article on CRON expressions.

Scheduling tasks

You can use a cron scheduled route policy to define one or more of the following scheduling tasks:

Starting a route

The following table lists the parameters for scheduling one or more route starts.
ParameterTypeDefaultDescription
routeStartString String None Specifies a cron expression that triggers one or more route start events.

Stopping a route

The following table lists the parameters for scheduling one or more route stops.
ParameterTypeDefaultDescription
routeStopTime String None Specifies a cron expression that triggers one or more route stop events.
routeStopGracePeriod int 10000 Specifies how long to wait for the current exchange to finish processing (grace period) before forcibly stopping the route. Set to 0 for an infinite grace period.
routeStopTimeUnit long TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS Specifies the time unit of the grace period.

Suspending a route

The following table lists the parameters for scheduling the suspension of a route one or more times.
ParameterTypeDefaultDescription
routeSuspendTime String None Specifies a cron expression that triggers one or more route suspend events.

Resuming a route

The following table lists the parameters for scheduling the resumption of a route one or more times.
ParameterTypeDefaultDescription
routeResumeTime String None Specifies a cron expression that triggers one or more route resume events.

12. JMX Naming

Overview

Apache Camel allows you to customise the name of a CamelContext bean as it appears in JMX, by defining a management name pattern for it. For example, you can customise the name pattern of an XML CamelContext instance, as follows:
<camelContext id="myCamel" managementNamePattern="#name#">
    ...
</camelContext>
If you do not explicitly set a name pattern for the CamelContext bean, Apache Camel reverts to a default naming strategy.

Default naming strategy

By default, the JMX name of a CamelContext bean is equal to the value of the bean's id attribute, prefixed by the current bundle ID. For example, if the id attribute on a camelContext element is myCamel and the current bundle ID is 250, the JMX name would be 250-myCamel. In cases where there is more than one CamelContext instance with the same id in the bundle, the JMX name is disambiguated by adding a counter value as a suffix. For example, if there are multiple instances of myCamel in the bundle, the corresponding JMX MBeans are named as follows:
250-myCamel-1
250-myCamel-2
250-myCamel-3
...

Customising the JMX naming strategy

One drawback of the default naming strategy is that you cannot guarantee that a given CamelContext bean will have the same JMX name between runs. If you want to have greater consistency between runs, you can control the JMX name more precisely by defining a JMX name pattern for the CamelContext instances.

Specifying a name pattern in Java

To specify a name pattern on a CamelContext in Java, call the setNamePattern method, as follows:
// Java
context.getManagementNameStrategy().setNamePattern("#name#");

Specifying a name pattern in XML

To specify a name pattern on a CamelContext in XML, set the managementNamePattern attribute on the camelContext element, as follows:
<camelContext id="myCamel" managementNamePattern="#name#">

Name pattern tokens

You can construct a JMX name pattern by mixing literal text with any of the following tokens:

Table 2.11. JMX Name Pattern Tokens

TokenDescription
#camelId#Value of the id attribute on the CamelContext bean.
#name#Same as #camelId#.
#counter#An incrementing counter (starting at 1).
#bundleId#The OSGi bundle ID of the deployed bundle (OSGi only).
#symbolicName#The OSGi symbolic name (OSGi only).
#version#The OSGi bundle version (OSGi only).

Examples

Here are some examples of JMX name patterns you could define using the supported tokens:
<camelContext id="fooContext" managementNamePattern="FooApplication-#name#">
    ...
</camelContext>
<camelContext id="myCamel" managementNamePattern="#bundleID#-#symbolicName#-#name#">
    ...
</camelContext>

Ambiguous names

Because the customised naming pattern overrides the default naming strategy, it is possible to define ambiguous JMX MBean names using this approach. For example:
<camelContext id="foo" managementNamePattern="SameOldSameOld"> ... </camelContext>
...
<camelContext id="bar" managementNamePattern="SameOldSameOld"> ... </camelContext>
In this case, Apache Camel would fail on start-up and report an MBean already exists exception. You should, therefore, take extra care to ensure that you do not define ambiguous name patterns.

13. Performance and Optimization

Avoid unnecessary message copying

You can avoid making an unnecessary copy of the original message, by setting the allowUseOriginalMessage option to false on the CamelContext object. For example, in Blueprint XML you can set this option as follows:
<camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/blueprint"
              allowUseOriginalMessage="false">
  ...
</camelContext>
You can safely set allowUseOriginalMessage to false, if the following conditions are satisfied:
  • You do not set useOriginalMessage=true on any of the error handlers or on the onException element.
  • You do not use the getOriginalMessage method anywhere in your Java application code.

Chapter 3. Introducing Enterprise Integration Patterns

Abstract

The Apache Camel's Enterprise Integration Patterns are inspired by a book of the same name written by Gregor Hohpe and Bobby Woolf. The patterns described by these authors provide an excellent toolbox for developing enterprise integration projects. In addition to providing a common language for discussing integration architectures, many of the patterns can be implemented directly using Apache Camel's programming interfaces and XML configuration.

1. Overview of the Patterns

Enterprise Integration Patterns book

Apache Camel supports most of the patterns from the book, Enterprise Integration Patterns by Gregor Hohpe and Bobby Woolf.

Messaging systems

The messaging systems patterns, shown in Table 3.1, “Messaging Systems”, introduce the fundamental concepts and components that make up a messaging system.

Table 3.1. Messaging Systems

IconNameUse Case
Message icon Message How can two applications connected by a message channel exchange a piece of information?
Message channel icon Message Channel How does one application communicate with another application using messaging?
Message endpoint icon Message Endpoint How does an application connect to a messaging channel to send and receive messages?
Pipes and filters icon Pipes and Filters How can we perform complex processing on a message while still maintaining independence and flexibility?
Message router icons Message Router How can you decouple individual processing steps so that messages can be passed to different filters depending on a set of defined conditions?
Message translator icon Message Translator How do systems using different data formats communicate with each other using messaging?

Messaging channels

A messaging channel is the basic component used for connecting the participants in a messaging system. The patterns in Table 3.2, “Messaging Channels” describe the different kinds of messaging channels available.

Table 3.2. Messaging Channels

IconNameUse Case
Point to point icon Point to Point Channel How can the caller be sure that exactly one receiver will receive the document or will perform the call?
Publish subscribe icon Publish Subscribe Channel How can the sender broadcast an event to all interested receivers?
Dead letter icon Dead Letter Channel What will the messaging system do with a message it cannot deliver?
Guaranteed delivery icon Guaranteed Delivery How does the sender make sure that a message will be delivered, even if the messaging system fails?
Message bus icon Message Bus What is an architecture that enables separate, decoupled applications to work together, such that one or more of the applications can be added or removed without affecting the others?

Message construction

The message construction patterns, shown in Table 3.3, “Message Construction”, describe the various forms and functions of the messages that pass through the system.

Table 3.3. Message Construction

IconNameUse Case
Correlation identifier icon Correlation Identifier How does a requestor identify the request that generated the received reply?
Return address icon Return Address How does a replier know where to send the reply?

Message routing

The message routing patterns, shown in Table 3.4, “Message Routing”, describe various ways of linking message channels together, including various algorithms that can be applied to the message stream (without modifying the body of the message).

Table 3.4. Message Routing

IconNameUse Case
Content based router icon Content Based Router How do we handle a situation where the implementation of a single logical function (e.g., inventory check) is spread across multiple physical systems?
Message filter icon Message Filter How does a component avoid receiving uninteresting messages?
Recipient List icon Recipient List How do we route a message to a list of dynamically specified recipients?
Splitter icon Splitter How can we process a message if it contains multiple elements, each of which might have to be processed in a different way?
Aggregator icon Aggregator How do we combine the results of individual, but related messages so that they can be processed as a whole?
Resequencer icon Resequencer How can we get a stream of related, but out-of-sequence, messages back into the correct order?
Composed Message Processor How can you maintain the overall message flow when processing a message consisting of multiple elements, each of which may require different processing?
Scatter-Gather How do you maintain the overall message flow when a message needs to be sent to multiple recipients, each of which may send a reply?
Routing slip icon Routing Slip How do we route a message consecutively through a series of processing steps when the sequence of steps is not known at design-time, and might vary for each message?
  Throttler How can I throttle messages to ensure that a specific endpoint does not get overloaded, or that we don't exceed an agreed SLA with some external service?
  Delayer How can I delay the sending of a message?
  Load Balancer How can I balance load across a number of endpoints?
  Multicast How can I route a message to a number of endpoints at the same time?
Loop How can I repeat processing a message in a loop?
  Sampling How can I sample one message out of many in a given period to avoid downstream route does not get overloaded?

Message transformation

The message transformation patterns, shown in Table 3.5, “Message Transformation”, describe how to modify the contents of messages for various purposes.

Table 3.5. Message Transformation

IconNameUse Case
Content enricher icon Content Enricher How do we communicate with another system if the message originator does not have all the required data items available?
Content filter icon Content Filter How do you simplify dealing with a large message, when you are interested in only a few data items?
Claim Check How can we reduce the data volume of message sent across the system without sacrificing information content?
Normalizer icon Normalizer How do you process messages that are semantically equivalent, but arrive in a different format?
Sort How can I sort the body of a message?

Messaging endpoints

A messaging endpoint denotes the point of contact between a messaging channel and an application. The messaging endpoint patterns, shown in Table 3.6, “Messaging Endpoints”, describe various features and qualities of service that can be configured on an endpoint.

Table 3.6. Messaging Endpoints

IconNameUse Case
  Messaging Mapper How do you move data between domain objects and the messaging infrastructure while keeping the two independent of each other?
Event driven icon Event Driven Consumer How can an application automatically consume messages as they become available?
Polling consumer icon Polling Consumer How can an application consume a message when the application is ready?
Competing consumers icon Competing Consumers How can a messaging client process multiple messages concurrently?
Message dispatcher icon Message Dispatcher How can multiple consumers on a single channel coordinate their message processing?
Selective consumer icon Selective Consumer How can a message consumer select which messages it wants to receive?
Durable subscriber icon Durable Subscriber How can a subscriber avoid missing messages when it's not listening for them?
  Idempotent Consumer How can a message receiver deal with duplicate messages?
Transactional client icon Transactional Client How can a client control its transactions with the messaging system?
Messaging gateway icon Messaging Gateway How do you encapsulate access to the messaging system from the rest of the application?
Service activator icon Service Activator How can an application design a service to be invoked both via various messaging technologies and via non-messaging techniques?

System management

The system management patterns, shown in Table 3.7, “System Management”, describe how to monitor, test, and administer a messaging system.

Table 3.7. System Management

IconNameUse Case
Wire tap icon Wire Tap How do you inspect messages that travel on a point-to-point channel?

Chapter 4. Messaging Systems

Abstract

This chapter introduces the fundamental building blocks of a messaging system, such as endpoints, messaging channels, and message routers.

1. Message

Overview

A message is the smallest unit for transmitting data in a messaging system (represented by the grey dot in the figure below). The message itself might have some internal structure—for example, a message containing multiple parts—which is represented by geometrical figures attached to the grey dot in Figure 4.1, “Message Pattern”.

Figure 4.1. Message Pattern

Message pattern

Types of message

Apache Camel defines the following distinct message types:
  • In message — A message that travels through a route from a consumer endpoint to a producer endpoint (typically, initiating a message exchange).
  • Out message — A message that travels through a route from a producer endpoint back to a consumer endpoint (usually, in response to an In message).
All of these message types are represented internally by the org.apache.camel.Message interface.

Message structure

By default, Apache Camel applies the following structure to all message types:
  • Headers — Contains metadata or header data extracted from the message.
  • Body — Usually contains the entire message in its original form.
  • Attachments — Message attachments (required for integrating with certain messaging systems, such as JBI).
It is important to remember that this division into headers, body, and attachments is an abstract model of the message. Apache Camel supports many different components, that generate a wide variety of message formats. Ultimately, it is the underlying component implementation that decides what gets placed into the headers and body of a message.

Correlating messages

Internally, Apache Camel remembers the message IDs, which are used to correlate individual messages. In practice, however, the most important way that Apache Camel correlates messages is through exchange objects.

Exchange objects

An exchange object is an entity that encapsulates related messages, where the collection of related messages is referred to as a message exchange and the rules governing the sequence of messages are referred to as an exchange pattern. For example, two common exchange patterns are: one-way event messages (consisting of an In message), and request-reply exchanges (consisting of an In message, followed by an Out message).

Accessing messages

When defining a routing rule in the Java DSL, you can access the headers and body of a message using the following DSL builder methods:
  • header(String name), body() — Returns the named header and the body of the current In message.
  • outBody() — Returns the body of the current Out message.
For example, to populate the In message's username header, you can use the following Java DSL route:
from(SourceURL).setHeader("username", "John.Doe").to(TargetURL);

2. Message Channel

Overview

A message channel is a logical channel in a messaging system. That is, sending messages to different message channels provides an elementary way of sorting messages into different message types. Message queues and message topics are examples of message channels. You should remember that a logical channel is not the same as a physical channel. There can be several different ways of physically realizing a logical channel.
In Apache Camel, a message channel is represented by an endpoint URI of a message-oriented component as shown in Figure 4.2, “Message Channel Pattern”.

Figure 4.2. Message Channel Pattern

Message channel pattern

Message-oriented components

The following message-oriented components in Apache Camel support the notion of a message channel:

ActiveMQ

In ActiveMQ, message channels are represented by queues or topics. The endpoint URI for a specific queue, QueueName, has the following format:
activemq:QueueName
The endpoint URI for a specific topic, TopicName, has the following format:
activemq:topic:TopicName
For example, to send messages to the queue, Foo.Bar, use the following endpoint URI:
activemq:Foo.Bar
jms:QueueName
jms:topic:TopicName
amqp:QueueName
amqp:topic:TopicName
A message endpoint is the interface between an application and a messaging system. As shown in Figure 4.3, “Message Endpoint Pattern”, you can have a sender endpoint, sometimes called a proxy or a service consumer, which is responsible for sending In messages, and a receiver endpoint, sometimes called an endpoint or a service, which is responsible for receiving In messages.

Figure 4.3. Message Endpoint Pattern

Message endpoint pattern

Types of endpoint

Apache Camel defines two basic types of endpoint:
  • Consumer endpoint — Appears at the start of a Apache Camel route and reads In messages from an incoming channel (equivalent to a receiver endpoint).
  • Producer endpoint — Appears at the end of a Apache Camel route and writes In messages to an outgoing channel (equivalent to a sender endpoint). It is possible to define a route with multiple producer endpoints.

Endpoint URIs

In Apache Camel, an endpoint is represented by an endpoint URI, which typically encapsulates the following kinds of data:
  • Endpoint URI for a consumer endpoint — Advertises a specific location (for example, to expose a service to which senders can connect). Alternatively, the URI can specify a message source, such as a message queue. The endpoint URI can include settings to configure the endpoint.
  • Endpoint URI for a producer endpoint — Contains details of where to send messages and includes the settings to configure the endpoint. In some cases, the URI specifies the location of a remote receiver endpoint; in other cases, the destination can have an abstract form, such as a queue name.
An endpoint URI in Apache Camel has the following general form:
ComponentPrefix:ComponentSpecificURI
jms:Foo.Bar
from("file://local/router/messages/foo").to("jms:Foo.Bar");
<camelContext id="CamelContextID" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="file://local/router/messages/foo"/>
    <to uri="jms:Foo.Bar"/>
  </route>
</camelContext>
The pipes and filters pattern, shown in Figure 4.4, “Pipes and Filters Pattern”, describes a way of constructing a route by creating a chain of filters, where the output of one filter is fed into the input of the next filter in the pipeline (analogous to the UNIX pipe command). The advantage of the pipeline approach is that it enables you to compose services (some of which can be external to the Apache Camel application) to create more complex forms of message processing.

Figure 4.4. Pipes and Filters Pattern

Pipes and filters pattern

Pipeline for the InOut exchange pattern

Normally, all of the endpoints in a pipeline have an input (In message) and an output (Out message), which implies that they are compatible with the InOut message exchange pattern. A typical message flow through an InOut pipeline is shown in Figure 4.5, “Pipeline for InOut Exchanges”.

Figure 4.5. Pipeline for InOut Exchanges

Pipeline for InOut exchanges
Where the pipeline connects the output of each endpoint to the input of the next one. The Out message from the final endpoint gets sent back to the original caller. You can define a route for this pipeline, as follows:
from("jms:RawOrders").pipeline("cxf:bean:decrypt", "cxf:bean:authenticate", "cxf:bean:dedup", "jms:CleanOrders");
The same route can be configured in XML, as follows:
<camelContext id="buildPipeline" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="jms:RawOrders"/>
    <to uri="cxf:bean:decrypt"/>
    <to uri="cxf:bean:authenticate"/>
    <to uri="cxf:bean:dedup"/>
    <to uri="jms:CleanOrders"/>
  </route>
</camelContext>
There is no dedicated pipeline element in XML. The preceding combination of from and to elements is semantically equivalent to a pipeline. See the section called “Comparison of pipeline() and to() DSL commands”.

Pipeline for the InOnly and RobustInOnly exchange patterns

When there are no Out messages available from the endpoints in the pipeline (as is the case for the InOnly and RobustInOnly exchange patterns), a pipeline cannot be connected in the normal way. In this special case, the pipeline is constructed by passing a copy of the original In message to each of the endpoints in the pipeline, as shown in Figure 4.6, “Pipeline for InOnly Exchanges”. This type of pipeline is equivalent to a recipient list with fixed destinations(see Section 3, “Recipient List”).

Figure 4.6. Pipeline for InOnly Exchanges

Pipeline for InOnly exchanges
The route for this pipeline is defined using the same syntax as an InOut pipeline (either in Java DSL or in XML).

Comparison of pipeline() and to() DSL commands

In the Java DSL, you can define a pipeline route using either of the following syntaxes:
  • Using the pipeline() processor command — Use the pipeline processor to construct a pipeline route as follows:
    from(SourceURI).pipeline(FilterA, FilterB, TargetURI);
  • Using the to() command — Use the to() command to construct a pipeline route as follows:
    from(SourceURI).to(FilterA, FilterB, TargetURI);
    Alternatively, you can use the equivalent syntax:
    from(SourceURI).to(FilterA).to(FilterB).to(TargetURI);
Exercise caution when using the to() command syntax, because it is not always equivalent to a pipeline processor. In Java DSL, the meaning of to() can be modified by the preceding command in the route. For example, when the multicast() command precedes the to() command, it binds the listed endpoints into a multicast pattern, instead of a pipeline pattern(see Section 11, “Multicast”).

5. Message Router

Overview

A message router, shown in Figure 4.7, “Message Router Pattern”, is a type of filter that consumes messages from a single consumer endpoint and redirects them to the appropriate target endpoint, based on a particular decision criterion. A message router is concerned only with redirecting messages; it does not modify the message content.

Figure 4.7. Message Router Pattern

Message router pattern
A message router can easily be implemented in Apache Camel using the choice() processor, where each of the alternative target endpoints can be selected using a when() subclause (for details of the choice processor, see Section 5, “Processors”).

Java DSL example

The following Java DSL example shows how to route messages to three alternative destinations (either seda:a, seda:b, or seda:c) depending on the contents of the foo header:
from("seda:a").choice()
    .when(header("foo").isEqualTo("bar")).to("seda:b")
    .when(header("foo").isEqualTo("cheese")).to("seda:c")
    .otherwise().to("seda:d");

XML configuration example

The following example shows how to configure the same route in XML:
<camelContext id="buildSimpleRouteWithChoice" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="seda:a"/>
    <choice>
      <when>
        <xpath>$foo = 'bar'</xpath>
        <to uri="seda:b"/>
      </when>
      <when>
        <xpath>$foo = 'cheese'</xpath>
        <to uri="seda:c"/>
      </when>
      <otherwise>
        <to uri="seda:d"/>
      </otherwise>
    </choice>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Choice without otherwise

If you use choice() without an otherwise() clause, any unmatched exchanges are dropped by default.

6. Message Translator

Overview

The message translator pattern, shown in Figure 4.8, “Message Translator Pattern” describes a component that modifies the contents of a message, translating it to a different format. You can use Apache Camel's bean integration feature to perform the message translation.

Figure 4.8. Message Translator Pattern

Message translator pattern

Bean integration

You can transform a message using bean integration, which enables you to call a method on any registered bean. For example, to call the method, myMethodName(), on the bean with ID, myTransformerBean:
from("activemq:SomeQueue")
  .beanRef("myTransformerBean", "myMethodName")
  .to("mqseries:AnotherQueue");
Where the myTransformerBean bean is defined in either a Spring XML file or in JNDI. If, you omit the method name parameter from beanRef(), the bean integration will try to deduce the method name to invoke by examining the message exchange.
You can also add your own explicit Processor instance to perform the transformation, as follows:
from("direct:start").process(new Processor() {
    public void process(Exchange exchange) {
        Message in = exchange.getIn();
        in.setBody(in.getBody(String.class) + " World!");
    }
}).to("mock:result");
Or, you can use the DSL to explicitly configure the transformation, as follows:
from("direct:start").setBody(body().append(" World!")).to("mock:result");
You can also use templating to consume a message from one destination, transform it with something like Velocity or XQuery and then send it on to another destination. For example, using the InOnly exchange pattern (one-way messaging) :
from("activemq:My.Queue").
  to("velocity:com/acme/MyResponse.vm").
  to("activemq:Another.Queue");
If you want to use InOut (request-reply) semantics to process requests on the My.Queue queue on ActiveMQ with a template generated response, then you could use a route like the following to send responses back to the JMSReplyTo destination:
from("activemq:My.Queue").
  to("velocity:com/acme/MyResponse.vm");

Chapter 5. Messaging Channels

Abstract

Messaging channels provide the plumbing for a messaging application. This chapter describes the different kinds of messaging channels available in a messaging system, and the roles that they play.

1. Point-to-Point Channel

Overview

A point-to-point channel, shown in Figure 5.1, “Point to Point Channel Pattern” is a message channel that guarantees that only one receiver consumes any given message. This is in contrast with a publish-subscribe channel, which allows multiple receivers to consume the same message. In particular, with a point-to-point channel, it is possible for multiple receivers to subscribe to the same channel. If more than one receiver competes to consume a message, it is up to the message channel to ensure that only one receiver actually consumes the message.

Figure 5.1. Point to Point Channel Pattern

Point to point channel pattern

Components that support point-to-point channel

The following Apache Camel components support the point-to-point channel pattern:

JMS

In JMS, a point-to-point channel is represented by a queue. For example, you can specify the endpoint URI for a JMS queue called Foo.Bar as follows:
jms:queue:Foo.Bar
The qualifier, queue:, is optional, because the JMS component creates a queue endpoint by default. Therefore, you can also specify the following equivalent endpoint URI:
jms:Foo.Bar
activemq:queue:Foo.Bar
seda:SedaQueue
A publish-subscribe channel, shown in Figure 5.2, “Publish Subscribe Channel Pattern”, is a message channel that enables multiple subscribers to consume any given message. This is in contrast with a point-to-point channel. Publish-subscribe channels are frequently used as a means of broadcasting events or notifications to multiple subscribers.

Figure 5.2. Publish Subscribe Channel Pattern

Publish subscribe channel pattern

Components that support publish-subscribe channel

The following Apache Camel components support the publish-subscribe channel pattern:
  • JMS
  • SEDA for working with SEDA in the same CamelContext which can work in pub-sub, but allowing multiple consumers.
  • VM as SEDA, but for use within the same JVM.

JMS

In JMS, a publish-subscribe channel is represented by a topic. For example, you can specify the endpoint URI for a JMS topic called StockQuotes as follows:
jms:topic:StockQuotes
activemq:topic:StockQuotes
from("seda:a").to("seda:b", "seda:c", "seda:d");
<camelContext id="buildStaticRecipientList" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="seda:a"/>
    <to uri="seda:b"/>
    <to uri="seda:c"/>
    <to uri="seda:d"/>
  </route>
</camelContext>
The dead letter channel pattern, shown in Figure 5.3, “Dead Letter Channel Pattern”, describes the actions to take when the messaging system fails to deliver a message to the intended recipient. This includes such features as retrying delivery and, if delivery ultimately fails, sending the message to a dead letter channel, which archives the undelivered messages.

Figure 5.3. Dead Letter Channel Pattern

Dead letter channel pattern

Creating a dead letter channel in Java DSL

The following example shows how to create a dead letter channel using Java DSL:
errorHandler(deadLetterChannel("seda:errors"));
from("seda:a").to("seda:b");
Where the errorHandler() method is a Java DSL interceptor, which implies that all of the routes defined in the current route builder are affected by this setting. The deadLetterChannel() method is a Java DSL command that creates a new dead letter channel with the specified destination endpoint, seda:errors.
The errorHandler() interceptor provides a catch-all mechanism for handling all error types. If you want to apply a more fine-grained approach to exception handling, you can use the onException clauses instead(see the section called “onException clause”).

XML DSL example

You can define a dead letter channel in the XML DSL, as follows:
 <route errorHandlerRef="myDeadLetterErrorHandler">
    ...
 </route>
 
 <bean id="myDeadLetterErrorHandler" class="org.apache.camel.builder.DeadLetterChannelBuilder">
     <property name="deadLetterUri" value="jms:queue:dead"/>
     <property name="redeliveryPolicy" ref="myRedeliveryPolicyConfig"/>
 </bean>
 
 <bean id="myRedeliveryPolicyConfig" class="org.apache.camel.processor.RedeliveryPolicy">
     <property name="maximumRedeliveries" value="3"/>
     <property name="redeliveryDelay" value="5000"/>
 </bean>

Redelivery policy

Normally, you do not send a message straight to the dead letter channel, if a delivery attempt fails. Instead, you re-attempt delivery up to some maximum limit, and after all redelivery attempts fail you would send the message to the dead letter channel. To customize message redelivery, you can configure the dead letter channel to have a redelivery policy. For example, to specify a maximum of two redelivery attempts, and to apply an exponential backoff algorithm to the time delay between delivery attempts, you can configure the dead letter channel as follows:
errorHandler(deadLetterChannel("seda:errors").maximumRedeliveries(2).useExponentialBackOff());
from("seda:a").to("seda:b");
Where you set the redelivery options on the dead letter channel by invoking the relevant methods in a chain (each method in the chain returns a reference to the current RedeliveryPolicy object). Table 5.1, “Redelivery Policy Settings” summarizes the methods that you can use to set redelivery policies.

Table 5.1. Redelivery Policy Settings

Method SignatureDefaultDescription
backOffMultiplier(double multiplier)2
If exponential backoff is enabled, let m be the backoff multiplier and let d be the initial delay. The sequence of redelivery attempts are then timed as follows:
d, m*d, m*m*d, m*m*m*d, ...
collisionAvoidancePercent(double collisionAvoidancePercent)15If collision avoidance is enabled, let p be the collision avoidance percent. The collision avoidance policy then tweaks the next delay by a random amount, up to plus/minus p% of its current value.
delayPattern(String delayPattern)NoneApache Camel 2.0:
disableRedelivery()trueApache Camel 2.0: Disables the redelivery feature. To enable redelivery, set maximumRedeliveries() to a positive integer value.
handled(boolean handled)trueApache Camel 2.0: If true, the current exception is cleared when the message is moved to the dead letter channel; if false, the exception is propagated back to the client.
initialRedeliveryDelay(long initialRedeliveryDelay)1000Specifies the delay (in milliseconds) before attempting the first redelivery.
logStackTrace(boolean logStackTrace)falseApache Camel 2.0: If true, the JVM stack trace is included in the error logs.
maximumRedeliveries(int maximumRedeliveries)0Apache Camel 2.0: Maximum number of delivery attempts.
maximumRedeliveryDelay(long maxDelay)60000Apache Camel 2.0: When using an exponential backoff strategy (see useExponentialBackOff()), it is theoretically possible for the redelivery delay to increase without limit. This property imposes an upper limit on the redelivery delay (in milliseconds)
onRedelivery(Processor processor)NoneApache Camel 2.0: Configures a processor that gets called before every redelivery attempt.
redeliveryDelay(long int)0Apache Camel 2.0: Specifies the delay (in milliseconds) between redelivery attempts.
retriesExhaustedLogLevel(LoggingLevel logLevel)LoggingLevel.ERRORApache Camel 2.0: Specifies the logging level at which to log delivery failure (specified as an org.apache.camel.LoggingLevel constant).
retryAttemptedLogLevel(LoggingLevel logLevel)LoggingLevel.DEBUGApache Camel 2.0: Specifies the logging level at which to redelivery attempts (specified as an org.apache.camel.LoggingLevel constant).
useCollisionAvoidance()falseEnables collision avoidence, which adds some randomization to the backoff timings to reduce contention probability.
useOriginalMessage()falseApache Camel 2.0: If this feature is enabled, the message sent to the dead letter channel is a copy of the original message exchange, as it existed at the beginning of the route (in the from() node).
useExponentialBackOff()falseEnables exponential backoff.
allowRedeliveryWhileStopping()trueControls whether redelivery is attempted during graceful shutdown or while a route is stopping. A delivery that is already in progress when stopping is initiated will not be interrupted.

Redelivery headers

If Apache Camel attempts to redeliver a message, it automatically sets the headers described in Table 5.2, “Dead Letter Redelivery Headers” on the In message.

Table 5.2. Dead Letter Redelivery Headers

Header NameTypeDescription
CamelRedeliveryCounterIntegerApache Camel 2.0: Counts the number of unsuccessful delivery attempts. This value is also set in Exchange.REDELIVERY_COUNTER.
CamelRedeliveredBooleanApache Camel 2.0: True, if one or more redelivery attempts have been made. This value is also set in Exchange.REDELIVERED.
CamelRedeliveryMaxCounterIntegerApache Camel 2.6: Holds the maximum redelivery setting (also set in the Exchange.REDELIVERY_MAX_COUNTER exchange property). This header is absent if you use retryWhile or have unlimited maximum redelivery configured.

Redelivery exchange properties

If Apache Camel attempts to redeliver a message, it automatically sets the exchange properties described in Table 5.3, “Redelivery Exchange Properties”.

Table 5.3. Redelivery Exchange Properties

Exchange Property NameTypeDescription
Exchange.FAILURE_ROUTE_IDStringProvides the route ID of the route that failed. The literal name of this property is CamelFailureRouteId.

Using the original message

Available as of Apache Camel 2.0 Because an exchange object is subject to modification as it passes through the route, the exchange that is current when an exception is raised is not necessarily the copy that you would want to store in the dead letter channel. In many cases, it is preferable to log the message that arrived at the start of the route, before it was subject to any kind of transformation by the route. For example, consider the following route:
from("jms:queue:order:input")
       .to("bean:validateOrder");
       .to("bean:transformOrder")
       .to("bean:handleOrder");
The preceding route listen for incoming JMS messages and then processes the messages using the sequence of beans: validateOrder, transformOrder, and handleOrder. But when an error occurs, we do not know in which state the message is in. Did the error happen before the transformOrder bean or after? We can ensure that the original message from jms:queue:order:input is logged to the dead letter channel by enabling the useOriginalMessage option as follows:
// will use original body
errorHandler(deadLetterChannel("jms:queue:dead")
       .useOriginalMessage().maximumRedeliveries(5).redeliveryDelay(5000);

Redeliver delay pattern

Available as of Apache Camel 2.0 The delayPattern option is used to specify delays for particular ranges of the redelivery count. The delay pattern has the following syntax: limit1:delay1;limit2:delay2;limit3:delay3;..., where each delayN is applied to redeliveries in the range limitN <= redeliveryCount < limitN+1
For example, consider the pattern, 5:1000;10:5000;20:20000, which defines three groups and results in the following redelivery delays:
  • Attempt number 1..4 = 0 milliseconds (as the first group starts with 5).
  • Attempt number 5..9 = 1000 milliseconds (the first group).
  • Attempt number 10..19 = 5000 milliseconds (the second group).
  • Attempt number 20.. = 20000 milliseconds (the last group).
You can start a group with limit 1 to define a starting delay. For example, 1:1000;5:5000 results in the following redelivery delays:
  • Attempt number 1..4 = 1000 millis (the first group)
  • Attempt number 5.. = 5000 millis (the last group)
There is no requirement that the next delay should be higher than the previous and you can use any delay value you like. For example, the delay pattern, 1:5000;3:1000, starts with a 5 second delay and then reduces the delay to 1 second.

Which endpoint failed?

When Apache Camel routes messages, it updates an Exchange property that contains the last endpoint the Exchange was sent to. Hence, you can obtain the URI for the current exchange's most recent destination using the following code:
// Java
String lastEndpointUri = exchange.getProperty(Exchange.TO_ENDPOINT, String.class);
Where Exchange.TO_ENDPOINT is a string constant equal to CamelToEndpoint. This property is updated whenever Camel sends a message to any endpoint.
If an error occurs during routing and the exchange is moved into the dead letter queue, Apache Camel will additionally set a property named CamelFailureEndpoint, which identifies the last destination the exchange was sent to before the error occcured. Hence, you can access the failure endpoint from within a dead letter queue using the following code:
// Java
String failedEndpointUri = exchange.getProperty(Exchange.FAILURE_ENDPOINT, String.class);
Where Exchange.FAILURE_ENDPOINT is a string constant equal to CamelFailureEndpoint.
Note
These properties remain set in the current exchange, even if the failure occurs after the given destination endpoint has finished processing. For example, consider the following route:
        from("activemq:queue:foo")
        .to("http://someserver/somepath")
        .beanRef("foo");
Now suppose that a failure happens in the foo bean. In this case the Exchange.TO_ENDPOINT property and the Exchange.FAILURE_ENDPOINT property still contain the value, http://someserver/somepath.

onRedelivery processor

When a dead letter channel is performing redeliveries, it is possible to configure a Processor that is executed just before every redelivery attempt. This can be used for situations where you need to alter the message before it is redelivered.
For example, the following dead letter channel is configured to call the MyRedeliverProcessor before redelivering exchanges:
// we configure our Dead Letter Channel to invoke
// MyRedeliveryProcessor before a redelivery is
// attempted. This allows us to alter the message before
errorHandler(deadLetterChannel("mock:error").maximumRedeliveries(5)
        .onRedelivery(new MyRedeliverProcessor())
        // setting delay to zero is just to make unit teting faster
        .redeliveryDelay(0L));
Where the MyRedeliveryProcessor process is implemented as follows:
// This is our processor that is executed before every redelivery attempt
// here we can do what we want in the java code, such as altering the message
public class MyRedeliverProcessor implements Processor {

    public void process(Exchange exchange) throws Exception {
        // the message is being redelivered so we can alter it

        // we just append the redelivery counter to the body
        // you can of course do all kind of stuff instead
        String body = exchange.getIn().getBody(String.class);
        int count = exchange.getIn().getHeader(Exchange.REDELIVERY_COUNTER, Integer.class);

        exchange.getIn().setBody(body + count);

        // the maximum redelivery was set to 5
        int max = exchange.getIn().getHeader(Exchange.REDELIVERY_MAX_COUNTER, Integer.class);
        assertEquals(5, max);
    }
}

Control redelivery during shutdown or stopping

If you stop a route or initiate graceful shutdown, the default behavior of the error handler is to continue attempting redelivery. Because this is typically not the desired behavior, you have the option of disabling redelivery during shutdown or stopping, by setting the allowRedeliveryWhileStopping option to false, as shown in the following example:
errorHandler(deadLetterChannel("jms:queue:dead")
    .allowRedeliveryWhileStopping(false)
    .maximumRedeliveries(20)
    .redeliveryDelay(1000)
    .retryAttemptedLogLevel(LoggingLevel.INFO));
Note
The allowRedeliveryWhileStopping option is true by default, for backwards compatibility reasons. During aggressive shutdown, however, redelivery is always suppressed, irrespective of this option setting (for example, after graceful shutdown has timed out).

onException clause

Instead of using the errorHandler() interceptor in your route builder, you can define a series of onException() clauses that define different redelivery policies and different dead letter channels for various exception types. For example, to define distinct behavior for each of the NullPointerException, IOException, and Exception types, you can define the following rules in your route builder using Java DSL:
onException(NullPointerException.class)
    .maximumRedeliveries(1)
    .setHeader("messageInfo", "Oh dear! An NPE.")
    .to("mock:npe_error");

onException(IOException.class)
    .initialRedeliveryDelay(5000L)
    .maximumRedeliveries(3)
    .backOffMultiplier(1.0)
    .useExponentialBackOff()
    .setHeader("messageInfo", "Oh dear! Some kind of I/O exception.")
    .to("mock:io_error");

onException(Exception.class)
    .initialRedeliveryDelay(1000L)
    .maximumRedeliveries(2)
    .setHeader("messageInfo", "Oh dear! An exception.")
    .to("mock:error");

from("seda:a").to("seda:b");
Where the redelivery options are specified by chaining the redelivery policy methods (as listed in Table 5.1, “Redelivery Policy Settings”), and you specify the dead letter channel's endpoint using the to() DSL command. You can also call other Java DSL commands in the onException() clauses. For example, the preceding example calls setHeader() to record some error details in a message header named, messageInfo.
In this example, the NullPointerException and the IOException exception types are configured specially. All other exception types are handled by the generic Exception exception interceptor. By default, Apache Camel applies the exception interceptor that most closely matches the thrown exception. If it fails to find an exact match, it tries to match the closest base type, and so on. Finally, if no other interceptor matches, the interceptor for the Exception type matches all remaining exceptions.

4. Guaranteed Delivery

Overview

Guaranteed delivery means that once a message is placed into a message channel, the messaging system guarantees that the message will reach its destination, even if parts of the application should fail. In general, messaging systems implement the guaranteed delivery pattern, shown in Figure 5.4, “Guaranteed Delivery Pattern”, by writing messages to persistent storage before attempting to deliver them to their destination.

Figure 5.4. Guaranteed Delivery Pattern

Guaranteed delivery pattern

Components that support guaranteed delivery

The following Apache Camel components support the guaranteed delivery pattern:

JMS

In JMS, the deliveryPersistent query option indicates whether or not persistent storage of messages is enabled. Usually it is unnecessary to set this option, because the default behavior is to enable persistent delivery. To configure all the details of guaranteed delivery, it is necessary to set configuration options on the JMS provider. These details vary, depending on what JMS provider you are using. For example, MQSeries, TibCo, BEA, Sonic, and others, all provide various qualities of service to support guaranteed delivery.
The simplest option (different from Figure 5.4, “Guaranteed Delivery Pattern”) is to enable persistence in a central broker and then connect to that broker using a reliable protocol. After a message is been sent to the central broker, delivery to consumers is guaranteed. For example, in the Apache Camel configuration file, META-INF/spring/camel-context.xml, you can configure the ActiveMQ component to connect to the central broker using the OpenWire/TCP protocol as follows:
<beans ... >
  ...
  <bean id="activemq" class="org.apache.activemq.camel.component.ActiveMQComponent">
    <property name="brokerURL" value="tcp://somehost:61616"/>
  </bean>
  ...
</beans>
If you prefer to implement an architecture where messages are stored locally before being sent to a remote endpoint (similar to Figure 5.4, “Guaranteed Delivery Pattern”), you do this by instantiating an embedded broker in your Apache Camel application. A simple way to achieve this is to use the ActiveMQ Peer-to-Peer protocol, which implicitly creates an embedded broker to communicate with other peer endpoints. For example, in the camel-context.xml configuration file, you can configure the ActiveMQ component to connect to all of the peers in group, GroupA, as follows:
<beans ... >
  ...
  <bean id="activemq" class="org.apache.activemq.camel.component.ActiveMQComponent">
    <property name="brokerURL" value="peer://GroupA/broker1"/>
  </bean>
  ...
</beans>
Where broker1 is the broker name of the embedded broker (other peers in the group should use different broker names). One limiting feature of the Peer-to-Peer protocol is that it relies on IP multicast to locate the other peers in its group. This makes it unsuitable for use in wide area networks (and in some local area networks that do not have IP multicast enabled).
A more flexible way to create an embedded broker in the ActiveMQ component is to exploit ActiveMQ's VM protocol, which connects to an embedded broker instance. If a broker of the required name does not already exist, the VM protocol automatically creates one. You can use this mechanism to create an embedded broker with custom configuration. For example:
<beans ... >
  ...
  <bean id="activemq" class="org.apache.activemq.camel.component.ActiveMQComponent">
    <property name="brokerURL" value="vm://broker1?brokerConfig=xbean:activemq.xml"/>
  </bean>
  ...
</beans>
Where activemq.xml is an ActiveMQ file which configures the embedded broker instance. Within the ActiveMQ configuration file, you can choose to enable one of the following persistence mechanisms:
Message bus refers to a messaging architecture, shown in Figure 5.5, “Message Bus Pattern”, that enables you to connect diverse applications running on diverse computing platforms. In effect, the Apache Camel and its components constitute a message bus.

Figure 5.5. Message Bus Pattern

Message bus pattern
The following features of the message bus pattern are reflected in Apache Camel:
  • Common communication infrastructure — The router itself provides the core of the common communication infrastructure in Apache Camel. However, in contrast to some message bus architectures, Apache Camel provides a heterogeneous infrastructure: messages can be sent into the bus using a wide variety of different transports and using a wide variety of different message formats.
  • Adapters — Where necessary, Apache Camel can translate message formats and propagate messages using different transports. In effect, Apache Camel is capable of behaving like an adapter, so that external applications can hook into the message bus without refactoring their messaging protocols.
    In some cases, it is also possible to integrate an adapter directly into an external application. For example, if you develop an application using Apache CXF, where the service is implemented using JAX-WS and JAXB mappings, it is possible to bind a variety of different transports to the service. These transport bindings function as adapters.

Chapter 6. Message Construction

Abstract

The message construction patterns describe the various forms and functions of the messages that pass through the system.

1. Correlation Identifier

Overview

The correlation identifier pattern, shown in Figure 6.1, “Correlation Identifier Pattern”, describes how to match reply messages with request messages, given that an asynchronous messaging system is used to implement a request-reply protocol. The essence of this idea is that request messages should be generated with a unique token, the request ID, that identifies the request message and reply messages should include a token, the correlation ID, that contains the matching request ID.
Apache Camel supports the Correlation Identifier from the EIP patterns by getting or setting a header on a Message.
When working with the ActiveMQ or JMS components, the correlation identifier header is called JMSCorrelationID. You can add your own correlation identifier to any message exchange to help correlate messages together in a single conversation (or business process). A correlation identifier is usually stored in a Apache Camel message header.
Some EIP patterns spin off a sub message and, in those cases, Apache Camel adds a correlation ID to the Exchange as a property with they key, Exchange.CORRELATION_ID, which links back to the source Exchange. For example, the Splitter, Multicast, Recipient List, and Wire Tap EIPs do this.

Figure 6.1. Correlation Identifier Pattern

Correlation identifier pattern

2. Event Message

Event Message

Camel supports the Event Message from the Introducing Enterprise Integration Patterns by supporting the Exchange Pattern on a Message which can be set to InOnly to indicate a oneway event message. Camel Components then implement this pattern using the underlying transport or protocols.
The default behaviour of many Components is InOnly such as for JMS, File or SEDA

Explicitly specifying InOnly

If you are using a component which defaults to InOut you can override the Exchange Pattern for an endpoint using the pattern property.
foo:bar?exchangePattern=InOnly
From 2.0 onwards on Camel you can specify the Exchange Pattern using the dsl.
Using the Fluent Builders
from("mq:someQueue").
  inOnly().
  bean(Foo.class);
or you can invoke an endpoint with an explicit pattern
from("mq:someQueue").
  inOnly("mq:anotherQueue");
<route>
    <from uri="mq:someQueue"/>
    <inOnly uri="bean:foo"/>
</route>
<route>
    <from uri="mq:someQueue"/>
    <inOnly uri="mq:anotherQueue"/>
</route>

3. Return Address

Return Address

Apache Camel supports the Return Address from the Introducing Enterprise Integration Patterns using the JMSReplyTo header.
For example when using JMS with InOut, the component will by default be returned to the address given in JMSReplyTo.

Example

Requestor Code
 getMockEndpoint("mock:bar").expectedBodiesReceived("Bye World");
 template.sendBodyAndHeader("direct:start", "World", "JMSReplyTo", "queue:bar");
Route Using the Fluent Builders
 from("direct:start").to("activemq:queue:foo?preserveMessageQos=true");
 from("activemq:queue:foo").transform(body().prepend("Bye "));
 from("activemq:queue:bar?disableReplyTo=true").to("mock:bar");
Route Using the Spring XML Extensions
 <route>
   <from uri="direct:start"/>
   <to uri="activemq:queue:foo?preserveMessageQos=true"/>
 </route>
 
 <route>
   <from uri="activemq:queue:foo"/>
   <transform>
       <simple>Bye ${in.body}</simple>
   </transform>
 </route>
 
 <route>
   <from uri="activemq:queue:bar?disableReplyTo=true"/>
   <to uri="mock:bar"/>
 </route>
For a complete example of this pattern, see this junit test case

Chapter 7. Message Routing

Abstract

The message routing patterns describe various ways of linking message channels together. This includes various algorithms that can be applied to the message stream (without modifying the body of the message).

1. Content-Based Router

Overview

A content-based router, shown in Figure 7.1, “Content-Based Router Pattern”, enables you to route messages to the appropriate destination based on the message contents.

Figure 7.1. Content-Based Router Pattern

Content-based router pattern

Java DSL example

The following example shows how to route a request from an input, seda:a, endpoint to either seda:b, queue:c, or seda:d depending on the evaluation of various predicate expressions:
RouteBuilder builder = new RouteBuilder() {
    public void configure() {
        from("seda:a").choice()
          .when(header("foo").isEqualTo("bar")).to("seda:b")
          .when(header("foo").isEqualTo("cheese")).to("seda:c")
          .otherwise().to("seda:d");
    }
};

XML configuration example

The following example shows how to configure the same route in XML:
<camelContext id="buildSimpleRouteWithChoice" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="seda:a"/>
    <choice>
      <when>
        <xpath>$foo = 'bar'</xpath>
        <to uri="seda:b"/>
      </when>
      <when>
        <xpath>$foo = 'cheese'</xpath>
        <to uri="seda:c"/>
      </when>
      <otherwise>
        <to uri="seda:d"/>
      </otherwise>
    </choice>
  </route>
</camelContext>

2. Message Filter

Overview

A message filter is a processor that eliminates undesired messages based on specific criteria. In Apache Camel, the message filter pattern, shown in Figure 7.2, “Message Filter Pattern”, is implemented by the filter() Java DSL command. The filter() command takes a single predicate argument, which controls the filter. When the predicate is true, the incoming message is allowed to proceed, and when the predicate is false, the incoming message is blocked.

Figure 7.2. Message Filter Pattern

Message filter pattern

Java DSL example

The following example shows how to create a route from endpoint, seda:a, to endpoint, seda:b, that blocks all messages except for those messages whose foo header have the value, bar:
RouteBuilder builder = new RouteBuilder() {
    public void configure() {
        from("seda:a").filter(header("foo").isEqualTo("bar")).to("seda:b");
    }
};
To evaluate more complex filter predicates, you can invoke one of the supported scripting languages, such as XPath, XQuery, or SQL (see Expression and Predicate Languages). The following example defines a route that blocks all messages except for those containing a person element whose name attribute is equal to James:
from("direct:start").
        filter().xpath("/person[@name='James']").
        to("mock:result");

XML configuration example

The following example shows how to configure the route with an XPath predicate in XML (see Expression and Predicate Languages):
<camelContext id="simpleFilterRoute" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="seda:a"/>
    <filter>
      <xpath>$foo = 'bar'</xpath>
      <to uri="seda:b"/>
    </filter>
  </route>
  </camelContext>
Filtered endpoint required inside </filter> tag
Make sure you put the endpoint you want to filter (for example, <to uri="seda:b"/>) before the closing </filter> tag or the filter will not be applied (in 2.8+, omitting this will result in an error).

Filtering with beans

Here is an example of using a bean to define the filter behavior:
from("direct:start")
     .filter().method(MyBean.class, "isGoldCustomer").to("mock:result").end()
     .to("mock:end");
 
public static class MyBean {
    public boolean isGoldCustomer(@Header("level") String level) { 
        return level.equals("gold"); 
    }
}

Using stop()

Available as of Camel 2.0
Stop is a special type of filter that filters out all messages. Stop is convenient to use in a Content-Based Routerwhen you need to stop further processing in one of the predicates.
In the following example, we do not want messages with the word Bye in the message body to propagate any further in the route. We prevent this in the when() predicate using .stop().
from("direct:start")
    .choice()
        .when(bodyAs(String.class).contains("Hello")).to("mock:hello")
        .when(bodyAs(String.class).contains("Bye")).to("mock:bye").stop()
        .otherwise().to("mock:other")
    .end()
    .to("mock:result");

Knowing if Exchange was filtered or not

Available as of Camel 2.5
The Message Filter EIP will add a property on the Exchange which states if it was filtered or not.
The property has the key Exchannge.FILTER_MATCHED which has the String value of CamelFilterMatched. Its value is a boolean indicating true or false. If the value is true then the Exchange was routed in the filter block.

3. Recipient List

Overview

A recipient list, shown in Figure 7.3, “Recipient List Pattern”, is a type of router that sends each incoming message to multiple different destinations. In addition, a recipient list typically requires that the list of recipients be calculated at run time.

Figure 7.3. Recipient List Pattern

Recipient list pattern

Recipient list with fixed destinations

The simplest kind of recipient list is where the list of destinations is fixed and known in advance, and the exchange pattern is InOnly. In this case, you can hardwire the list of destinations into the to() Java DSL command.
Note
The examples given here, for the recipient list with fixed destinations, work only with the InOnly exchange pattern (similar to a pipeline). If you want to create a recipient list for exchange patterns with Out messages, use the multicast pattern instead.

Java DSL example

The following example shows how to route an InOnly exchange from a consumer endpoint, queue:a, to a fixed list of destinations:
from("seda:a").to("seda:b", "seda:c", "seda:d");

XML configuration example

The following example shows how to configure the same route in XML:
<camelContext id="buildStaticRecipientList" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="seda:a"/>
    <to uri="seda:b"/>
    <to uri="seda:c"/>
    <to uri="seda:d"/>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Recipient list calculated at run time

In most cases, when you use the recipient list pattern, the list of recipients should be calculated at runtime. To do this use the recipientList() processor, which takes a list of destinations as its sole argument. Because Apache Camel applies a type converter to the list argument, it should be possible to use most standard Java list types (for example, a collection, a list, or an array). For more details about type converters, see Section 3, “Built-In Type Converters”.
The recipients receive a copy of the same exchange instance and Apache Camel executes them sequentially.

Java DSL example

The following example shows how to extract the list of destinations from a message header called recipientListHeader, where the header value is a comma-separated list of endpoint URIs:
from("direct:a").recipientList(header("recipientListHeader").tokenize(","));
In some cases, if the header value is a list type, you might be able to use it directly as the argument to recipientList(). For example:
from("seda:a").recipientList(header("recipientListHeader"));
However, this example is entirely dependent on how the underlying component parses this particular header. If the component parses the header as a simple string, this example will not work. The header must be parsed into some type of Java list.

XML configuration example

The following example shows how to configure the preceding route in XML, where the header value is a comma-separated list of endpoint URIs:
<camelContext id="buildDynamicRecipientList" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="seda:a"/>
    <recipientList delimiter=",">
      <header>recipientListHeader</header>
    </recipientList>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Sending to multiple recipients in parallel

Available as of Camel 2.2
The Recipient List supports parallelProcessing, which is similar to the corresponding feature in Splitter. Use the parallel processing feature to send the exchange to multiple recipients concurrently—for example:
from("direct:a").recipientList(header("myHeader")).parallelProcessing();
In Spring XML, the parallel processing feature is implemented as an attribute on the recipientList tag—for example:
<route>
  <from uri="direct:a"/>
  <recipientList parallelProcessing="true">
    <header>myHeader</header>
  </recipientList>
</route>

Stop on exception

Available as of Camel 2.2
The Recipient List supports the stopOnException feature, which you can use to stop sending to any further recipients, if any recipient fails.
from("direct:a").recipientList(header("myHeader")).stopOnException();
And in Spring XML its an attribute on the recipient list tag.
In Spring XML, the stop on exception feature is implemented as an attribute on the recipientList tag—for example:
<route>
  <from uri="direct:a"/>
  <recipientList stopOnException="true">
    <header>myHeader</header>
  </recipientList>
</route>
Note
You can combine parallelProcessing and stopOnException in the same route.

Ignore invalid endpoints

Available as of Camel 2.3
The Recipient List supports the ignoreInvalidEndpoints option, which enables the recipient list to skip invalid endpoints (Routing Slip also supports this option). For example:
from("direct:a").recipientList(header("myHeader")).ignoreInvalidEndpoints();
And in Spring XML, you can enable this option by setting the ignoreInvalidEndpoints attribute on the recipientList tag, as follows
<route>
  <from uri="direct:a"/>
  <recipientList ignoreInvalidEndpoints="true">
    <header>myHeader</header>
  </recipientList>
</route>
Consider the case where myHeader contains the two endpoints, direct:foo,xxx:bar. The first endpoint is valid and works. The second is invalid and, therefore, ignored. Apache Camel logs at INFO level whenever an invalid endpoint is encountered.

Using custom AggregationStrategy

Available as of Camel 2.2
You can use a custom AggregationStrategy with the Recipient List, which is useful for aggregating replies from the recipients in the list. By default, Apache Camel uses the UseLatestAggregationStrategy aggregation strategy, which keeps just the last received reply. For a more sophisticated aggregation strategy, you can define your own implementation of the AggregationStrategy interface—see Aggregator EIP for details. For example, to apply the custom aggregation strategy, MyOwnAggregationStrategy, to the reply messages, you can define a Java DSL route as follows:
from("direct:a")
    .recipientList(header("myHeader")).aggregationStrategy(new MyOwnAggregationStrategy())
    .to("direct:b");
In Spring XML, you can specify the custom aggregation strategy as an attribute on the recipientList tag, as follows:
<route>
  <from uri="direct:a"/>
  <recipientList strategyRef="myStrategy">
    <header>myHeader</header>
  </recipientList>
  <to uri="direct:b"/>
</route>
        
<bean id="myStrategy" class="com.mycompany.MyOwnAggregationStrategy"/>

Using custom thread pool

Available as of Camel 2.2
This is only needed when you use parallelProcessing. By default Camel uses a thread pool with 10 threads. Notice this is subject to change when we overhaul thread pool management and configuration later (hopefully in Camel 2.2).
You configure this just as you would with the custom aggregation strategy.

Using method call as recipient list

You can use a Bean to provide the recipients, for example:
from("activemq:queue:test").recipientList().method(MessageRouter.class, "routeTo");
Where the MessageRouter bean is defined as follows:
public class MessageRouter {

    public String routeTo() {
        String queueName = "activemq:queue:test2";
        return queueName;
    }
}

Bean as recipient list

You can make a bean behave as a recipient list by adding the @RecipientList annotation to a methods that returns a list of recipients. For example:
public class MessageRouter {
        
    @RecipientList
    public String routeTo() {
        String queueList = "activemq:queue:test1,activemq:queue:test2";
        return queueList;
    }
}
In this case, do not include the recipientList DSL command in the route. Define the route as follows:
from("activemq:queue:test").bean(MessageRouter.class, "routeTo");

Using timeout

Available as of Camel 2.5
If you use parallelProcessing, you can configure a total timeout value in milliseconds. Camel will then process the messages in parallel until the timeout is hit. This allows you to continue processing if one message is slow.
In the example below, the recipientlist header has the value, direct:a,direct:b,direct:c, so that the message is sent to three recipients. We have a timeout of 250 milliseconds, which means only the last two messages can be completed within the timeframe. The aggregation therefore yields the string result, BC.
from("direct:start")
    .recipientList(header("recipients"), ",")
    .aggregationStrategy(new AggregationStrategy() {
            public Exchange aggregate(Exchange oldExchange, Exchange newExchange) {
                if (oldExchange == null) {
                    return newExchange;
                }

                String body = oldExchange.getIn().getBody(String.class);
                oldExchange.getIn().setBody(body + newExchange.getIn().getBody(String.class));
                return oldExchange;
            }
        })
        .parallelProcessing().timeout(250)
    // use end to indicate end of recipientList clause
    .end()
    .to("mock:result");

from("direct:a").delay(500).to("mock:A").setBody(constant("A"));

from("direct:b").to("mock:B").setBody(constant("B"));

from("direct:c").to("mock:C").setBody(constant("C"));
Note
This timeout feature is also supported by splitter and both multicast and recipientList.
By default if a timeout occurs the AggregationStrategy is not invoked. However you can implement a specialized version
// Java
public interface TimeoutAwareAggregationStrategy extends AggregationStrategy {

    /**
     * A timeout occurred
     *
     * @param oldExchange  the oldest exchange (is &lt;tt>null&lt;/tt> on first aggregation as we only have the new exchange)
     * @param index        the index
     * @param total        the total
     * @param timeout      the timeout value in millis
     */
    void timeout(Exchange oldExchange, int index, int total, long timeout);
This allows you to deal with the timeout in the AggregationStrategy if you really need to.
Timeout is total
The timeout is total, which means that after X time, Camel will aggregate the messages which has completed within the timeframe. The remainders will be cancelled. Camel will also only invoke the timeout method in the TimeoutAwareAggregationStrategy once, for the first index which caused the timeout.

Apply custom processing to the outgoing messages

Before recipientList sends a message to one of the recipient endpoints, it creates a message replica, which is a shallow copy of the original message. If you want to perform some custom processing on each message replica before the replica is sent to its endpoint, you can invoke the onPrepare DSL command in the recipientList clause. The onPrepare command inserts a custom processor just after the message has been shallow-copied and just before the message is dispatched to its endpoint. For example, in the following route, the CustomProc processor is invoked on the message replica for each recipient endpoint:
from("direct:start")
  .recipientList().onPrepare(new CustomProc());
A common use case for the onPrepare DSL command is to perform a deep copy of some or all elements of a message. This allows each message replica to be modified independently of the others. For example, the following CustomProc processor class performs a deep copy of the message body, where the message body is presumed to be of type, BodyType, and the deep copy is performed by the method, BodyType.deepCopy().
// Java
import org.apache.camel.*;
...
public class CustomProc implements Processor {

    public void process(Exchange exchange) throws Exception {
        BodyType body = exchange.getIn().getBody(BodyType.class);

        // Make a _deep_ copy of of the body object
        BodyType clone =  BodyType.deepCopy();
        exchange.getIn().setBody(clone);

        // Headers and attachments have already been
        // shallow-copied. If you need deep copies,
        // add some more code here.
    }
}

Options

The recipientList DSL command supports the following options:
Name Default Value Description
delimiter , Delimiter used if the Expression returned multiple endpoints.
strategyRef Refers to an AggregationStrategy to be used to assemble the replies from the recipients, into a single outgoing message from the Recipient List. By default Camel will use the last reply as the outgoing message.
parallelProcessing false Camel 2.2: If enables then sending messages to the recipients occurs concurrently. Note the caller thread will still wait until all messages has been fully processed, before it continues. Its only the sending and processing the replies from the recipients which happens concurrently.
executorServiceRef Camel 2.2: Refers to a custom Thread Pool to be used for parallel processing. Notice if you set this option, then parallel processing is automatic implied, and you do not have to enable that option as well.
stopOnException false Camel 2.2: Whether or not to stop continue processing immediately when an exception occurred. If disable, then Camel will send the message to all recipients regardless if one of them failed. You can deal with exceptions in the AggregationStrategy class where you have full control how to handle that.
ignoreInvalidEndpoints false Camel 2.3: If an endpoint uri could not be resolved, should it be ignored. Otherwise Camel will thrown an exception stating the endpoint uri is not valid.
streaming false Camel 2.5: If enabled then Camel will process replies out-of-order, eg in the order they come back. If disabled, Camel will process replies in the same order as the Expression specified.
timeout Camel 2.5: Sets a total timeout specified in millis. If the Recipient List hasn't been able to send and process all replies within the given timeframe, then the timeout triggers and the Recipient List breaks out and continues. Notice if you provide a TimeoutAwareAggregationStrategy then the timeout method is invoked before breaking out.
onPrepareRef Camel 2.8: Refers to a custom Processor to prepare the copy of the Exchange each recipient will receive. This allows you to do any custom logic, such as deep-cloning the message payload if that's needed etc.
shareUnitOfWork false Camel 2.8: Whether the unit of work should be shared. See the same option on Splitter for more details.

4. Splitter

Overview

A splitter is a type of router that splits an incoming message into a series of outgoing messages. Each of the outgoing messages contains a piece of the original message. In Apache Camel, the splitter pattern, shown in Figure 7.4, “Splitter Pattern”, is implemented by the split() Java DSL command.

Figure 7.4. Splitter Pattern

Splitter pattern
The Apache Camel splitter actually supports two patterns, as follows:
  • Simple splitter—implements the splitter pattern on its own.
  • Splitter/aggregator—combines the splitter pattern with the aggregator pattern, such that the pieces of the message are recombined after they have been processed.

Java DSL example

The following example defines a route from seda:a to seda:b that splits messages by converting each line of an incoming message into a separate outgoing message:
RouteBuilder builder = new RouteBuilder() {
    public void configure() {
        from("seda:a")
          .split(bodyAs(String.class).tokenize("\n"))
          .to("seda:b");
    }
};
The splitter can use any expression language, so you can split messages using any of the supported scripting languages, such as XPath, XQuery, or SQL (see Part II, “Routing Expression and Predicate Languages”). The following example extracts bar elements from an incoming message and insert them into separate outgoing messages:
from("activemq:my.queue")
  .split(xpath("//foo/bar"))
  .to("file://some/directory")

XML configuration example

The following example shows how to configure a splitter route in XML, using the XPath scripting language:
<camelContext id="buildSplitter" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
    <route>
      <from uri="seda:a"/>
      <split>
        <xpath>//foo/bar</xpath>
        <to uri="seda:b"/>
      </split>
    </route>
</camelContext>
You can use the tokenize expression in the XML DSL to split bodies or headers using a token, where the tokenize expression is defined using the tokenize element. In the following example, the message body is tokenized using the \n separator character. To use a regular expression pattern, set regex=true in the tokenize element.
<camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
    <route>
        <from uri="direct:start"/>
        <split>
            <tokenize token="\n"/>
            <to uri="mock:result"/>
        </split>
    </route>
    </camelContext>

Splitting into groups of lines

To split a big file into chunks of 1000 lines, you can define a splitter route as follows in the Java DSL:
from("file:inbox")
    .split().tokenize("\n", 1000).streaming()
       .to("activemq:queue:order");
The second argument to tokenize specifies the number of lines that should be grouped into a single chunk. The streaming() clause directs the splitter not to read the whole file at once (resulting in much better performance if the file is large).
The same route can be defined in XML DSL as follows:
<route>
  <from uri="file:inbox"/>
  <split streaming="true">
    <tokenize token="\n" group="1000"/>
    <to uri="activemq:queue:order"/>
  </split>
</route>
The output when using the group option is always of java.lang.String type.

Splitter reply

If the exchange that enters the splitter has the InOut message-exchange pattern (that is, a reply is expected), the splitter returns a copy of the original input message as the reply message in the Out message slot. You can override this default behavior by implementing your own aggregation strategy.

Parallel execution

If you want to execute the resulting pieces of the message in parallel, you can enable the parallel processing option, which instantiates a thread pool to process the message pieces. For example:
XPathBuilder xPathBuilder = new XPathBuilder("//foo/bar"); 
from("activemq:my.queue").split(xPathBuilder).parallelProcessing().to("activemq:my.parts");
You can customize the underlying ThreadPoolExecutor used in the parallel splitter. For example, you can specify a custom executor in the Java DSL as follows:
XPathBuilder xPathBuilder = new XPathBuilder("//foo/bar"); 
ThreadPoolExecutor threadPoolExecutor = new ThreadPoolExecutor(8, 16, 0L, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS, new LinkedBlockingQueue());
from("activemq:my.queue")
  .split(xPathBuilder)
  .parallelProcessing()
  .executorService(threadPoolExecutor)
  .to("activemq:my.parts");
You can specify a custom executor in the XML DSL as follows:
<camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="direct:parallel-custom-pool"/>
    <split executorServiceRef="threadPoolExecutor">
      <xpath>/invoice/lineItems</xpath>
      <to uri="mock:result"/>
    </split>
  </route>
</camelContext>

<bean id="threadPoolExecutor" class="java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor">
  <constructor-arg index="0" value="8"/>
  <constructor-arg index="1" value="16"/>
  <constructor-arg index="2" value="0"/>
  <constructor-arg index="3" value="MILLISECONDS"/>
  <constructor-arg index="4"><bean class="java.util.concurrent.LinkedBlockingQueue"/></constructor-arg>
</bean>

Using a bean to perform splitting

As the splitter can use any expression to do the splitting, we can use a bean to perform splitting, by invoking the method() expression. The bean should return an iterable value such as: java.util.Collection, java.util.Iterator, or an array.
The following route defines a method() expression that calls a method on the mySplitterBean bean instance:
from("direct:body")
        // here we use a POJO bean mySplitterBean to do the split of the payload
        .split()
        .method("mySplitterBean", "splitBody")
        .to("mock:result");
from("direct:message")
        // here we use a POJO bean mySplitterBean to do the split of the message 
        // with a certain header value
        .split()
        .method("mySplitterBean", "splitMessage")
        .to("mock:result");
Where mySplitterBean is an instance of the MySplitterBean class, which is defined as follows:
public class MySplitterBean {

    /**
     * The split body method returns something that is iteratable such as a java.util.List.
     *
     * @param body the payload of the incoming message
     * @return a list containing each part split
     */
    public List<String> splitBody(String body) {
        // since this is based on an unit test you can of couse
        // use different logic for splitting as Apache Camel have out
        // of the box support for splitting a String based on comma
        // but this is for show and tell, since this is java code
        // you have the full power how you like to split your messages
        List<String> answer = new ArrayList<String>();
        String[] parts = body.split(",");
        for (String part : parts) {
            answer.add(part);
        }
        return answer;
    }
    
    /**
     * The split message method returns something that is iteratable such as a java.util.List.
     *
     * @param header the header of the incoming message with the name user
     * @param body the payload of the incoming message
     * @return a list containing each part split
     */
    public List<Message> splitMessage(@Header(value = "user") String header, @Body String body) {
        // we can leverage the Parameter Binding Annotations  
        // http://camel.apache.org/parameter-binding-annotations.html
        // to access the message header and body at same time, 
        // then create the message that we want, splitter will
        // take care rest of them.
        // *NOTE* this feature requires Apache Camel version >= 1.6.1
        List<Message> answer = new ArrayList<Message>();
        String[] parts = header.split(",");
        for (String part : parts) {
            DefaultMessage message = new DefaultMessage();
            message.setHeader("user", part);
            message.setBody(body);
            answer.add(message);
        }
        return answer;
    }
}

Exchange properties

The following properties are set on each split exchange:
header type description
CamelSplitIndex int Apache Camel 2.0: A split counter that increases for each Exchange being split. The counter starts from 0.
CamelSplitSize int Apache Camel 2.0: The total number of Exchanges that was split. This header is not applied for stream based splitting.
CamelSplitComplete boolean Apache Camel 2.4: Whether or not this Exchange is the last.

Splitter/aggregator pattern

It is a common pattern for the message pieces to be aggregated back into a single exchange, after processing of the individual pieces has completed. To support this pattern, the split() DSL command lets you provide an AggregationStrategy object as the second argument.

Java DSL example

The following example shows how to use a custom aggregation strategy to recombine a split message after all of the message pieces have been processed:
from("direct:start")
    .split(body().tokenize("@"), new MyOrderStrategy())
        // each split message is then send to this bean where we can process it
        .to("bean:MyOrderService?method=handleOrder")
        // this is important to end the splitter route as we do not want to do more routing
        // on each split message
    .end()
    // after we have split and handled each message we want to send a single combined
    // response back to the original caller, so we let this bean build it for us
    // this bean will receive the result of the aggregate strategy: MyOrderStrategy
    .to("bean:MyOrderService?method=buildCombinedResponse")

AggregationStrategy implementation

The custom aggregation strategy, MyOrderStrategy, used in the preceding route is implemented as follows:
/**
 * This is our own order aggregation strategy where we can control
 * how each split message should be combined. As we do not want to
 * lose any message, we copy from the new to the old to preserve the
 * order lines as long we process them
 */
public static class MyOrderStrategy implements AggregationStrategy {

    public Exchange aggregate(Exchange oldExchange, Exchange newExchange) {
        // put order together in old exchange by adding the order from new exchange

        if (oldExchange == null) {
            // the first time we aggregate we only have the new exchange,
            // so we just return it
            return newExchange;
        }

        String orders = oldExchange.getIn().getBody(String.class);
        String newLine = newExchange.getIn().getBody(String.class);

        LOG.debug("Aggregate old orders: " + orders);
        LOG.debug("Aggregate new order: " + newLine);

        // put orders together separating by semi colon
        orders = orders + ";" + newLine;
        // put combined order back on old to preserve it
        oldExchange.getIn().setBody(orders);

        // return old as this is the one that has all the orders gathered until now
        return oldExchange;
    }
}

Stream based processing

When parallel processing is enabled, it is theoretically possible for a later message piece to be ready for aggregation before an earlier piece. In other words, the message pieces might arrive at the aggregator out of order. By default, this does not happen, because the splitter implementation rearranges the message pieces back into their original order before passing them into the aggregator.
If you would prefer to aggregate the message pieces as soon as they are ready (and possibly out of order), you can enable the streaming option, as follows:
from("direct:streaming")
  .split(body().tokenize(","), new MyOrderStrategy())
    .parallelProcessing()
    .streaming()
    .to("activemq:my.parts")
  .end()
  .to("activemq:all.parts");
You can also supply a custom iterator to use with streaming, as follows:
// Java
import static org.apache.camel.builder.ExpressionBuilder.beanExpression;
...
from("direct:streaming")
     .split(beanExpression(new MyCustomIteratorFactory(),  "iterator"))
     .streaming().to("activemq:my.parts")
Streaming and XPath
You cannot use streaming mode in conjunction with XPath. XPath requires the complete DOM XML document in memory.

Stream based processing with XML

If an incoming messages is a very large XML file, you can process the message most efficiently using the tokenizeXML sub-command in streaming mode.
For example, given a large XML file that contains a sequence of order elements, you can split the file into order elements using a route like the following:
from("file:inbox")
  .split().tokenizeXML("order").streaming()
  .to("activemq:queue:order");
You can do the same thing in XML, by defining a route like the following:
<route>
  <from uri="file:inbox"/>
  <split streaming="true">
    <tokenize token="order" xml="true"/>
    <to uri="activemq:queue:order"/>
  </split>
</route>
It is often the case that you need access to namespaces that are defined in one of the enclosing (ancestor) elements of the token elements. You can copy namespace definitions from one of the ancestor elements into the token element, by specifing which element you want to inherit namespace definitions from.
In the Java DSL, you specify the ancestor element as the second argument of tokenizeXML. For example, to inherit namespace definitions from the enclosing orders element:
from("file:inbox")
  .split().tokenizeXML("order", "orders").streaming()
  .to("activemq:queue:order");
In the XML DSL, you specify the ancestor element using the inheritNamespaceTagName attribute. For example:
<route>
  <from uri="file:inbox"/>
  <split streaming="true">
    <tokenize token="order"
              xml="true"
              inheritNamespaceTagName="orders"/>
    <to uri="activemq:queue:order"/>
  </split>
</route>

Options

The split DSL command supports the following options:
Name Default Value Description
strategyRef Refers to an AggregationStrategy to be used to assemble the replies from the sub-messages, into a single outgoing message from the Splitter. See the section titled What does the splitter return below for whats used by default.
parallelProcessing false If enables then processing the sub-messages occurs concurrently. Note the caller thread will still wait until all sub-messages has been fully processed, before it continues.
executorServiceRef Refers to a custom Thread Pool to be used for parallel processing. Notice if you set this option, then parallel processing is automatic implied, and you do not have to enable that option as well.
stopOnException false Camel 2.2: Whether or not to stop continue processing immediately when an exception occurred. If disable, then Camel continue splitting and process the sub-messages regardless if one of them failed. You can deal with exceptions in the AggregationStrategy class where you have full control how to handle that.
streaming false If enabled then Camel will split in a streaming fashion, which means it will split the input message in chunks. This reduces the memory overhead. For example if you split big messages its recommended to enable streaming. If streaming is enabled then the sub-message replies will be aggregated out-of-order, eg in the order they come back. If disabled, Camel will process sub-message replies in the same order as they where splitted.
timeout Camel 2.5: Sets a total timeout specified in millis. If the Recipient List hasn't been able to split and process all replies within the given timeframe, then the timeout triggers and the Splitter breaks out and continues. Notice if you provide a TimeoutAwareAggregationStrategy then the timeout method is invoked before breaking out.
onPrepareRef Camel 2.8: Refers to a custom Processor to prepare the sub-message of the Exchange, before its processed. This allows you to do any custom logic, such as deep-cloning the message payload if that's needed etc.
shareUnitOfWork false Camel 2.8: Whether the unit of work should be shared. See further below for more details.

5. Aggregator

Overview

The aggregator pattern, shown in Figure 7.5, “Aggregator Pattern”, enables you to combine a batch of related messages into a single message.

Figure 7.5. Aggregator Pattern

Aggregator pattern
To control the aggregator's behavior, Apache Camel allows you to specify the properties described in Enterprise Integration Patterns, as follows:
  • Correlation expression — Determines which messages should be aggregated together. The correlation expression is evaluated on each incoming message to produce a correlation key. Incoming messages with the same correlation key are then grouped into the same batch. For example, if you want to aggregate all incoming messages into a single message, you can use a constant expression.
  • Completeness condition — Determines when a batch of messages is complete. You can specify this either as a simple size limit or, more generally, you can specify a predicate condition that flags when the batch is complete.
  • Aggregation algorithm — Combines the message exchanges for a single correlation key into a single message exchange.
For example, consider a stock market data system that receives 30,000 messages per second. You might want to throttle down the message flow if your GUI tool cannot cope with such a massive update rate. The incoming stock quotes can be aggregated together simply by choosing the latest quote and discarding the older prices. (You can apply a delta processing algorithm, if you prefer to capture some of the history.)

How the aggregator works

Figure 7.6, “Aggregator Implementation” shows an overview of how the aggregator works, assuming it is fed with a stream of exchanges that have correlation keys such as A, B, C, or D.

Figure 7.6. Aggregator Implementation

Aggregator Implementation
The incoming stream of exchanges shown in Figure 7.6, “Aggregator Implementation” is processed as follows:
  1. The correlator is responsible for sorting exchanges based on the correlation key. For each incoming exchange, the correlation expression is evaluated, yielding the correlation key. For example, for the exchange shown in Figure 7.6, “Aggregator Implementation”, the correlation key evaluates to A.
  2. The aggregation strategy is responsible for merging exchanges with the same correlation key. When a new exchange, A, comes in, the aggregator looks up the corresponding aggregate exchange, A', in the aggregation repository and combines it with the new exchange.
    Until a particular aggregation cycle is completed, incoming exchanges are continuously aggregated with the corresponding aggregate exchange. An aggregation cycle lasts until terminated by one of the completion mechanisms.
  3. If a completion predicate is specified on the aggregator, the aggregate exchange is tested to determine whether it is ready to be sent to the next processor in the route. Processing continues as follows:
    • If complete, the aggregate exchange is processed by the latter part of the route. There are two alternative models for this: synchronous (the default), which causes the calling thread to block, or asynchronous (if parallel processing is enabled), where the aggregate exchange is submitted to an executor thread pool (as shown in Figure 7.6, “Aggregator Implementation”).
    • If not complete, the aggregate exchange is saved back to the aggregation repository.
  4. In parallel with the synchronous completion tests, it is possible to enable an asynchronous completion test by enabling either the completionTimeout option or the completionInterval option. These completion tests run in a separate thread and, whenever the completion test is satisfied, the corresponding exchange is marked as complete and starts to be processed by the latter part of the route (either synchronously or asynchronously, depending on whether parallel processing is enabled or not).
  5. If parallel processing is enabled, a thread pool is responsible for processing exchanges in the latter part of the route. By default, this thread pool contains ten threads, but you have the option of customizing the pool (the section called “Threading options”).

Java DSL example

The following example aggregates exchanges with the same StockSymbol header value, using the UseLatestAggregationStrategy aggregation strategy. For a given StockSymbol value, if more than three seconds elapse since the last exchange with that correlation key was received, the aggregated exchange is deemed to be complete and is sent to the mock endpoint.
from("direct:start")
    .aggregate(header("id"), new UseLatestAggregationStrategy())
        .completionTimeout(3000)
    .to("mock:aggregated");

XML DSL example

The following example shows how to configure the same route in XML:
<camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
    <route>
        <from uri="direct:start"/>
        <aggregate strategyRef="aggregatorStrategy"
                   completionTimeout="3000">
            <correlationExpression>
                <simple>header.StockSymbol</simple>
            </correlationExpression>
            <to uri="mock:aggregated"/>
        </aggregate>
    </route>
</camelContext>

<bean id="aggregatorStrategy"
      class="org.apache.camel.processor.aggregate.UseLatestAggregationStrategy"/>

Specifying the correlation expression

In the Java DSL, the correlation expression is always passed as the first argument to the aggregate() DSL command. You are not limited to using the Simple expression language here. You can specify a correlation expression using any of the expression languages or scripting languages, such as XPath, XQuery, SQL, and so on.
For exampe, to correlate exchanges using an XPath expression, you could use the following Java DSL route:
from("direct:start")
    .aggregate(xpath("/stockQuote/@symbol"), new UseLatestAggregationStrategy())
        .completionTimeout(3000)
    .to("mock:aggregated");
If the correlation expression cannot be evaluated on a particular incoming exchange, the aggregator throws a CamelExchangeException by default. You can suppress this exception by setting the ignoreInvalidCorrelationKeys option. For example, in the Java DSL:
from(...).aggregate(...).ignoreInvalidCorrelationKeys()
In the XML DSL, you can set the ignoreInvalidCorrelationKeys option is set as an attribute, as follows:
<aggregate strategyRef="aggregatorStrategy"
           ignoreInvalidCorrelationKeys="true"
           ...>
    ...
</aggregate>

Specifying the aggregation strategy

In Java DSL, you can either pass the aggregation strategy as the second argument to the aggregate() DSL command or specify it using the aggregationStrategy() clause. For example, you can use the aggregationStrategy() clause as follows:
from("direct:start")
    .aggregate(header("id"))
        .aggregationStrategy(new UseLatestAggregationStrategy())
        .completionTimeout(3000)
    .to("mock:aggregated");
Apache Camel provides the following basic aggregation strategies (where the classes belong to the org.apache.camel.processor.aggregate Java package):
UseLatestAggregationStrategy
Return the last exchange for a given correlation key, discarding all earlier exchanges with this key. For example, this strategy could be useful for throttling the feed from a stock exchange, where you just want to know the latest price of a particular stock symbol.
UseOriginalAggregationStrategy
Return the first exchange for a given correlation key, discarding all later exchanges with this key. You must set the first exchange by calling UseOriginalAggregationStrategy.setOriginal() before you can use this strategy.
GroupedExchangeAggregationStrategy
Concatenates all of the exchanges for a given correlation key into a list, which is stored in the Exchange.GROUPED_EXCHANGE exchange property. See the section called “Grouped exchanges”.

Implementing a custom aggregation strategy

If you want to apply a different aggregation strategy, you can implement one of the following aggregation strategy base interfaces:
org.apache.camel.processor.aggregate.AggregationStrategy
The basic aggregation strategy interface.
org.apache.camel.processor.aggregate.TimeoutAwareAggregationStrategy
Implement this interface, if you want your implementation to receive a notification when an aggregation cycle times out. The timeout notification method has the following signature:
void timeout(Exchange oldExchange, int index, int total, long timeout)
org.apache.camel.processor.aggregate.CompletionAwareAggregationStrategy
Implement this interface, if you want your implementation to receive a notification when an aggregation cycle completes normally. The notification method has the following signature:
void onCompletion(Exchange exchange)
For example, the following code shows two different custom aggregation strategies, StringAggregationStrategy and ArrayListAggregationStrategy::
 //simply combines Exchange String body values using '+' as a delimiter
 class StringAggregationStrategy implements AggregationStrategy {
 
     public Exchange aggregate(Exchange oldExchange, Exchange newExchange) {
         if (oldExchange == null) {
             return newExchange;
         }
 
         String oldBody = oldExchange.getIn().getBody(String.class);
         String newBody = newExchange.getIn().getBody(String.class);
         oldExchange.getIn().setBody(oldBody + "+" + newBody);
         return oldExchange;
     }
 }
 
 //simply combines Exchange body values into an ArrayList<Object>
 class ArrayListAggregationStrategy implements AggregationStrategy {
 
     public Exchange aggregate(Exchange oldExchange, Exchange newExchange) {
 	    Object newBody = newExchange.getIn().getBody();
     	ArrayList<Object> list = null;
         if (oldExchange == null) {
 		    list = new ArrayList<Object>();
 		    list.add(newBody);
 		    newExchange.getIn().setBody(list);
 		    return newExchange;
         } else {
 	        list = oldExchange.getIn().getBody(ArrayList.class);
 	    	list.add(newBody);
 		    return oldExchange;
 	    }
     }
 }
Note
Since Apache Camel 2.0, the AggregationStrategy.aggregate() callback method is also invoked for the very first exchange. On the first invocation of the aggregate method, the oldExchange parameter is null and the newExchange parameter contains the first incoming exchange.
To aggregate messages using the custom strategy class, ArrayListAggregationStrategy, define a route like the following:
from("direct:start")
    .aggregate(header("StockSymbol"), new ArrayListAggregationStrategy())
    .completionTimeout(3000)
    .to("mock:result");
You can also configure a route with a custom aggregation strategy in XML, as follows:
<camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <aggregate strategyRef="aggregatorStrategy"
               completionTimeout="3000">
      <correlationExpression>
        <simple>header.StockSymbol</simple>
      </correlationExpression>
      <to uri="mock:aggregated"/>
    </aggregate>
  </route>
</camelContext>

<bean id="aggregatorStrategy" class="com.my_package_name.ArrayListAggregationStrategy"/>

Controlling the lifecycle of a custom aggregation strategy

You can implement a custom aggregation strategy so that its lifecycle is aligned with the lifecycle of the enterprise integration pattern that is controlling it. This can be useful for ensuring that the aggregation strategy can shut down gracefully.
To implement an aggregation strategy with lifecycle support, you must implement the org.apache.camel.Service interface (in addition to the AggregationStrategy interface) and provide implementations of the start() and stop() lifecycle methods. For example, the following code example shows an outline of an aggregation strategy with lifecycle support:
// Java
import org.apache.camel.processor.aggregate.AggregationStrategy;
import org.apache.camel.Service;
import java.lang.Exception;
...
class MyAggStrategyWithLifecycleControl
       implements AggregationStrategy, Service {

    public Exchange aggregate(Exchange oldExchange, Exchange newExchange) {
        // Implementation not shown...
        ...
    }

    public void start() throws Exception {
        // Actions to perform when the enclosing EIP starts up
        ...
    }

    public void stop() throws Exception {
        // Actions to perform when the enclosing EIP is stopping
        ...
    }
}

Exchange properties

The following properties are set on each aggregated exchange:

Table 7.1. Aggregated Exchange Properties

Header Type Description
Exchange.AGGREGATED_SIZE int The total number of exchanges aggregated into this exchange.
Exchange.AGGREGATED_COMPLETED_BY String Indicates the mechanism responsible for completing the aggregate exchange. Possible values are: predicate, size, timeout, interval, or consumer.
The following properties are set on exchanges redelivered by the HawtDB aggregation repository (see the section called “Persistent aggregation repository”):

Table 7.2. Redelivered Exchange Properties

Header Type Description
Exchange.REDELIVERY_COUNTER int Sequence number of the current redelivery attempt (starting at 1).

Specifying a completion condition

It is mandatory to specify at least one completion condition, which determines when an aggregate exchange leaves the aggregator and proceeds to the next node on the route. The following completion conditions can be specified:
completionPredicate
Evaluates a predicate after each exchange is aggregated in order to determine completeness. A value of true indicates that the aggregate exchange is complete.
completionSize
Completes the aggregate exchange after the specified number of incoming exchanges are aggregated.
completionTimeout
(Incompatible with completionInterval) Completes the aggregate exchange, if no incoming exchanges are aggregated within the specified timeout.
In other words, the timeout mechanism keeps track of a timeout for each correlation key value. The clock starts ticking after the latest exchange with a particular key value is received. If another exchange with the same key value is not received within the specified timeout, the corresponding aggregate exchange is marked complete and sent to the next node on the route.
completionInterval
(Incompatible with completionTimeout) Completes all outstanding aggregate exchanges, after each time interval (of specified length) has elapsed.
The time interval is not tailored to each aggregate exchange. This mechanism forces simultaneous completion of all outstanding aggregate exchanges. Hence, in some cases, this mechanism could complete an aggregate exchange immediately after it started aggregating.
completionFromBatchConsumer
When used in combination with a consumer endpoint that supports the batch consumer mechanism, this completion option automatically figures out when the current batch of exchanges is complete, based on information it receives from the consumer endpoint. See the section called “Batch consumer”.
forceCompletionOnStop
When this option is enabled, it forces completion of all outstanding aggregate exchanges when the current route context is stopped.
The preceding completion conditions can be combined arbitrarily, except for the completionTimeout and completionInterval conditions, which cannot be simultaneously enabled. When conditions are used in combination, the general rule is that the first completion condition to trigger is the effective completion condition.

Specifying the completion predicate

You can specify an arbitrary predicate expression that determines when an aggregated exchange is complete. There are two possible ways of evaluating the predicate expression:
  • On the latest aggregate exchange—this is the default behavior.
  • On the latest incoming exchange—this behavior is selected when you enable the eagerCheckCompletion option.
For example, if you want to terminate a stream of stock quotes every time you receive an ALERT message (as indicated by the value of a MsgType header in the latest incoming exchange), you can define a route like the following:
from("direct:start")
    .aggregate(
      header("id"),
      new UseLatestAggregationStrategy()
    )
        .completionPredicate(
          header("MsgType").isEqualTo("ALERT")
         )
        .eagerCheckCompletion()
    .to("mock:result");
The following example shows how to configure the same route using XML:
<camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <aggregate strategyRef="aggregatorStrategy"
               eagerCheckCompletion="true">
      <correlationExpression>
          <simple>header.StockSymbol</simple>
      </correlationExpression>
      <completionPredicate>
          <simple>$MsgType = 'ALERT'</simple>
      </completionPredicate>
      <to uri="mock:result"/>
    </aggregate>
  </route>
</camelContext>

<bean id="aggregatorStrategy"
      class="org.apache.camel.processor.aggregate.UseLatestAggregationStrategy"/>

Specifying a dynamic completion timeout

It is possible to specify a dynamic completion timeout, where the timeout value is recalculated for every incoming exchange. For example, to set the timeout value from the timeout header in each incoming exchange, you could define a route as follows:
from("direct:start")
    .aggregate(header("StockSymbol"), new UseLatestAggregationStrategy())
        .completionTimeout(header("timeout"))
    .to("mock:aggregated");
You can configure the same route in the XML DSL, as follows:
<camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
    <route>
        <from uri="direct:start"/>
        <aggregate strategyRef="aggregatorStrategy">
            <correlationExpression>
                <simple>header.StockSymbol</simple>
            </correlationExpression>
            <completionTimeout>
                <header>timeout</header>
            </completionTimeout>
            <to uri="mock:aggregated"/>
        </aggregate>
    </route>
</camelContext>

<bean id="aggregatorStrategy"
      class="org.apache.camel.processor.UseLatestAggregationStrategy"/>
Note
You can also add a fixed timeout value and Apache Camel will fall back to use this value, if the dynamic value is null or 0.

Specifying a dynamic completion size

It is possible to specify a dynamic completion size, where the completion size is recalculated for every incoming exchange. For example, to set the completion size from the mySize header in each incoming exchange, you could define a route as follows:
from("direct:start")
    .aggregate(header("StockSymbol"), new UseLatestAggregationStrategy())
        .completionSize(header("mySize"))
    .to("mock:aggregated");
And the same example using Spring XML:
<camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
    <route>
        <from uri="direct:start"/>
        <aggregate strategyRef="aggregatorStrategy">
            <correlationExpression>
                <simple>header.StockSymbol</simple>
            </correlationExpression>
            <completionSize>
                <header>mySize</header>
            </completionSize>
            <to uri="mock:aggregated"/>
        </aggregate>
    </route>
</camelContext>

<bean id="aggregatorStrategy"
      class="org.apache.camel.processor.UseLatestAggregationStrategy"/>
Note
You can also add a fixed size value and Apache Camel will fall back to use this value, if the dynamic value is null or 0.

Forcing completion with a special message

It is possible to force completion of all outstanding aggregate messages, by sending a message with a special header to the route. There are two alternative header settings you can use to force completion:
Exchange.AGGREGATION_COMPLETE_ALL_GROUPS
Set to true, to force completion of the current aggregation cycle. This message acts purely as a signal and is not included in any aggregation cycle. After processing this signal message, the content of the message is discarded.
Exchange.AGGREGATION_COMPLETE_ALL_GROUPS_INCLUSIVE
Set to true, to force completion of the current aggregation cycle. This message is included in the current aggregation cycle.

Enforcing unique correlation keys

In some aggregation scenarios, you might want to enforce the condition that the correlation key is unique for each batch of exchanges. In other words, when the aggregate exchange for a particular correlation key completes, you want to make sure that no further aggregate exchanges with that correlation key are allowed to proceed. For example, you might want to enforce this condition, if the latter part of the route expects to process exchanges with unique correlation key values.
Depending on how the completion conditions are configured, there might be a risk of more than one aggregate exchange being generated with a particular correlation key. For example, although you might define a completion predicate that is designed to wait until all the exchanges with a particular correlation key are received, you might also define a completion timeout, which could fire before all of the exchanges with that key have arrived. In this case, the late-arriving exchanges could give rise to a second aggregate exchange with the same correlation key value.
For such scenarios, you can configure the aggregator to suppress aggregate exchanges that duplicate previous correlation key values, by setting the closeCorrelationKeyOnCompletion option. In order to suppress duplicate correlation key values, it is necessary for the aggregator to record previous correlation key values in a cache. The size of this cache (the number of cached correlation keys) is specified as an argument to the closeCorrelationKeyOnCompletion() DSL command. To specify a cache of unlimited size, you can pass a value of zero or a negative integer. For example, to specify a cache size of 10000 key values:
from("direct:start")
    .aggregate(header("UniqueBatchID"), new MyConcatenateStrategy())
        .completionSize(header("mySize"))
        .closeCorrelationKeyOnCompletion(10000)
    .to("mock:aggregated");
If an aggregate exchange completes with a duplicate correlation key value, the aggregator throws a ClosedCorrelationKeyException exception.

Grouped exchanges

You can combine all of the aggregated exchanges in an outgoing batch into a single org.apache.camel.impl.GroupedExchange holder class. To enable grouped exchanges, specify the groupExchanges() option, as shown in the following Java DSL route:
from("direct:start")
    .aggregate(header("StockSymbol"))
        .completionTimeout(3000)
        .groupExchanges()
    .to("mock:result");
The grouped exchange that is sent to mock:result contains the list of aggregated exchanges stored in the exchange property, Exchange.GROUPED_EXCHANGE. The following line of code shows how a subsequent processor can access the contents of the grouped exchange in the form of a list:
// Java
List<Exchange> grouped = ex.getProperty(Exchange.GROUPED_EXCHANGE, List.class);
Note
When you enable the grouped exchanges feature, you must not configure an aggregation strategy (the grouped exchanges feature is itself an aggregation strategy).

Batch consumer

The aggregator can work together with the batch consumer pattern to aggregate the total number of messages reported by the batch consumer (a batch consumer endpoint sets the CamelBatchSize, CamelBatchIndex , and CamelBatchComplete properties on the incoming exchange). For example, to aggregate all of the files found by a File consumer endpoint, you could use a route like the following:
from("file://inbox")
    .aggregate(xpath("//order/@customerId"), new AggregateCustomerOrderStrategy())
    .completionFromBatchConsumer()
    .to("bean:processOrder");
Currently, the following endpoints support the batch consumer mechanism: File, FTP, Mail, iBatis, and JPA.

Persistent aggregation repository

If you want pending aggregated exchanges to be stored persistently, you can use either the HawtDB component or the SQL Component for persistence support as a persistent aggregation repository. For example, if using HawtDB, you need to include a dependency on the camel-hawtdb component in your Maven POM. You can then configure a route to use the HawtDB aggregation repository as follows:
public void configure() throws Exception {
    HawtDBAggregationRepository repo = new AggregationRepository("repo1", "target/data/hawtdb.dat");

    from("direct:start")
        .aggregate(header("id"), new UseLatestAggregationStrategy())
            .completionTimeout(3000)
            .aggregationRepository(repo)
        .to("mock:aggregated");
}
The HawtDB aggregation repository has a feature that enables it to recover and retry any failed exchanges (that is, any exchange that raised an exception while it was being processed by the latter part of the route). Figure 7.7, “Recoverable Aggregation Repository” shows an overview of the recovery mechanism.

Figure 7.7. Recoverable Aggregation Repository

Recoverable Aggregation Repository
The recovery mechanism works as follows:
  1. The aggregator creates a dedicated recovery thread, which runs in the background, scanning the aggregation repository to find any failed exchanges.
  2. Each failed exchange is checked to see whether its current redelivery count exceeds the maximum redelivery limit. If it is under the limit, the recovery task resubmits the exchange for processing in the latter part of the route.
  3. If the current redelivery count is over the limit, the failed exchange is passed to the dead letter queue.
For more details about the HawtDB component, see .
As shown in Figure 7.6, “Aggregator Implementation”, the aggregator is dsecoupled from the latter part of the route, where the exchanges sent to the latter part of the route are processed by a dedicated thread pool. By default, this pool contains just a single thread. If you want to specify a pool with multiple threads, enable the parallelProcessing option, as follows:
from("direct:start")
    .aggregate(header("id"), new UseLatestAggregationStrategy())
        .completionTimeout(3000)
        .parallelProcessing()
    .to("mock:aggregated");
By default, this creates a pool with 10 worker threads.
If you want to exercise more control over the created thread pool, specify a custom java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService instance using the executorService option (in which case it is unnecessary to enable the parallelProcessing option).

Aggregating into a List

A common aggregation scenario involves aggregating a series of incoming message bodies into a List object. To facilitate this scenario, Apache Camel provides the AbstractListAggregationStrategy abstract class, which you can quickly extend to create an aggregation strategy for this case. Incoming message bodies of type, T, are aggregated into a completed exchange, with a message body of type List<T>.
For example, to aggregate a series of Integer message bodies into a List<Integer> object, you could use an aggregation strategy defined as follows:
import org.apache.camel.processor.aggregate.AbstractListAggregationStrategy;
...
/**
 * Strategy to aggregate integers into a List<Integer>.
 */
public final class MyListOfNumbersStrategy extends AbstractListAggregationStrategy<Integer> {
 
    @Override
    public Integer getValue(Exchange exchange) {
        // the message body contains a number, so just return that as-is
        return exchange.getIn().getBody(Integer.class);
    }
}

Aggregator options

The aggregator supports the following options:

Table 7.3. Aggregator Options

OptionDefaultDescription
correlationExpression   Mandatory Expression which evaluates the correlation key to use for aggregation. The Exchange which has the same correlation key is aggregated together. If the correlation key could not be evaluated an Exception is thrown. You can disable this by using the ignoreBadCorrelationKeys option.
aggregationStrategy   Mandatory AggregationStrategy which is used to merge the incoming Exchange with the existing already merged exchanges. At first call the oldExchange parameter is null. On subsequent invocations the oldExchange contains the merged exchanges and newExchange is of course the new incoming Exchange. From Camel 2.9.2 onwards, the strategy can optionally be a TimeoutAwareAggregationStrategy implementation, which supports a timeout callback
strategyRef   A reference to lookup the AggregationStrategy in the Registry.
completionSize   Number of messages aggregated before the aggregation is complete. This option can be set as either a fixed value or using an Expression which allows you to evaluate a size dynamically - will use Integer as result. If both are set Camel will fallback to use the fixed value if the Expression result was null or 0.
completionTimeout   Time in millis that an aggregated exchange should be inactive before its complete. This option can be set as either a fixed value or using an Expression which allows you to evaluate a timeout dynamically - will use Long as result. If both are set Camel will fallback to use the fixed value if the Expression result was null or 0. You cannot use this option together with completionInterval, only one of the two can be used.
completionInterval   A repeating period in millis by which the aggregator will complete all current aggregated exchanges. Camel has a background task which is triggered every period. You cannot use this option together with completionTimeout, only one of them can be used.
completionPredicate   A Predicate to indicate when an aggregated exchange is complete.
completionFromBatchConsumer false This option is if the exchanges are coming from a Batch Consumer. Then when enabled the Aggregator will use the batch size determined by the Batch Consumer in the message header CamelBatchSize. See more details at Batch Consumer. This can be used to aggregate all files consumed from a File endpoint in that given poll.
eagerCheckCompletion false Whether or not to eager check for completion when a new incoming Exchange has been received. This option influences the behavior of the completionPredicate option as the Exchange being passed in changes accordingly. When false the Exchange passed in the Predicate is the aggregated Exchange which means any information you may store on the aggregated Exchange from the AggregationStrategy is available for the Predicate. When true the Exchange passed in the Predicate is the incoming Exchange, which means you can access data from the incoming Exchange.
forceCompletionOnStopfalse If true, complete all aggregated exchanges when the current route context is stopped.
groupExchanges false If enabled then Camel will group all aggregated Exchanges into a single combined org.apache.camel.impl.GroupedExchange holder class that holds all the aggregated Exchanges. And as a result only one Exchange is being sent out from the aggregator. Can be used to combine many incoming Exchanges into a single output Exchange without coding a custom AggregationStrategy yourself.
ignoreInvalidCorrelationKeys false Whether or not to ignore correlation keys which could not be evaluated to a value. By default Camel will throw an Exception, but you can enable this option and ignore the situation instead.
closeCorrelationKeyOnCompletion   Whether or not late Exchanges should be accepted or not. You can enable this to indicate that if a correlation key has already been completed, then any new exchanges with the same correlation key be denied. Camel will then throw a closedCorrelationKeyException exception. When using this option you pass in a integer which is a number for a LRUCache which keeps that last X number of closed correlation keys. You can pass in 0 or a negative value to indicate a unbounded cache. By passing in a number you are ensured that cache wont grown too big if you use a log of different correlation keys.
discardOnCompletionTimeout false Camel 2.5: Whether or not exchanges which complete due to a timeout should be discarded. If enabled, then when a timeout occurs the aggregated message will not be sent out but dropped (discarded).
aggregationRepository  Allows you to plug in you own implementation of org.apache.camel.spi.AggregationRepository which keeps track of the current inflight aggregated exchanges. Camel uses by default a memory based implementation.
aggregationRepositoryRef   Reference to lookup a aggregationRepository in the Registry.
parallelProcessing false When aggregated are completed they are being send out of the aggregator. This option indicates whether or not Camel should use a thread pool with multiple threads for concurrency. If no custom thread pool has been specified then Camel creates a default pool with 10 concurrent threads.
executorService   If using parallelProcessing you can specify a custom thread pool to be used. In fact also if you are not using parallelProcessing this custom thread pool is used to send out aggregated exchanges as well.
executorServiceRef   Reference to lookup a executorService in the Registry
timeoutCheckerExecutorService  If using one of the completionTimeout, completionTimeoutExpression, or completionInterval options, a background thread is created to check for the completion for every aggregator. Set this option to provide a custom thread pool to be used rather than creating a new thread for every aggregator.
timeoutCheckerExecutorServiceRef  Reference to look up a timeoutCheckerExecutorService in the registry.
optimisticLockingfalse Turns on optimistic locking, which can be used in combination with an aggregation repository.
optimisticLockRetryPolicy Configures the retry policy for optimistic locking.

6. Resequencer

Overview

The resequencer pattern, shown in Figure 7.8, “Resequencer Pattern”, enables you to resequence messages according to a sequencing expression. Messages that generate a low value for the sequencing expression are moved to the front of the batch and messages that generate a high value are moved to the back.

Figure 7.8. Resequencer Pattern

Resequencer pattern
Apache Camel supports two resequencing algorithms:
  • Batch resequencing — Collects messages into a batch, sorts the messages and sends them to their output.
  • Stream resequencing — Re-orders (continuous) message streams based on the detection of gaps between messages.
By default the resequencer does not support duplicate messages and will only keep the last message, in cases where a message arrives with the same message expression. However, in batch mode you can enable the resequencer to allow duplicates.

Batch resequencing

The batch resequencing algorithm is enabled by default. For example, to resequence a batch of incoming messages based on the value of a timestamp contained in the TimeStamp header, you can define the following route in Java DSL:
from("direct:start").resequence(header("TimeStamp")).to("mock:result");
By default, the batch is obtained by collecting all of the incoming messages that arrive in a time interval of 1000 milliseconds (default batch timeout), up to a maximum of 100 messages (default batch size). You can customize the values of the batch timeout and the batch size by appending a batch() DSL command, which takes a BatchResequencerConfig instance as its sole argument. For example, to modify the preceding route so that the batch consists of messages collected in a 4000 millisecond time window, up to a maximum of 300 messages, you can define the Java DSL route as follows:
import org.apache.camel.model.config.BatchResequencerConfig;

RouteBuilder builder = new RouteBuilder() {
    public void configure() {
        from("direct:start").resequence(header("TimeStamp")).batch(new BatchResequencerConfig(300,4000L)).to("mock:result");
    }
};
You can also specify a batch resequencer pattern using XML configuration. The following example defines a batch resequencer with a batch size of 300 and a batch timeout of 4000 milliseconds:
<camelContext id="resequencerBatch" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="direct:start" />
    <resequence>
      <!-- 
        batch-config can be omitted for default (batch) resequencer settings
      -->
      <batch-config batchSize="300" batchTimeout="4000" />
      <simple>header.TimeStamp</simple>
      <to uri="mock:result" />
    </resequence>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Batch options

Table 7.4, “Batch Resequencer Options” shows the options that are available in batch mode only.

Table 7.4. Batch Resequencer Options

Java DSLXML DSLDefaultDescription
allowDuplicates()batch-config/@allowDuplicatesfalseIf true, do not discard duplicate messages from the batch (where duplicate means that the message expression evaluates to the same value).
reverse()batch-config/@reversefalseIf true, put the messages in reverse order (where the default ordering applied to a message expression is based on Java's string lexical ordering, as defined by String.compareTo()).
For example, if you want to resequence messages from JMS queues based on JMSPriority, you would need to combine the options, allowDuplicates and reverse, as follows:
from("jms:queue:foo")
        // sort by JMSPriority by allowing duplicates (message can have same JMSPriority)
        // and use reverse ordering so 9 is first output (most important), and 0 is last
        // use batch mode and fire every 3th second
        .resequence(header("JMSPriority")).batch().timeout(3000).allowDuplicates().reverse()
        .to("mock:result");

Stream resequencing

To enable the stream resequencing algorithm, you must append stream() to the resequence() DSL command. For example, to resequence incoming messages based on the value of a sequence number in the seqnum header, you define a DSL route as follows:
from("direct:start").resequence(header("seqnum")).stream().to("mock:result");
The stream-processing resequencer algorithm is based on the detection of gaps in a message stream, rather than on a fixed batch size. Gap detection, in combination with timeouts, removes the constraint of needing to know the number of messages of a sequence (that is, the batch size) in advance. Messages must contain a unique sequence number for which a predecessor and a successor is known. For example a message with the sequence number 3 has a predecessor message with the sequence number 2 and a successor message with the sequence number 4. The message sequence 2,3,5 has a gap because the successor of 3 is missing. The resequencer therefore must retain message 5 until message 4 arrives (or a timeout occurs).
By default, the stream resequencer is configured with a timeout of 1000 milliseconds, and a maximum message capacity of 100. To customize the stream's timeout and message capacity, you can pass a StreamResequencerConfig object as an argument to stream(). For example, to configure a stream resequencer with a message capacity of 5000 and a timeout of 4000 milliseconds, you define a route as follows:
// Java
import org.apache.camel.model.config.StreamResequencerConfig;

RouteBuilder builder = new RouteBuilder() {
    public void configure() {
        from("direct:start").resequence(header("seqnum")).
            stream(new StreamResequencerConfig(5000, 4000L)).
            to("mock:result");
    }
};
If the maximum time delay between successive messages (that is, messages with adjacent sequence numbers) in a message stream is known, the resequencer's timeout parameter should be set to this value. In this case, you can guarantee that all messages in the stream are delivered in the correct order to the next processor. The lower the timeout value that is compared to the out-of-sequence time difference, the more likely it is that the resequencer will deliver messages out of sequence. Large timeout values should be supported by sufficiently high capacity values, where the capacity parameter is used to prevent the resequencer from running out of memory.
If you want to use sequence numbers of some type other than long, you would must define a custom comparator, as follows:
// Java
ExpressionResultComparator<Exchange> comparator = new MyComparator();
StreamResequencerConfig config = new StreamResequencerConfig(5000, 4000L, comparator);
from("direct:start").resequence(header("seqnum")).stream(config).to("mock:result");
You can also specify a stream resequencer pattern using XML configuration. The following example defines a stream resequencer with a message capacity of 5000 and a timeout of 4000 milliseconds:
<camelContext id="resequencerStream" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <resequence>
      <stream-config capacity="5000" timeout="4000"/>
      <simple>header.seqnum</simple>
      <to uri="mock:result" />
    </resequence>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Ignore invalid exchanges

The resequencer EIP throws a CamelExchangeException exception, if the incoming exchange is not valid—that is, if the sequencing expression cannot be evaluated for some reason (for example, due to a missing header). You can use the ignoreInvalidExchanges option to ignore these exceptions, which means the resequencer will skip any invalid exchanges.
from("direct:start")
  .resequence(header("seqno")).batch().timeout(1000)
    // ignore invalid exchanges (they are discarded)
    .ignoreInvalidExchanges()
  .to("mock:result");

Reject old messages

The rejectOld option can be used to prevent messages being sent out of order, regardless of the mechanism used to resequence messages. When the rejectOld option is enabled, the resequencer rejects an incoming message (by throwing a MessageRejectedException exception), if the incoming messages is older (as defined by the current comparator) than the last delivered message.
from("direct:start")
    .onException(MessageRejectedException.class).handled(true).to("mock:error").end()
    .resequence(header("seqno")).stream().timeout(1000).rejectOld()
    .to("mock:result");

7. Routing Slip

Overview

The routing slip pattern, shown in Figure 7.9, “Routing Slip Pattern”, enables you to route a message consecutively through a series of processing steps, where the sequence of steps is not known at design time and can vary for each message. The list of endpoints through which the message should pass is stored in a header field (the slip), which Apache Camel reads at run time to construct a pipeline on the fly.

Figure 7.9. Routing Slip Pattern

Routing Slip Pattern

The slip header

The routing slip appears in a user-defined header, where the header value is a comma-separated list of endpoint URIs. For example, a routing slip that specifies a sequence of security tasks—decrypting, authenticating, and de-duplicating a message—might look like the following:
cxf:bean:decrypt,cxf:bean:authenticate,cxf:bean:dedup

The current endpoint property

From Camel 2.5 the Routing Slip will set a property (Exchange.SLIP_ENDPOINT) on the exchange which contains the current endpoint as it advanced though the slip. This enables you to find out how far the exchange has progressed through the slip.
The Routing Slip will compute the slip beforehand which means, the slip is only computed once. If you need to compute the slip on-the-fly then use the Dynamic Router pattern instead.

Java DSL example

The following route takes messages from the direct:a endpoint and reads a routing slip from the aRoutingSlipHeader header:
from("direct:b").routingSlip("aRoutingSlipHeader");
You can specify the header name either as a string literal or as an expression.
You can also customize the URI delimiter using the two-argument form of routingSlip(). The following example defines a route that uses the aRoutingSlipHeader header key for the routing slip and uses the # character as the URI delimiter:
from("direct:c").routingSlip("aRoutingSlipHeader", "#");

XML configuration example

The following example shows how to configure the same route in XML:
<camelContext id="buildRoutingSlip" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="direct:c"/>
    <routingSlip uriDelimiter="#">
      <headerName>aRoutingSlipHeader</headerName>
    </routingSlip>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Ignore invalid endpoints

The Routing Slip now supports ignoreInvalidEndpoints, which the Recipient List pattern also supports. You can use it to skip endpoints that are invalid. For example:
    from("direct:a").routingSlip("myHeader").ignoreInvalidEndpoints();
In Spring XML, this feature is enabled by setting the ignoreInvalidEndpoints attribute on the <routingSlip> tag:
   <route>
       <from uri="direct:a"/>
       <routingSlip ignoreInvalidEndpoints="true">
         <headerName>myHeader</headerName>
       </routingSlip>
   </route>
Consider the case where myHeader contains the two endpoints, direct:foo,xxx:bar. The first endpoint is valid and works. The second is invalid and, therefore, ignored. Apache Camel logs at INFO level whenever an invalid endpoint is encountered.

Options

The routingSlip DSL command supports the following options:
Name Default Value Description
uriDelimiter , Delimiter used if the Expression returned multiple endpoints.
ignoreInvalidEndpoints false If an endpoint uri could not be resolved, should it be ignored. Otherwise Camel will thrown an exception stating the endpoint uri is not valid.

8. Throttler

Overview

A throttler is a processor that limits the flow rate of incoming messages. You can use this pattern to protect a target endpoint from getting overloaded. In Apache Camel, you can implement the throttler pattern using the throttle() Java DSL command.

Video demo

There is a video demo of how to implement the throttler pattern at http://vimeo.com/27592682.

Java DSL example

To limit the flow rate to 100 messages per second, define a route as follows:
from("seda:a").throttle(100).to("seda:b");
If necessary, you can customize the time period that governs the flow rate using the timePeriodMillis() DSL command. For example, to limit the flow rate to 3 messages per 30000 milliseconds, define a route as follows:
from("seda:a").throttle(3).timePeriodMillis(30000).to("mock:result");

XML configuration example

The following example shows how to configure the preceding route in XML:
<camelContext id="throttleRoute" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="seda:a"/>
    <!-- throttle 3 messages per 30 sec -->
    <throttle timePeriodMillis="30000">
      <constant>3</constant>
      <to uri="mock:result"/>
    </throttle>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Dynamically changing maximum requests per period

Available os of Camel 2.8 Since we use an Expression, you can adjust this value at runtime, for example you can provide a header with the value. At runtime Camel evaluates the expression and converts the result to a java.lang.Long type. In the example below we use a header from the message to determine the maximum requests per period. If the header is absent, then the Throttler uses the old value. So that allows you to only provide a header if the value is to be changed:
<camelContext id="throttleRoute" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="direct:expressionHeader"/>
    <throttle timePeriodMillis="500">
      <!-- use a header to determine how many messages to throttle per 0.5 sec -->
      <header>throttleValue</header>
      <to uri="mock:result"/>
    </throttle>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Asynchronous delaying

The throttler can enable non-blocking asynchronous delaying, which means that Apache Camel schedules a task to be executed in the future. The task is responsible for processing the latter part of the route (after the throttler). This allows the caller thread to unblock and service further incoming messages. For example:
from("seda:a").throttle(100).asyncDelayed().to("seda:b");

Options

The throttle DSL command supports the following options:
Name Default Value Description
maximumRequestsPerPeriod Maximum number of requests per period to throttle. This option must be provided and a positive number. Notice, in the XML DSL, from Camel 2.8 onwards this option is configured using an Expression instead of an attribute.
timePeriodMillis 1000 The time period in millis, in which the throttler will allow at most maximumRequestsPerPeriod number of messages.
asyncDelayed false Camel 2.4: If enabled then any messages which is delayed happens asynchronously using a scheduled thread pool.
executorServiceRef Camel 2.4: Refers to a custom Thread Pool to be used if asyncDelay has been enabled.
callerRunsWhenRejected true Camel 2.4: Is used if asyncDelayed was enabled. This controls if the caller thread should execute the task if the thread pool rejected the task.

9. Delayer

Overview

A delayer is a processor that enables you to apply a relative time delay to incoming messages.

Java DSL example

You can use the delay() command to add a relative time delay, in units of milliseconds, to incoming messages. For example, the following route delays all incoming messages by 2 seconds:
from("seda:a").delay(2000).to("mock:result");
Alternatively, you can specify the time delay using an expression:
from("seda:a").delay(header("MyDelay")).to("mock:result");
The DSL commands that follow delay() are interpreted as sub-clauses of delay(). Hence, in some contexts it is necessary to terminate the sub-clauses of delay() by inserting the end() command. For example, when delay() appears inside an onException() clause, you would terminate it as follows:
from("direct:start")
    .onException(Exception.class)
        .maximumRedeliveries(2)
        .backOffMultiplier(1.5)
        .handled(true)
        .delay(1000)
            .log("Halting for some time")
            .to("mock:halt")
        .end()
    .end()
    .to("mock:result");

XML configuration example

The following example demonstrates the delay in XML DSL:
<camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
    <route>
        <from uri="seda:a"/>
        <delay>
            <header>MyDelay</header>
        </delay>
        <to uri="mock:result"/>
    </route>
    <route>
        <from uri="seda:b"/>
        <delay>
            <constant>1000</constant>
        </delay>
        <to uri="mock:result"/>
    </route>
</camelContext>

Creating a custom delay

You can use an expression combined with a bean to determine the delay as follows:
from("activemq:foo").
  delay().expression().method("someBean", "computeDelay").
  to("activemq:bar");
Where the bean class could be defined as follows:
public class SomeBean {
  public long computeDelay() { 
     long delay = 0;
     // use java code to compute a delay value in millis
     return delay;
 }
}

Asynchronous delaying

You can let the delayer use non-blocking asynchronous delaying, which means that Apache Camel schedules a task to be executed in the future. The task is responsible for processing the latter part of the route (after the delayer). This allows the caller thread to unblock and service further incoming messages. For example:
from("activemq:queue:foo")
    .delay(1000)
    .asyncDelayed()
    .to("activemq:aDelayedQueue");
The same route can be written in the XML DSL, as follows:
<route>
   <from uri="activemq:queue:foo"/>
   <delay asyncDelayed="true">
       <constant>1000&lt;/constant>
   </delay>
   <to uri="activemq:aDealyedQueue"/>
   </route>

Options

The delayer pattern supports the following options:
Name Default Value Description
asyncDelayed false Camel 2.4: If enabled then delayed messages happens asynchronously using a scheduled thread pool.
executorServiceRef Camel 2.4: Refers to a custom Thread Pool to be used if asyncDelay has been enabled.
callerRunsWhenRejected true Camel 2.4: Is used if asyncDelayed was enabled. This controls if the caller thread should execute the task if the thread pool rejected the task.

10. Load Balancer

Overview

The load balancer pattern allows you to delegate message processing to one of several endpoints, using a variety of different load-balancing policies.

Java DSL example

The following route distributes incoming messages between the target endpoints, mock:x, mock:y, mock:z, using a round robin load-balancing policy:
from("direct:start").loadBalance().roundRobin().to("mock:x", "mock:y", "mock:z");

XML configuration example

The following example shows how to configure the same route in XML:
<camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <loadBalance>
        <roundRobin/>
        <to uri="mock:x"/>
        <to uri="mock:y"/>
        <to uri="mock:z"/>
    </loadBalance>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Load-balancing policies

The Apache Camel load balancer supports the following load-balancing policies:

Round robin

The round robin load-balancing policy cycles through all of the target endpoints, sending each incoming message to the next endpoint in the cycle. For example, if the list of target endpoints is, mock:x, mock:y, mock:z, then the incoming messages are sent to the following sequence of endpoints: mock:x, mock:y, mock:z, mock:x, mock:y, mock:z, and so on.
You can specify the round robin load-balancing policy in Java DSL, as follows:
from("direct:start").loadBalance().roundRobin().to("mock:x", "mock:y", "mock:z");
Alternatively, you can configure the same route in XML, as follows:
<camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <loadBalance>
        <roundRobin/>
        <to uri="mock:x"/>        
        <to uri="mock:y"/>       
        <to uri="mock:z"/>          
    </loadBalance>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Random

The random load-balancing policy chooses the target endpoint randomly from the specified list.
You can specify the random load-balancing policy in Java DSL, as follows:
from("direct:start").loadBalance().random().to("mock:x", "mock:y", "mock:z");
Alternatively, you can configure the same route in XML, as follows:
<camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <loadBalance>
        <random/>
        <to uri="mock:x"/>        
        <to uri="mock:y"/>       
        <to uri="mock:z"/>          
    </loadBalance>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Sticky

The sticky load-balancing policy directs the In message to an endpoint that is chosen by calculating a hash value from a specified expression. The advantage of this load-balancing policy is that expressions of the same value are always sent to the same server. For example, by calculating the hash value from a header that contains a username, you ensure that messages from a particular user are always sent to the same target endpoint. Another useful approach is to specify an expression that extracts the session ID from an incoming message. This ensures that all messages belonging to the same session are sent to the same target endpoint.
You can specify the sticky load-balancing policy in Java DSL, as follows:
from("direct:start").loadBalance().sticky(header("username")).to("mock:x", "mock:y", "mock:z");
Alternatively, you can configure the same route in XML, as follows:
<camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <loadBalance>
      <sticky>
        <expression>
          <simple>header.username</simple>
        </expression>
      </sticky>
      <to uri="mock:x"/>        
      <to uri="mock:y"/>       
      <to uri="mock:z"/>          
    </loadBalance>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Topic

The topic load-balancing policy sends a copy of each In message to all of the listed destination endpoints (effectively broadcasting the message to all of the destinations, like a JMS topic).
You can use the Java DSL to specify the topic load-balancing policy, as follows:
from("direct:start").loadBalance().topic().to("mock:x", "mock:y", "mock:z");
Alternatively, you can configure the same route in XML, as follows:
<camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <loadBalance>
        <topic/>
        <to uri="mock:x"/>        
        <to uri="mock:y"/>       
        <to uri="mock:z"/>          
    </loadBalance>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Failover

Available as of Apache Camel 2.0 The failover load balancer is capable of trying the next processor in case an Exchange failed with an exception during processing. You can configure the failover with a list of specific exceptions that trigger failover. If you do not specify any exceptions, failover is triggered by any exception. The failover load balancer uses the same strategy for matching exceptions as the onException exception clause.
Enable stream caching if using streams
If you use streaming, you should enable Stream Caching when using the failover load balancer. This is needed so the stream can be re-read when failing over.
The failover load balancer supports the following options:
Option Type Default Description
inheritErrorHandler boolean true
Camel 2.3: Specifies whether to use the errorHandler configured on the route. If you want to fail over immediately to the next endpoint, you should disable this option (value of false). If you enable this option, Apache Camel will first attempt to process the message using the errorHandler.
For example, the errorHandler might be configured to redeliver messages and use delays between attempts. Apache Camel will initially try to redeliver to the original endpoint, and only fail over to the next endpoint when the errorHandler is exhausted.
maximumFailoverAttempts int -1
Camel 2.3: Specifies the maximum number of attempts to fail over to a new endpoint. The value, 0, implies that no failover attempts are made and the value, -1, implies an infinite number of failover attempts.
roundRobin boolean false
Camel 2.3: Specifies whether the failover load balancer should operate in round robin mode or not. If not, it will always start from the first endpoint when a new message is to be processed. In other words it restarts from the top for every message. If round robin is enabled, it keeps state and continues with the next endpoint in a round robin fashion. When using round robin it will not stick to last known good endpoint, it will always pick the next endpoint to use.
The following example is configured to fail over, only if an IOException exception is thrown:
from("direct:start")
    // here we will load balance if IOException was thrown
    // any other kind of exception will result in the Exchange as failed
    // to failover over any kind of exception we can just omit the exception
    // in the failOver DSL
    .loadBalance().failover(IOException.class)
        .to("direct:x", "direct:y", "direct:z");
You can optionally specify multiple exceptions to fail over, as follows:
// enable redelivery so failover can react
errorHandler(defaultErrorHandler().maximumRedeliveries(5));

from("direct:foo")
    .loadBalance()
    .failover(IOException.class, MyOtherException.class)
    .to("direct:a", "direct:b");
You can configure the same route in XML, as follows:
<route errorHandlerRef="myErrorHandler">
    <from uri="direct:foo"/>
    <loadBalance>
        <failover>
            <exception>java.io.IOException</exception>
            <exception>com.mycompany.MyOtherException</exception>
        </failover>
        <to uri="direct:a"/>
        <to uri="direct:b"/>
    </loadBalance>
</route>
The following example shows how to fail over in round robin mode:
from("direct:start")
    // Use failover load balancer in stateful round robin mode,
    // which means it will fail over immediately in case of an exception
    // as it does NOT inherit error handler. It will also keep retrying, as
    // it is configured to retry indefinitely.
    .loadBalance().failover(-1, false, true)
    .to("direct:bad", "direct:bad2", "direct:good", "direct:good2");
You can configure the same route in XML, as follows:
<route>
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <loadBalance>
        <!-- failover using stateful round robin,
        which will keep retrying the 4 endpoints indefinitely.
        You can set the maximumFailoverAttempt to break out after X attempts -->
        <failover roundRobin="true"/>
        <to uri="direct:bad"/>
        <to uri="direct:bad2"/>
        <to uri="direct:good"/>
        <to uri="direct:good2"/>
    </loadBalance>
</route>

Weighted round robin and weighted random

In many enterprise environments, where server nodes of unequal processing power are hosting services, it is usually preferable to distribute the load in accordance with the individual server processing capacities. A weighted round robin algorithm or a weighted random algorithm can be used to address this problem.
The weighted load balancing policy allows you to specify a processing load distribution ratio for each server with respect to the others. You can specify this value as a positive processing weight for each server. A larger number indicates that the server can handle a larger load. The processing weight is used to determine the payload distribution ratio of each processing endpoint with respect to the others.
The parameters that can be used are

Table 7.5. Weighted Options

Option Type Default Description
roundRobin boolean false The default value for round-robin is false. In the absence of this setting or parameter, the load-balancing algorithm used is random.
distributionRatioDelimiter String , The distributionRatioDelimiter is the delimiter used to specify the distributionRatio. If this attribute is not specified, comma , is the default delimiter.
The following Java DSL examples show how to define a weighted round-robin route and a weighted random route:
// Java
// round-robin
from("direct:start")
  .loadBalance().weighted(true, "4:2:1" distributionRatioDelimiter=":")
  .to("mock:x", "mock:y", "mock:z");

//random
from("direct:start")
  .loadBalance().weighted(false, "4,2,1")
  .to("mock:x", "mock:y", "mock:z");
You can configure the round-robin route in XML, as follows:
<!-- round-robin -->
<route>
  <from uri="direct:start"/>
  <loadBalance>
    <weighted roundRobin="true" distributionRatio="4:2:1" distributionRatioDelimiter=":" />
    <to uri="mock:x"/>
    <to uri="mock:y"/>
    <to uri="mock:z"/>
  </loadBalance>
</route>

Custom Load Balancer

You can use a custom load balancer (eg your own implementation) also.
An example using Java DSL:
from("direct:start")
     // using our custom load balancer
     .loadBalance(new MyLoadBalancer())
     .to("mock:x", "mock:y", "mock:z");
And the same example using XML DSL:
<!-- this is the implementation of our custom load balancer -->
 <bean id="myBalancer" class="org.apache.camel.processor.CustomLoadBalanceTest$MyLoadBalancer"/>
 
 <camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
   <route>
     <from uri="direct:start"/>
     <loadBalance>
       <!-- refer to my custom load balancer -->
       <custom ref="myBalancer"/>
       <!-- these are the endpoints to balancer -->
       <to uri="mock:x"/>
       <to uri="mock:y"/>
       <to uri="mock:z"/>
     </loadBalance>
   </route>
 </camelContext>
Notice in the XML DSL above we use <custom> which is only available in Camel 2.8 onwards. In older releases you would have to do as follows instead:
       <loadBalance ref="myBalancer">
         <!-- these are the endpoints to balancer -->
         <to uri="mock:x"/>
         <to uri="mock:y"/>
         <to uri="mock:z"/>
       </loadBalance>
To implement a custom load balancer you can extend some support classes such as LoadBalancerSupport and SimpleLoadBalancerSupport. The former supports the asynchronous routing engine, and the latter does not. Here is an example:
public static class MyLoadBalancer extends LoadBalancerSupport {
 
     public boolean process(Exchange exchange, AsyncCallback callback) {
         String body = exchange.getIn().getBody(String.class);
         try {
             if ("x".equals(body)) {
                 getProcessors().get(0).process(exchange);
             } else if ("y".equals(body)) {
                 getProcessors().get(1).process(exchange);
             } else {
                 getProcessors().get(2).process(exchange);
             }
         } catch (Throwable e) {
             exchange.setException(e);
         }
         callback.done(true);
         return true;
     }
 }

11. Multicast

Overview

The multicast pattern, shown in Figure 7.10, “Multicast Pattern”, is a variation of the recipient list with a fixed destination pattern, which is compatible with the InOut message exchange pattern. This is in contrast to recipient list, which is only compatible with the InOnly exchange pattern.

Figure 7.10. Multicast Pattern

Multicast pattern

Multicast with a custom aggregation strategy

Whereas the multicast processor receives multiple Out messages in response to the original request (one from each of the recipients), the original caller is only expecting to receive a single reply. Thus, there is an inherent mismatch on the reply leg of the message exchange, and to overcome this mismatch, you must provide a custom aggregation strategy to the multicast processor. The aggregation strategy class is responsible for aggregating all of the Out messages into a single reply message.
Consider the example of an electronic auction service, where a seller offers an item for sale to a list of buyers. The buyers each put in a bid for the item, and the seller automatically selects the bid with the highest price. You can implement the logic for distributing an offer to a fixed list of buyers using the multicast() DSL command, as follows:
from("cxf:bean:offer").multicast(new HighestBidAggregationStrategy()).
    to("cxf:bean:Buyer1", "cxf:bean:Buyer2", "cxf:bean:Buyer3");
Where the seller is represented by the endpoint, cxf:bean:offer, and the buyers are represented by the endpoints, cxf:bean:Buyer1, cxf:bean:Buyer2, cxf:bean:Buyer3. To consolidate the bids received from the various buyers, the multicast processor uses the aggregation strategy, HighestBidAggregationStrategy. You can implement the HighestBidAggregationStrategy in Java, as follows:
// Java
import org.apache.camel.processor.aggregate.AggregationStrategy;
import org.apache.camel.Exchange;

public class HighestBidAggregationStrategy implements AggregationStrategy {
    public Exchange aggregate(Exchange oldExchange, Exchange newExchange) {
        float oldBid = oldExchange.getOut().getHeader("Bid", Float.class);
        float newBid = newExchange.getOut().getHeader("Bid", Float.class);
        return (newBid > oldBid) ? newExchange : oldExchange;
    }
}
Where it is assumed that the buyers insert the bid price into a header named, Bid. For more details about custom aggregation strategies, see Section 5, “Aggregator”.

Parallel processing

By default, the multicast processor invokes each of the recipient endpoints one after another (in the order listed in the to() command). In some cases, this might cause unacceptably long latency. To avoid these long latency times, you have the option of enabling parallel processing by adding the parallelProcessing() clause. For example, to enable parallel processing in the electronic auction example, define the route as follows:
from("cxf:bean:offer")
    .multicast(new HighestBidAggregationStrategy())
        .parallelProcessing()
        .to("cxf:bean:Buyer1", "cxf:bean:Buyer2", "cxf:bean:Buyer3");
Where the multicast processor now invokes the buyer endpoints, using a thread pool that has one thread for each of the endpoints.
If you want to customize the size of the thread pool that invokes the buyer endpoints, you can invoke the executorService() method to specify your own custom executor service. For example:
from("cxf:bean:offer")
    .multicast(new HighestBidAggregationStrategy())
        .executorService(MyExecutor)
        .to("cxf:bean:Buyer1", "cxf:bean:Buyer2", "cxf:bean:Buyer3");
Where MyExecutor is an instance of java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService type.
When the exchange has an InOut pattern, an aggregation strategy is used to aggregate reply messages. The default aggregation strategy takes the latest reply message and discards earlier replies. For example, in the following route, the custom strategy, MyAggregationStrategy, is used to aggregate the replies from the endpoints, direct:a, direct:b, and direct:c:
from("direct:start")
  .multicast(new MyAggregationStrategy())
      .parallelProcessing()
      .timeout(500)
      .to("direct:a", "direct:b", "direct:c")
  .end()
  .to("mock:result");

XML configuration example

The following example shows how to configure a similar route in XML, where the route uses a custom aggregation strategy and a custom thread executor:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
       xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
       xsi:schemaLocation="
       http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-3.0.xsd
       http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring/camel-spring.xsd
    ">

  <camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
    <route>
      <from uri="cxf:bean:offer"/>
      <multicast strategyRef="highestBidAggregationStrategy"
                 parallelProcessing="true"
                 threadPoolRef="myThreadExcutor">
         <to uri="cxf:bean:Buyer1"/>
         <to uri="cxf:bean:Buyer2"/>
         <to uri="cxf:bean:Buyer3"/>
      </multicast>
    </route>
  </camelContext>

  <bean id="highestBidAggregationStrategy" class="com.acme.example.HighestBidAggregationStrategy"/>
  <bean id="myThreadExcutor" class="com.acme.example.MyThreadExcutor"/>

</beans>
Where both the parallelProcessing attribute and the threadPoolRef attribute are optional. It is only necessary to set them if you want to customize the threading behavior of the multicast processor.

Apply custom processing to the outgoing messages

Before multicast sends a message to one of the recipient endpoints, it creates a message replica, which is a shallow copy of the original message. If you want to perform some custom processing on each message replica before the replica is sent to its endpoint, you can invoke the onPrepare DSL command in the multicast clause. The onPrepare command inserts a custom processor just after the message has been shallow-copied and just before the message is dispatched to its endpoint. For example, in the following route, the CustomProc processor is invoked on the message sent to direct:a and the CustomProc processor is also invoked on the message sent to direct:b.
from("direct:start")
  .multicast().onPrepare(new CustomProc())
  .to("direct:a").to("direct:b");
A common use case for the onPrepare DSL command is to perform a deep copy of some or all elements of a message. For example, the following CustomProc processor class performs a deep copy of the message body, where the message body is presumed to be of type, BodyType, and the deep copy is performed by the method, BodyType.deepCopy().
// Java
import org.apache.camel.*;
...
public class CustomProc implements Processor {

    public void process(Exchange exchange) throws Exception {
        BodyType body = exchange.getIn().getBody(BodyType.class);

        // Make a _deep_ copy of of the body object
        BodyType clone =  BodyType.deepCopy();
        exchange.getIn().setBody(clone);

        // Headers and attachments have already been
        // shallow-copied. If you need deep copies,
        // add some more code here.
    }
}
Note
Although the multicast syntax allows you to invoke the process DSL command in the multicast clause, this does not make sense semantically and it does not have the same effect as onPrepare (in fact, in this context, the process DSL command has no effect).

Using onPrepare to execute custom logic when preparing messages

The Multicast will copy the source Exchange and multicast each copy. However the copy is a shallow copy, so in case you have mutateable message bodies, then any changes will be visible by the other copied messages. If you want to use a deep clone copy then you need to use a custom onPrepare which allows you to do this using the Processor interface.
Notice the onPrepare can be used for any kind of custom logic which you would like to execute before the Exchange is being multicasted.
Note
Its best practice to design for immutable objects.
For example if you have a mutable message body as this Animal class:
public class Animal implements Serializable {
 
     private int id;
     private String name;
 
     public Animal() {
     }
 
     public Animal(int id, String name) {
         this.id = id;
         this.name = name;
     }
 
     public Animal deepClone() {
         Animal clone = new Animal();
         clone.setId(getId());
         clone.setName(getName());
         return clone;
     }
 
     public int getId() {
         return id;
     }
 
     public void setId(int id) {
         this.id = id;
     }
 
     public String getName() {
         return name;
     }
 
     public void setName(String name) {
         this.name = name;
     }
 
     @Override
     public String toString() {
         return id + " " + name;
     }
 }
Then we can create a deep clone processor which clones the message body:
public class AnimalDeepClonePrepare implements Processor {
 
     public void process(Exchange exchange) throws Exception {
         Animal body = exchange.getIn().getBody(Animal.class);
 
         // do a deep clone of the body which wont affect when doing multicasting
         Animal clone = body.deepClone();
         exchange.getIn().setBody(clone);
     }
 }
Then we can use the AnimalDeepClonePrepare class in the Multicast route using the onPrepare option as shown:
from("direct:start")
     .multicast().onPrepare(new AnimalDeepClonePrepare()).to("direct:a").to("direct:b");
And the same example in XML DSL
<camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
     <route>
         <from uri="direct:start"/>
         <!-- use on prepare with multicast -->
         <multicast onPrepareRef="animalDeepClonePrepare">
             <to uri="direct:a"/>
             <to uri="direct:b"/>
         </multicast>
     </route>
 
     <route>
         <from uri="direct:a"/>
         <process ref="processorA"/>
         <to uri="mock:a"/>
     </route>
     <route>
         <from uri="direct:b"/>
         <process ref="processorB"/>
         <to uri="mock:b"/>
     </route>
 </camelContext>
 
 <!-- the on prepare Processor which performs the deep cloning -->
 <bean id="animalDeepClonePrepare" class="org.apache.camel.processor.AnimalDeepClonePrepare"/>
 
 <!-- processors used for the last two routes, as part of unit test -->
 <bean id="processorA" class="org.apache.camel.processor.MulticastOnPrepareTest$ProcessorA"/>
 <bean id="processorB" class="org.apache.camel.processor.MulticastOnPrepareTest$ProcessorB"/>

Options

The multicast DSL command supports the following options:
Name Default Value Description
strategyRef Refers to an AggregationStrategy to be used to assemble the replies from the multicasts, into a single outgoing message from the Multicast. By default Camel will use the last reply as the outgoing message.
parallelProcessing false If enables then sending messages to the multicasts occurs concurrently. Note the caller thread will still wait until all messages has been fully processed, before it continues. Its only the sending and processing the replies from the multicasts which happens concurrently.
executorServiceRef Refers to a custom Thread Pool to be used for parallel processing. Notice if you set this option, then parallel processing is automatic implied, and you do not have to enable that option as well.
stopOnException false Camel 2.2: Whether or not to stop continue processing immediately when an exception occurred. If disable, then Camel will send the message to all multicasts regardless if one of them failed. You can deal with exceptions in the AggregationStrategy class where you have full control how to handle that.
streaming false If enabled then Camel will process replies out-of-order, eg in the order they come back. If disabled, Camel will process replies in the same order as multicasted.
timeout Camel 2.5: Sets a total timeout specified in millis. If the Multicast hasn't been able to send and process all replies within the given timeframe, then the timeout triggers and the Multicast breaks out and continues. Notice if you provide a TimeoutAwareAggregationStrategy then the timeout method is invoked before breaking out.
onPrepareRef Camel 2.8: Refers to a custom Processor to prepare the copy of the Exchange each multicast will receive. This allows you to do any custom logic, such as deep-cloning the message payload if that's needed etc.
shareUnitOfWork false Camel 2.8: Whether the unit of work should be shared. See the same option on Splitter for more details.

12. Composed Message Processor

Composed Message Processor

The composed message processor pattern, as shown in Figure 7.11, “Composed Message Processor Pattern”, allows you to process a composite message by splitting it up, routing the sub-messages to appropriate destinations, and then re-aggregating the responses back into a single message.

Figure 7.11. Composed Message Processor Pattern

Composed Message Processor Pattern

Java DSL example

The following example checks that a multipart order can be filled, where each part of the order requires a check to be made at a different inventory:
// split up the order so individual OrderItems can be validated by the appropriate bean
from("direct:start")
    .split().body()
    .choice() 
        .when().method("orderItemHelper", "isWidget")
            .to("bean:widgetInventory")
        .otherwise()
            .to("bean:gadgetInventory")
    .end()
    .to("seda:aggregate");

// collect and re-assemble the validated OrderItems into an order again
from("seda:aggregate")
    .aggregate(new MyOrderAggregationStrategy())
    .header("orderId")
    .completionTimeout(1000L)
    .to("mock:result");

XML DSL example

The preceding route can also be written in XML DSL, as follows:
 <route>
   <from uri="direct:start"/>
   <split>
     <simple>body</simple>
     <choice>
       <when>
         <method bean="orderItemHelper" method="isWidget"/>
 	<to uri="bean:widgetInventory"/>
       </when>
       <otherwise>
 	<to uri="bean:gadgetInventory"/>
       </otherwise>
     </choice>
     <to uri="seda:aggregate"/>
   </split>
 </route>
 
 <route>
   <from uri="seda:aggregate"/>
   <aggregate strategyRef="myOrderAggregatorStrategy" completionTimeout="1000">
     <correlationExpression>
       <simple>header.orderId</simple>
     </correlationExpression>
     <to uri="mock:result"/>
   </aggregate>
 </route>

Processing steps

Processing starts by splitting the order, using a Splitter. The Splitter then sends individual OrderItems to a Content Based Router, which routes messages based on the item type. Widget items get sent for checking in the widgetInventory bean and gadget items get sent to the gadgetInventory bean. Once these OrderItems have been validated by the appropriate bean, they are sent on to the Aggregator which collects and re-assembles the validated OrderItems into an order again.
Each received order has a header containing an order ID. We make use of the order ID during the aggregation step: the .header("orderId") qualifier on the aggregate() DSL command instructs the aggregator to use the header with the key, orderId, as the correlation expression.
For full details, check the example source here:

13. Scatter-Gather

Scatter-Gather

The scatter-gather pattern, as shown in Figure 7.12, “Scatter-Gather Pattern”, enables you to route messages to a number of dynamically specified recipients and re-aggregate the responses back into a single message.

Figure 7.12. Scatter-Gather Pattern

Scatter-Gather Pattern

Dynamic scatter-gather example

The following example outlines an application that gets the best quote for beer from several different vendors. The examples uses a dynamic Recipient List to request a quote from all vendors and an Aggregator to pick the best quote out of all the responses. The routes for this application are defined as follows:
<camelContext id="camel" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <recipientList>
      <header>listOfVendors</header>
    </recipientList>
  </route>
  <route>
    <from uri="seda:quoteAggregator"/>
    <aggregate strategyRef="aggregatorStrategy" completionTimeout="1000">
      <correlationExpression>
        <header>quoteRequestId</header>
      </correlationExpression>
      <to uri="mock:result"/>
    </aggregate>
  </route>
</camelContext>
In the first route, the Recipient List looks at the listOfVendors header to obtain the list of recipients. Hence, the client that sends messages to this application needs to add a listOfVendors header to the message. Example 7.1, “Messaging Client Sample” shows some sample code from a messaging client that adds the relevant header data to outgoing messages.

Example 7.1. Messaging Client Sample

Map<String, Object> headers = new HashMap<String, Object>();
headers.put("listOfVendors", "bean:vendor1, bean:vendor2, bean:vendor3");
headers.put("quoteRequestId", "quoteRequest-1");
template.sendBodyAndHeaders("direct:start", "<quote_request item=\"beer\"/>", headers);
The message would be distributed to the following endpoints: bean:vendor1, bean:vendor2, and bean:vendor3. These beans are all implemented by the following class:
public class MyVendor {
    private int beerPrice;
    
    @Produce(uri = "seda:quoteAggregator")
    private ProducerTemplate quoteAggregator;
            
    public MyVendor(int beerPrice) {
        this.beerPrice = beerPrice;
    }
        
    public void getQuote(@XPath("/quote_request/@item") String item, Exchange exchange) throws Exception {
        if ("beer".equals(item)) {
            exchange.getIn().setBody(beerPrice);
            quoteAggregator.send(exchange);
        } else {
            throw new Exception("No quote available for " + item);
        }
    }
}
The bean instances, vendor1, vendor2, and vendor3, are instantiated using Spring XML syntax, as follows:
<bean id="aggregatorStrategy" class="org.apache.camel.spring.processor.scattergather.LowestQuoteAggregationStrategy"/>

<bean id="vendor1" class="org.apache.camel.spring.processor.scattergather.MyVendor">
  <constructor-arg>
    <value>1</value>
  </constructor-arg>
</bean>

<bean id="vendor2" class="org.apache.camel.spring.processor.scattergather.MyVendor">
  <constructor-arg>
    <value>2</value>
  </constructor-arg>
</bean>

<bean id="vendor3" class="org.apache.camel.spring.processor.scattergather.MyVendor">
  <constructor-arg>
    <value>3</value>
  </constructor-arg>
</bean>
Each bean is initialized with a different price for beer (passed to the constructor argument). When a message is sent to each bean endpoint, it arrives at the MyVendor.getQuote method. This method does a simple check to see whether this quote request is for beer and then sets the price of beer on the exchange for retrieval at a later step. The message is forwarded to the next step using POJO Producing (see the @Produce annotation).
At the next step, we want to take the beer quotes from all vendors and find out which one was the best (that is, the lowest). For this, we use an Aggregator with a custom aggregation strategy. The Aggregator needs to identify which messages are relevant to the current quote, which is done by correlating messages based on the value of the quoteRequestId header (passed to the correlationExpression). As shown in Example 7.1, “Messaging Client Sample”, the correlation ID is set to quoteRequest-1 (the correlation ID should be unique). To pick the lowest quote out of the set, you can use a custom aggregation strategy like the following:
public class LowestQuoteAggregationStrategy implements AggregationStrategy {
    public Exchange aggregate(Exchange oldExchange, Exchange newExchange) {
        // the first time we only have the new exchange
        if (oldExchange == null) {
            return newExchange;
        }

        if (oldExchange.getIn().getBody(int.class) < newExchange.getIn().getBody(int.class)) {
            return oldExchange;
        } else {
            return newExchange;
        }
    }
}

Static scatter-gather example

You can specify the recipients explicitly in the scatter-gather application by employing a static Recipient List. The following example shows the routes you would use to implement a static scatter-gather scenario:
from("direct:start").multicast().to("seda:vendor1", "seda:vendor2", "seda:vendor3");

from("seda:vendor1").to("bean:vendor1").to("seda:quoteAggregator");
from("seda:vendor2").to("bean:vendor2").to("seda:quoteAggregator");
from("seda:vendor3").to("bean:vendor3").to("seda:quoteAggregator");

from("seda:quoteAggregator")
    .aggregate(header("quoteRequestId"), new LowestQuoteAggregationStrategy()).to("mock:result")

14. Loop

Loop

The loop pattern enables you to process a message multiple times. It is used mainly for testing.
Default mode
Notice by default the loop uses the same exchange throughout the looping. So the result from the previous iteration is used for the next (eg Pipes and Filters). From Camel 2.8 onwards you can enable copy mode instead. See the options table for more details.

Exchange properties

On each loop iteration, two exchange properties are set, which can optionally be read by any processors included in the loop.
Property Description
CamelLoopSize Apache Camel 2.0: Total number of loops
CamelLoopIndex Apache Camel 2.0: Index of the current iteration (0 based)

Java DSL examples

The following examples show how to take a request from the direct:x endpoint and then send the message repeatedly to mock:result. The number of loop iterations is specified either as an argument to loop() or by evaluating an expression at run time, where the expression must evaluate to an int (or else a RuntimeCamelException is thrown).
The following example passes the loop count as a constant:
from("direct:a").loop(8).to("mock:result");
The following example evaluates a simple expression to determine the loop count:
from("direct:b").loop(header("loop")).to("mock:result");
The following example evaluates an XPath expression to determine the loop count:
from("direct:c").loop().xpath("/hello/@times").to("mock:result");

XML configuration example

You can configure the same routes in Spring XML.
The following example passes the loop count as a constant:
<route>
  <from uri="direct:a"/>
  <loop>
    <constant>8</constant>
    <to uri="mock:result"/>
  </loop>
</route>
The following example evaluates a simple expression to determine the loop count:
<route>
  <from uri="direct:b"/>
  <loop>
    <header>loop</header>
    <to uri="mock:result"/>
  </loop>
</route>

Using copy mode

Now suppose we send a message to direct:start endpoint containing the letter A. The output of processing this route will be that, each mock:loop endpoint will receive AB as message.
from("direct:start")
     // instruct loop to use copy mode, which mean it will use a copy of the input exchange
     // for each loop iteration, instead of keep using the same exchange all over
     .loop(3).copy()
         .transform(body().append("B"))
         .to("mock:loop")
     .end()
     .to("mock:result");
However if we do not enable copy mode then mock:loop will receive AB, ABB, ABBB messages.
from("direct:start")
     // by default loop will keep using the same exchange so on the 2nd and 3rd iteration its
     // the same exchange that was previous used that are being looped all over
     .loop(3)
         .transform(body().append("B"))
         .to("mock:loop")
     .end()
     .to("mock:result");
The equivalent example in XML DSL in copy mode is as follows:
<route>
   <from uri="direct:start"/>
   <!-- enable copy mode for loop eip -->
   <loop copy="true">
     <constant>3</constant>
     <transform>
       <simple>${body}B</simple>
     </transform>
     <to uri="mock:loop"/>
   </loop>
   <to uri="mock:result"/>
 </route>

Options

The loop DSL command supports the following options:
Name Default Value Description
copy false Camel 2.8: Whether or not copy mode is used. If false then the same Exchange is being used throughout the looping. So the result from the previous iteration will be visible for the next iteration. Instead you can enable copy mode, and then each iteration is restarting with a fresh copy of the input Exchange.

15. Sampling

Sampling Throttler

A sampling throttler allows you to extract a sample of exchanges from the traffic through a route. It is configured with a sampling period during which only a single exchange is allowed to pass through. All other exchanges will be stopped.
By default, the sample period is 1 second.

Java DSL example

Use the sample() DSL command to invoke the sampler as follows:
// Sample with default sampling period (1 second)
from("direct:sample")
    .sample()
    .to("mock:result");

// Sample with explicitly specified sample period
from("direct:sample-configured")
    .sample(1, TimeUnit.SECONDS)
    .to("mock:result");

// Alternative syntax for specifying sampling period
from("direct:sample-configured-via-dsl")
    .sample().samplePeriod(1).timeUnits(TimeUnit.SECONDS)
    .to("mock:result");

from("direct:sample-messageFrequency")
    .sample(10)
    .to("mock:result");

from("direct:sample-messageFrequency-via-dsl")
    .sample().sampleMessageFrequency(5)
    .to("mock:result");

Spring XML example

In Spring XML, use the sample element to invoke the sampler, where you have the option of specifying the sampling period using the samplePeriod and units attributes:
<route>
    <from uri="direct:sample"/>
    <sample samplePeriod="1" units="seconds">
        <to uri="mock:result"/>
    </sample>
</route>
<route>
    <from uri="direct:sample-messageFrequency"/>
    <sample messageFrequency="10">
        <to uri="mock:result"/>
    </sample>
</route>
<route>
    <from uri="direct:sample-messageFrequency-via-dsl"/>
    <sample messageFrequency="5">
        <to uri="mock:result"/>
    </sample>
</route>

Options

The sample DSL command supports the following options:
Name Default Value Description
messageFrequency Samples the message every N'th message. You can only use either frequency or period.
samplePeriod 1 Samples the message every N'th period. You can only use either frequency or period.
units SECOND Time unit as an enum of java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit from the JDK.

16. Dynamic Router

Dynamic Router

The Dynamic Router pattern, as shown in Figure 7.13, “Dynamic Router Pattern”, enables you to route a message consecutively through a series of processing steps, where the sequence of steps is not known at design time. The list of endpoints through which the message should pass is calculated dynamically at run time. Each time the message returns from an endpoint, the dynamic router calls back on a bean to discover the next endpoint in the route.

Figure 7.13. Dynamic Router Pattern

Dynamic Router Pattern
In Camel 2.5 we introduced a dynamicRouter in the DSL, which is like a dynamic Routing Slip that evaluates the slip on-the-fly.
Beware
You must ensure the expression used for the dynamicRouter (such as a bean), returns null to indicate the end. Otherwise, the dynamicRouter will continue in an endless loop.

Dynamic Router in Camel 2.5 onwards

From Camel 2.5, the Dynamic Router updates the exchange property, Exchange.SLIP_ENDPOINT, with the current endpoint as it advances through the slip. This enables you to find out how far the exchange has progressed through the slip. (It's a slip because the Dynamic Router implementation is based on Routing Slip).

Java DSL

In Java DSL you can use the dynamicRouter as follows:
from("direct:start")
    // use a bean as the dynamic router
    .dynamicRouter(bean(DynamicRouterTest.class, "slip"));
Which will leverage a Bean to compute the slip on-the-fly, which could be implemented as follows:
// Java
/**
 * Use this method to compute dynamic where we should route next.
 *
 * @param body the message body
 * @return endpoints to go, or <tt>null</tt> to indicate the end
 */
public String slip(String body) {
    bodies.add(body);
    invoked++;

    if (invoked == 1) {
        return "mock:a";
    } else if (invoked == 2) {
        return "mock:b,mock:c";
    } else if (invoked == 3) {
        return "direct:foo";
    } else if (invoked == 4) {
        return "mock:result";
    }

    // no more so return null
    return null;
    }
Note
The preceding example is not thread safe. You would have to store the state on the Exchange to ensure thread safety.

Spring XML

The same example in Spring XML would be:
<bean id="mySlip" class="org.apache.camel.processor.DynamicRouterTest"/>

<camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
    <route>
        <from uri="direct:start"/>
        <dynamicRouter>
            <!-- use a method call on a bean as dynamic router -->
            <method ref="mySlip" method="slip"/>
        </dynamicRouter>
    </route>

    <route>
        <from uri="direct:foo"/>
        <transform><constant>Bye World</constant></transform>
        <to uri="mock:foo"/>
    </route>

</camelContext>

Options

The dynamicRouter DSL command supports the following options:
Name Default Value Description
uriDelimiter , Delimiter used if the Expression returned multiple endpoints.
ignoreInvalidEndpoints false If an endpoint uri could not be resolved, should it be ignored. Otherwise Camel will thrown an exception stating the endpoint uri is not valid.

@DynamicRouter annotation

You can also use the @DynamicRouter annotation. For example:
// Java
public class MyDynamicRouter {

    @Consume(uri = "activemq:foo")
    @DynamicRouter
    public String route(@XPath("/customer/id") String customerId, @Header("Location") String location, Document body) {
        // query a database to find the best match of the endpoint based on the input parameteres
        // return the next endpoint uri, where to go. Return null to indicate the end.
    }
}
The route method is invoked repeatedly as the message progresses through the slip. The idea is to return the endpoint URI of the next destination. Return null to indicate the end. You can return multiple endpoints if you like, just as the Routing Slip, where each endpoint is separated by a delimiter.

Chapter 8. Message Transformation

Abstract

The message transformation patterns describe how to modify the contents of messages for various purposes.

1. Content Enricher

Overview

The content enricher pattern describes a scenario where the message destination requires more data than is present in the original message. In this case, you would use a content enricher to pull in the extra data from an external resource.

Figure 8.1. Content Enricher Pattern

Content enricher pattern

Models of content enrichment

Apache Camel supports two kinds of content enricher, as follows:
  • enrich()—obtains additional data from the resource by sending a copy of the current exchange to a producer endpoint and then using the data from the resulting reply (the exchange created by the enricher is always an InOut exchange).
  • pollEnrich()—obtains the additional data by polling a consumer endpoint for data. Effectively, the consumer endpoint from the main route and the consumer endpoint in pollEnrich() are coupled, such that exchanges incoming on the main route trigger a poll of the pollEnrich() endpoint.

Content enrichment using enrich()

AggregationStrategy aggregationStrategy = ...

from("direct:start")
  .enrich("direct:resource", aggregationStrategy)
  .to("direct:result");

from("direct:resource")
...
The content enricher (enrich) retrieves additional data from a resource endpoint in order to enrich an incoming message (contained in the orginal exchange). An aggregation strategy combines the original exchange and the resource exchange. The first parameter of the AggregationStrategy.aggregate(Exchange, Exchange) method corresponds to the the original exchange, and the second parameter corresponds to the resource exchange. The results from the resource endpoint are stored in the resource exchange's Out message. Here is a sample template for implementing your own aggregation strategy class:
public class ExampleAggregationStrategy implements AggregationStrategy {

    public Exchange aggregate(Exchange original, Exchange resource) {
        Object originalBody = original.getIn().getBody();
        Object resourceResponse = resource.getOut().getBody();
        Object mergeResult = ... // combine original body and resource response
        if (original.getPattern().isOutCapable()) {
            original.getOut().setBody(mergeResult);
        } else {
            original.getIn().setBody(mergeResult);
        }
        return original;
    }
    
}
Using this template, the original exchange can have any exchange pattern. The resource exchange created by the enricher is always an InOut exchange.

Spring XML enrich example

The preceding example can also be implemented in Spring XML:
<camelContext id="camel" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <enrich uri="direct:resource" strategyRef="aggregationStrategy"/>
    <to uri="direct:result"/>
  </route>
  <route>
    <from uri="direct:resource"/>
    ...
  </route>
</camelContext>

<bean id="aggregationStrategy" class="..." />

Default aggregation strategy

The aggregation strategy is optional. If you do not provide it, Apache Camel will use the body obtained from the resource by default. For example:
from("direct:start")
  .enrich("direct:resource")
  .to("direct:result");
In the preceding route, the message sent to the direct:result endpoint contains the output from the direct:resource, because this example does not use any custom aggregation.
In XML DSL, just omit the strategyRef attribute, as follows:
  <route>
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <enrich uri="direct:resource"/>
    <to uri="direct:result"/>
    </route>

Enrich Options

The enrich DSL command supports the following options:
Name Default Value Description
uri The endpoint uri for the external servie to enrich from. You must use either uri or ref.
ref Refers to the endpoint for the external servie to enrich from. You must use either uri or ref.
strategyRef Refers to an AggregationStrategy to be used to merge the reply from the external service, into a single outgoing message. By default Camel will use the reply from the external service as outgoing message.

Content enrich using pollEnrich

The pollEnrich command treats the resource endpoint as a consumer. Instead of sending an exchange to the resource endpoint, it polls the endpoint. By default, the poll returns immediately, if there is no exchange available from the resource endpoint. For example, the following route reads a file whose name is extracted from the header of an incoming JMS message:
from("activemq:queue:order")
   .pollEnrich("file://order/data/additional?fileName=orderId")
   .to("bean:processOrder");
And if you want to wait at most 20 seconds for the file to be ready, you can use a timeout as follows:
from("activemq:queue:order")
   .pollEnrich("file://order/data/additional?fileName=orderId", 20000) // timeout is in milliseconds
   .to("bean:processOrder");
You can also specify an aggregation strategy for pollEnrich, as follows:
   .pollEnrich("file://order/data/additional?fileName=orderId", 20000, aggregationStrategy)
Note
The resource exchange passed to the aggregation strategy's aggregate() method might be null, if the poll times out before an exchange is received.
Data from current Exchange not used
pollEnrich does not access any data from the current Exchange, so that, when polling, it cannot use any of the existing headers you may have set on the Exchange. For example, you cannot set a filename in the Exchange.FILE_NAME header and use pollEnrich to consume only that file. For that, you must set the filename in the endpoint URI.

Polling methods used by pollEnrich()

In general, the pollEnrich() enricher polls the consumer endpoint using one of the following polling methods:
  • receiveNoWait() (used by default)
  • receive()
  • receive(long timeout)
The pollEnrich() command's timeout argument (specified in milliseconds) determines which method gets called, as follows:
  • Timeout is 0 or not specified, receiveNoWait is called.
  • Timeout is negative, receive is called.
  • Otherwise, receive(timeout) is called.

pollEnrich example

In this example we enrich the message by loading the content from the file named inbox/data.txt.
 from("direct:start")
   .pollEnrich("file:inbox?fileName=data.txt")
   .to("direct:result");

And in XML DSL you do:
   <route>
     <from uri="direct:start"/>
     <pollEnrich uri="file:inbox?fileName=data.txt"/>
     <to uri="direct:result"/>
   </route>
If there is no file then the message is empty. We can use a timeout to either wait (potential forever) until a file exists, or use a timeout to wait a period. For example to wait up til 5 seconds you can do:
   <route>
     <from uri="direct:start"/>
     <pollEnrich uri="file:inbox?fileName=data.txt" timeout="5000"/>
     <to uri="direct:result"/>
   </route>

PollEnrich Options

The pollEnrich DSL command supports the following options:
Name Default Value Description
uri The endpoint uri for the external servie to enrich from. You must use either uri or ref.
ref Refers to the endpoint for the external servie to enrich from. You must use either uri or ref.
strategyRef Refers to an AggregationStrategy to be used to merge the reply from the external service, into a single outgoing message. By default Camel will use the reply from the external service as outgoing message.
timeout 0 Timeout in millis to use when polling from the external service. See below for important details about the timeout.

2. Content Filter

Overview

The content filter pattern describes a scenario where you need to filter out extraneous content from a message before delivering it to its intended recipient. For example, you might employ a content filter to strip out confidential information from a message.

Figure 8.2. Content Filter Pattern

Content filter pattern
A common way to filter messages is to use an expression in the DSL, written in one of the supported scripting languages (for example, XSLT, XQuery or JoSQL).

Implementing a content filter

A content filter is essentially an application of a message processing technique for a particular purpose. To implement a content filter, you can employ any of the following message processing techniques:

XML configuration example

The following example shows how to configure the same route in XML:
<camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="activemq:My.Queue"/>
    <to uri="xslt:classpath:com/acme/content_filter.xsl"/>
    <to uri="activemq:Another.Queue"/>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Using an XPath filter

You can also use XPath to filter out part of the message you are interested in:
<route>
  <from uri="activemq:Input"/>
  <setBody><xpath resultType="org.w3c.dom.Document">//foo:bar</xpath></setBody>
  <to uri="activemq:Output"/>
</route>

3. Normalizer

Overview

The normalizer pattern is used to process messages that are semantically equivalent, but arrive in different formats. The normalizer transforms the incoming messages into a common format.
In Apache Camel, you can implement the normalizer pattern by combining a content-based router, which detects the incoming message's format, with a collection of different message translators, which transform the different incoming formats into a common format.

Figure 8.3. Normalizer Pattern

Normalizer pattern

Java DSL example

This example shows a Message Normalizer that converts two types of XML messages into a common format. Messages in this common format are then filtered.
Using the Fluent Builders
// we need to normalize two types of incoming messages
from("direct:start")
    .choice()
        .when().xpath("/employee").to("bean:normalizer?method=employeeToPerson")
        .when().xpath("/customer").to("bean:normalizer?method=customerToPerson")
    .end()
    .to("mock:result");
In this case we're using a Java bean as the normalizer. The class looks like this
// Java
public class MyNormalizer {
    public void employeeToPerson(Exchange exchange, @XPath("/employee/name/text()") String name) {
        exchange.getOut().setBody(createPerson(name));            
    }

    public void customerToPerson(Exchange exchange, @XPath("/customer/@name") String name) {
        exchange.getOut().setBody(createPerson(name));
    }        
    
    private String createPerson(String name) {
        return "&lt;person name=\"" + name + "\"/>";
    }
}

XML configuration example

The same example in the XML DSL
<camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <choice>
      <when>
        <xpath>/employee</xpath>
        <to uri="bean:normalizer?method=employeeToPerson"/>
      </when>
      <when>
        <xpath>/customer</xpath>
        <to uri="bean:normalizer?method=customerToPerson"/>
      </when>
    </choice>
    <to uri="mock:result"/>
  </route> 
</camelContext>

<bean id="normalizer" class="org.apache.camel.processor.MyNormalizer"/>

4. Claim Check

Claim Check

The claim check pattern, shown in Figure 8.4, “Claim Check Pattern”, allows you to replace message content with a claim check (a unique key), which can be used to retrieve the message content at a later time. The message content is stored temporarily in a persistent store like a database or file system. This pattern is very useful when message content is very large (thus it would be expensive to send around) and not all components require all information.
It can also be useful in situations where you cannot trust the information with an outside party; in this case, you can use the Claim Check to hide the sensitive portions of data.

Figure 8.4. Claim Check Pattern

Claim Check Pattern

Java DSL example

The following example shows how to replace a message body with a claim check and restore the body at a later step.
from("direct:start").to("bean:checkLuggage", "mock:testCheckpoint", "bean:dataEnricher", "mock:result");
The next step in the pipeline is the mock:testCheckpoint endpoint, which checks that the message body has been removed, the claim check added, and so on.

XML DSL example

The preceding example can also be written in XML, as follows:
 <route>
     <from uri="direct:start"/>
     <pipeline>
         <to uri="bean:checkLuggage"/>
         <to uri="mock:testCheckpoint"/>
         <to uri="bean:dataEnricher"/>
         <to uri="mock:result"/>
     </pipeline>
 </route>

checkLuggage bean

The message is first sent to the checkLuggage bean which is implemented as follows:
public static final class CheckLuggageBean {        
    public void checkLuggage(Exchange exchange, @Body String body, @XPath("/order/@custId") String custId) {   
        // store the message body into the data store, using the custId as the claim check
        dataStore.put(custId, body);
        // add the claim check as a header
        exchange.getIn().setHeader("claimCheck", custId);
        // remove the body from the message
        exchange.getIn().setBody(null);
    }
}
This bean stores the message body into the data store, using the custId as the claim check. In this example, we are using a HashMap to store the message body; in a real application you would use a database or the file system. The claim check is added as a message header for later use and, finally, we remove the body from the message and pass it down the pipeline.

testCheckpoint endpoint

The example route is just a Pipeline. In a real application, you would substitute some other steps for the mock:testCheckpoint endpoint.

dataEnricher bean

To add the message body back into the message, we use the dataEnricher bean, which is implemented as follows:
public static final class DataEnricherBean {
    public void addDataBackIn(Exchange exchange, @Header("claimCheck") String claimCheck) { 
        // query the data store using the claim check as the key and add the data
        // back into the message body
        exchange.getIn().setBody(dataStore.get(claimCheck));
        // remove the message data from the data store
        dataStore.remove(claimCheck);
        // remove the claim check header
        exchange.getIn().removeHeader("claimCheck");
    }
}
This bean queries the data store, using the claim check as the key, and then adds the recovered data back into the message body. The bean then deletes the message data from the data store and removes the claimCheck header from the message.

5. Sort

Sort

The sort pattern is used to sort the contents of a message body, assuming that the message body contains a list of items that can be sorted.
By default, the contents of the message are sorted using a default comparator that handles numeric values or strings. You can provide your own comparator and you can specify an expression that returns the list to be sorted (the expression must be convertible to java.util.List).

Java DSL example

The following example generates the list of items to sort by tokenizing on the line break character:
from("file://inbox").sort(body().tokenize("\n")).to("bean:MyServiceBean.processLine");
You can pass in your own comparator as the second argument to sort():
from("file://inbox").sort(body().tokenize("\n"), new MyReverseComparator()).to("bean:MyServiceBean.processLine");

XML configuration example

You can configure the same routes in Spring XML.
The following example generates the list of items to sort by tokenizing on the line break character:
<route>
  <from uri="file://inbox"/>
  <sort>
    <simple>body</simple>
  </sort>
  <beanRef ref="myServiceBean" method="processLine"/>
</route>
And to use a custom comparator, you can reference it as a Spring bean:
<route>
  <from uri="file://inbox"/>
  <sort comparatorRef="myReverseComparator">
    <simple>body</simple>
  </sort>
  <beanRef ref="MyServiceBean" method="processLine"/>
</route>

<bean id="myReverseComparator" class="com.mycompany.MyReverseComparator"/>
Besides <simple>, you can supply an expression using any language you like, so long as it returns a list.

Options

The sort DSL command supports the following options:
Name Default Value Description
comparatorRef Refers to a custom java.util.Comparator to use for sorting the message body. Camel will by default use a comparator which does a A..Z sorting.

6. Validate

Overview

The validate pattern provides a convenient syntax to check whether the content of a message is valid. The validate DSL command takes a predicate expression as its sole argument: if the predicate evaluates to true, the route continues processing normally; if the predicate evaluates to false, a PredicateValidationException is thrown.

Java DSL example

The following route validates the body of the current message using a regular expression:
from("jms:queue:incoming")
  .validate(body(String.class).regex("^\\w{10}\\,\\d{2}\\,\\w{24}$"))
  .to("bean:MyServiceBean.processLine");
You can also validate a message header—for example:
from("jms:queue:incoming")
  .validate(header("bar").isGreaterThan(100))
  .to("bean:MyServiceBean.processLine");
And you can use validate with the simple expression language:
from("jms:queue:incoming")
  .validate(simple("${in.header.bar} == 100"))
  .to("bean:MyServiceBean.processLine");

XML DSL example

To use validate in the XML DSL, the recommended approach is to use the simple expression language:
<route>
  <from uri="jms:queue:incoming"/>
  <validate>
    <simple>${body} regex ^\\w{10}\\,\\d{2}\\,\\w{24}$</simple>
  </validate>
  <beanRef ref="myServiceBean" method="processLine"/>
</route>

<bean id="myServiceBean" class="com.mycompany.MyServiceBean"/>
You can also validate a message header—for example:
<route>
  <from uri="jms:queue:incoming"/>
  <validate>
    <simple>${in.header.bar} == 100</simple>
  </validate>
  <beanRef ref="myServiceBean" method="processLine"/>
</route>

<bean id="myServiceBean" class="com.mycompany.MyServiceBean"/>

Chapter 9. Messaging Endpoints

Abstract

The messaging endpoint patterns describe various features and qualities of service that can be configured on an endpoint.

1. Messaging Mapper

Overview

The messaging mapper pattern describes how to map domain objects to and from a canonical message format, where the message format is chosen to be as platform neutral as possible. The chosen message format should be suitable for transmission through a message bus, where the message bus is the backbone for integrating a variety of different systems, some of which might not be object-oriented.
Many different approaches are possible, but not all of them fulfill the requirements of a messaging mapper. For example, an obvious way to transmit an object is to use object serialization, which enables you to write an object to a data stream using an unambiguous encoding (supported natively in Java). However, this is not a suitable approach to use for the messaging mapper pattern, however, because the serialization format is understood only by Java applications. Java object serialization creates an impedance mismatch between the original application and the other applications in the messaging system.
The requirements for a messaging mapper can be summarized as follows:
  • The canonical message format used to transmit domain objects should be suitable for consumption by non-object oriented applications.
  • The mapper code should be implemented separately from both the domain object code and the messaging infrastructure. Apache Camel helps fulfill this requirement by providing hooks that can be used to insert mapper code into a route.
  • The mapper might need to find an effective way of dealing with certain object-oriented concepts such as inheritance, object references, and object trees. The complexity of these issues varies from application to application, but the aim of the mapper implementation must always be to create messages that can be processed effectively by non-object-oriented applications.

Finding objects to map

You can use one of the following mechanisms to find the objects to map:
  • Find a registered bean. — For singleton objects and small numbers of objects, you could use the CamelContext registry to store references to beans. For example, if a bean instance is instantiated using Spring XML, it is automatically entered into the registry, where the bean is identified by the value of its id attribute.
  • Select objects using the JoSQL language. — If all of the objects you want to access are already instantiated at runtime, you could use the JoSQL language to locate a specific object (or objects). For example, if you have a class, org.apache.camel.builder.sql.Person, with a name bean property and the incoming message has a UserName header, you could select the object whose name property equals the value of the UserName header using the following code:
    import static org.apache.camel.builder.sql.SqlBuilder.sql;
    import org.apache.camel.Expression;
    ...
    Expression expression = sql("SELECT * FROM org.apache.camel.builder.sql.Person where name = :UserName");
    Object value = expression.evaluate(exchange);
    Where the syntax, :HeaderName, is used to substitute the value of a header in a JoSQL expression.
  • Dynamic — For a more scalable solution, it might be necessary to read object data from a database. In some cases, the existing object-oriented application might already provide a finder object that can load objects from the database. In other cases, you might have to write some custom code to extract objects from a database, and in these cases the JDBC component and the SQL component might be useful.

2. Event Driven Consumer

Overview

The event-driven consumer pattern, shown in Figure 9.1, “Event Driven Consumer Pattern”, is a pattern for implementing the consumer endpoint in a Apache Camel component, and is only relevant to programmers who need to develop a custom component in Apache Camel. Existing components already have a consumer implementation pattern hard-wired into them.

Figure 9.1. Event Driven Consumer Pattern

Event driven consumer pattern
Consumers that conform to this pattern provide an event method that is automatically called by the messaging channel or transport layer whenever an incoming message is received. One of the characteristics of the event-driven consumer pattern is that the consumer endpoint itself does not provide any threads to process the incoming messages. Instead, the underlying transport or messaging channel implicitly provides a processor thread when it invokes the exposed event method (which blocks for the duration of the message processing).
For more details about this implementation pattern, see Section 1.3, “Consumer Patterns and Threading” and Chapter 47, Consumer Interface.

3. Polling Consumer

Overview

The polling consumer pattern, shown in Figure 9.2, “Polling Consumer Pattern”, is a pattern for implementing the consumer endpoint in a Apache Camel component, so it is only relevant to programmers who need to develop a custom component in Apache Camel. Existing components already have a consumer implementation pattern hard-wired into them.
Consumers that conform to this pattern expose polling methods, receive(), receive(long timeout), and receiveNoWait() that return a new exchange object, if one is available from the monitored resource. A polling consumer implementation must provide its own thread pool to perform the polling.

Figure 9.2. Polling Consumer Pattern

Polling consumer pattern

Scheduled poll consumer

Many of the Apache Camel consumer endpoints employ a scheduled poll pattern to receive messages at the start of a route. That is, the endpoint appears to implement an event-driven consumer interface, but internally a scheduled poll is used to monitor a resource that provides the incoming messages for the endpoint.
See Section 2, “Implementing the Consumer Interface” for details of how to implement this pattern.

Quartz component

You can use the quartz component to provide scheduled delivery of messages using the Quartz enterprise scheduler. See and Quartz Component for details.

4. Competing Consumers

Overview

The competing consumers pattern, shown in Figure 9.3, “Competing Consumers Pattern”, enables multiple consumers to pull messages from the same queue, with the guarantee that each message is consumed once only. This pattern can be used to replace serial message processing with concurrent message processing (bringing a corresponding reduction in response latency).

Figure 9.3. Competing Consumers Pattern

Competing consumers pattern
The following components demonstrate the competing consumers pattern:

JMS based competing consumers

A regular JMS queue implicitly guarantees that each message can only be consumed at once. Hence, a JMS queue automatically supports the competing consumers pattern. For example, you could define three competing consumers that pull messages from the JMS queue, HighVolumeQ, as follows:
from("jms:HighVolumeQ").to("cxf:bean:replica01");
from("jms:HighVolumeQ").to("cxf:bean:replica02");
from("jms:HighVolumeQ").to("cxf:bean:replica03");
Where the CXF (Web services) endpoints, replica01, replica02, and replica03, process messages from the HighVolumeQ queue in parallel.
Alternatively, you can set the JMS query option, concurrentConsumers, to create a thread pool of competing consumers. For example, the following route creates a pool of three competing threads that pick messages from the specified queue:
from("jms:HighVolumeQ?concurrentConsumers=3").to("cxf:bean:replica01");
And the concurrentConsumers option can also be specified in XML DSL, as follows:
 <route>
   <from uri="jms:HighVolumeQ?concurrentConsumers=3"/>
   <to uri="cxf:bean:replica01"/>
 </route>
Note
JMS topics cannot support the competing consumers pattern. By definition, a JMS topic is intended to send multiple copies of the same message to different consumers. Therefore, it is not compatible with the competing consumers pattern.

SEDA based competing consumers

The purpose of the SEDA component is to simplify concurrent processing by breaking the computation into stages. A SEDA endpoint essentially encapsulates an in-memory blocking queue (implemented by java.util.concurrent.BlockingQueue). Therefore, you can use a SEDA endpoint to break a route into stages, where each stage might use multiple threads. For example, you can define a SEDA route consisting of two stages, as follows:
// Stage 1: Read messages from file system.
from("file://var/messages").to("seda:fanout");

// Stage 2: Perform concurrent processing (3 threads).
from("seda:fanout").to("cxf:bean:replica01");
from("seda:fanout").to("cxf:bean:replica02");
from("seda:fanout").to("cxf:bean:replica03");
Where the first stage contains a single thread that consumes message from a file endpoint, file://var/messages, and routes them to a SEDA endpoint, seda:fanout. The second stage contains three threads: a thread that routes exchanges to cxf:bean:replica01, a thread that routes exchanges to cxf:bean:replica02, and a thread that routes exchanges to cxf:bean:replica03. These three threads compete to take exchange instances from the SEDA endpoint, which is implemented using a blocking queue. Because the blocking queue uses locking to prevent more than one thread from accessing the queue at a time, you are guaranteed that each exchange instance can only be consumed once.
For a discussion of the differences between a SEDA endpoint and a thread pool created by thread(), see .
The message dispatcher pattern, shown in Figure 9.4, “Message Dispatcher Pattern”, is used to consume messages from a channel and then distribute them locally to performers, which are responsible for processing the messages. In a Apache Camel application, performers are usually represented by in-process endpoints, which are used to transfer messages to another section of the route.

Figure 9.4. Message Dispatcher Pattern

Message dispatcher pattern
You can implement the message dispatcher pattern in Apache Camel using one of the following approaches:

JMS selectors

If your application consumes messages from a JMS queue, you can implement the message dispatcher pattern using JMS selectors. A JMS selector is a predicate expression involving JMS headers and JMS properties. If the selector evaluates to true, the JMS message is allowed to reach the consumer, and if the selector evaluates to false, the JMS message is blocked. In many respects, a JMS selector is like a filter processor, but it has the additional advantage that the filtering is implemented inside the JMS provider. This means that a JMS selector can block messages before they are transmitted to the Apache Camel application. This provides a significant efficiency advantage.
In Apache Camel, you can define a JMS selector on a consumer endpoint by setting the selector query option on a JMS endpoint URI. For example:
from("jms:dispatcher?selector=CountryCode='US'").to("cxf:bean:replica01");
from("jms:dispatcher?selector=CountryCode='IE'").to("cxf:bean:replica02");
from("jms:dispatcher?selector=CountryCode='DE'").to("cxf:bean:replica03");
Where the predicates that appear in a selector string are based on a subset of the SQL92 conditional expression syntax (for full details, see the JMS specification). The identifiers appearing in a selector string can refer either to JMS headers or to JMS properties. For example, in the preceding routes, the sender sets a JMS property called CountryCode.
If you want to add a JMS property to a message from within your Apache Camel application, you can do so by setting a message header (either on In message or on Out messages). When reading or writing to JMS endpoints, Apache Camel maps JMS headers and JMS properties to, and from, its native message headers.
Technically, the selector strings must be URL encoded according to the application/x-www-form-urlencoded MIME format (see the HTML specification). In practice, the &(ampersand) character might cause difficulties because it is used to delimit each query option in the URI. For more complex selector strings that might need to embed the & character, you can encode the strings using the java.net.URLEncoder utility class. For example:
from("jms:dispatcher?selector=" + java.net.URLEncoder.encode("CountryCode='US'","UTF-8")).
    to("cxf:bean:replica01");
Where the UTF-8 encoding must be used.

JMS selectors in ActiveMQ

You can also define JMS selectors on ActiveMQ endpoints. For example:
from("activemq:dispatcher?selector=CountryCode='US'").to("cxf:bean:replica01");
from("activemq:dispatcher?selector=CountryCode='IE'").to("cxf:bean:replica02");
from("activemq:dispatcher?selector=CountryCode='DE'").to("cxf:bean:replica03");

Content-based router

The essential difference between the content-based router pattern and the message dispatcher pattern is that a content-based router dispatches messages to physically separate destinations (remote endpoints), and a message dispatcher dispatches messages locally, within the same process space. In Apache Camel, the distinction between these two patterns is determined by the target endpoint. The same router logic is used to implement both a content-based router and a message dispatcher. When the target endpoint is remote, the route defines a content-based router. When the target endpoint is in-process, the route defines a message dispatcher.
For details and examples of how to use the content-based router pattern see Section 1, “Content-Based Router”.

6. Selective Consumer

Overview

The selective consumer pattern, shown in Figure 9.5, “Selective Consumer Pattern”, describes a consumer that applies a filter to incoming messages, so that only messages meeting specific selection criteria are processed.

Figure 9.5. Selective Consumer Pattern

Selective consumer pattern
You can implement the selective consumer pattern in Apache Camel using one of the following approaches:

JMS selector

A JMS selector is a predicate expression involving JMS headers and JMS properties. If the selector evaluates to true, the JMS message is allowed to reach the consumer, and if the selector evaluates to false, the JMS message is blocked. For example, to consume messages from the queue, selective, and select only those messages whose country code property is equal to US, you can use the following Java DSL route:
from("jms:selective?selector=" + java.net.URLEncoder.encode("CountryCode='US'","UTF-8")).
    to("cxf:bean:replica01");
Where the selector string, CountryCode='US', must be URL encoded (using UTF-8 characters) to avoid trouble with parsing the query options. This example presumes that the JMS property, CountryCode, is set by the sender. For more details about JMS selectors, see the section called “JMS selectors”.
Note
If a selector is applied to a JMS queue, messages that are not selected remain on the queue and are potentially available to other consumers attached to the same queue.

JMS selector in ActiveMQ

You can also define JMS selectors on ActiveMQ endpoints. For example:
from("acivemq:selective?selector=" + java.net.URLEncoder.encode("CountryCode='US'","UTF-8")).
    to("cxf:bean:replica01");

Message filter

If it is not possible to set a selector on the consumer endpoint, you can insert a filter processor into your route instead. For example, you can define a selective consumer that processes only messages with a US country code using Java DSL, as follows:
from("seda:a").filter(header("CountryCode").isEqualTo("US")).process(myProcessor);
The same route can be defined using XML configuration, as follows:
<camelContext id="buildCustomProcessorWithFilter" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="seda:a"/>
    <filter>
      <xpath>$CountryCode = 'US'</xpath>
      <process ref="#myProcessor"/>
    </filter>
  </route>
</camelContext>
For more information about the Apache Camel filter processor, see Message Filter.
Warning
Be careful about using a message filter to select messages from a JMS queue. When using a filter processor, blocked messages are simply discarded. Hence, if the messages are consumed from a queue (which allows each message to be consumed only once—see Section 4, “Competing Consumers”), then blocked messages are not processed at all. This might not be the behavior you want.

7. Durable Subscriber

Overview

A durable subscriber, as shown in Figure 9.6, “Durable Subscriber Pattern”, is a consumer that wants to receive all of the messages sent over a particular publish-subscribe channel, including messages sent while the consumer is disconnected from the messaging system. This requires the messaging system to store messages for later replay to the disconnected consumer. There also has to be a mechanism for a consumer to indicate that it wants to establish a durable subscription. Generally, a publish-subscribe channel (or topic) can have both durable and non-durable subscribers, which behave as follows:
  • non-durable subscriber—Can have two states: connected and disconnected. While a non-durable subscriber is connected to a topic, it receives all of the topic's messages in real time. However, a non-durable subscriber never receives messages sent to the topic while the subscriber is disconnected.
  • durable subscriber—Can have two states: connected and inactive. The inactive state means that the durable subscriber is disconnected from the topic, but wants to receive the messages that arrive in the interim. When the durable subscriber reconnects to the topic, it receives a replay of all the messages sent while it was inactive.

Figure 9.6. Durable Subscriber Pattern

Durable subscriber pattern

JMS durable subscriber

The JMS component implements the durable subscriber pattern. In order to set up a durable subscription on a JMS endpoint, you must specify a client ID, which identifies this particular connection, and a durable subscription name, which identifies the durable subscriber. For example, the following route sets up a durable subscription to the JMS topic, news, with a client ID of conn01 and a durable subscription name of John.Doe:
from("jms:topic:news?clientId=conn01&durableSubscriptionName=John.Doe").
    to("cxf:bean:newsprocessor");
You can also set up a durable subscription using the ActiveMQ endpoint:
from("activemq:topic:news?clientId=conn01&durableSubscriptionName=John.Doe").
    to("cxf:bean:newsprocessor");
If you want to process the incoming messages concurrently, you can use a SEDA endpoint to fan out the route into multiple, parallel segments, as follows:
from("jms:topic:news?clientId=conn01&durableSubscriptionName=John.Doe").
    to("seda:fanout");

from("seda:fanout").to("cxf:bean:newsproc01");
from("seda:fanout").to("cxf:bean:newsproc02");
from("seda:fanout").to("cxf:bean:newsproc03");
Where each message is processed only once, because the SEDA component supports the competing consumers pattern.

Alternative example

Another alternative is to combine the Message Dispatcher or Content-Based Router with File component or JPA component components for durable subscribers then something like SEDA component for non-durable.
Here is a simple example of creating durable subscribers to a topic
 from("direct:start").to("activemq:topic:foo");
 
 from("activemq:topic:foo?clientId=1&durableSubscriptionName=bar1").to("mock:result1");
 
 from("activemq:topic:foo?clientId=2&durableSubscriptionName=bar2").to("mock:result2");
 <route>
     <from uri="direct:start"/>
     <to uri="activemq:topic:foo"/>
 </route>
 
 <route>
     <from uri="activemq:topic:foo?clientId=1&durableSubscriptionName=bar1"/>
     <to uri="mock:result1"/>
 </route>
 
 <route>
     <from uri="activemq:topic:foo?clientId=2&durableSubscriptionName=bar2"/>
     <to uri="mock:result2"/>
 </route>
Here is another example of JMS durable subscribers, but this time using virtual topics (recommended by AMQ over durable subscriptions)
Using the Fluent Builders
 from("direct:start").to("activemq:topic:VirtualTopic.foo");
 
 from("activemq:queue:Consumer.1.VirtualTopic.foo").to("mock:result1");
 
 from("activemq:queue:Consumer.2.VirtualTopic.foo").to("mock:result2");
 <route>
     <from uri="direct:start"/>
     <to uri="activemq:topic:VirtualTopic.foo"/>
 </route>
 
 <route>
     <from uri="activemq:queue:Consumer.1.VirtualTopic.foo"/>
     <to uri="mock:result1"/>
 </route>
 
 <route>
     <from uri="activemq:queue:Consumer.2.VirtualTopic.foo"/>
     <to uri="mock:result2"/>
 </route>

8. Idempotent Consumer

Overview

The idempotent consumer pattern is used to filter out duplicate messages. For example, consider a scenario where the connection between a messaging system and a consumer endpoint is abruptly lost due to some fault in the system. If the messaging system was in the middle of transmitting a message, it might be unclear whether or not the consumer received the last message. To improve delivery reliability, the messaging system might decide to redeliver such messages as soon as the connection is re-established. Unfortunately, this entails the risk that the consumer might receive duplicate messages and, in some cases, the effect of duplicating a message may have undesirable consequences (such as debiting a sum of money twice from your account). In this scenario, an idempotent consumer could be used to weed out undesired duplicates from the message stream.
Camel provides the following Idempotent Consumer implementations:

Idempotent consumer with in-memory cache

In Apache Camel, the idempotent consumer pattern is implemented by the idempotentConsumer() processor, which takes two arguments:
  • messageIdExpression — An expression that returns a message ID string for the current message.
  • messageIdRepository — A reference to a message ID repository, which stores the IDs of all the messages received.
As each message comes in, the idempotent consumer processor looks up the current message ID in the repository to see if this message has been seen before. If yes, the message is discarded; if no, the message is allowed to pass and its ID is added to the repository.
The code shown in Example 9.1, “Filtering Duplicate Messages with an In-memory Cache” uses the TransactionID header to filter out duplicates.

Example 9.1. Filtering Duplicate Messages with an In-memory Cache

import static org.apache.camel.processor.idempotent.MemoryMessageIdRepository.memoryMessageIdRepository;
...
RouteBuilder builder = new RouteBuilder() {
    public void configure() {
        from("seda:a")
          .idempotentConsumer(
             header("TransactionID"),
             memoryMessageIdRepository(200)
          ).to("seda:b");
    }
};
Where the call to memoryMessageIdRepository(200) creates an in-memory cache that can hold up to 200 message IDs.
You can also define an idempotent consumer using XML configuration. For example, you can define the preceding route in XML, as follows:
<camelContext id="buildIdempotentConsumer" xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
  <route>
    <from uri="seda:a"/>
    <idempotentConsumer messageIdRepositoryRef="MsgIDRepos">
      <simple>header.TransactionID</simple>
      <to uri="seda:b"/>
    </idempotentConsumer>
  </route>
</camelContext>

<bean id="MsgIDRepos" class="org.apache.camel.processor.idempotent.MemoryMessageIdRepository">
    <!-- Specify the in-memory cache size. -->
    <constructor-arg type="int" value="200"/>
</bean>

Idempotent consumer with JPA repository

The in-memory cache suffers from the disadvantages of easily running out of memory and not working in a clustered environment. To overcome these disadvantages, you can use a Java Persistent API (JPA) based repository instead. The JPA message ID repository uses an object-oriented database to store the message IDs. For example, you can define a route that uses a JPA repository for the idempotent consumer, as follows:
import org.springframework.orm.jpa.JpaTemplate;

import org.apache.camel.spring.SpringRouteBuilder;
import static org.apache.camel.processor.idempotent.jpa.JpaMessageIdRepository.jpaMessageIdRepository;
...
RouteBuilder builder = new SpringRouteBuilder() {
    public void configure() {
        from("seda:a").idempotentConsumer(
          header("TransactionID"),
          jpaMessageIdRepository(bean(JpaTemplate.class), "myProcessorName")
        ).to("seda:b");
    }
};
The JPA message ID repository is initialized with two arguments:
  • JpaTemplate instance—Provides the handle for the JPA database.
  • processor name—Identifies the current idempotent consumer processor.
The SpringRouteBuilder.bean() method is a shortcut that references a bean defined in the Spring XML file. The JpaTemplate bean provides a handle to the underlying JPA database. See the JPA documentation for details of how to configure this bean.
For more details about setting up a JPA repository, see JPA Component documentation, the Spring JPA documentation, and the sample code in the Camel JPA unit test.

Spring XML example

The following example uses the myMessageId header to filter out duplicates:
<!-- repository for the idempotent consumer -->
<bean id="myRepo" class="org.apache.camel.processor.idempotent.MemoryIdempotentRepository"/>

<camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
    <route>
        <from uri="direct:start"/>
        <idempotentConsumer messageIdRepositoryRef="myRepo">
            <!-- use the messageId header as key for identifying duplicate messages -->
            <header>messageId</header>
            <!-- if not a duplicate send it to this mock endpoint -->
            <to uri="mock:result"/>
        </idempotentConsumer>
    </route>
</camelContext>

Idempotent consumer with JDBC repository

A JDBC repository is also supported for storing message IDs in the idempotent consumer pattern. The implementation of the JDBC repository is provided by the SQL component, so if you are using the Maven build system, add a dependency on the camel-sql artifact.
You can use the SingleConnectionDataSource JDBC wrapper class from the Spring persistence API in order to instantiate the connection to a SQL database. For example, to instantiate a JDBC connection to a HyperSQL database instance, you could define the following JDBC data source:
<bean id="dataSource" class="org.springframework.jdbc.datasource.SingleConnectionDataSource">
    <property name="driverClassName" value="org.hsqldb.jdbcDriver"/>
    <property name="url" value="jdbc:hsqldb:mem:camel_jdbc"/>
    <property name="username" value="sa"/>
    <property name="password" value=""/>
</bean>
Note
The preceding JDBC data source uses the HyperSQL mem protocol, which creates a memory-only database instance. This is a toy implementation of the HyperSQL database which is not actually persistent.
Using the preceding data source, you can define an idempotent consumer pattern that uses the JDBC message ID repository, as follows:
<bean id="messageIdRepository" class="org.apache.camel.processor.idempotent.jdbc.JdbcMessageIdRepository">
	<constructor-arg ref="dataSource" />
	<constructor-arg value="myProcessorName" />
</bean>

<camel:camelContext>
	<camel:errorHandler id="deadLetterChannel" type="DeadLetterChannel" deadLetterUri="mock:error">
		<camel:redeliveryPolicy maximumRedeliveries="0" maximumRedeliveryDelay="0" logStackTrace="false" />
	</camel:errorHandler>
	
	<camel:route id="JdbcMessageIdRepositoryTest" errorHandlerRef="deadLetterChannel">
		<camel:from uri="direct:start" />
		<camel:idempotentConsumer messageIdRepositoryRef="messageIdRepository">
			<camel:header>messageId</camel:header>
			<camel:to uri="mock:result" />
		</camel:idempotentConsumer>
	</camel:route>
	</camel:camelContext>

How to handle duplicate messages in the route

Available as of Camel 2.8
You can now set the skipDuplicate option to false which instructs the idempotent consumer to route duplicate messages as well. However the duplicate message has been marked as duplicate by having a property on the Exchange set to true. We can leverage this fact by using a Content-Based Router or Message Filter to detect this and handle duplicate messages.
For example in the following example we use the Message Filter to send the message to a duplicate endpoint, and then stop continue routing that message.
from("direct:start")
     // instruct idempotent consumer to not skip duplicates as we will filter then our self
     .idempotentConsumer(header("messageId")).messageIdRepository(repo).skipDuplicate(false)
     .filter(property(Exchange.DUPLICATE_MESSAGE).isEqualTo(true))
         // filter out duplicate messages by sending them to someplace else and then stop
         .to("mock:duplicate")
         .stop()
     .end()
     // and here we process only new messages (no duplicates)
     .to("mock:result");
The sample example in XML DSL would be:
 <!-- idempotent repository, just use a memory based for testing -->
 <bean id="myRepo" class="org.apache.camel.processor.idempotent.MemoryIdempotentRepository"/>
 
 <camelContext xmlns="http://camel.apache.org/schema/spring">
     <route>
         <from uri="direct:start"/>
         <!-- we do not want to skip any duplicate messages -->
         <idempotentConsumer messageIdRepositoryRef="myRepo" skipDuplicate="false">
             <!-- use the messageId header as key for identifying duplicate messages -->
             <header>messageId</header>
             <!-- we will to handle duplicate messages using a filter -->
             <filter>
                 <!-- the filter will only react on duplicate messages, if this property is set on the Exchange -->
                 <property>CamelDuplicateMessage</property>
                 <!-- and send the message to this mock, due its part of an unit test -->
                 <!-- but you can of course do anything as its part of the route -->
                 <to uri="mock:duplicate"/>
                 <!-- and then stop -->
                 <stop/>
             </filter>
             <!-- here we route only new messages -->
             <to uri="mock:result"/>
         </idempotentConsumer>
     </route>
 </camelContext>

How to handle duplicate message in a clustered environment with a data grid

If you have running Camel in a clustered environment, a in memory idempotent repository doesn't work (see above). You can setup either a central database or use the idempotent consumer implementation based on the Hazelcast data grid. Hazelcast finds the nodes over multicast (which is default - configure Hazelcast for tcp-ip) and creates automatically a map based repository:
HazelcastIdempotentRepository idempotentRepo = new HazelcastIdempotentRepository("myrepo");
 
from("direct:in").idempotentConsumer(header("messageId"), idempotentRepo).to("mock:out");
You have to define how long the repository should hold each message id (default is to delete it never). To avoid that you run out of memory you should create an eviction strategy based on the Hazelcast configuration. For additional information see camel-hazelcast.
See this little tutorial, how setup such an idempotent repository on two cluster nodes using Apache Karaf.

Options

The Idempotent Consumer has the following options:
Option Default Description
eager true Camel 2.0: Eager controls whether Camel adds the message to the repository before or after the exchange has been processed. If enabled before then Camel will be able to detect duplicate messages even when messages are currently in progress. By disabling Camel will only detect duplicates when a message has successfully been processed.
messageIdRepositoryRef null A reference to a IdempotentRepository to lookup in the registry. This option is mandatory when using XML DSL.
skipDuplicate true Camel 2.8: Sets whether to skip duplicate messages. If set to false then the message will be continued. However the Exchange has been marked as a duplicate by having the Exchange.DUPLICATE_MESSAG exchange property set to a Boolean.TRUE value.

9. Transactional Client

Overview

The transactional client pattern, shown in Figure 9.7, “Transactional Client Pattern”, refers to messaging endpoints that can participate in a transaction. Apache Camel supports transactions using Spring transaction management.

Figure 9.7. Transactional Client Pattern

Transactional client pattern

Transaction oriented endpoints

Not all Apache Camel endpoints support transactions. Those that do are called transaction oriented endpoints (or TOEs). For example, both the JMS component and the ActiveMQ component support transactions.
To enable transactions on a component, you must perform the appropriate initialization before adding the component to the CamelContext. This entails writing code to initialize your transactional components explicitly.

References

The details of configuring transactions in Apache Camel are beyond the scope of this guide. For full details of how to use transactions, see the Apache Camel Transaction Guide.

10. Messaging Gateway

Overview

The messaging gateway pattern, shown in Figure 9.8, “Messaging Gateway Pattern”, describes an approach to integrating with a messaging system, where the messaging system's API remains hidden from the programmer at the application level. One of the more common example is when you want to translate synchronous method calls into request/reply message exchanges, without the programmer being aware of this.

Figure 9.8. Messaging Gateway Pattern

Messaging gateway pattern
The following Apache Camel components provide this kind of integration with the messaging system:
The service activator pattern, shown in Figure 9.9, “Service Activator Pattern”, describes the scenario where a service's operations are invoked in response to an incoming request message. The service activator identifies which operation to call and extracts the data to use as the operation's parameters. Finally, the service activator invokes an operation using the data extracted from the message. The operation invocation can be either oneway (request only) or two-way (request/reply).

Figure 9.9. Service Activator Pattern

Service activator pattern
In many respects, a service activator resembles a conventional remote procedure call (RPC), where operation invocations are encoded as messages. The main difference is that a service activator needs to be more flexible. An RPC framework standardizes the request and reply message encodings (for example, Web service operations are encoded as SOAP messages), whereas a service activator typically needs to improvise the mapping between the messaging system and the service's operations.

Bean integration

The main mechanism that Apache Camel provides to support the service activator pattern is bean integration. Bean integration provides a general framework for mapping incoming messages to method invocations on Java objects. For example, the Java fluent DSL provides the processors bean() and beanRef() that you can insert into a route to invoke methods on a registered Java bean. The detailed mapping of message data to Java method parameters is determined by the bean binding, which can be implemented by adding annotations to the bean class.
For example, consider the following route which calls the Java method, BankBean.getUserAccBalance(), to service requests incoming on a JMS/ActiveMQ queue:
from("activemq:BalanceQueries")
  .setProperty("userid", xpath("/Account/BalanceQuery/UserID").stringResult())
  .beanRef("bankBean", "getUserAccBalance")
  .to("velocity:file:src/scripts/acc_balance.vm")
  .to("activemq:BalanceResults");
The messages pulled from the ActiveMQ endpoint, activemq:BalanceQueries, have a simple XML format that provides the user ID of a bank account. For example:
<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
<Account>
  <BalanceQuery>
    <UserID>James.Strachan</UserID>
  </BalanceQuery>
</Account>
The first processor in the route, setProperty(), extracts the user ID from the In message and stores it in the userid exchange property. This is preferable to storing it in a header, because the In headers are not available after invoking the bean.
The service activation step is performed by the beanRef() processor, which binds the incoming message to the getUserAccBalance() method on the Java object identified by the bankBean bean ID. The following code shows a sample implementation of the BankBean class:
package tutorial;

import org.apache.camel.language.XPath;

public class BankBean {
    public int getUserAccBalance(@XPath("/Account/BalanceQuery/UserID") String user) {
        if (user.equals("James.Strachan")) {
            return 1200;
        }
        else {
            return 0;
        }
      }
}
Where the binding of message data to method parameter is enabled by the @XPath annotation, which injects the content of the UserID XML element into the user method parameter. On completion of the call, the return value is inserted into the body of the Out message which is then copied into the In message for the next step in the route. In order for the bean to be accessible to the beanRef() processor, you must instantiate an instance in Spring XML. For example, you can add the following lines to the META-INF/spring/camel-context.xml configuration file to instantiate the bean:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans ... >
  ...
  <bean id="bankBean" class="tutorial.BankBean"/>
</beans>
Where the bean ID, bankBean, identifes this bean instance in the registry.
The output of the bean invocation is injected into a Velocity template, to produce a properly formatted result message. The Velocity endpoint, velocity:file:src/scripts/acc_balance.vm, specifies the location of a velocity script with the following contents:
<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
<Account>
  <BalanceResult>
    <UserID>${exchange.getProperty("userid")}</UserID>
    <Balance>${body}</Balance>
  </BalanceResult>
</Account>
The exchange instance is available as the Velocity variable, exchange, which enables you to retrieve the userid exchange property, using ${exchange.getProperty("userid")}. The body of the current In message, ${body}, contains the result of the getUserAccBalance() method invocation.

Chapter 10. System Management

Abstract

The system management patterns describe how to monitor, test, and administer a messaging system.

1. Detour

Detour

The Detour from the Introducing Enterprise Integration Patterns allows you to send messages through additional steps if a control condition is met. It can be useful for turning on extra validation, testing, debugging code when needed.

Example

In this example we essentially have a route like from("direct:start").to("mock:result") with a conditional detour to the mock:detour endpoint in the middle of the route..
from("direct:start").choice()
    .when().method("controlBean", "isDetour").to("mock:detour").end()
    .to("mock:result");
<route>
  <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <choice>
      <when>
        <method bean="controlBean" method="isDetour"/>
	<to uri="mock:detour"/>
      </when>
    </choice>
    <to uri="mock:result"/>
  </split>
</route>

whether the detour is turned on or off is decided by the ControlBean. So, when the detour is on the message is routed to mock:detour and then mock:result. When the detour is off, the message is routed to mock:result.
For full details, check the example source here:

2. LogEIP

Overview

Apache Camel provides several ways to perform logging in a route:
  • Using the log DSL command.
  • Using the Log component, which can log the message content.
  • Using the Tracer, which traces message flow.
  • Using a Processor or a Bean endpoint to perform logging in Java.
Difference between the log DSL command and the log component
The log DSL is much lighter and meant for logging human logs such as Starting to do .... It can only log a message based on the Simple language. In contrast, the Log component is a fully featured logging component. The Log component is capable of logging the message itself and you have many URI options to control the logging.

Java DSL example

Since Apache Camel 2.2, you can use the log DSL command to construct a log message at run time using the Simple expression language. For example, you can create a log message within a route, as follows:
from("direct:start").log("Processing ${id}").to("bean:foo");
This route constructs a String format message at run time. The log message will by logged at INFO level, using the route ID as the log name. By default, routes are named consecutively, route-1, route-2 and so on. But you can use the DSL command, routeId("myCoolRoute"), to specify a custom route ID.
The log DSL also provides variants that enable you to set the logging level and the log name explicitly. For example, to set the logging level explicitly to LoggingLevel.DEBUG, you can invoke the log DSL as follows:
has overloaded methods to set the logging level and/or name as well.
from("direct:start").log(LoggingLevel.DEBUG, "Processing ${id}").to("bean:foo");
To set the log name to fileRoute, you can invoke the log DSL as follows:
from("file://target/files").log(LoggingLevel.DEBUG, "fileRoute", "Processing file ${file:name}").to("bean:foo");

XML DSL example

In XML DSL, the log DSL is represented by the log element and the log message is specified by setting the message attribute to a Simple expression, as follows:
<route id="foo">
    <from uri="direct:foo"/>
    <log message="Got ${body}"/>
    <to uri="mock:foo"/>
</route>
The log element supports the message, loggingLevel and logName attributes. For example:
<route id="baz">
    <from uri="direct:baz"/>
    <log message="Me Got ${body}" loggingLevel="FATAL" logName="cool"/>
    <to uri="mock:baz"/>
</route>

3. Wire Tap

Wire Tap

The wire tap pattern, as shown in Figure 10.1, “Wire Tap Pattern”, enables you to route a copy of the message to a separate tap location, while the original message is forwarded to the ultimate destination.

Figure 10.1. Wire Tap Pattern

Wire Tap Pattern
Streams
If you Wire Tap a stream message body, you should consider enabling Stream Caching to ensure the message body can be re-read. See more details at Stream Caching

WireTap node

Apache Camel 2.0 introduces the wireTap node for doing wire taps. The wireTap node copies the original exchange to a tapped exchange, whose exchange pattern is set to InOnly, because the tapped exchange should be propagated in a oneway style. The tapped exchange is processed in a separate thread, so that it can run concurrently with the main route.
The wireTap supports two different approaches to tapping an exchange:
  • Tap a copy of the original exchange.
  • Tap a new exchange instance, enabling you to customize the tapped exchange.

Tap a copy of the original exchange

Using the Java DSL:
from("direct:start")
    .to("log:foo")
    .wireTap("direct:tap")
    .to("mock:result");
Using Spring XML extensions:
<route>
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <to uri="log:foo"/>
    <wireTap uri="direct:tap"/>
    <to uri="mock:result"/>
</route>

Tap and modify a copy of the original exchange

Using the Java DSL, Apache Camel supports using either a processor or an expression to modify a copy of the original exchange. Using a processor gives you full power over how the exchange is populated, because you can set properties, headers and so on. The expression approach can only be used to modify the In message body.
For example, to modify a copy of the original exchange using the processor approach:
from("direct:start")
    .wireTap("direct:foo", new Processor() {
        public void process(Exchange exchange) throws Exception {
            exchange.getIn().setHeader("foo", "bar");
        }
    }).to("mock:result");


from("direct:foo").to("mock:foo");
And to modify a copy of the original exchange using the expression approach:
from("direct:start")
    .wireTap("direct:foo", constant("Bye World"))
    .to("mock:result");

from("direct:foo").to("mock:foo");
Using the Spring XML extensions, you can modify a copy of the original exchange using the processor approach, where the processorRef attribute references a spring bean with the myProcessor ID:
<route>
    <from uri="direct:start2"/>
    <wireTap uri="direct:foo" processorRef="myProcessor"/>
    <to uri="mock:result"/>
</route>
And to modify a copy of the original exchange using the expression approach:
<route>
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <wireTap uri="direct:foo">
        <body><constant>Bye World</constant></body>
    </wireTap>
    <to uri="mock:result"/>
</route>

Tap a new exchange instance

You can define a wiretap with a new exchange instance by setting the copy flag to false (the default is true). In this case, an initially empty exchange is created for the wiretap.
For example, to create a new exchange instance using the processor approach:
from("direct:start")
    .wireTap("direct:foo", false, new Processor() {
        public void process(Exchange exchange) throws Exception {
            exchange.getIn().setBody("Bye World");
            exchange.getIn().setHeader("foo", "bar");
        }
    }).to("mock:result");


from("direct:foo").to("mock:foo");
Where the second wireTap argument sets the copy flag to false, indicating that the original exchange is not copied and an empty exchange is created instead.
To create a new exchange instance using the expression approach:
from("direct:start")
    .wireTap("direct:foo", false, constant("Bye World"))
    .to("mock:result");

from("direct:foo").to("mock:foo");
Using the Spring XML extensions, you can indicate that a new exchange is to be created by setting the wireTap element's copy attribute to false.
To create a new exchange instance using the processor approach, where the processorRef attribute references a spring bean with the myProcessor ID, as follows:
<route>
    <from uri="direct:start2"/>
    <wireTap uri="direct:foo" processorRef="myProcessor" copy="false"/>
    <to uri="mock:result"/>
</route>
And to create a new exchange instance using the expression approach:
<route>
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <wireTap uri="direct:foo" copy="false">
        <body><constant>Bye World</constant></body>
    </wireTap>
    <to uri="mock:result"/>
</route>

Sending a new Exchange and set headers in DSL

Available as of Camel 2.8
If you send a new messages using the Wire Tap then you could only set the message body using an Expression from the DSL. If you also need to set new headers you would have to use a Processor for that. So in Camel 2.8 onwards we have improved this situation so you can now set headers as well in the DSL.
The following example sends a new message which has
  • "Bye World" as message body
  • a header with key "id" with the value 123
  • a header with key "date" which has current date as value

Java DSL

from("direct:start")
     // tap a new message and send it to direct:tap
     // the new message should be Bye World with 2 headers
     .wireTap("direct:tap")
         // create the new tap message body and headers
         .newExchangeBody(constant("Bye World"))
         .newExchangeHeader("id", constant(123))
         .newExchangeHeader("date", simple("${date:now:yyyyMMdd}"))
     .end()
     // here we continue routing the original messages
     .to("mock:result");
 
 // this is the tapped route
 from("direct:tap")
     .to("mock:tap");

XML DSL

The XML DSL is slightly different than Java DSL as how you configure the message body and headers. In XML you use <body> and <setHeader> as shown:
<route>
     <from uri="direct:start"/>
     <!-- tap a new message and send it to direct:tap -->
     <!-- the new message should be Bye World with 2 headers -->
     <wireTap uri="direct:tap">
         <!-- create the new tap message body and headers -->
         <body><constant>Bye World</constant></body>
         <setHeader headerName="id"><constant>123</constant></setHeader>
         <setHeader headerName="date"><simple>${date:now:yyyyMMdd}</simple></setHeader>
     </wireTap>
     <!-- here we continue routing the original message -->
     <to uri="mock:result"/>
 </route>

Using onPrepare to execute custom logic when preparing messages

Available as of Camel 2.8
For details, see Multicast.

Options

The wireTap DSL command supports the following options:
Name Default Value Description
uri The endpoint uri where to send the wire tapped message. You should use either uri or ref.
ref Refers to the endpoint where to send the wire tapped message. You should use either uri or ref.
executorServiceRef Refers to a custom Thread Pool to be used when processing the wire tapped messages. If not set then Camel uses a default thread pool.
processorRef Refers to a custom Processor to be used for creating a new message (eg the send a new message mode). See below.
copy true Camel 2.3: Should a copy of the Exchange to used when wire tapping the message.
onPrepareRef Camel 2.8: Refers to a custom Processor to prepare the copy of the Exchange to be wire tapped. This allows you to do any custom logic, such as deep-cloning the message payload if that's needed etc.

Appendix A. Migrating from ServiceMix EIP

Abstract

If you are currently an Apache ServiceMix 3.x user, you might already have implemented some Enterprise Integration Patterns using the ServiceMix EIP module. It is recommended that you migrate these legacy patterns to Apache Camel, which has more extensive support for Enterprise Integration Patterns. After migrating, you can deploy your patterns into a Red Hat JBoss Fuse container.

1. Migrating Endpoints

Overview

A typical ServiceMix EIP route exposes a service that consumes exchanges from the NMR. The route also defines one or more target destinations, to which exchanges are sent. In the Apache Camel environment, the exposed ServiceMix service maps to a consumer endpoint and the ServiceMix target destinations map to producer endpoints. The Apache Camel consumer endpoints and producer endpoints are both defined using endpoint URIs.
When migrating endpoints from ServiceMix EIP to Apache Camel, you must express the ServiceMix services/endpoints as Apache Camel endpoint URIs. You can adopt one of the following approaches:
  • Connect to an existing ServiceMix service/endpoint through the ServiceMix Camel module (which integrates Apache Camel with the NMR).
  • If the existing ServiceMix service/endpoint represents a ServiceMix binding component, you can replace the ServiceMix binding component with an equivalent Apache Camel component (thus bypassing the NMR).

The ServiceMix Camel module

The integration between Apache Camel and ServiceMix is provided by the servicemix-camel module. This module is provided with ServiceMix, but actually implements a plug-in for the Apache Camel product: the JBI component (see and JBI Component).
To access the JBI component from Apache Camel, make sure that the servicemix-camel JAR file is included on your Classpath or, if you are using Maven, include a dependency on the servicemix-camel artifact in your project POM. You can then access the JBI component by defining Apache Camel endpoint URIs with the jbi: component prefix.

Translating ServiceMix URIs into Apache Camel endpoint URIs

ServiceMix defines a flexible format for defining URIs, which is described in detail in ServiceMix URIs. To translate a ServiceMix URI into a Apache Camel endpoint URI, perform the following steps:
  1. If the ServiceMix URI contains a namespace prefix, replace the prefix by its corresponding namespace.
    For example, after modifying the ServiceMix URI, service:test:messageFilter, where test corresponds to the namespace, http://progress.com/demos/test, you get service:http://progress.com/demos/test:messageFilter.
  2. Modify the separator character, depending on what kind of namespace appears in the URI:
    • If the namespace starts with http://, use the / character as the separator between namespace, service name, and endpoint name (if present).
      For example, the URI, service:http://progress.com/demos/test:messageFilter, would be modified to service:http://progress.com/demos/test/messageFilter.
    • If the namespace starts with urn:, use the : character as the separator between namespace, service name, and endpoint name (if present).
      For example, service:urn:progress:com:demos:test:messageFilter.
  3. Create a JBI endpoint URI by adding the jbi: prefix.
    For example, jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/messageFilter.

Example of mapping ServiceMix URIs

For example, consider the following configuration of the static recipient list pattern in ServiceMix EIP. The eip:exchange-target elements define some targets using the ServiceMix URI format.
<beans xmlns:sm="http://servicemix.apache.org/config/1.0"
       xmlns:eip="http://servicemix.apache.org/eip/1.0"
       xmlns:test="http://progress.com/demos/test" >
    ...
    <eip:static-recipient-list service="test:recipients" endpoint="endpoint">
      <eip:recipients>
        <eip:exchange-target uri="service:test:messageFilter" />
        <eip:exchange-target uri="service:test:trace4" />
      </eip:recipients>
    </eip:static-recipient-list>
    ...
</beans>
When the preceding ServiceMix configuration is mapped to an equivalent Apache Camel configuration, you get the following route:
<route>
  <from uri="jbi:endpoint:http://progress.com/demos/test/recipients/endpoint"/>
  <to uri="jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/messageFilter"/>
  <to uri="jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/trace4"/>
</route>

Replacing ServiceMix bindings with Apache Camel components

Instead of using the Apache Camel JBI component to route all your messages through the ServiceMix NMR, you can use one of the many supported Apache Camel components to connect directly to a consumer or a producer endpoint. In particular, when sending messages to an external endpoint, it is more efficient to send the messages directly through a Apache Camel component than sending them through the NMR and a ServiceMix binding.
For details of all the Apache Camel components that are available, see and Apache Camel Components.

2. Common Elements

Overview

When configuring ServiceMix EIP patterns in a ServiceMix configuration file, there are some common elements that occur in many of the pattern schemas. This section provides a brief overview of these common elements and explains how they can be mapped to equivalent constructs in Apache Camel.

Exchange target

All of the patterns supported by ServiceMix EIP use the eip:exchange-target element to specify JBI target endpoints. Table A.1, “Mapping the Exchange Target Element” shows examples of how to map sample eip:exchange-target elements to Apache Camel endpoint URIs, where it is assumed that the test prefix maps to the http://progress.com/demos/test namespace.

Table A.1. Mapping the Exchange Target Element

ServiceMix EIP TargetApache Camel Endpoint URI
<eip:exchange-target interface="HelloWorld" /> jbi:interface:HelloWorld
<eip:exchange-target service="test:HelloWorldService" /> jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/HelloWorldService
<eip:exchange-target service="test:HelloWorldService" endpoint="secure" /> jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/HelloWorldService/secure
<eip:exchange-target uri="service:test:HelloWorldService" /> jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/HelloWorldService

Predicates

The ServiceMix EIP component allows you to define predicate expressions in the XPath language. For example, XPath predicates can appear in eip:xpath-predicate elements or in eip:xpath-splitter elements, where the XPath predicate is specified using an xpath attribute.
ServiceMix XPath predicates can easily be migrated to equivalent constructs in Apache Camel: that is, either the xpath element (in XML configuration) or the xpath() command (in Java DSL). For example, the message filter pattern in Apache Camel can incorporate an XPath predicate as follows:
<route>
  <from uri="jbi:endpoint:http://progress.com/demos/test/messageFilter/endpoint">
  <filter>
   <xpath>count(/test:world) = 1</xpath>
   <to uri="jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/trace3"/>
  </filter>
</route>
Where the xpath element specifies that only messages containing the test:world element will pass through the filter.
Note
Apache Camel also supports a wide range of other scripting languages including XQuery, PHP, Python, and Ruby, which can be used to define predicates. For details of all the supported predicate languages, see Expression and Predicate Languages.

Namespace contexts

When using XPath predicates in the ServiceMix EIP configuration, it is necessary to define a namespace context using the eip:namespace-context element. The namespace is then referenced using a namespaceContext attribute.
When ServiceMix EIP configuration is migrated to Apache Camel, there is no need to define namespace contexts, because Apache Camel allows you to define XPath predicates without referencing a namespace context. You can simply drop the eip:namespace-context elements when you migrate to Apache Camel.

3. ServiceMix EIP Patterns

The patterns supported by ServiceMix EIP are shown in Table A.2, “ServiceMix EIP Patterns”.

Table A.2. ServiceMix EIP Patterns

Content based router icon Content-Based Router How we handle a situation where the implementation of a single logical function (e.g., inventory check) is spread across multiple physical systems.
Content enricher icon Content Enricher How we communicate with another system if the message originator does not have all the required data items available.
Message filter icon Message Filter How a component avoids receiving uninteresting messages.
Pipes and filters icon Pipeline How we perform complex processing on a message while maintaining independence and flexibility.
Resequencer icon Resequencer How we get a stream of related but out-of-sequence messages back into the correct order.
Recipient list icon Static Recipient List How we route a message to a list of specified recipients.
  Static Routing Slip How we route a message consecutively through a series of processing steps.
Wire tap icon Wire Tap How you inspect messages that travel on a point-to-point channel.
Splitter icon XPath Splitter How we process a message if it contains multiple elements, each of which may have to be processed in a different way.

4. Content-based Router

Overview

A content-based router enables you to route messages to the appropriate destination, where the routing decision is based on the message contents. This pattern maps to the corresponding content-based router pattern in Apache Camel.

Figure A.1. Content-based Router Pattern

Content-based router pattern

Example ServiceMix EIP route

Example A.1, “ServiceMix EIP Content-based Route” shows how to define a content-based router using the ServicMix EIP component. If a test:echo element is present in the message body, the message is routed to the http://test/pipeline/endpoint endpoint. Otherwise, the message is routed to the test:recipients endpoint.

Example A.1. ServiceMix EIP Content-based Route

<eip:content-based-router service="test:router" endpoint="endpoint">
  <eip:rules>
    <eip:routing-rule>
      <eip:predicate>
        <eip:xpath-predicate xpath="count(/test:echo) = 1" namespaceContext="#nsContext" />
      </eip:predicate>
      <eip:target>
        <eip:exchange-target uri="endpoint:test:pipeline:endpoint" />
      </eip:target>
    </eip:routing-rule>
    <eip:routing-rule>
      <!-- There is no predicate, so this is the default destination -->
      <eip:target>
        <eip:exchange-target service="test:recipients" />
      </eip:target>
    </eip:routing-rule>
  </eip:rules>
</eip:content-based-router>

Equivalent Apache Camel XML route

Example A.2, “Apache Camel Content-based Router Using XML Configuration” shows how to define an equivalent route using Apache Camel XML configuration.

Example A.2. Apache Camel Content-based Router Using XML Configuration

<route>
  <from uri="jbi:endpoint:http://progress.com/demos/test/router/endpoint"/>
  <choice>
    <when>
      <xpath>count(/test:echo) = 1</xpath>
      <to uri="jbi:endpoint:http://progress.com/demos/test/pipeline/endpoint"/>
    </when>
    <otherwise>
      <!-- This is the default destination -->
      <to uri="jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/recipients"/>
    </otherwise>
  </choice>
</route>

Equivalent Apache Camel Java DSL route

Example A.3, “Apache Camel Content-based Router Using Java DSL” shows how to define an equivalent route using the Apache Camel Java DSL.

Example A.3. Apache Camel Content-based Router Using Java DSL

from("jbi:endpoint:http://progress.com/demos/test/router/endpoint").
    choice().when(xpath("count(/test:echo) = 1")).to("jbi:endpoint:http://progress.com/demos/test/pipeline/endpoint").
    otherwise().to("jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/recipients");

5. Content Enricher

Overview

A content enricher, shown in Figure A.2, “Content Enricher Pattern”, is a pattern for augmenting a message with missing information. The ServiceMix EIP content enricher is roughly equivalent to a pipeline that adds missing data as the message passes through an enricher target. Consequently, when migrating to Apache Camel, you can re-implement the ServiceMix content enricher as a Apache Camel pipeline.

Figure A.2. Content Enricher Pattern

Content enricher pattern

Example ServiceMix EIP route

Example A.4, “ServiceMix EIP Content Enricher” shows how to define a content enricher using the ServiceMix EIP component. Incoming messages pass through the enricher target, test:additionalInformationExtracter, which adds missing data to the message. The message is then sent on to its ultimate destination, test:myTarget.

Example A.4. ServiceMix EIP Content Enricher

<eip:content-enricher service="test:contentEnricher" endpoint="endpoint">
  <eip:enricherTarget>
    <eip:exchange-target service="test:additionalInformationExtracter" />
  </eip:enricherTarget>
  <eip:target>
    <eip:exchange-target service="test:myTarget" />
  </eip:target>
</eip:content-enricher>

Equivalent Apache Camel XML route

Example A.5, “Apache Camel Content Enricher using XML Configuration” shows how to define an equivalent route using Apache Camel XML configuration.

Example A.5. Apache Camel Content Enricher using XML Configuration

<route>
  <from uri="jbi:endpoint:http://progress.com/demos/test/contentEnricher/endpoint"/>
  <to uri="jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/additionalInformationExtracter"/>
  <to uri="jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/myTarget"/>
</route>

Equivalent Apache Camel Java DSL route

Example A.6, “Apache Camel Content Enricher using Java DSL” shows how to define an equivalent route using the Apache Camel Java DSL:

Example A.6. Apache Camel Content Enricher using Java DSL

from("jbi:endpoint:http://progress.com/demos/test/contentEnricher/endpoint").
    to("jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/additionalInformationExtracter").
    to("jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/myTarget");

6. Message Filter

Overview

A message filter, shown in Figure A.3, “Message Filter Pattern”, is a processor that eliminates undesired messages based on specific criteria. Filtering is controlled by specifying a predicate in the filter: when the predicate is true, the incoming message is allowed to pass; otherwise, it is blocked. This pattern maps to the corresponding message filter pattern in Apache Camel.

Figure A.3. Message Filter Pattern

Message filter pattern

Example ServiceMix EIP route

Example A.7, “ServiceMix EIP Message Filter” shows how to define a message filter using the ServiceMix EIP component. Incoming messages are passed through a filter mechanism that blocks messages that lack a test:world element.

Example A.7. ServiceMix EIP Message Filter

<eip:message-filter service="test:messageFilter" endpoint="endpoint">
  <eip:target>
    <eip:exchange-target service="test:trace3" />
  </eip:target>
  <eip:filter>
    <eip:xpath-predicate xpath="count(/test:world) = 1" namespaceContext="#nsContext"/>
  </eip:filter>
</eip:message-filter>

Equivalent Apache Camel XML route

Example A.8, “Apache Camel Message Filter Using XML” shows how to define an equivalent route using Apache Camel XML configuration.

Example A.8. Apache Camel Message Filter Using XML

<route>
  <from uri="jbi:endpoint:http://progress.com/demos/test/messageFilter/endpoint">
  <filter>
   <xpath>count(/test:world) = 1</xpath>
   <to uri="jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/trace3"/>
  </filter>
</route>

Equivalent Apache Camel Java DSL route

Example A.9, “Apache Camel Message Filter Using Java DSL” shows how to define an equivalent route using the Apache Camel Java DSL.

Example A.9. Apache Camel Message Filter Using Java DSL

from("jbi:endpoint:http://progress.com/demos/test/messageFilter/endpoint").
  filter(xpath("count(/test:world) = 1")).
  to("jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/trace3");

7. Pipeline

Overview

The ServiceMix EIP pipeline pattern, shown in Figure A.4, “Pipes and Filters Pattern”, is used to pass messages through a single transformer endpoint, where the transformer's input is taken from the source endpoint and the transformer's output is routed to the target endpoint. This pattern is thus a special case of the more general Apache Camel pipes and filters pattern, which enables you to pass an In message through multiple transformer endpoints.

Figure A.4. Pipes and Filters Pattern

Pipes and filters pattern

Example ServiceMix EIP route

Example A.10, “ServiceMix EIP Pipeline” shows how to define a pipeline using the ServiceMix EIP component. Incoming messages are passed into the transformer endpoint, test:decrypt, and the output from the transformer endpoint is then passed into the target endpoint, test:plaintextOrder.

Example A.10. ServiceMix EIP Pipeline

<eip:pipeline service="test:pipeline" endpoint="endpoint">
  <eip:transformer>
    <eip:exchange-target service="test:decrypt" />
  </eip:transformer>
  <eip:target>
    <eip:exchange-target service="test:plaintextOrder" />
  </eip:target>
</eip:pipeline>

Equivalent Apache Camel XML route

Example A.11, “Apache Camel Pipeline Using XML” shows how to define an equivalent route using Apache Camel XML configuration.

Example A.11. Apache Camel Pipeline Using XML

<route>
  <from uri="jbi:endpoint:http://progress.com/demos/test/pipeline/endpoint"/>
  <to uri="jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/decrypt"/>
  <to uri="jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/plaintextOrder"/>
</route>

Equivalent Apache Camel Java DSL route

Example A.12, “Apache Camel Pipeline Using Java DSL” shows how to define an equivalent route using the Apache Camel Java DSL.

Example A.12. Apache Camel Pipeline Using Java DSL

from("jbi:endpoint:http://progress.com/demos/test/pipeline/endpoint").
    pipeline("jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/decrypt", "jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/plaintextOrder");

8. Resequencer

Overview

The resequencer pattern, shown in Figure A.5, “Resequencer Pattern”, enables you to resequence messages according to the sequence number stored in an NMR property. The ServiceMix EIP resequencer pattern maps to the Apache Camel resequencer configured with the stream resequencing algorithm.

Figure A.5. Resequencer Pattern

Resequencer pattern

Sequence number property

The sequence of messages emitted from the resequencer is determined by the value of the sequence number property: messages with a low sequence number are emitted first and messages with a higher number are emitted later. By default, the sequence number is read from the org.apache.servicemix.eip.sequence.number property in ServiceMix, but you can customize the name of this property using the eip:default-comparator element in ServiceMix.
The equivalent concept in Apache Camel is a sequencing expression, which can be any message-dependent expression. When migrating from ServiceMix EIP, you normally define an expression that extracts the sequence number from a header (a Apache Camel header is equivalent to an NMR message property). For example, to extract a sequence number from a seqnum header, you can use the simple expression, header.seqnum.

Example ServiceMix EIP route

Example A.13, “ServiceMix EIP Resequncer” shows how to define a resequencer using the ServiceMix EIP component.

Example A.13. ServiceMix EIP Resequncer

<eip:resequencer
  service="sample:Resequencer"
  endpoint="ResequencerEndpoint"
  comparator="#comparator"
  capacity="100"
  timeout="2000">
  <eip:target>
    <eip:exchange-target service="sample:SampleTarget" />
  </eip:target>
</eip:resequencer>

<!-- Configure default comparator with custom sequence number property -->
<eip:default-comparator xml:id="comparator" 
                        sequenceNumberKey="seqnum"/>

Equivalent Apache Camel XML route

Example A.14, “Apache Camel Resequencer Using XML” shows how to define an equivalent route using Apache Camel XML configuration.

Example A.14. Apache Camel Resequencer Using XML

<route>
  <from uri="jbi:endpoint:sample:Resequencer:ResequencerEndpoint"/>
  <resequencer>
    <simple>header.seqnum</simple>
    <to uri="jbi:service:sample:SampleTarget" />
    <stream-config capacity="100" timeout="2000"/>
  </resequencer>
</route>

Equivalent Apache Camel Java DSL route

Example A.15, “Apache Camel Resequencer Using Java DSL” shows how to define an equivalent route using the Apache Camel Java DSL.

Example A.15. Apache Camel Resequencer Using Java DSL

from("jbi:endpoint:sample:Resequencer:ResequencerEndpoint").
    resequencer(header("seqnum")).
    stream(new StreamResequencerConfig(100, 2000L)).
    to("jbi:service:sample:SampleTarget");

9. Static Recipient List

Overview

A recipient list, shown in Figure A.6, “Static Recipient List Pattern”, is a type of router that sends each incoming message to multiple different destinations. The ServiceMix EIP recipient list is restricted to processing InOnly and RobustInOnly exchange patterns. Moreover, the list of recipients must be static. This pattern maps to the recipient list with fixed destination pattern in Apache Camel.

Figure A.6. Static Recipient List Pattern

Static recipient list pattern

Example ServiceMix EIP route

Example A.16, “ServiceMix EIP Static Recipient List” shows how to define a static recipient list using the ServiceMix EIP component. Incoming messages are copied to the test:messageFilter endpoint and to the test:trace4 endpoint.

Example A.16. ServiceMix EIP Static Recipient List

<eip:static-recipient-list service="test:recipients"
                           endpoint="endpoint">
  <eip:recipients>
    <eip:exchange-target service="test:messageFilter" />
    <eip:exchange-target service="test:trace4" />
  </eip:recipients>
</eip:static-recipient-list>

Equivalent Apache Camel XML route

Example A.17, “Apache Camel Static Recipient List Using XML” shows how to define an equivalent route using Apache Camel XML configuration.

Example A.17. Apache Camel Static Recipient List Using XML

<route>
  <from uri="jbi:endpoint:http://progress.com/demos/test/recipients/endpoint"/>
  <to uri="jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/messageFilter"/>
  <to uri="jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/trace4"/>
</route>
Note
The preceding route configuration appears to have the same syntax as a Apache Camel pipeline pattern. The key difference is that the preceding route is intended for processing InOnly message exchanges, which are processed in a different way. See Section 4, “Pipes and Filters” for more details.

Equivalent Apache Camel Java DSL route

Example A.18, “Apache Camel Static Recipient List Using Java DSL” shows how to define an equivalent route using the Apache Camel Java DSL.

Example A.18. Apache Camel Static Recipient List Using Java DSL

from("jbi:endpoint:http://progress.com/demos/test/recipients/endpoint").
    to("jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/messageFilter", "jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/trace4");

10. Static Routing Slip

Overview

The static routing slip pattern in the ServiceMix EIP component is used to route an InOut message exchange through a series of endpoints. Semantically, it is equivalent to the pipeline pattern in Apache Camel.

Example ServiceMix EIP route

Example A.19, “ServiceMix EIP Static Routing Slip” shows how to define a static routing slip using the ServiceMix EIP component. Incoming messages pass through each of the endpoints, test:procA, test:procB, and test:procC, where the output of each endpoint is connected to the input of the next endpoint in the chain. The final endpoint, test:procC, sends its output (Out message) back to the caller.

Example A.19. ServiceMix EIP Static Routing Slip

<eip:static-routing-slip service="test:routingSlip"
                         endpoint="endpoint">
  <eip:targets>
    <eip:exchange-target service="test:procA" />
    <eip:exchange-target service="test:procB" />
    <eip:exchange-target service="test:procC" />
  </eip:targets>
</eip:static-routing-slip>

Equivalent Apache Camel XML route

Example A.20, “Apache Camel Static Routing Slip Using XML” shows how to define an equivalent route using Apache Camel XML configuration.

Example A.20. Apache Camel Static Routing Slip Using XML

<route>
  <from uri="jbi:endpoint:http://progress.com/demos/test/routingSlip/endpoint"/>
  <to uri="jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/procA"/>
  <to uri="jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/procB"/>
  <to uri="jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/procC"/>
</route>

Equivalent Apache Camel Java DSL route

Example A.21, “Apache Camel Static Routing Slip Using Java DSL” shows how to define an equivalent route using the Apache Camel Java DSL.

Example A.21. Apache Camel Static Routing Slip Using Java DSL

from("jbi:endpoint:http://progress.com/demos/test/routingSlip/endpoint").
    pipeline("jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/procA",
             "jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/procB",
             "jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/procC");

11. Wire Tap

Overview

The wire tap pattern, shown in Figure A.7, “Wire Tap Pattern”, allows you to route messages to a separate tap location before it is forwarded to the ultimate destination. The ServiceMix EIP wire tap pattern maps to the wire tap pattern in Apache Camel.

Figure A.7. Wire Tap Pattern

Wire tap pattern

Example ServiceMix EIP route

Example A.22, “ServiceMix EIP Wire Tap” shows how to define a wire tap using the ServiceMix EIP component. The In message from the source endpoint is copied to the In-listener endpoint, before being forwarded on to the target endpoint. If you want to monitor any returned Out messages or Fault messages from the target endpoint, you also must define an Out listener (using the eip:outListner element) and a Fault listener (using the eip:faultListener element).

Example A.22. ServiceMix EIP Wire Tap

<eip:wire-tap service="test:wireTap" endpoint="endpoint">
  <eip:target>
    <eip:exchange-target service="test:target" />
  </eip:target>
  <eip:inListener>
    <eip:exchange-target service="test:trace1" />
  </eip:inListener>
</eip:wire-tap>

Equivalent Apache Camel XML route

Example A.23, “Apache Camel Wire Tap Using XML” shows how to define an equivalent route using Apache Camel XML configuration.

Example A.23. Apache Camel Wire Tap Using XML

<route>
  <from uri="jbi:endpoint:http://progress.com/demos/test/wireTap/endpoint"/>
  <to uri="jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/trace1"/>
  <to uri="jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/target"/>
</route>

Equivalent Apache Camel Java DSL route

Example A.24, “Apache Camel Wire Tap Using Java DSL” shows how to define an equivalent route using the Apache Camel Java DSL.

Example A.24. Apache Camel Wire Tap Using Java DSL

from("jbi:endpoint:http://progress.com/demos/test/wireTap/endpoint")
  .to("jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/trace1",
      "jbi:service:http://progress.com/demos/test/target");

12. XPath Splitter

Overview

A splitter, shown in Figure A.8, “XPath Splitter Pattern”, is a type of router that splits an incoming message into a series of outgoing messages, where each of the messages contains a piece of the original message. The ServiceMix EIP XPath splitter pattern is restricted to using the InOnly and RobustInOnly exchange patterns. The expression that defines how to split up the original message is defined in the XPath language. The XPath splitter pattern maps to the splitter pattern in Apache Camel.

Figure A.8. XPath Splitter Pattern

XPath splitter pattern

Forwarding NMR attachments and properties

The eip:xpath-splitter element supports a forwardAttachments attribute and a forwardProperties attribute, either of which can be set to true, if you want the splitter to copy the incoming message's attachments or properties to the outgoing messages. The corresponding splitter pattern in Apache Camel does not support any such attributes. By default, the incoming message's headers are copied to each of the outgoing messages by the Apache Camel splitter.

Example ServiceMix EIP route

Example A.25, “ServiceMix EIP XPath Splitter” shows how to define a splitter using the ServiceMix EIP component. The specified XPath expression, /*/*, causes an incoming message to split at every occurrence of a nested XML element (for example, the /foo/bar and /foo/car elements are split into distinct messages).

Example A.25. ServiceMix EIP XPath Splitter

<eip:xpath-splitter service="test:xpathSplitter"
                    endpoint="endpoint" 
                    xpath="/*/*"
                    namespaceContext="#nsContext">
  <eip:target>
    <eip:exchange-target uri="service:http://test/router" />
  </eip:target>
</eip:xpath-splitter>

Equivalent Apache Camel XML route

Example A.26, “Apache Camel XPath Splitter Using XML” shows how to define an equivalent route using Apache Camel XML configuration.

Example A.26. Apache Camel XPath Splitter Using XML

<route>
  <from uri="jbi:endpoint:http://progress.com/demos/test/xpathSplitter/endpoint"/>
  <splitter>
    <xpath>/*/*</xpath>
    <to uri="jbi:service:http://test/router"/>
  </splitter>
</route>

Equivalent Apache Camel Java DSL route

Example A.27, “Apache Camel XPath Splitter Using Java DSL” shows how to define an equivalent route using the Apache Camel Java DSL.

Example A.27. Apache Camel XPath Splitter Using Java DSL

from("jbi:endpoint:http://progress.com/demos/test/xpathSplitter/endpoint").
    splitter(xpath("/*/*")).to("jbi:service:http://test/router");

Part II. Routing Expression and Predicate Languages

Abstract

This guide describes the basic syntax used by the evaluative languages supported by Apache Camel.

Chapter 11. Introduction

Abstract

This chapter provides an overview of all the expression languages supported by Apache Camel.

1. Overview of the Languages

Table of expression and predicate languages

Table 11.1, “Expression and Predicate Languages” gives an overview of the different syntaxes for invoking expression and predicate languages.

Table 11.1. Expression and Predicate Languages

LanguageStatic MethodFluent DSL MethodXML ElementAnnotationArtifact
Section 4, “Bean Integration”bean()EIP().method()method@BeanCamel core
Constantconstant()EIP().constant()constant@ConstantCamel core
ELel()EIP().el()el@ELcamel-juel
Groovygroovy()EIP().groovy()groovy@Groovycamel-groovy
Headerheader()EIP().header()header@HeaderCamel core
JavaScriptjavaScript()EIP().javaScript()javaScript@JavaScriptcamel-script
JoSQLsql()EIP().sql()sql@SQLcamel-josql
JXPathNoneEIP().jxpath()jxpath@JXPathcamel-jxpath
MVELmvel()EIP().mvel()mvel@MVELcamel-mvel
OGNLognl()EIP().ognl()ognl@OGNLcamel-ognl
PHPphp()EIP().php()php@PHPcamel-script
Propertyproperty()EIP().property()property@PropertyCamel core
Pythonpython()EIP().python()python@Pythoncamel-script
Refref()EIP().ref()refN/ACamel core
Rubyruby()EIP().ruby()ruby@Rubycamel-script
Simple/Filesimple()EIP().simple()simple@SimpleCamel core
SpELspel()EIP().spel()spel@SpELcamel-spring
XPathxpath()EIP().xpath()xpath@XPathCamel core
XQueryxquery()EIP().xquery()xquery@XQuerycamel-saxon

2. How to Invoke an Expression Language

Prerequisites

Before you can use a particular expression language, you must ensure that the required JAR files are available on the classpath. If the language you want to use is not included in the Apache Camel core, you must add the relevant JARs to your classpath.
If you are using the Maven build system, you can modify the build-time classpath simply by adding the relevant dependency to your POM file. For example, if you want to use the Ruby language, add the following dependency to your POM file:
<dependency>
  <groupId>org.apache.camel</groupId>
  <artifactId>camel-script</artifactId>
  <!-- Use the same version as your Camel core version -->
  <version>${camel.version}</version>
</dependency>
If you are going to deploy your application in a Red Hat JBoss Fuse OSGi container, you also need to ensure that the relevant language features are installed (features are named after the corresponding Maven artifact). For example, to use the Groovy language in the OSGi container, you must first install the camel-groovy feature by entering the following OSGi console command:
karaf@root> features:install camel-groovy

Approaches to invoking

As shown in Table 11.1, “Expression and Predicate Languages”, there are several different syntaxes for invoking an expression language, depending on the context in which it is used. You can invoke an expression language:

As a static method

Most of the languages define a static method that can be used in any context where an org.apache.camel.Expression type or an org.apache.camel.Predicate type is expected. The static method takes a string expression (or predicate) as its argument and returns an Expression object (which is usually also a Predicate object).
For example, to implement a content-based router that processes messages in XML format, you could route messages based on the value of the /order/address/countryCode element, as follows:
from("SourceURL")
  .choice
    .when(xpath("/order/address/countryCode = 'us'"))
      .to("file://countries/us/")
    .when(xpath("/order/address/countryCode = 'uk'"))
      .to("file://countries/uk/")
    .otherwise()
      .to("file://countries/other/")
  .to("TargetURL");

As a fluent DSL method

The Java fluent DSL supports another style of invoking expression languages. Instead of providing the expression as an argument to an Enterprise Integration Pattern (EIP), you can provide the expression as a sub-clause of the DSL command. For example, instead of invoking an XPath expression as filter(xpath("Expression")), you can invoke the expression as, filter().xpath("Expression").
For example, the preceding content-based router can be re-implemented in this style of invocation, as follows:
from("SourceURL")
  .choice
    .when().xpath("/order/address/countryCode = 'us'")
      .to("file://countries/us/")
    .when().xpath("/order/address/countryCode = 'uk'")
      .to("file://countries/uk/")
    .otherwise()
      .to("file://countries/other/")
  .to("TargetURL");

As an XML element

You can also invoke an expression language in XML, by putting the expression string inside the relevant XML element.
For example, the XML element for invoking XPath in XML is xpath (which belongs to the standard Apache Camel namespace). You can use XPath expressions in a XML DSL content-based router, as follows:
<from uri="file://input/orders"/>
<choice>
  <when>
 <xpath>/order/address/countryCode = 'us'</xpath>
    <to uri="file://countries/us/"/>
  </when>
  <when>
 <xpath>/order/address/countryCode = 'uk'</xpath>
    <to uri="file://countries/uk/"/>
  </when>
  <otherwise>
    <to uri="file://countries/other/"/>
  </otherwise>
</choice>
Alternatively, you can specify a language expression using the language element, where you specify the name of the language in the language attribute. For example, you can define an XPath expression using the language element as follows:
<language language="xpath">/order/address/countryCode = 'us'</language>

As an annotation

Language annotations are used in the context of bean integration (see Section 4, “Bean Integration”). The annotations provide a convenient way of extracting information from a message or header and then injecting the extracted data into a bean's method parameters.
For example, consider the bean, myBeanProc, which is invoked as a predicate of the filter() EIP. If the bean's checkCredentials method returns true, the message is allowed to proceed; but if the method returns false, the message is blocked by the filter. The filter pattern is implemented as follows:
// Java
MyBeanProcessor myBeanProc = new MyBeanProcessor();

from("SourceURL")
  .filter().method(myBeanProc, "checkCredentials")
  .to("TargetURL");
The implementation of the MyBeanProcessor class exploits the @XPath annotation to extract the username and password from the underlying XML message, as follows:
// Java
import org.apache.camel.language.XPath;

public class MyBeanProcessor {
    boolean void checkCredentials(
        @XPath("/credentials/username/text()") String user,
        @XPath("/credentials/password/text()") String pass
    ) {
        // Check the user/pass credentials...
        ...
    }
}
The @XPath annotation is placed just before the parameter into which it gets injected. Notice how the XPath expression explicitly selects the text node, by appending /text() to the path, which ensures that just the content of the element is selected, not the enclosing tags.

As a Camel endpoint URI

Using the Camel Language component, you can invoke a supported language in an endpoint URI. There are two alternative syntaxes.
To invoke a language script stored in a file (or other resource type defined by Scheme), use the following URI syntax:
language://LanguageName:resource:Scheme:Location[?Options]
Where the scheme can be file:, classpath:, or http:.
For example, the following route executes the mysimplescript.txt from the classpath:
from("direct:start")
  .to("language:simple:classpath:org/apache/camel/component/language/mysimplescript.txt")
  .to("mock:result");
To invoke an embedded language script, use the following URI syntax:
language://LanguageName[:Script][?Options]
For example, to run the Simple language script stored in the script string:
String script = URLEncoder.encode("Hello ${body}", "UTF-8");
from("direct:start")
  .to("language:simple:" + script)
  .to("mock:result");

Chapter 12. Constant

Overview

The constant language is a trivial built-in language that is used to specify a plain text string. This makes it possible to provide a plain text string in any context where an expression type is expected.

XML example

In XML, you can set the username header to the value, Jane Doe as follows:
<camelContext>
  <route>
    <from uri="SourceURL"/>
    <setHeader headerName="username">
      <constant>Jane Doe</constant>
    </setHeader>
    <to uri="TargetURL"/>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Java example

In Java, you can set the username header to the value, Jane Doe as follows:
from("SourceURL")
  .setHeader("username", constant("Jane Doe"))
  .to("TargetURL");

Chapter 13. EL

Overview

The Unified Expression Language (EL) was originally specified as part of the JSP 2.1 standard (JSR-245), but it is now available as a standalone language. Apache Camel integrates with JUEL (http://juel.sourceforge.net/), which is an open source implementation of the EL language.

Adding JUEL package

To use EL in your routes you need to add a dependency on camel-juel to your project as shown in Example 13.1, “Adding the camel-juel dependency”.

Example 13.1. Adding the camel-juel dependency

<!-- Maven POM File -->
<properties>
  <camel-version>2.12.0.redhat-610379</camel-version>
  ...
</properties>

<dependencies>
  ...
  <dependency>
    <groupId>org.apache.camel</groupId>
    <artifactId>camel-juel</artifactId>
    <version>${camel-version}</version>
  </dependency>
  ...
</dependencies>

Static import

To use the el() static method in your application code, include the following import statement in your Java source files:
import static org.apache.camel.language.juel.JuelExpression.el;

Variables

Table 13.1, “EL variables” lists the variables that are accessible when using EL.

Table 13.1. EL variables

VariableTypeValue
exchange org.apache.camel.Exchange The current Exchange
in org.apache.camel.Message The IN message
out org.apache.camel.Message The OUT message

Example

Example 13.2, “Routes using EL” shows two routes that use EL.

Example 13.2. Routes using EL

<camelContext>
  <route>
    <from uri="seda:foo"/>
    <filter>
      <language language="el">${in.headers.foo == 'bar'}</language>
      <to uri="seda:bar"/>
    </filter>
  </route>
  <route>
    <from uri="seda:foo2"/>
    <filter>
      <language language="el">${in.headers['My Header'] == 'bar'}</language>
      <to uri="seda:bar"/>
    </filter>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Chapter 14. The File Language

Abstract

The file language is an extension to the simple language, not an independent language in its own right. But the file language extension can only be used in conjunction with File or FTP endpoints.

1. When to Use the File Language

Overview

The file language is an extension to the simple language which is not always available. You can use it under the following circumstances:
Note
The escape character, \, is not available in the file language.

In a File or FTP consumer endpoint

There are several URI options that you can set on a File or FTP consumer endpoint, which take a file language expression as their value. For example, in a File consumer endpoint URI you can set the fileName, move, preMove, moveFailed, and sortBy options using a file expression.
In a File consumer endpoint, the fileName option acts as a filter, determining which file will actually be read from the starting directory. If a plain text string is specified (for example, fileName=report.txt), the File consumer reads the same file each time it is updated. You can make this option more dynamic, however, by specifying a simple expression. For example, you could use a counter bean to select a different file each time the File consumer polls the starting directory, as follows:
file://target/filelanguage/bean/?fileName=${bean:counter.next}.txt&delete=true
Where the ${bean:counter.next} expression invokes the next() method on the bean registered under the ID, counter.
The move option is used to move files to a backup location after then have been read by a File consumer endpoint. For example, the following endpoint moves files to a backup directory, after they have been processed:
file://target/filelanguage/?move=backup/${date:now:yyyyMMdd}/${file:name.noext}.bak&recursive=false
Where the ${file:name.noext}.bak expression modifies the original file name, replacing the file extension with .bak.
You can use the sortBy option to specify the order in which file should be processed. For example, to process files according to the alphabetical order of their file name, you could use the following File consumer endpoint:
file://target/filelanguage/?sortBy=file:name
To process file according to the order in which they were last modified, you could use the following File consumer endpoint:
file://target/filelanguage/?sortBy=file:modified
You can reverse the order by adding the reverse: prefix—for example:
file://target/filelanguage/?sortBy=reverse:file:modified

On exchanges created by a File or FTP consumer

When an exchange originates from a File or FTP consumer endpoint, it is possible to apply file language expressions to the exchange throughout the route (as long as the original message headers are not erased). For example, you could define a content-based router, which routes messages according to their file extension, as follows:
<from uri="file://input/orders"/>
<choice>
  <when>
    <simple>${file:ext} == 'txt'</simple>
    <to uri="bean:orderService?method=handleTextFiles"/>
  </when>
  <when>
    <simple>${file:ext} == 'xml'</simple>
    <to uri="bean:orderService?method=handleXmlFiles"/>
  </when>
  <otherwise>
    <to uri="bean:orderService?method=handleOtherFiles"/>
  </otherwise>
</choice>

2. File Variables

Overview

File variables can be used whenever a route starts with a File or FTP consumer endpoint, which implies that the underlying message body is of java.io.File type. The file variables enable you to access various parts of the file pathname, almost as if you were invoking the methods of the java.io.File class (in fact, the file language extracts the information it needs from message headers that have been set by the File or FTP endpoint).

Starting directory

Some of file variables return paths that are defined relative to a starting directory, which is just the directory that is specified in the File or FTP endpoint. For example, the following File consumer endpoint has the starting directory, ./filetransfer (a relative path):
file:filetransfer
The following FTP consumer endpoint has the starting directory, ./ftptransfer (a relative path):
ftp://myhost:2100/ftptransfer

Naming convention of file variables

In general, the file variables are named after corresponding methods on the java.io.File class. For example, the file:absolute variable gives the value that would be returned by the java.io.File.getAbsolute() method.
Note
This naming convention is not strictly followed, however. For example, there is no such method as java.io.File.getSize().

Table of variables

Table 14.1, “Variables for the File Language” shows all of the variable supported by the file language.

Table 14.1. Variables for the File Language

VariableTypeDescription
file:nameStringThe pathname relative to the starting directory.
file:name.extStringThe file extension (characters following the last . character in the pathname).
file:name.noextStringThe pathname relative to the starting directory, omitting the file extension.
file:onlynameStringThe final segment of the pathname. That is, the file name without the parent directory path.
file:onlyname.noextStringThe final segment of the pathname, omitting the file extension.
file:extStringThe file extension (same as file:name.ext).
file:parentStringThe pathname of the parent directory, including the starting directory in the path.
file:pathStringThe file pathname, including the starting directory in the path.
file:absoluteBooleantrue, if the starting directory was specified as an absolute path; false, otherwise.
file:absolute.pathStringThe absolute pathname of the file.
file:lengthLongThe size of the referenced file.
file:sizeLongSame as file:length.
file:modifiedjava.util.DateDate last modified.

3. Examples

Relative pathname

Consider a File consumer endpoint, where the starting directory is specified as a relative pathname. For example, the following File endpoint has the starting directory, ./filelanguage:
file://filelanguage
Now, while scanning the filelanguage directory, suppose that the endpoint has just consumed the following file:
./filelanguage/test/hello.txt
And, finally, assume that the filelanguage directory itself has the following absolute location:
/workspace/camel/camel-core/target/filelanguage
Given the preceding scenario, the file language variables return the following values, when applied to the current exchange:
ExpressionResult
file:nametest/hello.txt
file:name.exttxt
file:name.noexttest/hello
file:onlynamehello.txt
file:onlyname.noexthello
file:exttxt
file:parentfilelanguage/test
file:pathfilelanguage/test/hello.txt
file:absolutefalse
file:absolute.path/workspace/camel/camel-core/target/filelanguage/test/hello.txt

Absolute pathname

Consider a File consumer endpoint, where the starting directory is specified as an absolute pathname. For example, the following File endpoint has the starting directory, /workspace/camel/camel-core/target/filelanguage:
file:///workspace/camel/camel-core/target/filelanguage
Now, while scanning the filelanguage directory, suppose that the endpoint has just consumed the following file:
./filelanguage/test/hello.txt
Given the preceding scenario, the file language variables return the following values, when applied to the current exchange:
ExpressionResult
file:nametest/hello.txt
file:name.exttxt
file:name.noexttest/hello
file:onlynamehello.txt
file:onlyname.noexthello
file:exttxt
file:parent/workspace/camel/camel-core/target/filelanguage/test
file:path/workspace/camel/camel-core/target/filelanguage/test/hello.txt
file:absolutetrue
file:absolute.path/workspace/camel/camel-core/target/filelanguage/test/hello.txt

Chapter 15. Groovy

Overview

Groovy is a Java-based scripting language that allows quick parsing of object. The Groovy support is part of the camel-script module.

Adding the script module

To use Groovy in your routes you need to add a dependency on camel-script to your project as shown in Example 15.1, “Adding the camel-script dependency”.

Example 15.1. Adding the camel-script dependency

<!-- Maven POM File -->
<properties>
  <camel-version>2.12.0.redhat-610379</camel-version>
  ...
</properties>

<dependencies>
  ...
  <dependency>
    <groupId>org.apache.camel</groupId>
    <artifactId>camel-script</artifactId>
    <version>${camel-version}</version>
  </dependency>
  ...
</dependencies>

Static import

To use the groovy() static method in your application code, include the following import statement in your Java source files:
import static org.apache.camel.builder.camel.script.ScriptBuilder.*;

Built-in attributes

Table 15.1, “Groovy attributes” lists the built-in attributes that are accessible when using Groovy.

Table 15.1. Groovy attributes

AttributeTypeValue
contextorg.apache.camel.CamelContextThe Camel Context
exchangeorg.apache.camel.ExchangeThe current Exchange
requestorg.apache.camel.MessageThe IN message
responseorg.apache.camel.MessageThe OUT message
propertiesorg.apache.camel.builder.script.PropertiesFunctionFunction with a resolve method to make it easier to use the properties component inside scripts.
The attributes all set at ENGINE_SCOPE.

Example

Example 15.2, “Routes using Groovy” shows two routes that use Groovy scripts.

Example 15.2. Routes using Groovy

<camelContext>
  <route>
    <from uri=""mock:mock0" />
    <filter>
      <language language="groovy">request.lineItems.any { i -> i.value > 100 }</language>
      <to uri="mock:mock1" />
    </filter>
  </route>
  <route>
    <from uri="direct:in"/>
    <setHeader headerName="firstName">
      <language language="groovy">$user.firstName $user.lastName</language>
    </setHeader>
    <to uri="seda:users"/>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Using the properties component

To access a property value from the properties component, invoke the resolve method on the built-in properties attribute, as follows:
.setHeader("myHeader").groovy("properties.resolve(PropKey)")
Where PropKey is the key of the property you want to resolve, where the key value is of String type.
For more details about the properties component, see .

Example 17.1. Adding the camel-script dependency

<!-- Maven POM File -->
<properties>
  <camel-version>2.12.0.redhat-610379</camel-version>
  ...
</properties>

<dependencies>
  ...
  <dependency>
    <groupId>org.apache.camel</groupId>
    <artifactId>camel-script</artifactId>
    <version>${camel-version}</version>
  </dependency>
  ...
</dependencies>

Static import

To use the javaScript() static method in your application code, include the following import statement in your Java source files:
import static org.apache.camel.builder.camel.script.ScriptBuilder.*;

Built-in attributes

Table 17.1, “JavaScript attributes” lists the built-in attributes that are accessible when using JavaScript.

Table 17.1. JavaScript attributes

AttributeTypeValue
contextorg.apache.camel.CamelContextThe Camel Context
exchangeorg.apache.camel.ExchangeThe current Exchange
requestorg.apache.camel.MessageThe IN message
responseorg.apache.camel.MessageThe OUT message
propertiesorg.apache.camel.builder.script.PropertiesFunctionFunction with a resolve method to make it easier to use the properties component inside scripts.
The attributes all set at ENGINE_SCOPE.

Example

Example 17.2, “Route using JavaScript” shows a route that uses JavaScript.

Example 17.2. Route using JavaScript

<camelContext>
  <route>
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <choice>
      <when>
        <langauge langauge="javaScript">request.headers.get('user') == 'admin'</langauge>
        <to uri="seda:adminQueue"/>
      </when>
      <otherwise>
        <to uri="seda:regularQueue"/>
      </otherwise>
    </choice>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Using the properties component

To access a property value from the properties component, invoke the resolve method on the built-in properties attribute, as follows:
.setHeader("myHeader").javaScript("properties.resolve(PropKey)")
Where PropKey is the key of the property you want to resolve, where the key value is of String type.
For more details about the properties component, see .

Adding the JoSQL module

To use JoSQL in your routes you need to add a dependency on camel-josql to your project as shown in Example 18.1, “Adding the camel-josql dependency”.

Example 18.1. Adding the camel-josql dependency

<!-- Maven POM File -->
...
<dependencies>
  ...
  <dependency>
    <groupId>org.apache.camel</groupId>
    <artifactId>camel-josql</artifactId>
    <version>${camel-version}</version>
  </dependency>
  ...
</dependencies>

Static import

To use the sql() static method in your application code, include the following import statement in your Java source files:
import static org.apache.camel.builder.sql.SqlBuilder.sql;

Variables

Table 18.1, “SQL variables” lists the variables that are accessible when using JoSQL.

Table 18.1. SQL variables

NameTypeDescription
exchangeorg.apache.camel.ExchangeThe current Exchange
inorg.apache.camel.MessageThe IN message
outorg.apache.camel.MessageThe OUT message
propertyObjectthe Exchange property whose key is property
headerObjectthe IN message header whose key is header
variableObjectthe variable whose key is variable

Example

Example 18.2, “Route using JoSQL” shows a route that uses JoSQL.

Example 18.2. Route using JoSQL

<camelContext>
  <route>
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <setBody>
      <language language="sql">select * from MyType</language>
    </setBody>
    <to uri="seda:regularQueue"/>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Chapter 19. JXPath

Overview

The JXPath language enables you to invoke Java beans using the Apache Commons JXPath language. The JXPath language has a similar syntax to XPath, but instead of selecting element or attribute nodes from an XML document, it invokes methods on an object graph of Java beans. If one of the bean attributes returns an XML document (a DOM/JDOM instance), however, the remaining portion of the path is interpreted as an XPath expression and is used to extract an XML node from the document. In other words, the JXPath language provides a hybrid of object graph navigation and XML node selection.

Adding JXPath package

To use JXPath in your routes you need to add a dependency on camel-jxpath to your project as shown in Example 19.1, “Adding the camel-jxpath dependency”.

Example 19.1. Adding the camel-jxpath dependency

<!-- Maven POM File -->
<properties>
  <camel-version>2.12.0.redhat-610379</camel-version>
  ...
</properties>

<dependencies>
  ...
  <dependency>
    <groupId>org.apache.camel</groupId>
    <artifactId>camel-jxpath</artifactId>
    <version>${camel-version}</version>
  </dependency>
  ...
</dependencies>

Variables

Table 19.1, “JXPath variables” lists the variables that are accessible when using JXPath.

Table 19.1. JXPath variables

VariableTypeValue
thisorg.apache.camel.ExchangeThe current Exchange
inorg.apache.camel.MessageThe IN message
outorg.apache.camel.MessageThe OUT message

Example

Example 19.2, “Routes using JXPath” shows a route that use JXPath.

Example 19.2. Routes using JXPath

<camelContext>
  <route>
    <from uri="activemq:MyQueue"/>
    <filter>
      <jxpath>in/body/name = 'James'</xpath>
      <to uri="mqseries:SomeOtherQueue"/>
    </filter>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Chapter 20. MVEL

Overview

MVEL (http://mvel.codehaus.org/) is a Java-based dynamic language that is similar to OGNL, but is reported to be much faster. The MVEL support is in the camel-mvel module.

Syntax

You use the MVEL dot syntax to invoke Java methods, for example:
getRequest().getBody().getFamilyName()
Because MVEL is dynamically typed, it is unnecessary to cast the message body instance (of Object type) before invoking the getFamilyName() method. You can also use an abbreviated syntax for invoking bean attributes, for example:
request.body.familyName

Adding the MVEL module

To use MVEL in your routes you need to add a dependency on camel-mvel to your project as shown in Example 20.1, “Adding the camel-mvel dependency”.

Example 20.1. Adding the camel-mvel dependency

<!-- Maven POM File -->
<properties>
  <camel-version>2.12.0.redhat-610379</camel-version>
  ...
</properties>

<dependencies>
  ...
  <dependency>
    <groupId>org.apache.camel</groupId>
    <artifactId>camel-mvel</artifactId>
    <version>${camel-version}</version>
  </dependency>
  ...
</dependencies>

Built-in variables

Table 20.1, “MVEL variables” lists the built-in variables that are accessible when using MVEL.

Table 20.1. MVEL variables

NameTypeDescription
thisorg.apache.camel.ExchangeThe current Exchange
exchangeorg.apache.camel.ExchangeThe current Exchange
exceptionThrowablethe Exchange exception (if any)
exchangeIDStringthe Exchange ID
faultorg.apache.camel.MessageThe Fault message(if any)
requestorg.apache.camel.MessageThe IN message
responseorg.apache.camel.MessageThe OUT message
propertiesMapThe Exchange properties
property(name)ObjectThe value of the named Exchange property
property(name, type)TypeThe typed value of the named Exchange property

Example

Example 20.2, “Route using MVEL” shows a route that uses MVEL.

Example 20.2. Route using MVEL

<camelContext>
  <route>
    <from uri="seda:foo"/>
    <filter>
      <language langauge="mvel">request.headers.foo == 'bar'</language>
      <to uri="seda:bar"/>
    </filter>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Chapter 21. The Object-Graph Navigation Language(OGNL)

Overview

OGNL (http://www.opensymphony.com/ognl/) is an expression language for getting and setting properties of Java objects. You use the same expression for both getting and setting the value of a property. The OGNL support is in the camel-ognl module.

Adding the OGNL module

To use OGNL in your routes you need to add a dependency on camel-ognl to your project as shown in Example 21.1, “Adding the camel-ognl dependency”.

Example 21.1. Adding the camel-ognl dependency

<!-- Maven POM File -->
...
<dependencies>
  ...
  <dependency>
    <groupId>org.apache.camel</groupId>
    <artifactId>camel-ognl</artifactId>
    <version>${camel-version}</version>
  </dependency>
  ...
</dependencies>

Static import

To use the ognl() static method in your application code, include the following import statement in your Java source files:
import static org.apache.camel.language.ognl.OgnlExpression.ognl;

Built-in variables

Table 21.1, “OGNL variables” lists the built-in variables that are accessible when using OGNL.

Table 21.1. OGNL variables

NameTypeDescription
thisorg.apache.camel.ExchangeThe current Exchange
exchangeorg.apache.camel.ExchangeThe current Exchange
exceptionThrowablethe Exchange exception (if any)
exchangeIDStringthe Exchange ID
faultorg.apache.camel.MessageThe Fault message(if any)
requestorg.apache.camel.MessageThe IN message
responseorg.apache.camel.MessageThe OUT message
propertiesMapThe Exchange properties
property(name)ObjectThe value of the named Exchange property
property(name, type)TypeThe typed value of the named Exchange property

Example

Example 21.2, “Route using OGNL” shows a route that uses OGNL.

Example 21.2. Route using OGNL

<camelContext>
  <route>
    <from uri="seda:foo"/>
    <filter>
      <language langauge="ognl">request.headers.foo == 'bar'</language>
      <to uri="seda:bar"/>
    </filter>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Chapter 22. PHP

Overview

PHP is a widely-used general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited for Web development. The PHP support is part of the camel-script module.

Adding the script module

To use PHP in your routes you need to add a dependency on camel-script to your project as shown in Example 22.1, “Adding the camel-script dependency”.

Example 22.1. Adding the camel-script dependency

<!-- Maven POM File -->
...
<dependencies>
  ...
  <dependency>
    <groupId>org.apache.camel</groupId>
    <artifactId>camel-script</artifactId>
    <version>${camel-version}</version>
  </dependency>
  ...
</dependencies>

Static import

To use the php() static method in your application code, include the following import statement in your Java source files:
import static org.apache.camel.builder.camel.script.ScriptBuilder.*;

Built-in attributes

Table 22.1, “PHP attributes” lists the built-in attributes that are accessible when using PHP.

Table 22.1. PHP attributes

AttributeTypeValue
contextorg.apache.camel.CamelContextThe Camel Context
exchangeorg.apache.camel.ExchangeThe current Exchange
requestorg.apache.camel.MessageThe IN message
responseorg.apache.camel.MessageThe OUT message
propertiesorg.apache.camel.builder.script.PropertiesFunctionFunction with a resolve method to make it easier to use the properties component inside scripts.
The attributes all set at ENGINE_SCOPE.

Example

Example 22.2, “Route using PHP” shows a route that uses PHP.

Example 22.2. Route using PHP

<camelContext>
  <route>
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <choice>
      <when>
        <language language="php">strpos(request.headers.get('user'), 'admin')!== FALSE</language>
        <to uri="seda:adminQueue"/>
      </when>
      <otherwise>
        <to uri="seda:regularQueue"/>
      </otherwise>
    </choice>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Using the properties component

To access a property value from the properties component, invoke the resolve method on the built-in properties attribute, as follows:
.setHeader("myHeader").php("properties.resolve(PropKey)")
Where PropKey is the key of the property you want to resolve, where the key value is of String type.
For more details about the properties component, see .
<camelContext>
  <route>
    <from uri="direct:a"/>
    <recipientList>
      <property>listOfEndpoints</property>
    </recipientList>
  </route>
</camelContext>
from("direct:a").recipientList(property("listOfEndpoints"));

Example 24.1. Adding the camel-script dependency

<!-- Maven POM File -->
...
<dependencies>
  ...
  <dependency>
    <groupId>org.apache.camel</groupId>
    <artifactId>camel-script</artifactId>
    <version>${camel-version}</version>
  </dependency>
  ...
</dependencies>

Static import

To use the python() static method in your application code, include the following import statement in your Java source files:
import static org.apache.camel.builder.camel.script.ScriptBuilder.*;

Built-in attributes

Table 24.1, “Python attributes” lists the built-in attributes that are accessible when using Python.

Table 24.1. Python attributes

AttributeTypeValue
contextorg.apache.camel.CamelContextThe Camel Context
exchangeorg.apache.camel.ExchangeThe current Exchange
requestorg.apache.camel.MessageThe IN message
responseorg.apache.camel.MessageThe OUT message
propertiesorg.apache.camel.builder.script.PropertiesFunctionFunction with a resolve method to make it easier to use the properties component inside scripts.
The attributes all set at ENGINE_SCOPE.

Example

Example 24.2, “Route using Python” shows a route that uses Python.

Example 24.2. Route using Python

<camelContext>
  <route>
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <choice>
      <when>
        <langauge langauge="python">if request.headers.get('user') = 'admin'</langauge>
        <to uri="seda:adminQueue"/>
      </when>
      <otherwise>
        <to uri="seda:regularQueue"/>
      </otherwise>
    </choice>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Using the properties component

To access a property value from the properties component, invoke the resolve method on the built-in properties attribute, as follows:
.setHeader("myHeader").python("properties.resolve(PropKey)")
Where PropKey is the key of the property you want to resolve, where the key value is of String type.
For more details about the properties component, see .
The Ref expression language is really just a way to look up a custom Expression from the Registry. This is particular convenient to use in the XML DSL.
The Ref language is part of camel-core.

Static import

To use the Ref language in your Java application code, include the following import statement in your Java source files:
import static org.apache.camel.language.simple.RefLanguage.ref;

XML example

For example, the splitter pattern can reference a custom expression using the Ref language, as follows:
<beans ...>
  <bean id="myExpression" class="com.mycompany.MyCustomExpression"/>
  ...
  <camelContext>
    <route>
      <from uri="seda:a"/>
      <split>
        <ref>myExpression</ref>   
        <to uri="mock:b"/>
      </split>     
    </route>
  </camelContext>
</beans>

Java example

The preceding route can also be implemented in the Java DSL, as follows:
from("seda:a")
  .split().ref("myExpression")
  .to("seda:b");

Chapter 26. Ruby

Overview

Ruby is a dynamic, open source programming language with a focus on simplicity and productivity. It has an elegant syntax that is natural to read and easy to write. The Ruby support is part of the camel-script module.

Adding the script module

To use Ruby in your routes you need to add a dependency on camel-script to your project as shown in Example 26.1, “Adding the camel-script dependency”.

Example 26.1. Adding the camel-script dependency

<!-- Maven POM File -->
...
<dependencies>
  ...
  <dependency>
    <groupId>org.apache.camel</groupId>
    <artifactId>camel-script</artifactId>
    <version>${camel-version}</version>
  </dependency>
  ...
</dependencies>

Static import

To use the ruby() static method in your application code, include the following import statement in your Java source files:
import static org.apache.camel.builder.camel.script.ScriptBuilder.*;

Built-in attributes

Table 26.1, “Ruby attributes” lists the built-in attributes that are accessible when using Ruby.

Table 26.1. Ruby attributes

AttributeTypeValue
contextorg.apache.camel.CamelContextThe Camel Context
exchangeorg.apache.camel.ExchangeThe current Exchange
requestorg.apache.camel.MessageThe IN message
responseorg.apache.camel.MessageThe OUT message
propertiesorg.apache.camel.builder.script.PropertiesFunctionFunction with a resolve method to make it easier to use the properties component inside scripts.
The attributes all set at ENGINE_SCOPE.

Example

Example 26.2, “Route using Ruby” shows a route that uses Ruby.

Example 26.2. Route using Ruby

<camelContext>
  <route>
    <from uri="direct:start"/>
    <choice>
      <when>
        <langauge langauge="ruby">$request.headers['user'] == 'admin'</langauge>
        <to uri="seda:adminQueue"/>
      </when>
      <otherwise>
        <to uri="seda:regularQueue"/>
      </otherwise>
    </choice>
  </route>
</camelContext>

Using the properties component

To access a property value from the properties component, invoke the resolve method on the built-in properties attribute, as follows:
.setHeader("myHeader").ruby("properties.resolve(PropKey)")
Where PropKey is the key of the property you want to resolve, where the key value is of String type.
For more details about the properties component, see .
from("seda:order")
  .filter(simple("${in.header.foo}"))
  .to("mock:fooOrders");
from("seda:order")
  .filter()
  .simple("${in.header.foo}")
  .to("mock:fooOrders");
simple("Hello ${in.header.name}, how are you?")
// Java
import org.apache.camel.language.simple.SimpleLanguage;
...
SimpleLanguage.changeFunctionStartToken("[");
SimpleLanguage.changeFunctionEndToken("]");
<route id="simpleExample">
  <from uri="seda:orders"/>
  <filter>
    <simple>${in.header.foo}</simple>
    <to uri="mock:fooOrders"/>
  </filter>
</route>
<simple>Hello $simple{in.header.name}, how are you?</simple>
<bean id="simple" class="org.apache.camel.language.simple.SimpleLanguage">
  <constructor-arg name="functionStartToken" value="["/>
  <constructor-arg name="functionEndToken" value="]"/>
</bean>
resource:Scheme:Location
simple("resource:classpath:mysimple.txt")
simple("${in.header.foo}")
simple("Received a message from ${in.header.user} on $(date:in.header.date:yyyyMMdd}.")
As well as providing variables that access all of the different parts of an exchange (see Table 27.1, “Variables for the Simple Language”), the simple language also provides special variables for formatting dates, date:command:pattern, and for calling bean methods, bean:beanRef. For example, you can use the date and the bean variables as follows:
simple("Todays date is ${date:now:yyyyMMdd}")
simple("The order type is ${bean:orderService?method=getOrderType}")

Specifying the result type

You can specify the result type of an expression explicitly. This is mainly useful for converting the result type to a boolean or numerical type.
In the Java DSL, specify the result type as an extra argument to simple(). For example, to return a boolean result, you could evaluate a simple expression as follows:
...
.setHeader("cool", simple("true", Boolean.class))
In the XML DSL, specify the result type using the resultType attribute. For example:
<setHeader headerName="cool">
  <!-- use resultType to indicate that the type should be a java.lang.Boolean --> 
  <simple resultType="java.lang.Boolean">true</simple>
</setHeader>

Nested expressions

Simple expressions can be nested—for example:
simple("${header.${bean:headerChooser?method=whichHeader}}")

Accessing constants or enums

You can access a bean's constant or enum fields using the following syntax:
type:ClassName.Field
For example, consider the following Java enum type:
package org.apache.camel.processor;
...
public enum Customer {
    GOLD, SILVER, BRONZE
}
You can access the Customer enum fields, as follows:
 from("direct:start")
    .choice()
        .when().simple("${header.customer} ==
          ${type:org.apache.camel.processor.Customer.GOLD}")
            .to("mock:gold")
        .when().simple("${header.customer} ==
          ${type:org.apache.camel.processor.Customer.SILVER}")
            .to("mock:silver")
        .otherwise()
            .to("mock:other");

OGNL expressions

The Object Graph Navigation Language (OGNL) is a notation for invoking bean methods in a chain-like fashion. If a message body contains a Java bean, you can easily access its bean properties using OGNL notation. For example, if the message body is a Java object with a getAddress() accessor, you can access the Address object and the Address object's properties as follows:
simple("${body.address}")
simple("${body.address.street}")
simple("${body.address.zip}")
simple("${body.address.city}")
Where the notation, ${body.address.street}, is shorthand for ${body.getAddress.getStreet}.

OGNL null-safe operator

You can use the null-safe operator, ?., to avoid encountering null-pointer exceptions, in case the body does not have an address. For example:
simple("${body?.address?.street}")
If the body is a java.util.Map type, you can look up a value in the map with the key, foo, using the following notation:
simple("${body[foo]?.name}")

OGNL list element access

You can also use square brackets notation, [k], to access the elements of a list. For example:
simple("${body.address.lines[0]}")
simple("${body.address.lines[1]}")
simple("${body.address.lines[2]}")
The last keyword returns the index of the last element of a list. For example, you can access the second last element of a list, as follows:
simple("${body.address.lines[last-1]}")
You can use the size method to query the size of a list, as follows:
simple("${body.address.lines.size}")

OGNL array length access

You can access the length of a Java array through the length method, as follows:
String[] lines = new String[]{"foo", "bar", "cat"};
exchange.getIn().setBody(lines);

simple("There are ${body.length} lines")

5. Predicates

Overview

You can construct predicates by testing expressions for equality. For example, the predicate, simple("${header.timeOfDay} == '14:30'"), tests whether the timeOfDay header in the incoming message is equal to 14:30.

Syntax

You can also test various parts of an exchange (headers, message body, and so on) using simple predicates. Simple predicates have the following general syntax:
${LHSVariable} Op RHSValue
Where the variable on the left hand side, LHSVariable, is one of the variables shown in Table 27.1, “Variables for the Simple Language” and the value on the right hand side, RHSValue, is one of the following:
  • Another variable, ${RHSVariable}.
  • A string literal, enclosed in single quotes, ' '.
  • A numeric constant, enclosed in single quotes, ' '.
  • The null object, null.
The simple language always attempts to convert the RHS value to the type of the LHS value.
Note
While the simple language will attempt to convert the RHS, depending on the operator the LHS may need to be cast into the appropriate Type before the comparison is made.

Examples

For example, you can perform simple string comparisons and numerical comparisons as follows:
simple("${in.header.user} == 'john'")

simple("${in.header.number} > '100'")  // String literal can be converted to integer
You can test whether the left hand side is a member of a comma-separated list, as follows:
simple("${in.header.type} in 'gold,silver'")
You can test whether the left hand side matches a regular expression, as follows:
simple("${in.header.number} regex '\d{4}'")
You can test the type of the left hand side using the is operator, as follows:
simple("${in.header.type} is 'java.lang.String'")
simple("${in.header.type} is 'String'") // You can abbreviate java.lang. types
You can test whether the left hand side lies in a specified numerical range (where the range is inclusive), as follows:
simple("${in.header.number} range '100..199'")

Conjunctions

You can also combine predicates using the logical conjunctions, && and ||.
For example, here is an expression using the && conjunction (logical and):
simple("${in.header.title} contains 'Camel' && ${in.header.type} == 'gold'")
And here is an expression using the || conjunction (logical inclusive or):
simple("${in.header.title} contains 'Camel' || ${in.header.type} == 'gold'")

6. Variable Reference

Table of variables

Table 27.1, “Variables for the Simple Language” shows all of the variables supported by the simple language.

Table 27.1. Variables for the Simple Language

VariableTypeDescription
camelContextObjectThe Camel context. Supports OGNL expressions.
camelIdStringThe Camel context's ID value.
exchangeIdStringThe exchange's ID value.
idStringThe In message ID value.
body Object
The In message body. Supports OGNL expressions.
in.bodyObjectThe In message body. Supports OGNL expressions.
out.body Object
The Out message body.
bodyAs(Type)TypeThe In message body, converted to the specified type. All types, Type, must be specified using their fully-qualified Java name, except for the types: byte[], String, Integer, and Long. The converted body can be null.
mandatoryBodyAs(Type)TypeThe In message body, converted to the specified type. All types, Type, must be specified using their fully-qualified Java name, except for the types: byte[], String, Integer, and Long. The converted body is expected to be non-null.
header.HeaderNameObject
The In message's HeaderName header. Supports OGNL expressions.
header[HeaderName]Object
The In message's HeaderName header (alternative syntax).
headers.HeaderNameObjectThe In message's HeaderName header.
headers[HeaderName]ObjectThe In message's HeaderName header (alternative syntax).
in.header.HeaderNameObjectThe In message's HeaderName header. Supports OGNL expressions.
in.header[HeaderName]ObjectThe In message's HeaderName header (alternative syntax).
in.headers.HeaderNameObjectThe In message's HeaderName header. Supports OGNL expressions.
in.headers[HeaderName]ObjectThe In message's HeaderName header (alternative syntax).
out.header.HeaderName Object
The Out message's HeaderName header.
out.header[HeaderName]Object
The Out message's HeaderName header (alternative syntax).
out.headers.HeaderNameObjectThe Out message's HeaderName header.
out.headers[HeaderName]ObjectThe Out message's HeaderName header (alternative syntax).
headerAs(Key,Type)TypeThe Key header, converted to the specified type. All types, Type, must be specified using their fully-qualified Java name, except for the types: byte[], String, Integer, and Long. The converted value can be null.
headersMapAll of the In headers (as a java.util.Map type).
in.headersMapAll of the In headers (as a java.util.Map type).
property.PropertyName Object
The PropertyName property on the exchange.
property[PropertyName]Object
The PropertyName property on the exchange (alternative syntax).
sys.SysPropertyNameStringThe SysPropertyName Java system property.
sysenv.SysEnvVarStringThe SysEnvVar system environment variable.
exceptionStringEither the exception object from Exchange.getException() or, if this value is null, the caught exception from the Exchange.EXCEPTION_CAUGHT property; otherwise null. Supports OGNL expressions.
exception.messageStringIf an exception is set on the exchange, returns the value of Exception.getMessage(); otherwise, returns null.
exception.stacktraceStringIf an exception is set on the exchange, returns the value of Exception.getStackTrace(); otherwise, returns null. Note: The simple language first tries to retrieve an exception from Exchange.getException(). If that property is not set, it checks for a caught exception, by calling Exchange.getProperty(Exchange.CAUGHT_EXCEPTION).
date:command:patternStringA date formatted using a java.text.SimpleDateFormat pattern. The following commands are supported: now, for the current date and time; header.HeaderName, or in.header.HeaderName to use a java.util.Date object in the HeaderName header from the In message; out.header.HeaderName to use a java.util.Date object in the HeaderName header from the Out message;
bean:beanID.MethodObjectInvokes a method on the referenced bean and returns the result of the method invocation. To specify a method name, you can either use the beanID.Method syntax; or you can use the beanID?method=methodName syntax.
ref:beanIDObjectLooks up the bean with the ID, beanID, in the registry and returns a reference to the bean itself. For example, if you are using the splitter EIP, you could use this variable to reference the bean that implements the splitting algorithm.
properties:KeyStringThe value of the Key property placeholder (see Section 7, “Property Placeholders”).
properties:Location:KeyStringThe value of the Key property placeholder, where the location of the properties file is given by Location (see Section 7, “Property Placeholders”).
threadNameStringThe name of the current thread.
routeIdStringReturns the ID of the current route through which the Exchange is being routed.
type:Name[.Field]ObjectReferences a type or field by its Fully-Qualified-Name (FQN). To refer to a field, append .Field. For example, you can refer to the FILE_NAME constant field from the Exchange class as type:org.apache.camel.Exchange.FILE_NAME

7. Operator Reference

Binary operators

The binary operators for simple language predicates are shown in Table 27.2, “Binary Operators for the Simple Language”.

Table 27.2. Binary Operators for the Simple Language

OperatorDescription
==Equals.
>Greater than.
>=Greater than or equals.
<Less than.
<=Less than or equals.
!=Not equal to.
containsTest if LHS string contains RHS string.
not containsTest if LHS string does not contain RHS string.
regexTest if LHS string matches RHS regular expression.
not regexTest if LHS string does not match RHS regular expression.
inTest if LHS string appears in the RHS comma-separated list.
not inTest if LHS string does not appear in the RHS comma-separated list.
isTest if LHS is an instance of RHS Java type (using Java instanceof operator).
not isTest if LHS is not an instance of RHS Java type (using Java instanceof operator).
rangeTest if LHS number lies in the RHS range (where range has the format, 'min...max').
not rangeTest if LHS number does not lie in the RHS range (where range has the format, 'min...max').

Unary operators and character escapes

The binary operators for simple language predicates are shown in Table 27.3, “Unary Operators for the Simple Language”.

Table 27.3. Unary Operators for the Simple Language

OperatorDescription
++Increment a number by 1.
--Decrement a number by 1.
\nThe newline character.
\rThe carriage return character.
\tThe tab character.
\(Obsolete) Since Camel version 2.11, the backslash escape character is not sup