Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization 3.2

Evaluation Guide

Evaluating Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization

Edition 1

Steve Gordon

Tim Hildred

Dan Macpherson

Dayle Parker

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Abstract

This book explains how to deploy a Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Environment for evaluation purposes.
Preface
1. Document Conventions
1.1. Typographic Conventions
1.2. Pull-quote Conventions
1.3. Notes and Warnings
2. Getting Help and Giving Feedback
2.1. Do You Need Help?
2.2. We Need Feedback!
Introduction
1. Introduction to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Evaluation Guide
2. Evaluation Tracks
3. Track A
3.1. Track A: Standard Setup
3.2. Track A Requirements
4. Track B
4.1. Track B: Minimal Setup
4.2. Track B Requirements
1. Lab 1 - Basic Setup for Installation and Configuration
1.1. Lab 1 - Objectives
1.2. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager
1.3. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor
1.3.1. Registering the Host on RHN and Acquiring ISO Hypervisor Images
1.3.2. Preparing Optical Hypervisor Installation Media
1.3.3. Install Red Hat Enterprise Virtualizaton Hosts from Optical Installation Media
1.3.4. Install Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisors
1.4. Connecting to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Web Administration Portal
1.5. Web Administration Portal Graphical User Interface
1.6. Approve the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor
1.7. Configure Logical Networks
1.8. Configuring Storage
1.9. Configuring Storage
1.9.1. Creating an NFS Data Domain
1.9.2. Creating an iSCSI Data Domain
1.9.3. Creating an FCP Data Domain
1.10. Attach and Populate ISO Domains
1.11. Lab 1 - summary
2. Lab 2 - Creating virtual machines
2.1. Lab 2 - Objectives
2.2. Creating a Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machine
2.3. Creating Red Hat Enterprise Linux templates
2.4. Creating a Template from a Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtual Machine
2.5. Sealing a Linux Virtual Machine for Deployment as a Template
2.6. Creating a Template from a Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtual Machine
2.7. Cloning a Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machine from a template
2.8. Lab 2 - Summary
3. Lab 3 - Live migration scenarios
3.1. Lab 3 - Objectives
3.2. Live migration scenarios
3.3. Activating live migration
3.4. Moving hosts into maintenance mode
3.5. Defining cluster policies
3.6. Lab 3 - Summary
4. Lab 4 - Power User Portal
4.1. Lab 4 - Objectives
4.2. Adding IdM domains
4.3. Adding new users in the IdM directory
4.4. PowerUserRole permission assignment
4.5. Assigning PowerUserRole permissions on existing virtual machines
4.6. Logging in to the Power User Portal
4.7. Logging in to the User Portal
4.8. Creating Linux desktop virtual machines
4.9. Opening virtual machine consoles
4.10. Making templates from virtual machines
4.11. Verifying virtual machine template permissions
4.12. Lab 4 - Summary
5. Lab 5 - Managing Multi-Level Administrators
5.1. Lab 5 - Objectives
5.2. Lab 5 - requirements
5.3. Storage administrator definition
5.4. Assigning system administrator roles to storage domains
5.5. Virtual machine administrator definition
5.6. User permission verification
5.7. Custom role creation
5.8. Lab 5 - Summary
6. Lab 6 - High Availability scenarios
6.1. Lab 6 - Objectives
6.2. Lab 6 - Requirements
6.3. Lab 6 - Prerequisites
6.4. Power Management Configuration
6.4.1. Power management configuration
6.4.2. Disabling cluster policy
6.4.3. Setting up power management on a host
6.5. Virtual Machine High-Availability Configuration
6.5.1. Virtual Machine High-availability Configuration
6.6. High Availability: Host-Initated Reboot
6.6.1. High availability -- host initiated reboot
6.7. High Availability: Virtual Machine Interruption
6.7.1. High availability -- Virtual machine interruption
6.7.2. Demonstrating Virtual Machine High Availability when its Processes are Killed
6.8. High-Availability: Non-Operational Host
6.8.1. High Availability - Non-operational Hosts
6.8.2. Demonstrating Virtual Machine High Availability when Storage Network is Down (Host: SPM)
6.8.3. Demonstrating virtual-machine high availability when storage networks are down (Host: non-SPM)
6.9. High Availability: Non-responsive host
6.9.1. High availability -- non-responsive host
6.9.2. Demonstrating high-availability when host connections are disrupted
6.9.3. Demonstrating virtual-machine high availability of incorrectly-fenced hosts
6.10. Lab 6 - Summary
7. Lab 7 - Adding Additional Data Centers
7.1. Lab 7 - Objectives
7.2. Add Additional Data Center
7.3. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 hosts
7.4. Create a New Data Center
7.5. Create a New Cluster
7.6. Attach New Red Hat Enterprise Linux Hosts
7.7. Configure Logical Networks
7.8. Configuring Storage
7.8.1. Creating an NFS Data Domain
7.8.2. Creating an iSCSI Data Domain
7.8.3. Creating an FCP Data Domain
7.9. Configure ISO Domain
7.10. Lab 7 - Summary
8. Lab 8 - Virtual desktops
8.1. Lab 8 - Objectives
8.2. Create a Windows Virtual Machine
8.3. Creating Windows virtual machines from templates
8.4. Create a Windows Template
8.5. Assigning UserRole permissions on virtual machines
8.6. Connecting to virtual machines
8.7. Use Virtual Desktop Pools
8.7.1. Creating desktop pools
8.7.2. Assigning UserRole permissions
8.7.3. Allocating virtual desktops
8.7.4. Deallocating virtual desktops
8.8. Lab 8 - Summary
9. Lab 9 - Installing and configuring minimal setup
9.1. Lab 9 - Objectives
9.2. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager
9.3. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor
9.3.1. Registering the Host on RHN and Acquiring ISO Hypervisor Images
9.3.2. Preparing Optical Hypervisor Installation Media
9.3.3. Install Red Hat Enterprise Virtualizaton Hosts from Optical Installation Media
9.3.4. Install Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisors
9.4. Connecting to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Web Administration Portal
9.5. Web Administration Portal Graphical User Interface
9.6. Approve the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor
9.7. Creating Local Storage
9.8. Creating local storage domains
9.9. Attach and Populate ISO Domains
9.10. Lab 9 - Summary
10. Lab 10 - Advanced storage features
10.1. Lab 10 - Objectives
10.2. Advanced Storage Features
10.3. Requirements
10.4. Creating Floating Disks
10.5. Associating a Floating Disk with a Virtual Machine
10.6. Marking a Virtual Disk Shared
10.7. Associating a Shared Virtual Disk with a Second Virtual Machine
10.8. Creating a Snapshot of a Running Virtual Machine
10.9. Creating a Virtual Machine from a Snapshot
10.10. Associating LUNs with Virtual Machines
10.11. Associating Fibre Channel (FC) LUNs with Virtual Machine
10.12. Lab 10 - Summary
A. Revision History

Preface

1. Document Conventions

This manual uses several conventions to highlight certain words and phrases and draw attention to specific pieces of information.
In PDF and paper editions, this manual uses typefaces drawn from the Liberation Fonts set. The Liberation Fonts set is also used in HTML editions if the set is installed on your system. If not, alternative but equivalent typefaces are displayed. Note: Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and later include the Liberation Fonts set by default.

1.1. Typographic Conventions

Four typographic conventions are used to call attention to specific words and phrases. These conventions, and the circumstances they apply to, are as follows.
Mono-spaced Bold
Used to highlight system input, including shell commands, file names and paths. Also used to highlight keys and key combinations. For example:
To see the contents of the file my_next_bestselling_novel in your current working directory, enter the cat my_next_bestselling_novel command at the shell prompt and press Enter to execute the command.
The above includes a file name, a shell command and a key, all presented in mono-spaced bold and all distinguishable thanks to context.
Key combinations can be distinguished from an individual key by the plus sign that connects each part of a key combination. For example:
Press Enter to execute the command.
Press Ctrl+Alt+F2 to switch to a virtual terminal.
The first example highlights a particular key to press. The second example highlights a key combination: a set of three keys pressed simultaneously.
If source code is discussed, class names, methods, functions, variable names and returned values mentioned within a paragraph will be presented as above, in mono-spaced bold. For example:
File-related classes include filesystem for file systems, file for files, and dir for directories. Each class has its own associated set of permissions.
Proportional Bold
This denotes words or phrases encountered on a system, including application names; dialog box text; labeled buttons; check-box and radio button labels; menu titles and sub-menu titles. For example:
Choose SystemPreferencesMouse from the main menu bar to launch Mouse Preferences. In the Buttons tab, select the Left-handed mouse check box and click Close to switch the primary mouse button from the left to the right (making the mouse suitable for use in the left hand).
To insert a special character into a gedit file, choose ApplicationsAccessoriesCharacter Map from the main menu bar. Next, choose SearchFind… from the Character Map menu bar, type the name of the character in the Search field and click Next. The character you sought will be highlighted in the Character Table. Double-click this highlighted character to place it in the Text to copy field and then click the Copy button. Now switch back to your document and choose EditPaste from the gedit menu bar.
The above text includes application names; system-wide menu names and items; application-specific menu names; and buttons and text found within a GUI interface, all presented in proportional bold and all distinguishable by context.
Mono-spaced Bold Italic or Proportional Bold Italic
Whether mono-spaced bold or proportional bold, the addition of italics indicates replaceable or variable text. Italics denotes text you do not input literally or displayed text that changes depending on circumstance. For example:
To connect to a remote machine using ssh, type ssh username@domain.name at a shell prompt. If the remote machine is example.com and your username on that machine is john, type ssh john@example.com.
The mount -o remount file-system command remounts the named file system. For example, to remount the /home file system, the command is mount -o remount /home.
To see the version of a currently installed package, use the rpm -q package command. It will return a result as follows: package-version-release.
Note the words in bold italics above — username, domain.name, file-system, package, version and release. Each word is a placeholder, either for text you enter when issuing a command or for text displayed by the system.
Aside from standard usage for presenting the title of a work, italics denotes the first use of a new and important term. For example:
Publican is a DocBook publishing system.

1.2. Pull-quote Conventions

Terminal output and source code listings are set off visually from the surrounding text.
Output sent to a terminal is set in mono-spaced roman and presented thus:
books        Desktop   documentation  drafts  mss    photos   stuff  svn
books_tests  Desktop1  downloads      images  notes  scripts  svgs
Source-code listings are also set in mono-spaced roman but add syntax highlighting as follows:
static int kvm_vm_ioctl_deassign_device(struct kvm *kvm,
                 struct kvm_assigned_pci_dev *assigned_dev)
{
         int r = 0;
         struct kvm_assigned_dev_kernel *match;

         mutex_lock(&kvm->lock);

         match = kvm_find_assigned_dev(&kvm->arch.assigned_dev_head,
                                       assigned_dev->assigned_dev_id);
         if (!match) {
                 printk(KERN_INFO "%s: device hasn't been assigned before, "
                   "so cannot be deassigned\n", __func__);
                 r = -EINVAL;
                 goto out;
         }

         kvm_deassign_device(kvm, match);

         kvm_free_assigned_device(kvm, match);

out:
         mutex_unlock(&kvm->lock);
         return r;
}

1.3. Notes and Warnings

Finally, we use three visual styles to draw attention to information that might otherwise be overlooked.

Note

Notes are tips, shortcuts or alternative approaches to the task at hand. Ignoring a note should have no negative consequences, but you might miss out on a trick that makes your life easier.

Important

Important boxes detail things that are easily missed: configuration changes that only apply to the current session, or services that need restarting before an update will apply. Ignoring a box labeled 'Important' will not cause data loss but may cause irritation and frustration.

Warning

Warnings should not be ignored. Ignoring warnings will most likely cause data loss.

2. Getting Help and Giving Feedback

2.1. Do You Need Help?

If you experience difficulty with a procedure described in this documentation, visit the Red Hat Customer Portal at http://access.redhat.com. Through the customer portal, you can:
  • search or browse through a knowledgebase of technical support articles about Red Hat products.
  • submit a support case to Red Hat Global Support Services (GSS).
  • access other product documentation.
Red Hat also hosts a large number of electronic mailing lists for discussion of Red Hat software and technology. You can find a list of publicly available mailing lists at https://www.redhat.com/mailman/listinfo. Click on the name of any mailing list to subscribe to that list or to access the list archives.

2.2. We Need Feedback!

If you find a typographical error in this manual, or if you have thought of a way to make this manual better, we would love to hear from you! Please submit a report in Bugzilla: http://bugzilla.redhat.com/ against the product Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager.
When submitting a bug report, be sure to mention the manual's identifier: Guides-Evaluation
If you have a suggestion for improving the documentation, try to be as specific as possible when describing it. If you have found an error, please include the section number and some of the surrounding text so we can find it easily.

Introduction

1. Introduction to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Evaluation Guide

This guide gets you started on a full featured Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization deployment using your existing resources. From installing a hypervisor, setting up shared storage and running a fully functional virtual machine, see how you can implement virtualization in your own organization. The tutorials are organized to reflect typical deployments from a small office with a few hosts, to a large enterprise with multiple data centers, and you can even test out a single host version at home. The tracks and tutorials are color coded to provide clear paths through this guide.
Once you have completed the tutorials (labs), arrange your own tracks for further evaluation or training. The tracks are suggested examples only. Use them to understand how to deploy Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization, and then work with our Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization solution architects to build your own unique environments.

2. Evaluation Tracks

Depending on your needs, use one of these tracks to evaluate Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization for your organization:
  • If you have shared storage and two physical servers to install hosts, use Track A: Standard Setup.
  • If you have one physical server on which to install a host, use Track B: Minimal Setup.
For both tracks, you need an evaluation license and a valid Red Hat Network subscription to:
  • the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization channel
  • the Red Hat Enterprise Linux channel
Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager Release Notes for specific channel names current to your system. Contact your sales representative if you do not have both of the above.

3. Track A

3.1. Track A: Standard Setup

Track A describes the installation and configuration of a basic Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment. Track A requires you to have more than one host and shared storage.
Track A consists of:
  • four basic labs
  • four advanced labs (optional)
The basic labs describe how to create virtual machines and assign them to users.
The advanced labs describe how to apply Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization to real-life enterprise operations. This includes:
  • protecting against hardware failure by using high-availability
  • assigning different levels of user permissions to virtual machines, storage, and servers to reflect the needs of your organization
  • reconfiguring red hat enterprise linux servers so that they function as virtual machine hosts
  • provisioning virtual desktops for users
If you have three to four physical servers and one shared storage resource, set up a Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment by following the labs in Track A - Standard Setup. The labs in this track are color coded red, so to determine if a lab is part of Track A, look for a red square in the diagram at the start of each lab.
Evaluation Track A

Figure 1. Evaluation Track A


After you complete Track A, you will have an environment that includes the following:
  • two virtual machine hosts
  • shared storage
  • a network
  • two portals (User Portal and Web Administration Portal)
  • User clients
  • a host running the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Standard Setup

Figure 2. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Standard Setup


Track A - Standard Setup Labs

  • Install and Configure Basic Setup: Install the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager and Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor, configure storage and define networks (75 minutes).
  • Create Virtual Machines: Create virtual machines and templates from the administration portal (25 minutes).
  • Live Migration Scenarios: Configure automatic virtual machine live migration during hardware downtime (10 minutes).
  • Power User Portal: Create and manage virtual machines from the power user portal (35 minutes).
The basic labs allow you to evaluate how Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization can be deployed in your environment.
The advanced labs show you how to optimize your Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization setup. The advanced labs have additional hardware requirements, which are listed at the start of each advanced lab.

Track A - Advanced Labs (optional)

  • Manage Multi-Level Administrators: Manage administrators for each component of Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization (10 minutes).
  • High Availability Scenarios: Configure power management and high availability (30 minutes).
  • Add Additional Data Center: Create an additional data center with Red Hat Enterprise Linux hosts. (35 minutes)
  • Virtual Desktops: Access desktop pools using the SPICE connection protocol (50 minutes).

3.2. Track A Requirements

To work through the labs in Track A, you must have:
  • an evaluation license
  • a valid Red Hat Network subscription to
    • the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization channel
    • the Red Hat Enterprise Linux channel

Note

Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager Release Notes for specific channel names current to your system.
Contact your sales representative if you do not have both of the above.
Before you begin Track A, ensure that you have the following:

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager Requirements

  • Minimum - Dual core server with 4 GB RAM, 25 GB free disk space and 1 Gbps network interface.
  • Recommended - Dual Sockets/Quad core server with 16 GB RAM, 50 GB free disk space on multiple disk spindles and 1 Gbps network interface.
    The breakdown of the server requirements is:
    • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 operating system: 1 GB RAM and 5 GB local disk space
    • Manager: 3 GB RAM, 3 GB local disk space and 1 Gbps network controller bandwidth
    • Local ISO domain: 15 GB disk space
  • One client for connecting to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager.
    • A machine with Firefox 17 or higher installed on Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
    • Internet Explorer 9 or higher on Microsoft Windows.

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hosts Requirements

  • Minimum - Dual Core server, 2 GB RAM and 10 GB Storage, 1 Gbps network interface
  • Recommended - Dual socket server, 16 GB RAM and 50 GB storage, two 1 Gbps network interfaces
    Server requirements:
    • For each host: AMD-V or Intel VT enabled, AMD64 or Intel 64 extensions, minimum 1 GB RAM, 3 GB free storage and 1 Gbps network interface.
    • For virtual machines running on each host: 8 GB RAM to run four virtual machines.

Storage and Networking Requirements

  • At least one of the supported storage types (NFS, iSCSI or FCP).
  • At least three static IP addresses: One for the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager server and one for each server running Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor.
  • DNS service which can resolve (forward and reverse) all the IP addresses.
  • An existing DHCP server which can allocate network addresses for the virtual machines.
  • Display subnet (extra Network Interface Card on both servers) to create a new display network in addition to the default existing management network.

Virtual Machines Requirements

  • Installation images for creating virtual machines. These installation images will be installed on the virtual machines you create.
    • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3, 4, 5 or 6.
    • Microsoft Windows XP, 7, 8, 2003 or 2008.
  • Valid licenses or subscription entitlements for each operating system.
  • At least one valid user account in any of the supported directory services (IdM, AD, or RHDS).

4. Track B

4.1. Track B: Minimal Setup

Track B describes the installation and configuration of a minimal Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment on a single host, using local storage.
Track B consists of:
  • three basic labs
  • two advanced labs (optional)
The basic labs describe how to create virtual machines and assign them to users.
The advanced labs include:
  • using the multi-level administration system to assign different levels of user permissions (this is ideal for companies with diverse employee roles)
  • provisioning virtual desktops for users
If you have two physical servers and no shared storage, set up a Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment by following the labs in Track B - Minimal Setup. The labs in this track are color coded blue. To determine if a lab is part of Track B, look for a blue square in the diagram at the start of each lab.
Workflow for Evaluation Track B

Figure 3. Workflow for Evaluation Track B


After you complete Track B, you will have the following environment that includes the following:
  • one virtual machine host
  • local storage
  • a network
  • two portals
  • user clients
  • a host running Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Minimal Setup

Figure 4. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Minimal Setup


Track B - Minimal Setup Labs

  • Install and Configure Minimal Setup: Install the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager and Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor using minimal hardware (60 minutes).
  • Create Virtual Machines: Create virtual machines and templates from the administration portal (25 minutes).
  • Power User Portal: Create and manage virtual machines from the power user portal (35 minutes).

Track B - Advanced Lab (optional)

  • Manage Multi-Level Administrators: Manage administrators for each component of Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization (10 minutes).
  • Virtual Desktops: Access desktop pools using the SPICE connection protocol (50 minutes).

4.2. Track B Requirements

To work through the labs in Track B, you must have:
  • an evaluation license
  • a valid Red Hat Network subscription to
    • the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization channel
    • the Red Hat Enterprise Linux channel

Note

Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager Release Notes for specific channel names current to your system.
Contact your sales representative if you do not have both of the above.
Before you begin Track B, ensure that you have the following:

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager Requirements

  • Minimum - Dual core server with 4 GB RAM, with 25 GB free disk space and 1 Gbps network interface.
  • Recommended - Dual Sockets/Quad core server with 16 GB RAM, 50 GB free disk space on multiple disk spindles and 1 Gbps network interface.
    The breakdown of the server requirements are as below:
    • For the Manager: 3 GB memory, 3 GB local disk space, 1 Gbps network controller bandwidth
    • For the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 operating system: 1 GB memory, 5 GB local disk space
    • For the local ISO domain: 15 GB disk space
  • One client for connecting to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager.
    • A machine with Firefox 17 or higher installed on Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
    • Internet Explorer 9 or higher on Microsoft Windows.

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Host Requirements

  • Minimum - Dual Core server, 2 GB RAM and 10 GB Storage, 1 Gbps network interface.
  • Recommended - Dual socket server, 16 GB RAM and 50 GB storage, two 1 Gbps network interfaces.
    The breakdown of the server requirements is:
    • For each host: AMD-V or Intel VT enabled, AMD64 or Intel 64 extensions, minimum 1 GB RAM, 3 GB free storage and 1 Gbps network interface.
    • For virtual machines running on the host: 8 GB RAM to run four virtual machines.

Storage and Networking Requirements

  • Two static IP addresses: One for the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager server and one for the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor.
  • One name (DNS) Server which can resolve (forward and reverse) all the IP addresses.
  • A DHCP server for the virtual machines.

Virtual Machine Requirements

  • Installation images for creating virtual machines. These images will be installed on the virtual machines you create.
    • Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3, 4, 5 or 6.
    • Microsoft Windows XP, 7, 8, 2003 or 2008.
  • Valid licenses or subscription entitlements for each operating system.
  • At least one valid user account in any of the supported directory services (IdM, AD, or RHDS).

Chapter 1. Lab 1 - Basic Setup for Installation and Configuration

1.1. Lab 1 - Objectives

Lab 1 on Track A sets up the basic infrastructure to support virtualization, and shows you how to install and configure the hosts, storage and networks in readiness for the virtual machines. The goal of this lab is an environment that is ready for you to create and provision virtual machines.
This lab is intended for Track A, and requires three servers and shared storage.
Lab 1 - Objectives
To achieve the goal of this lab, you will install and set up Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization with multiple hosts and shared storage, you will learn to configure networks and add ISOs. This lab should take you about 75 minutes.
Install Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager shows you how to install the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager on a server running Red Hat Enterprise Linux. (12 minutes*)
Install Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor shows you how to install and configure Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisors for use with Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. (20 minutes*)
Connect to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager shows you how to configure a client machine to connect to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager administration portal. (8 minutes)
Approve the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor shows you how to approve the hosts for use from the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. (10 minutes)
Configure Logical Networks shows you how to define networks for the storage devices and add them to the hosts. (5 minutes)
Configure Storage shows you how to define NFS, iSCSI or FCP storage and attach the domains to the data center. (10 minutes)
Attach and Populate ISO Domain shows you how to attach the predefined ISO domain to the data center and upload ISO images to the repository. (10 minutes)
* The time required to download packages from the Red Hat Network depends on the bandwidth of your connection to RHN, therefore it has not been included in the estimated time.
Lab 1 - Configuration
The following figure and table list the environment parameters and object names which will be used consistently throughout this lab. It is strongly recommended that you use these entities in your evaluation environment to ensure the names are resolvable. You may alter them if necessary, but make sure you have an equivalent name for each component.

1.2. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager

Install Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager

Figure 1.1. Install Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager


The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager is the control center of the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment. It allows you to define hosts, configure data centers, add storage, define networks, create virtual machines, manage user permissions, and use templates from one central location.
The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager must be installed on a server running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, with minimum 4 GB RAM, 25 GB free disk space and 1 Gbps network interface.

Procedure 1.1. To install Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager

  1. Install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 on a server. When prompted for the software packages to install, select the default Basic Server option. See the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide for more details.

    Important

    During installation, remember to set the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) and IP for the server.
  2. If your server has not been registered with the Red Hat Network, run:
    # rhn_register
    To complete registration successfully you need to supply your Red Hat Network username and password. Follow the onscreen prompts to complete registration of the system.
    After you have registered your server, update all the packages on it. Run:
    # yum -y update
    Reboot your server for the updates to be applied.
  3. Subscribe the server to the required Red Hat Network channels. See the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager Release Notes for a list of required channels.
  4. You are now ready to install the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. Run the following command:
    # yum -y install rhevm
    This command will download the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager installation software and resolve all dependencies.
  5. When the packages have finished downloading, run the installer:
    # rhevm-setup
  6. The installer will take you through a series of interactive questions as listed in the following example. If you do not enter a value when prompted, the installer uses the default settings which are stated in [ ] brackets.

    Example 1.1. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager installation

    Welcome to RHEV Manager setup utility
    In order to proceed the installer must stop the JBoss service
    Would you like to stop the JBoss service? (yes|no): yes
    Stopping JBoss... RHEV Manager uses httpd to proxy requests to the application server.
    It looks like the httpd installed locally is being actively used.
    The installer can override current configuration.
    Alternatively you can use JBoss directly (on ports higher than 1024)
    Do you wish to override current httpd configuration and restart the service? ['yes'| 'no']  [yes] : 
    Do you wish to override current httpd configuration and restart the service? ['yes'| 'no']  [yes] : yes
    HTTP Port  [80] : 
    HTTPS Port  [443] :
    Host fully qualified domain name. Note: this name should be fully resolvable [FQDN]:
    Password for Administrator (admin@internal) :
    Confirm password :
    Organization Name for the Certificate [Default Organization Name]:
    The default storage type you will be using  ['NFS'| 'FC'| 'ISCSI']  [NFS] : ISCSI
    Enter DB type for installation ['remote'| 'local']  [local] : Local database
    password :
    Confirm password :
    Configure NFS share on this server to be used as an ISO Domain? ['yes'| 'no']  [yes] : 
    Local ISO domain path  [/usr/local/exports/iso] : 
    Firewall ports need to be opened.
    The installer can configure iptables automatically overriding the current configuration. The old configuration will be backed up.
    Alternately you can configure the firewall later using an example iptables file found under /usr/share/ovirt-engine/conf/iptables.example
    Configure iptables ? ['yes'| 'no']: yes
    
    Important points to note:
    • The default ports 80 and 443 must be available to access the manager on HTTP and HTTPS respectively.
    • If you elect to configure an NFS share it will be exported from the machine on which the manager is being installed.
    • The storage type that you select will be used to create a data center and cluster. You will then be able to attach storage to these from the Administration Portal.

  7. You are then presented with a summary of the configurations you have selected. Type yes to accept them.

    Example 1.2. Confirm Manager installation settings

    RHEV Manager will be installed using the following configuration:
    =================================================================
    override-httpd-config:         yes
    http-port:                     80
    https-port:                    443
    host-fqdn:                     rhevm-demo.name.com
    auth-pass:                     ********
    org-name:                      Organization Name
    default-dc-type:               ISCSI
    db-remote-install:             local
    db-local-pass:                 ********
    nfs-mp:                        /usr/local/exports/iso
    config-nfs:                    yes
    override-iptables:             yes
    Proceed with the configuration listed above? (yes|no): yes
    

  8. The installation commences. The following message displays, indicating that the installation was successful.

    Example 1.3. Successful installation

    Installing:
    Configuring RHEV Manager...                              [ DONE ]
    Creating CA...                                           [ DONE ]
    Editing JBoss Configuration...                           [ DONE ]
    Setting Database Configuration...                        [ DONE ]
    Setting Database Security...                             [ DONE ]
    Creating Database...                                     [ DONE ]
    Updating the Default Data Center Storage Type...         [ DONE ]
    Editing RHEV Manager Configuration...                    [ DONE ]
    Editing Postgresql Configuration...                      [ DONE ]
    Configuring the Default ISO Domain...                    [ DONE ]
    Configuring Firewall (iptables)...                       [ DONE ]
    Starting JBoss Service...                                [ DONE ]
    Configuring HTTPD...                                     [ DONE ]
    
     **** Installation completed successfully ******
    

Your Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager is now up and running. You can log in to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager's web administration portal with the username admin (the administrative user configured during installation) in the internal domain. Instructions to do so are provided at the end of this chapter.

Important

The internal domain is automatically created upon installation, however no new users can be added to this domain. To authenticate new users, you need an external directory service. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization supports Identity Management (IdM), Active Directory, and RHDS, and provides a utility called rhevm-manage-domains for attaching new directories to the system. Use of this tool is covered in the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Installation Guide.

1.3. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor

1.3.1. Registering the Host on RHN and Acquiring ISO Hypervisor Images

Summary
The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager Red Hat Network channel contains the Hypervisor packages. The Hypervisor itself is contained in the rhev-hypervisor package. Additional tools supporting USB and PXE installations are installed as dependencies. Install the Hypervisor packages on the system you plan to use to create Hypervisor boot media.
Select one of the two options below:

Procedure 1.2. Subscribing to RHN Entitlement Pools and Installing the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor Packages

  1. Subscribing to download the Hypervisor using certificate-based RHN

    1. Identify Available Entitlement Pools
      To subscribe the system to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization channels you need you must locate the identifier for the relevant entitlement pool. Use the list action in the subscription-manager to find these:
      # subscription-manager list --available | grep -A8 "Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization"
    2. Subscribe System to Entitlement Pools
      Using the pool identifiers located in the previous step, subscribe the system to Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server and Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization entitlements. Use the subscribe parameter of the subscription-manager command, and replace POOLID with one of the pool identifiers.
      # subscription-manager subscribe --pool=POOLID
  2. Subscribing to download the Hypervisor using RHN Classic

    1. Log on to Red Hat Network http://rhn.redhat.com.
    2. Move the mouse cursor over the Subscriptions link at the top of the page, and then click Registered Systems in the menu that appears.
    3. Select the system to which you are adding channels from the list on the screen by clicking the name of the system.
    4. Click Alter Channel Subscriptions in the Subscribed Channels section of the screen.
    5. Select the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager channel from the list on the screen, then click the Change Subscription button to finalize the change.
  3. Log in to the system on which the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager is installed. Log in as root.
  4. Use yum to install the rhev-hypervisor.
    # yum install rhev-hypervisor
Result
The Hypervisor ISO image is installed into the /usr/share/rhev-hypervisor/ directory. The livecd-iso-to-disk and livecd-iso-to-pxeboot scripts are installed to the /usr/bin/ directory.

Note

All version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2 and higher allow more than one version of the ISO image to be installed at one time. Because of this, /usr/share/rhev-hypervisor/rhev-hypervisor.iso is now a symbolic link to a uniquely-named version of the Hypervisor ISO image, for instance /usr/share/rhev-hypervisor/rhevh-6.2-20111006.0.el6.iso. Different versions of the image can now be installed alongside each other, allowing administrators to run and maintain a cluster on a previous version of the Hypervisor while upgrading another cluster for testing.
The symbolic links /usr/share/rhev-hypervisor/rhevh-latest6.iso and /usr/share/rhev-hypervisor/rhev-hypervisor6.iso are created. These links target the most-recently installed version of the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization ISO image.

1.3.2. Preparing Optical Hypervisor Installation Media

Summary
Burn the Hypervisor image to a CD-ROM with the wodim command. The wodim command is part of the wodim package.

Procedure 1.3. Preparing Optical Hypervisor Installation Media

  1. Verify that the wodim package is installed on the system.

    Example 1.4. Verify Installation of wodim Package

    # rpm -q wodim
    wodim-1.1.9-11.el6.x86_64
    

    If the package version is in the output the package is available.
    If nothing is listed, install wodim:
    # yum install wodim
    
  2. Insert a blank CD-ROM or DVD into your CD or DVD writer.
  3. Record the ISO file to the disc. The wodim command uses the following:
    wodim dev=device image
    This example uses the first CD-RW (/dev/cdrw) device available and the default hypervisor image location, /usr/share/rhev-hypervisor/rhev-hypervisor.iso.

    Example 1.5. Use of wodim Command

    # wodim dev=/dev/cdrw /usr/share/rhev-hypervisor/rhev-hypervisor.iso
    

Result
If no errors occurred, the Hypervisor is ready to boot. Errors sometimes occur during the recording process due to errors on the media itself. If this occurs insert another writable disk and repeat the command above.
The Hypervisor uses a program (isomd5sum) to verify the integrity of the installation media every time the Hypervisor is booted. If media errors are reported in the boot sequence you have a bad CD-ROM. Follow the procedure above to create a new CD-ROM or DVD.

1.3.3. Install Red Hat Enterprise Virtualizaton Hosts from Optical Installation Media

Now that you have registered the host with RHN, acquired the Hypervisor images, and used the Hypervisor images to create optical installation media, you will boot the system using the optical installation media.
Summary
Booting the Hypervisor from optical installation media requires the system to have a correctly defined BIOS boot configuration.
  1. Ensure that the system's BIOS is configured to boot from the CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive before proceeding.

    Note

    Refer to your manufacturer's manuals for further information on modifying the system's BIOS boot configuration.
  2. Insert the Hypervisor CD-ROM in the CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive.
  3. Reboot the system.
Result
The host's screen will display the Hypervisor boot screen.

1.3.4. Install Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisors

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor Menu navigation keys

  • Use the Up and Down arrow keys to navigate between selections. Your selections are highlighted in white.
  • The Tab key allows you to move between fields.
  • Use the Spacebar to tick check boxes, which are represented by [ ] brackets. A marked check box displays with an asterisk (*).
  • To proceed with the selected configurations, press the Enter key.

Important

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor is a closed appliance, and does not allow the installation of custom RPMs.
If you require custom RPMs, you must use Red Hat Enterprise Linux hosts. Red Hat Enterprise Linux hosts are not closed appliances, and they allow the installation of custom RPMs.

To install Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisors

  1. Insert the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor installation CD into your CD-ROM drive of the machine designated as a host. Reboot the machine. When the boot splash screen displays, press the Tab key and select Boot to boot from the hypervisor installation media. Press Enter.
  2. On the installation confirmation screen, select Install RHEV Hypervisor and press Enter.
  3. The installer automatically detects the drives attached to the system. The disk selected for booting the hypervisor is highlighted in white. Ensure that the local disk is highlighted, otherwise use the arrow keys to select the correct disk. Select Continue and press Enter.
  4. You are prompted to select the drive on which the hypervisor is to be installed. Ensure that the local disk is highlighted, otherwise use the arrow keys to select the correct disk. While multiple installation drives can be used, select only one for this evaluation. Select Continue and press Enter.
  5. Enter a password for local console access and confirm it. Select Install and press Enter. The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor partitions the local drive, then commences installation.
  6. Once installation is complete, a dialog prompts you to Reboot the hypervisor. Press Enter to confirm. Remove the installation disc.
  7. After the hypervisor has rebooted, you will be taken to a login shell. Log in as the admin user with the password you provided during installation to enter the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor management console.
  8. On the hypervisor management console, there are eight tabs on the left. Press the Up and Down keys to navigate between them and Enter to access them.
    1. Select the Network tab. Fill in the required fields as shown in the following example. Substitute the DNS Server address according to your environment.
      Configure Hypervisor network settings

      Figure 1.2. Configure Hypervisor network settings


      After you have filled in the fields, select Apply and press Enter. This saves your network settings.
    2. For this document, the eth0 device will be used to set up the management network. Select it and press Enter to access the interface configuration menu. Fill in the required fields as shown in the following example.
      Configure management network interface

      Figure 1.3. Configure management network interface


      Under IPv4 Settings, select DHCP or Static IP addressing and press Spacebar to mark the option as enabled. If using static IP addressing you must also provide the IP Address, Netmask, and Gateway. Select Apply and press Enter.
      A dialog prompts you to confirm your network settings, select OK and press Enter.
    3. Select the RHEV-M tab. Configure the following options:
      • In the Management Server field, enter rhevm.demo.redhat.com.
      • In the Management Server Port field, enter 443.
      • Tick the Connect to the RHEV Manager and Validate Certificate check box.
      • The Set RHEV-M Admin Password field allows you to specify the root password for the hypervisor, and enable SSH password authentication from the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. You do not have to fill in this field for this document.
      Select Apply and press Enter. A dialog displays, asking you to connect the hypervisor to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager and validate its certificate. Select Approve and press Enter. A message will display notifying you that the Manager configuration has been successfully updated.
    4. Under the Red Hat Network tab, you can register the host with the Red Hat Network. This enables the host to run Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machines with proper RHN entitlements. However, for the purposes of this document, the evaluation subscriptions will be used for the guests.
    5. Accept all other default settings. For information on security, logging, and kernel dump configuration, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Hypervisor Deployment Guide. The guide also covers non-interactive hypervisor installation.
    6. Finally, select the Status tab. Select Restart and press Enter to reboot the host and apply all changes.
You have now successfully installed a Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor. Repeat the above steps for each hypervisor you wish to use. The following sections will provide instructions on how to approve the hypervisors for use with the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager.

1.4. Connecting to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Web Administration Portal

Connect to the Manager administration portal

Figure 1.4. Connect to the Manager administration portal


Now that you have installed the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager and hosts, you can log in to the Manager administration portal to start configuring your virtualization environment. Use a client running Firefox to access the web-based administration portal.
  1. Open a browser and navigate to https://domain.example.com. Substitute domain.example.com with the URL provided during installation.
  2. Under the Portals heading, click Web Admin Portal
  3. If this is your first time connecting to the administration portal, Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager will issue security certificates for your browser. Click the link labelled this certificate to trust the ca.cer certificate. A pop-up displays, click Open to launch the Certificate dialog. Click Install Certificate and select to place the certificate in Trusted Root Certification Authorities store.
  4. The portal login screen displays. Enter admin as your User Name, and enter the Password that you provided during installation. Ensure that your domain is set to Internal. Click Login.
You have now successfully logged in to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization web administration portal. Here, you can configure and manage all your virtual resources.

1.5. Web Administration Portal Graphical User Interface

The administration portal graphical interface has two modes: Tree mode and flat mode. Tree mode allows you to browse the object hierarchy of a data center, and is the recommended manner of operation. On the other hand, flat mode is used for objects which are not in the data centers hierarchy, for example the Users tab which does not appear in tree mode.
The functions of the administration portal GUI are described in the following figure and list:
Administration Portal Features

Figure 1.5. Administration Portal Features


  1. Header: This bar contains the name of the logged in user, the sign out button, the option to configure user roles.
  2. Navigation Pane: This pane allows you to navigate between the Tree, Bookmarks and Tags tabs. In the Tree tab, tree mode allows you to see the entire system tree and provides a visual representation your virtualization environment's architecture.
  3. Resources Tabs: These tabs allow you to access the resources of Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization. You should already have a Default Data Center, a Default Cluster, a Host waiting to be approved, and available Storage waiting to be attached to the data center.
  4. Results List: When you select a tab, this list displays the available resources. You can perform a task on an individual item or multiple items by selecting the item(s) and then clicking the relevant action button. If an action is not possible, the button is disabled.
  5. Details Pane: When you select a resource, this pane displays its details in several subtabs. These subtabs also contain action buttons which you can use to make changes to the selected resource.
  6. Tree Pane: When you select a resource, this pane displays the details of that resource as well as the location of the resource in the system hierarchy.
  7. Events Pane: The Events pane displays the most recent events in the environment (user log in, user log out, resource additions, resource removals).
Once you are familiar with the layout of the administration portal, you can start configuring your virtual environment. Begin by approving your Hypervisor hosts for use, as detailed in the next section.

1.6. Approve the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor

At this point you should already have a Default data center and a Default cluster, which have been automatically created during the Manager installation. In addition, the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisors you installed earlier should have been automatically detected by the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager and attached to the Default cluster of the Default data center.
However, before they can be used, they require a click of approval from the administration portal. Perform the following procedure for each hypervisor.

To approve the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor hosts

  1. Navigate to the Tree pane and click the Expand All button. Under the Default cluster, click the Hosts icon. The Hosts tab displays a list of available hypervisors.
  2. Select your hypervisor and click the Approve button. The Edit and Approve Host dialog displays. Accept the defaults or make changes as necessary, then click OK.
    Approve Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor

    Figure 1.6. Approve Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor


  3. A dialog appears, indicating that you have not configured Power Management for this host. For the purpose of this lab, click OK to continue. The host goes through a brief installation cycle. When complete, the host status changes from Non Operational to Up.
Note that both the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisors that you have approved were attached to the same host cluster, which means that they share the same network infrastructure, the same storage and the same type of CPU, therefore they can migrate virtual machines from one to the other. You can learn how to create new host clusters in Advanced Lab 7 - Add Additional Data Center.
Now that you have finished configuring your physical servers for use as the Manager, Hypervisors and administration portal client respectively, you are ready to customize and deploy virtual resources including logical networks, storage domains and virtual machines.

1.7. Configure Logical Networks

Now that you have a data center with hosts grouped in a cluster, you need to define and apply the networking layer. When you installed the system, a management network was already defined. However new networks, for example data, storage or display can be added to enhance network speed and performance. In addition, other networks can be used to segregate virtual machine traffic from the management networks, or isolate traffic between groups of virtual machines in the same cluster. In Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager, network definition, type and function are encapsulated in a logical entity called a Logical Network.
A logical network is assigned as a required resource of a cluster in a data center, and by extension all hosts in a cluster must have the same set of logical networks implemented. The implementation itself may vary from host to host (IP and bonding properties). Therefore, to configure a network, you need to first define the network and then apply this network to each host. By default the management network (rhevm) is defined for a data center.
In this lab, you will create an additional storage network and add it to your hosts. In the following example you will define additional network for the storage, which will be useful when using NAS storage like NFS or iSCSI.

Defining Logical Networks in a Cluster

  1. Navigate to the Tree pane and click the Expand All button. Under System, click Default. On the results list, the Default data center displays.
  2. On the details pane, select the Logical Networks subtab. This displays the existing logical networks. At this stage only the default rhevm network is listed.
  3. Click New. The New Logical Network dialog displays. Fill in the Name and Description fields, clear the VM network check box, and select the Attach check box under Attach/Detach Network to/From Cluster(s) to add the Storage network to the Default data center.
  4. Click OK to create the new logical network.
Now that you have defined this network as a resource required by the default cluster in the data center, it is time to add this resource to the hosts in the cluster.

Adding a Network to a Host

  1. Back on the Tree pane, click DefaultClustersDefaultHosts. The Hosts tab displays a list of available hosts.
  2. For each of your installed hosts, perform the following tasks:
    1. Click on the host. On the details pane, select the Network Interfaces tab.
    2. A list of network interfaces available for this host displays. One of them will already have the management network (rhevm) configured.
    3. Select the interface on which to configure the Storage network and click the Setup Host Networks button. The Setup Host Networks dialog displays.
      Setup Host Networks interface

      Figure 1.7. Setup Host Networks interface


      Configure the following options:
      • Drag the network "Storage" from the Unassigned Logical Networks column to the Assigned Logical Networks column and drop it. The network called "Storage" is now associated with the virtual network interface listed in the row to the left of where you dropped the logical network.
      • Click the pencil-shaped icon on the "Storage" network in the Assigned Logical Networks column.
      • Select the Static radio button. Enter the IP and Subnet Mask you have prepared as part of the prerequisites to this lab.
      • Select the Save network configuration check box.
    4. Click OK.
You have now added a new storage network to your data center, and attached the network to your hosts. On the Logical Networks tab of the Default data center, you should have at least two networks - rhevm and storage. Now, you can add storage to the system.

1.8. Configuring Storage

After configuring your logical networks, you need to add storage to your data center.
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization uses a centralized shared storage system for virtual machine disk images and snapshots. Storage can be implemented using Network File System (NFS), Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) or Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP). Storage definition, type and function, are encapsulated in a logical entity called a Storage Domain. Multiple storage domains can be used in a Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment.

Note

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization 3.1 supports passing mount options for all POSIX-compliant filesystems. This includes GPFS, GFS, pNFS, and gluster. For more information refer to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization 3.1 Administration Guide.
For this lab you will use two types of storage domains. The first is an NFS share for ISO images of installation media. You have already created this ISO domain during the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager installation.
The second storage domain will be used to hold virtual machine disk images. For this domain, you need at least one of the supported storage types. You have already set a default storage type during installation. Ensure that you use the same type when creating your data domain.

Select your next step by checking the storage type you should use:

  1. Navigate to the Tree pane and click the Expand All button. Under System, click Default. On the results list, the Default data center displays.
  2. On the data center entry, the Storage Type column displays the type you should add.
  3. Now that you have verified the storage type, create the storage domain:
    • For NFS storage, refer to Creating an NFS Data Domain.
    • For iSCSI storage, refer to Creating an iSCSI Data Domain.
    • For FCP storage, refer to Creating an FCP Data Domain.

1.9. Configuring Storage

1.9.1. Creating an NFS Data Domain

Because you have selected NFS as your default storage type during the Manager installation, you will now create an NFS storage domain. An NFS type storage domain is a mounted NFS share that is attached to a data center and used to provide storage for virtual machine disk images.

Important

If you are using NFS storage, you must first create and export the directories to be used as storage domains from the NFS server. These directories must have their numerical user and group ownership set to 36:36 on the NFS server, to correspond to the vdsm user and kvm group respectively on the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager server. In addition, these directories must be exported with the read write options (rw). For more information see the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Installation Guide.

To add NFS storage

  1. Navigate to the Tree pane and click the Expand All button. Under System, select the Default data center and click on Storage. The available storage domains display on the results list. Click New Domain.
  2. The New Domain window displays.
    Add NFS Storage - New Domain Window

    Figure 1.8. Add NFS Storage - New Domain Window


    Configure the following options:
    1. Name: Enter NFS-share.
    2. Data Center: The Default data center is already pre-selected.
    3. Domain Function / Storage Type: The Data/ NFS option is already pre-selected because during installation you set NFS as your data center's default storage type. The storage domain types which are not compatible with the Data Center will not be available.
    4. Use Host: Select any of the hosts from the drop down menu. Only hosts which belong in this data center will display in this list.
    5. Export Path: Enter the IP address or a resolvable hostname of the chosen host. The export path should be in the format of 192.168.0.10:/Images/NFS-Share or domain.example.com:/Images/NFS-Share.
  3. Click OK. The new NFS-share data domain displays on the Storage tab. It will remain with a Locked status while it is being prepared for use. When ready, it is automatically attached to the data center.
You have created an NFS storage domain. Now, you need to attach an ISO domain to the data center and upload installation images so you can use them to create virtual machines.

1.9.2. Creating an iSCSI Data Domain

Because you have selected iSCSI as your default storage type during the Manager installation, you will now create an iSCSI storage domain. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization platform supports iSCSI storage domains spanning multiple pre-defined Logical Unit Numbers (LUNs).

To add iSCSI storage

  1. Navigate to the Tree pane and click the Expand All button. Under System, select the Default data center and click on Storage. The available storage domains display on the results list. Click New Domain.
  2. The New Domain dialog box displays.
    Add iSCSI Storage

    Figure 1.9. Add iSCSI Storage


    Configure the following options:
    1. Name: Enter ISCSI-share.
    2. Data Center: The Default data center is already pre-selected.
    3. Domain Function / Storage Type: The Data/ iSCSI option is already pre-selected because during installation you set iSCSI as your data center's default storage type. The storage domain types which are not compatible with the Data Center will not be available.
    4. Use Host: Select any of the available hosts from the drop down menu. Only hosts which belong in this data center will display in this list.
  3. To connect to the iSCSI target, enter the required information under the Discover Targets bar.
    Discover iSCSI target

    Figure 1.10. Discover iSCSI target


    1. Address: Enter the address of the iSCSI target.
    2. Port: Select the port to connect to. The default is 3260.
    3. User Authentication: If required, enter the username and password.
    Click the Discover button to find the targets. The iSCSI targets display in the results list with a Login button for each target.
  4. Click Login on the first target to display the list of existing LUNs. Click the + icon under the Target Name to expand the LUN list. Tick the Add LUN check box to use the selected LUN as the iSCSI data domain. LUNs that are part of a storage domain in the current setup are disabled. LUNs used by the host (that is, LUNs that are either part of a volume group or that are used as partitions by other devices) display as being in use. You can choose LUNs that are in use, but you will have to forcefully override their contents.
    Attach LUNs to iSCSI domain

    Figure 1.11. Attach LUNs to iSCSI domain


  5. Click OK. The new iSCSI-share data domain displays on the Storage tab. It will remain with a Locked status while it is being prepared for use. When ready, it is automatically attached to the data center.
You have created an iSCSI storage domain. Now, you need to attach an ISO domain to the data center and upload installation images so you can use them to create virtual machines.

1.9.3. Creating an FCP Data Domain

Because you have selected FCP as your default storage type during the Manager installation, you will now create an FCP storage domain. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization platform supports FCP storage domains spanning multiple pre-defined Logical Unit Numbers (LUNs).

To add FCP storage

  1. Navigate to the Tree pane and click the Expand All button. Under System, select the Default data center and click on Storage. The available storage domains display on the results list. Click New Domain.
  2. The New Domain dialog box displays.
    Add FCP Storage

    Figure 1.12. Add FCP Storage


    Configure the following options:
    1. Name: Enter FCP-share.
    2. Data Center: The Default data center is already pre-selected.
    3. Domain Function / Storage Type: The Data/ Fibre Channel option is already pre-selected because during installation you set FC as your data center's default storage type. The storage domain types which are not compatible with the Data Center will not be available.
    4. Use Host: Select any of the hosts from the drop down menu. Only hosts which belong in this data center will display in this list. Ensure that the LUN you intend to use is available on the host you select. LUNs that are part of a storage domain in the current setup are disabled. LUNs used by the host (that is, LUNs that are either part of a volume group or that are used as partitions by other devices) display as being in use. You can choose LUNs that are in use, but you will have to forcefully override their contents.
    5. The list of existing LUNs display. On the selected LUN, select the Add LUN check box to use it as the FCP data domain.
  3. Click OK. The new FCP-share data domain displays on the Storage tab. It will remain with a Locked status while it is being prepared for use. When ready, it is automatically attached to the data center.
You have created an FCP storage domain. Now, you need to attach an ISO domain to the data center and upload installation images so you can use them to create virtual machines.

1.10. Attach and Populate ISO Domains

You have defined your first storage domain to store virtual guest data, now it is time to configure your second storage domain, which will be used to store installation images for creating virtual machines. You have already created an ISO domain during the installation of the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. To use this ISO domain, attach it to the same data center which contains the local storage domain.

To attach the ISO domain

  1. Navigate to the Tree pane and click the Expand All button. Click the Atlantic-Local data center. On the results list, the Atlantic-Local data center displays.
  2. On the details pane, select the Storage tab and click the Attach ISO button.
  3. The Attach ISO Library dialog appears with the available ISO domain. Select the local-iso-share domain and click OK.
    Attach ISO Library

    Figure 1.13. Attach ISO Library


  4. The ISO domain appears in the results list of the Storage tab. It displays with the Locked status as the domain is being validated, then transits to Inactive.
  5. Select the ISO domain and click the Activate button. The status changes to Locked and then to Active.
Media images (CD-ROM or DVD-ROM in the form of ISO images) must be available in the ISO repository for the virtual machines to use. To do so, Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization provides a utility that copies the images and sets the appropriate permissions on the file. For this lab, both the file provided to the utility and the ISO share have to be accessible from the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager.
Log in to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager server console to upload images to the ISO domain.

To upload ISO images

  1. Create or acquire the appropriate ISO images from boot media. Ensure the path to these images is accessible from the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager server.
  2. The next step is to upload these files. First, determine the available ISO domains by running:
    # rhevm-iso-uploader list
    You will be prompted to provide the admin user password which you are using to connect to the administration portal. The tool lists the name of the ISO domain that you have already attached in the previous lab:
    ISO Storage Domain List:
    local-iso-share
    Now you have all the information required to upload the required files. To copy your installation images to the ISO domain, run:
    # rhevm-iso-uploader upload -i local-iso-share [file1] [file2] .... [fileN]
  3. After the images have been loaded, check that they are available for use in the Manager administration portal.
    1. Navigate to the Tree and click the Expand All button. Click Storage
    2. On the Storage tab, click local-iso-share to display its details pane.
    3. Select the Images subtab. The list of available images should be populated with the files which you have uploaded. In addition, the RHEV-toolsSetup.iso and virtio-win.vfd images should have been automatically uploaded during installation.
Now that you have successfully prepared the ISO domain for use, you have completed Lab 1 and are ready to start creating virtual machines.

1.11. Lab 1 - summary

You have reached your first Track A goal of setting up and configuring the infrastructure required to create and run virtual machines. You have successfully installed the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager and Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisors, defined logical networks for storage devices, attached storage domains to the data center, and prepared ISO images.
The next lab on Track A teaches you how to create Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machines and templates.

Chapter 2. Lab 2 - Creating virtual machines

2.1. Lab 2 - Objectives

This lab takes you through the tasks necessary to create Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machines. In addition, you will learn how to create and use virtual machine templates. This lab should take you about 25 minutes.
This lab shows you how to create a new Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machine, configure storage and networking, and install the operating system. (10 minutes)
You will also learn how to use the Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machine as a basis to create a template. (10 minutes)
Finally, you will learn how to clone a virtual machine from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux template. (5 minutes)

2.2. Creating a Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machine

In your current configuration, you should have at least one host available for running virtual machines, and the required installation images in your ISO domain. This section guides you through the creation of a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 virtual server. You will perform a normal attended installation using a virtual DVD.
You have now created your first Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machine. Before you can use your virtual machine, install an operating system on it.

To create a Red Hat Enterprise Linux server

  1. Navigate to the Tree pane and click Expand All. Click the VMs icon in the Default cluster under the Default data center. On the Virtual Machines tab, click New Server.
    Create new Red Hat Enterprise Linux server

    Figure 2.1. Create new Red Hat Enterprise Linux server


    Fill in the Name field, set the Memory Size to 1 GB, and set the Operating System to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.x. You may alter other settings but this example retains the defaults. Click OK to create the virtual machine.
  2. A New Virtual Machine - Guide Me window opens. This allows you to define networks for the virtual machine. Click Configure Network Interfaces.
    New Network Interface configurations

    Figure 2.2. New Network Interface configurations


    Retain all the default settings and click OK.

    Note

    Red Hat VirtIO is the default selection for Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machines. This para-virtualizes network traffic to the guest and improves performance.
  3. You are returned to the Guide Me window. This time, click Configure Virtual Disks to add storage to the virtual machine.
    New Virtual Disk configurations

    Figure 2.3. New Virtual Disk configurations


    In the Size (GB) field, enter 15. Retain all other default settings and click OK.
  4. Click Configure Later to close the Guide Me window. Your new Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 virtual machine displays in the Virtual Machines tab.
You can now connect to your Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 virtual machine and start using it.

2.3. Creating Red Hat Enterprise Linux templates

Now that you have created a Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machine, you can save its settings into a template. This template will retain the original virtual machine's configurations, including virtual disk and network interface settings, operating systems and applications. You can use this template to rapidly create replicas of the original virtual machine.
Before your virtual machine can be used to create a template, it has to be sealed . This ensures that machine-specific settings are not propagated through the template.
You have prepared a virtual machine template for use. You can now clone Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machines using this template.

2.4. Creating a Template from a Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtual Machine

Creating a Template from a Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtual Machine

  1. Back in the administration portal, click the VMs icon on the Virtual Machines tab, select the sealed Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 virtual machine. Ensure that its status is Down.
  2. Click Make Template. The New Virtual Machine Template displays.
    Make new virtual machine template

    Figure 2.4. Make new virtual machine template


    Enter a suitable Name and Description for the template. Retain all the other default settings and click OK.
  3. On the Tree pane, click Templates. On the Templates tab, the template displays the "Image Locked" status icon while it is being created. During this time, the action buttons for the template remain disabled. Once created, the action buttons are enabled and the template is ready for use.

2.5. Sealing a Linux Virtual Machine for Deployment as a Template

Summary
Generalize (seal) a Linux virtual machine before making it into a template. This prevents conflicts between virtual machines deployed from the template.

Procedure 2.1. Sealing a Linux Virtual Machine

  1. Log in to the virtual machine. Flag the system for re-configuration by running the following command as root:
    # touch /.unconfigured
  2. Remove ssh host keys. Run:
    # rm -rf /etc/ssh/ssh_host_*
  3. Set HOSTNAME=localhost.localdomain in /etc/sysconfig/network
  4. Remove /etc/udev/rules.d/70-*. Run:
    # rm -rf /etc/udev/rules.d/70-*
  5. Remove the HWADDR= line from /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth*.
  6. Optionally delete all the logs from /var/log and build logs from /root.
  7. Shut down the virtual machine. Run:
    # poweroff
Result
The virtual machine is sealed and can be made into a template. You can deploy Linux virtual machines from this template without experiencing configuration file conflicts.

2.6. Creating a Template from a Red Hat Enterprise Linux Virtual Machine

To create a template from a Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machine

  1. Back in the administration portal, click the VMs icon on the Virtual Machines tab, select the sealed Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 virtual machine. Ensure that its status is Down.
  2. Click Make Template. The New Virtual Machine Template displays.
    Make new virtual machine template

    Figure 2.5. Make new virtual machine template


    Enter a suitable Name and Description for the template. Retain all the other default settings and click OK.
  3. On the Tree pane, click Templates. On the Templates tab, the template displays the "Image Locked" status icon while it is being created. During this time, the action buttons for the template remain disabled. Once created, the action buttons are enabled and the template is ready for use.
You have prepared a virtual machine template for use. You can now clone Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machines using this template.

2.7. Cloning a Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machine from a template

  1. Navigate to the Tree pane and click Expand All. Click the VMs icon in the Default cluster under the Default data center. On the Virtual Machines tab, click New Server.
    Clone a Linux server

    Figure 2.6. Clone a Linux server


    1. On the General tab, select your newly created Red Hat Enterprise Linux template from the Based on Template list.
    2. Enter a suitable Name and Description, and accept the default values inherited from the template in the rest of the fields. You can change them if needed.
    3. Click the Resource Allocation tab. On the Provisioning field, click the drop down menu and select the Clone option. Set the clone method under Disk to Preallocated.
  2. Retain all other default settings and click OK to create the virtual machine. The virtual machine displays in the Virtual Machines list with a status of "Image Locked" until the virtual disk is created. The virtual disk and networking settings are inherited from the template, and do not have to be reconfigured.
  3. Click the Run icon to turn it on. This time, the Run Once steps are not required as the operating system has already been installed onto the virtual machine hard drive. Click the green Console button to connect to the virtual machine.

2.8. Lab 2 - Summary

You have reached your second Track A and second Track B goals respectively to create and prepare virtual machines for use. In this lab, you have successfully created Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machines, installed operating systems, defined storage and networks for the virtual machines, and utilized templates to deploy virtual machines.
  • The next lab on Track A teaches you how to activate virtual machine live migration for occasions when your hardware is experiencing downtime.
  • The next lab on Track B teaches you how to create and manage virtual machines in the Power User Portal.

Chapter 3. Lab 3 - Live migration scenarios

3.1. Lab 3 - Objectives

This lab takes you through the tasks of optimizing your host clusters so you can activate virtual machine live migration when necessary. This lab should take you about 10 minutes.
It shows you how to live migrate virtual machines from host to host. (2 minutes)
It demonstrates virtual machine automatic live migration when a host is placed in maintenance mode. (3 minutes)
It shows you how to define a cluster power saving policy, then demonstrates virtual machine live migration when a host is loaded beyond its threshold. (5 minutes)

3.2. Live migration scenarios

Live migration enables you to move a virtual machine to another host while the machine and its applications are still running. You can activate automatic live migration for occasions when you perform hardware maintenance or if your hosts become non-operational, and your virtual machines will be migrated with no interruptions or delay. At the end of this lab you will have configured cluster policies and be able to balance your hosts' workloads.
This lab is intended for Track A. It assumes that you have successfully completed Red Hat Enterprise Virtual Machine setup and that you have at least two virtual machines running on your hosts.

3.3. Activating live migration

Now that you have several virtual machines running on each host, you can configure live migration. This provides a backup for the virtual machines - if they are running mission critical workloads, and cannot be powered off, you need to ensure that they must always have a host available to run on. Live migration allows you to move virtual machines to different hosts should the host they are running on experience scheduled or unscheduled downtime, without causing the virtual machine's operations to be suspended.
In this example, you will see how virtual machines are live migrated from one host to any of the available hosts in the same cluster.

To live migrate virtual machines

  1. Navigate to the Tree pane and click Expand All. Under Clusters, click the VMs icon. The list of available virtual machines is displayed in the Virtual Machines tab.
  2. Select one or more virtual machines and click Migrate. The Migrate Virtual Machines dialog displays.
    Live migrate a virtual machine to another host

    Figure 3.1. Live migrate a virtual machine to another host


    You can select a target host, or allow the system to automatically select one of the available hosts in the cluster. In this case, use the default option.
  3. Click OK. The virtual machines will live migrate to another host in the cluster.

3.4. Moving hosts into maintenance mode

In the previous section you watched a user-triggered live migration of virtual machines. Manually activating live migration is useful for occasions when hosts are brought down for maintenance. The virtual machines on the host which is being placed into maintenance can be automatically live migrated to another host in the cluster, provided that power management has been properly configured for the hosts. More information on configuring power management can be found in Advanced Lab 6 - High Availability Scenarios.

To move a host into maintenance mode

  1. Navigate to the Tree pane and click Expand All. Under Clusters, click the Hosts icon. The list of available hosts is displayed in the Hosts tab.
  2. Select the host and click the Maintenance button. In this example, select the Atlantic host.
    Move a host into maintenance

    Figure 3.2. Move a host into maintenance


  3. Click OK. This migrates all virtual machines to alternative hosts, and places the Atlantic host into maintenance. The Status field of the host changes to Preparing for Maintenance, followed by Maintenance. The icon changes to indicate that the host is in maintenance.
  4. Now, it is safe to perform an upgrade, or any other schedule maintenance, on the host. After you have completed your maintenance, reactivate the host by selecting it and clicking the Activate button.

3.5. Defining cluster policies

Until now, you have worked without a specific cluster policy. The virtual machines were started on a host selected on round robin logic; as long as there are available resources on the host, virtual machines can be migrated onto it. Furthermore, there was no load balancing of running virtual machines. For example, a virtual machine will remain on the host it was run initially unless it is specifically moved, either by user triggered migration (maintenance mode or manual virtual machine migration) or by a system high availability event (this will be explained in the advanced High Availability lab). Cluster policy allows you to better control the scheduling of virtual machines and to perform load balancing.
Two types of policies are available:
  • Even Distribution: You can set a maximum service level threshold for the hosts in the cluster. If a host is above the threshold, then the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager will live migrate virtual machines off this host to other hosts in the cluster, as long as the other hosts' loads are below this threshold. This affects the scheduling of running new machines in a similar manner.
  • Power Saving: This is a superset of the even distribution policy. A low threshold is set for consolidating virtual machines. If a server in the cluster drops below the threshold, then the virtual machines on this server are live migrated to other servers in the cluster, as long as the other servers are not above the maximum service level threshold.
In the following example you will set and test both thresholds.

To configure cluster load and power management policies

  1. Navigate to the Tree pane and click Expand All. Click the Default cluster icon, the Clusters tab displays in the results list. Select the Default cluster to display its details pane.
  2. On the General subtab, you can see that the policy is set to None. Click Edit Policy. The Edit Policy dialog displays.
  3. Use the slider to set the thresholds. In this example, you will select the Power Saving policy, and set the minimum and maximum levels to 30% and 70% respectively.
    Define power saving policy for host cluster

    Figure 3.3. Define power saving policy for host cluster


  4. You can also set the time (in minutes) that a host should remain under or above the specified thresholds before the policy is applied. This is to prevent a transient load from triggering unnecessary load balancing. Set this according to the desired response time, this example retains the defaults.
  5. Click OK to set the policy for the cluster.
Now you can test these new settings. After the maintenance lab you now have a host (Atlantic) that does not have any virtual machines running. Select one of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machines and load it, then watch as the hosts in the cluster balance the virtual machines' workloads.

3.6. Lab 3 - Summary

You have reached your third Track A goal to configure cluster policies for virtual machine live migration. In this lab, you have live migrated virtual machines when a host is brought down for maintenance, and configured a cluster policy to activate virtual machine live migration when the host's workload exceeds its defined threshold.
The next lab on Track A teaches you how to create and manage virtual machines in the Power User Portal.

Chapter 4. Lab 4 - Power User Portal

4.1. Lab 4 - Objectives

The power user portal is a trimmed-down version of the administration portal, tailored for end user self provisioning of virtual machines. It is simultaneously a gateway for logging in to virtual machines, and also a platform to create virtual machines and manage resources specific to those virtual machines. This lab illustrates the functions of the power user portal, which is available to users with PowerUserRole permissions. At the end of this lab you will be able to create and manage virtual machines from the power user portal.
This lab assumes that you have correctly installed and configured Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization so you can log in to the power user portal. You should have at least two running virtual machines in your environment.
To log in to the power user portal, you need a Red Hat Enterprise Linux client running Mozilla Firefox 3.5 and higher (you can use your Manager server).
Lab 4 - Objectives
This lab takes you through the tasks necessary to create virtual machines from the power user portal and assign user permissions. This lab should take you about 35 minutes.

4.2. Adding IdM domains

Previously, you have logged in to the administration portal as the admin user on the internal domain, which was automatically set up during the installation of the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. However, to authenticate new users, you need an external directory service. The term directory service refers to the collection of software, hardware, and processes that store information about an enterprise, subscribers, or both, and make that information available to users. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization supports Identity Management (IdM), Red Hat Directory Service (RHDS), and Active Directory.
This lab assumes that you already have an existing IdM directory service. However if you need further assistance to install and configure IdM, see the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Enterprise Identity Management Guide. In this lab, you will attach an IdM domain to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager using the rhevm-manage-domains tool, and create users in the IdM directory. Alternatively, if you have an Active Directory setup, you can attach it to the manager and use it for this lab.
Perform the following procedure on the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager server.
  1. Log in to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager server console.
  2. Run the following command, and provide the domain administrator password when prompted:
    # rhevm-manage-domains -action=add -domain=ipadomain.demo.redhat.com -user=admin -interactive
  3. Restart the service for the changes to be applied across the system.
    # service ovirt-engine restart
    Restarting the ovirt-engine service disconnects you from the administration portal. After a few minutes, the restart completes, and the IdM domain is added to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager.

4.3. Adding new users in the IdM directory

Before you can add users in the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager, you must first add them the IdM directory. For this track, you need at least two users. The names used in this guide are rhevpower and rhevuser. Perform the following procedure on the Manager server.
  1. To add users you must first authenticate as the directory server administrator. Use the kinit admin command to do this, entering the administrator password when prompted.
    $ kinit admin
    Password for admin@DIRECTORY.DEMO.REDHAT.COM:
    
  2. To add a user interactively use the ipa user-add command. The command will prompt you for all values required to create the user.
    $ ipa user-add
      First name: RHEV
      Last name: User
      User login [rhevuser]:
      ---------------------
      Added user "rhevuser"
      ---------------------
      User login: rhevuser
      First name: RHEV
      Last name: User
      Full name: RHEV User
      Display name: RHEV User
      Initials: RU
      Home directory: /home/rhevuser
      GECOS field: rhevuser
      Login shell: /bin/sh
      Kerberos principal: rhevuser@DIRECTORY.DEMO.REDHAT.COM
      UID: 1316000004
  3. To allow the new user to log in you must set their initial password. Use the ipa passwd command, followed by the username for which you are setting the password, to do this.
    $ ipa passwd rhevuser
    Password: 
    Enter Password again to verify: 
    ----------------------------------------------------------
    Changed password for "rhevuser@DIRECTORY.DEMO.REDHAT.COM"
    ----------------------------------------------------------
    
  4. A new user has been added to the directory server and their password has been set. You are now able to add them to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. For this track, repeat steps 2 and 3 for another user called rhevpower and as necessary if you wish to use other users.
Now you know how to create users for Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization. Next you will learn how to assign roles and privileges to these users.

4.4. PowerUserRole permission assignment

A Power User can perform some administrative functions in the User Portal, including creating and editing virtual machines, creating templates, and working with snapshots. In addition, a Power User who creates a virtual machine from the User Portal will be automatically assigned to the virtual machine. A Power User has permissions for the assigned virtual machine only, not for all virtual machines in the enterprise.
In Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager, permissions are set on system objects, including data centers, clusters and virtual machines. This permission is user specific, while the scope of permission is defined by the user role.
For a user to log in to the power user portal, the user must have power user permissions on any system object. However, in order to allow a user to create both virtual machines and templates, as you are going to do in this lab, the permission has to be assigned for the data center level.
Perform this procedure in the administration portal as the admin user in the internal domain.

To assign PowerUserRole permissions on a data center

  1. On the Tree pane, click Expand All and select the Default data center. On the Data Center tab, select the Default data center to display the details pane, and click the Permissions subtab.
    Add permission to user

    Figure 4.1. Add permission to user


  2. Click Add to add an existing user. The Add Permission to User dialog displays. Under the Search fields, select ipadomain.demo.redhat.com on the drop-down menu and enter rhevpower in the textbox. Click Go.
  3. Select the check box of rhevpower to be assigned the permissions. Select the Assign role to user drop-down list and select PowerUserRole.
    Add PowerUserRole permission

    Figure 4.2. Add PowerUserRole permission


  4. Click OK. The name of the user displays in the Permissions tab, with an icon and the assigned role.
    List of user permissions

    Figure 4.3. List of user permissions


While you have assigned permissions for the user rhevpower to make administrative changes to the data center, this user does not automatically inherit power user permissions for the existing virtual machines in the data center. To do so, repeat the previous procedure, substituting data center for the existing virtual machines.

4.5. Assigning PowerUserRole permissions on existing virtual machines

While you have assigned permissions for the user rhevpower to make administrative changes to the data center, this user does not automatically inherit power user permissions for the existing virtual machines in the data center. To do so, repeat the previous procedure, substituting data center for the existing virtual machines.
  1. On the Tree pane, select the VMs icon under the Default data center. A list of virtual machine displays in the Virtual Machines tab. Select the first virtual machine you created, RHEL6Thames.
  2. Click the Permissions subtab on the details pane and click Add. The Add Permission to User dialog displays. Under the Search fields, select ipadomain.demo.redhat.com on the drop-down menu and enter rhevpower in the textbox. Click Go.
  3. Select the checkbox of rhevpower to be assigned the permissions and select PowerUserRole from the list of permissions. Click OK.
You have now enabled rhevpower to create virtual machines in the Default data center from the power user portal.

4.6. Logging in to the Power User Portal

Now that you have created a Power User who has full permissions to an existing virtual machine, log in as rhevpower to the User Portal. You can use either the same client that you are using for the administration portal, or any Red Hat Enterprise Linux client running Mozilla Firefox.
If you are using a Red Hat Enterprise Linux client, install the SPICE plug-in before logging in to the User Portal. Run:
# yum install spice-xpi
You have now successfully logged into the User Portal. Here, you can access and monitor all the virtual machines that are available to you. The functions are briefly described in the following figure and list:

To log in to the User Portal

  1. Open your browser and navigate to https://rhevm.demo.redhat.com/UserPortal.
  2. The login screen displays. Enter your User Name and Password, and select the ipadomain.demo.redhat.com domain in the drop-down menu. Click Login.
You have now successfully logged into the User Portal. Here, you can access and monitor all the virtual machines that are available to you. The functions are briefly described in the following figure and list:
The Power User Portal

Figure 4.4. The Power User Portal


  1. Title bar: This bar displays the name of the User logged in to the portal and the Sign out button.
  2. Portal view: The Extended view of the User Portal displays by default for power users. You can also switch to the Basic view, which is the default for users with basic permissions. You will be using the Basic portal in Advanced Lab 8 - Virtual Desktops.
  3. Navigation pane: This pane toggles between displaying Virtual Machines, Templates and Resources. When a tab is selected, the available virtual resources display. This example uses the Virtual Machines tab.
  4. Management bar: The buttons on this bar enable you to create and make changes to virtual machines.
  5. Virtual machine name: This list displays the virtual machine's name, operating system logo and status of the virtual machine (running, paused or powered off).
  6. Power buttons: These buttons allow you to play, stop, pause or power off a virtual machine.
  7. Connect button: The Console button allows you to connect to virtual machines.
  8. Details pane: Clicking on a virtual machine displays its statistics in this pane. You can view a virtual machine's details in the General, Events, Applications and Monitor subtabs, and make configuration changes in the Network Interfaces, Virtual Disks, Snapshots and Permissions subtabs.
Once you are familiar with the layout of the power user portal, you can start creating virtual machines, as instructed in the next section.

4.7. Logging in to the User Portal

  1. Open your browser and navigate to https://rhevm.demo.redhat.com:8443/UserPortal.
  2. The login screen displays. Enter your User Name and Password, and select the ipadomain.demo.redhat.com domain in the drop-down menu. Click Login.

4.8. Creating Linux desktop virtual machines

  1. Ensure that you are on the Extended User Portal. Click New Server. A New Server Virtual Machine window displays.
    New Server

    Figure 4.5. New Server


    1. On the General tab, select the EngRHEL6Base template from the Based On Template field.
    2. Enter a suitable Name and Description, and accept the default values inherited from the template in the rest of the fields. You can change them if needed.
    3. Click the Resource Allocation tab. On the Provisioning field, click the drop down menu and select the Clone option. Set the clone method under Disks to Preallocated.
  2. Retain all other default settings and click OK to create the virtual machine.

4.9. Opening virtual machine consoles

  1. Select RHEL6Erie and click the Play button. The virtual machine powers up.
  2. When the virtual machine is turned on, the green Play symbol appears next to its name. The virtual machine is now ready for connection.
    Virtual machine turned on

    Figure 4.6. Virtual machine turned on


  3. Click the Console button to connect to the virtual machine.
  4. A SPICE console window of the virtual machine displays. You can now use the virtual machine in the same way you would use a physical desktop.

4.10. Making templates from virtual machines

  1. On the Virtual Machines tab, select the virtual machine you wish to use as a basis to create a template. Ensure that it is powered down, then click Make Template.
    Make Template

    Figure 4.7. Make Template


  2. The New Template dialog displays.
    Create New Template

    Figure 4.8. Create New Template


    Enter information in the following fields:
    • Name: Name of the new template.
    • Description: Description of the new template.
    • Host Cluster: The host cluster for the virtual machines using this template.
    • Storage Domain: The storage domain for the virtual machines using the template.
    • Allow all users to access this template: Ticking this checkbox allows the template to be accessed by all users. For this lab, leave this checkbox unmarked.
  3. Click OK. The virtual machine will be locked while the template is being created. Once created, select the Templates tab in the navigation pane. The newly created template displays in the results list.

4.11. Verifying virtual machine template permissions

Now that you have created a virtual machine and a template in the power user portal, make sure that the changes you made have been applied in the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager administration portal.
Perform this procedure in the administration portal as the admin user.

Virtual Machine

  1. Select the Virtual Machines tab. Verify that the virtual machine you created from the User Portal, RHEL6Erie, appears in the results list.
  2. Click on the RHEL6Erie virtual machine and look at the details pane. Click on the Permissions tab and check if the user named rhevpower has inherited UserVmManager permissions for this virtual machine.

Template

  1. Select the Templates tab. Verify that the template you created from the User Portal, appears in the results list.
  2. Click on the PrivateRHEL6 template and look at the details pane. Click on the Permissions tab. As the creator of the template, rhevpower should have inherited PowerUserRole permissions. Meanwhile admin, as the administrative user for all components in the system, should have inherited SuperUser permissions for the template. Nobody else can use this template unless they are given permissions by the existing permitted users.
  3. In contrast, click on the EngRHEL6Base template, which was marked public. On the Permissions tab, Everyone has been assigned UserTemplateBasedVm permissions, meaning that all users in the system can access this template.

4.12. Lab 4 - Summary

You have now completed the User Portal Lab. In this lab, you successfully created virtual machines from the power user portal and assigned permissions for users to access virtual machines and templates.
This is the last basic lab for Tracks A and B. You can proceed with the Advanced Labs, which demonstrate further features of Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization, including a flexible system to manage administrative users, power saving policies, and methods of deploying Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization in a large organization.

Chapter 5. Lab 5 - Managing Multi-Level Administrators

5.1. Lab 5 - Objectives

This lab introduces you to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization's multi-level administration system. Multi-level administration presents a hierarchy of permissions that can be configured to provide finely grained levels of permissions as required by your enterprise. You have already been partially introduced to this system when you granted permissions to users on virtual machines and data centers in the Power User Portal chapter.
Permissions enable users to perform actions on objects, where objects are either individual objects or container objects. Any permissions that apply to a container object also apply to all members of that container. For example, when a host administrator role is applied to a user on a specific host, the user will have permissions to perform any of the available host operations, but on the assigned host only. However, if a host administrator role is applied on a data center to a user, the user will gain permissions to perform host operations on all hosts within the cluster of the data center. If there are additional host clusters in the data center, the user will not be able to make changes to the hosts.
This lab assumes that you have successfully completed the basic labs. You should have correctly installed and configured Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization, and have several user accounts in the IdM, AD, or RHDS domain.

5.2. Lab 5 - requirements

In addition to the requirements stipulated in (for Track A) or (for Track B) ensure that you have at least two users in an external directory service.

5.3. Storage administrator definition

A Storage Administrator can manage, create and remove storage domains. This is useful in enterprises comprising multiple storage domains, each of which requires its own system administrator. Storage Administrators have permissions for the assigned storage domain only, not for all storage domains in the enterprise.
To assign user permissions, log in to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager administration portal as the SuperUser. In this example, SuperUser permissions have been assigned to admin.
You have now assigned administrative privileges for the local-iso-domain storage domain to the user named rhevuser. Next, you will assign PowerUserRole permissions for the same user.

5.4. Assigning system administrator roles to storage domains

  1. Navigate to the Tree pane and click the Expand All button. Under Default, click Storage. The available storage domains displays in the Storage tab.
  2. Select the storage domain that you want to assign users to and click the Permissions subtab on the details pane. This example uses the local-iso-share domain.
  3. Click Add to add an existing user. The Add Permission to User dialog displays. Enter rhevuser in the Search textbox, and click Go.
  4. Tick the check box of rhevuser. Select the Assign role to user drop-down list and select StorageAdmin.
    Add StorageAdmin permission

    Figure 5.1. Add StorageAdmin permission


  5. Click OK. The name of the user displays in the Permissions tab, with an icon and the assigned role.

5.5. Virtual machine administrator definition

A power user can create, manage and delete virtual machines, configure storage and networking, as well as migrate the virtual machine. These administrative privileges apply only to the virtual machines on which the user has PowerUserRole permissions, not all virtual machines in the system.
You should still be logged in to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager administration portal as admin. Repeat the same procedure as before to assign permissions.
You have now assigned administrative privileges for the RHEL6Thames virtual machine and also for the local-iso-domain storage to the user named rhevuser. The next step is to test if the permissions have been assigned as expected.

Assigning system administrator roles to virtual domains

  1. On the Tree pane, click Expand All. Under the Default data center and Default host cluster, click the Virtual Machines icon. The available virtual machines display in the Virtual Machines tab.
  2. Select the virtual machine that you want to assign users to, and click the Permissions subtab on the details pane. This example uses the RHEL6Thames virtual machine.
  3. Click Add to add an existing user. The Add Permission to User dialog displays. Enter rhevuser in the Search textbox, and click Go.
  4. Tick the check box of rhevuser. Select the Assign role to user drop-down list and select PowerUserRole.
    Add PowerUserRole permission

    Figure 5.2. Add PowerUserRole permission


  5. Click OK. The name of the user displays in the Permissions tab, with an icon and the assigned role.

5.6. User permission verification

To verify that the Storage Administrator role has been correctly assigned, sign out and log in to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager administration portal as rhevuser, then perform a few storage configuration options.
Next, verify that the PowerUserRole has been correctly assigned. You should still be logged in as rhevuser.

To verify StorageAdmin permissions

  1. Navigate to the Tree pane and click the Expand All button. Under Default, click Storage. The available storage domains displays in the Storage tab.
  2. Select local-iso-domain. On the details pane, select the Data Center tab and click the Maintenance button. The ISO storage domain is deactivated, and appears as Inactive in the Storage pane.
  3. Select the Data storage domain. On the details pane, select the Data Center tab and click the Maintenance button. This time you will get an error message stating "User is not authorized to perform this action". This happened because you gave administrative permissions only for the ISO domain, not the Data domain.
  4. Select the ISO domain again and click the Data Center tab on the details pane. Click Activate. The domain is activated, and displays as Active in the Storage pane.
Next, verify that the PowerUserRole has been correctly assigned. You should still be logged in as rhevuser.

To verify PowerUserRole permissions

  1. On the Tree pane, click Expand All. Under the Default data center and Default host cluster, click the Virtual Machines icon. The available virtual machines display in the Virtual Machines tab.
  2. Select the RHEL6Thames virtual machine and try to stop it if it is running, or play it if it is not running. You should succeed.
  3. Select a different virtual machine, and try to do the same. This time you should get the "User is not authorized to perform this action" message. This is because you only assigned power user permissions for RHEL6Thames and not the second virtual machine.
As you have seen in this lab, you can configure different levels of permissions for different users on multiple objects. This multi-level administration system is ideal for organizations with a diverse range of users who have different needs, and allows for enhanced security in that only specifically assigned users will be able to make system-wide changes.

5.7. Custom role creation

In addition to pre-defined roles, you can also create your own custom role with permission levels for various objects to suit your organization's needs. You can create administrator and user roles to permit access and management to different levels of resources in the data center. To perform the following procedure, log in to the administration portal as the admin user.

To create a new role

  1. On the header bar, click Configure. The Configure dialog displays. Under the Roles tab, the dialog includes a list of default User and Administrator roles, and any custom roles.
  2. Click New. The New Role dialog displays.
    Create a new user role

    Figure 5.3. Create a new user role


    • Enter a Name and Description for your new role.
    • Select either User or Admin as the Account Type.
    • Click the Expand All button to view more of the permissions for the listed objects in the Check Boxes to Allow Action list. You can also expand or collapse the options for each object.
    • For each of the objects, select the actions you wish to permit for the role you are setting up.
  3. Click OK to apply the changes you have made. The new role displays on the list of roles.
You have now created a new role, and can assign it to users as required. In addition to creating new roles from scratch, you can also clone default roles and modify the cloned roles as you wish. As a result, you have a wide range of possibilities to create a versatile, fine-grained model of permissions according to your organization's requirements.

5.8. Lab 5 - Summary

In this lab, you have successfully assigned multiple levels of administrative permissions to users.
  • If you are on Track A, go to the High Availability lab. This lab teaches you how to configure power saving and resource management policies.
  • If you are on Track B, go to the Virtual Desktops lab. This lab shows you how to create and allocate desktop pools, and how to connect to virtual machines from the basic user portal.

Chapter 6. Lab 6 - High Availability scenarios

6.1. Lab 6 - Objectives

Lab 6 - Objectives
This lab takes you through the best practices of configuring and testing a reliable Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment where virtual machines running critical workloads are not easily interrupted. This lab should take you about 30 minutes.

6.2. Lab 6 - Requirements

Before you attempt this lab, you must have a working Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment. To successfully complete this lab, you must have:
  • An out of band power management device for each host. This lab uses the Intelligent Power Management Interface (IPMI) device.
  • Access to the administration portal and access to your hosts (for simulating failure scenarios). You will be instructed on how to enable remote login for your hypervisors later in this lab.

6.3. Lab 6 - Prerequisites

The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager offers various high availability features which can be applied in a granular manner, from the level of a single virtual machine up to protection against multiple host failure scenarios. In addition, you can protect your virtual machines against various failures by combining virtual machine high availability with out of band power management, Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager's failure detection and failure recovery solutions.
This lab enables you to configure virtual machine high availability, and demonstrates its use in several common enterprise scenarios. It is assumed that you have successfully completed the basic labs, meaning that you have correctly installed and configured Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization, and have several running virtual machines.
In addition, to successfully complete this lab you must have a power management card for each of your hosts. This lab uses the Intelligent Power Management Interface (IPMI) device as an example. If you have a different device see the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Administration Guide.

6.4. Power Management Configuration

6.4.1. Power management configuration

Configure Power Management
At this point, you should have two hosts and at least two virtual machines, however this lab uses six virtual machines. You can use as many virtual machines as you want, but for optimal demonstration of high availability features, it is recommended that you add four new virtual machines to your environment.
Highly available virtual machine settings will only be effective if power management is enabled on the hosts. However before configuring power management, recall that you have previously defined a power saving cluster policy. Cluster policies and high availability can be used concurrently; however to best demonstrate Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization's high availability features for this lab, reset the cluster policy. This ensures that the virtual machines remain where they are staged before each demonstration, so the migration is triggered by high availability rather than the cluster's load balancing policies.

6.4.2. Disabling cluster policy

To disable cluster policy

  1. On the administration portal, navigate to the Tree pane. Click the Expand All button. Click the Default cluster. The Clusters tab displays. Select the Default cluster to display its details pane.
  2. On the Policy subtab, the policy is set to Power Saving. Click Edit Policy.
    Edit cluster policy

    Figure 6.1. Edit cluster policy


  3. The Edit Policy dialog displays. Select the None button to remove the previously configured policy. Click OK.
Now, you can configure power management on your hosts. Power management enables the system to fence a troublesome host using an additional interface such as an Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) device. Perform this procedure for each host.

6.4.3. Setting up power management on a host

Summary
In this section, you will set up power management on a host.

To set up power management on a host

  1. On the Tree pane, click the Hosts icon under the Default cluster. The Hosts tab displays a list of available hosts.
  2. Select a host, in this example the Atlantic host is used. Notice that there is an exclamation mark next to the hostname which you were asked to ignore in previous labs. Click the Edit button to display the Edit Host dialog.
  3. Select the Power Management tab. Tick the Enable Power Management check box and provide the required information in the following fields:
    • Address: The address of the power management card. This card does not have to be on any of the logical networks defined on the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. However, all hosts in the cluster must have a valid route to the card's IP. This ensures that fencing is correctly configured, as fencing is done by any available host in the cluster.
    • User Name: The user allowed to log in to the power management device.
    • Password: The password of the user allowed to log in.
    • Type: The type of management device. For this lab, select ipmilan.
    • Options: These additional parameters depend on the specific implementation of each device. Detailed documentation of the options available is provided in the man page for each fence agent. For this lab, enter power_wait=4,lanplus=yes in the provided textbox.
    Click the Test button to test the settings. (Note: in the figure below, the Test button is not shown. You can find the Test button at the bottom of the Power Management tab.) If the power management options can be verified, the text Test Succeeded, Host Status is: on displays.
    Enabling Power Management on a Host

    Figure 6.2. Enabling Power Management on a Host


  4. Click OK. You are returned to the list of hosts. Note that the exclamation mark next to the host's name has now disappeared, signifying that power management has been successfully configured.
Result
You have now configured power management for your hosts, meaning that your hosts' power status can be verified and controlled by the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. Power management checks that a host is properly powered down, then restarts its virtual machines on another host in the same cluster. However, if the host's status cannot be verified, the virtual machines that were originally running on it will not be restarted.

6.5. Virtual Machine High-Availability Configuration

6.5.1. Virtual Machine High-availability Configuration

Now that you have configured power management on your hosts, they are ready to run highly available virtual machines. High availability means that a virtual machine will automatically be restarted if its process is interrupted. This interruption occurs when a virtual machine is terminated by methods other than shutting down within the guest or from the administration portal. When these events occur, the highly available virtual machine will be automatically restarted, either on its original host or another host in the cluster.

Note

High availability can only be configured for virtual servers, not virtual desktops.
This lab uses six virtual machines, and configures three of them to be highly available. You can use different names, or a different number of virtual machines - just be aware that this lab uses examples which consistently refer to these allocated names. The virtual machines used in this lab are:
  • Highly Available Virtual Machines: RHEL6Nile, RHEL6RioGrande, RHEL6Thames
  • Non-Highly Available Virtual Machines: RHEL6Congo, RHEL6Erie, RHEL6Ganges

To configure High Availability for a virtual machine

  1. In the Navigation pane, click the VMs tab. Select the virtual machine you wish to mark as highly available. Click Edit.
  2. The Edit Server Virtual Machine dialog displays. Select the High Availability tab and tick the Highly Available check box. Change the Priority for Run/ Migrate Queue to High. This means that this virtual machine will take precedence in the queue of virtual machines to be migrated.
    Set a server to be highly available

    Figure 6.3. Set a server to be highly available


  3. Click OK to save your settings. Repeat this procedure for other virtual machines you wish to mark as highly available, in this example they are RHEL6Nile and RHEL6RioGrande.
Now, you have three virtual machines which are highly available, and three which are not. Hold down the Shift key and click the virtual machines to select all of them, then click the Run icon to start them all. The virtual machines may not be evenly distributed across the hosts, because one of them is the allocated Storage Pool Manager (SPM) which manages access between hosts and storage. The SPM's CPU resources are utilized more heavily than that of other hosts. Therefore, when virtual machines are started, the host with a lighter workload is selected to run the machines.
On the Tree pane, click Hosts to display the available hosts and their workloads on the Hosts tab.
Virtual machines running on different hosts

Figure 6.4. Virtual machines running on different hosts


You have now successfully configured power management for your hosts, and set several of your virtual machines to be highly available. You can now experiment with virtual machine high availability in four scenarios that may happen in an enterprise data center host manual reboot (user error), virtual machine crash (unexpected fault), partial failure (non-operational) and host disconnection full failure (non-responsive).

6.6. High Availability: Host-Initated Reboot

6.6.1. High availability -- host initiated reboot

At this stage you now have six running virtual machines, three of which are highly available. This section simulates an event in which a user error has caused a temporary host failure, after which the host recovers, but the virtual machines which were running on the host are terminated. In this case, the host is manually fenced before being placed into maintenance mode.

To demonstrate virtual machine high availability when host is incorrectly fenced

  1. On the Tree pane, select VMs. The available virtual machines display on the Virtual Machines tab.
    Virtual machines running on hosts

    Figure 6.5. Virtual machines running on hosts


    In this example, there are currently two virtual machines running on the Atlantic host; and another four on Pacific. You can check whether a virtual machine is highly available by selecting it looking at the General tab of the details pane. Here, on the Atlantic host RHEL6Thames is set to be highly available, while RHEL6Congo is not.
  2. On the Tree pane, select Hosts. The available hosts display on the Hosts tab. Select the Atlantic host, click the Power Management drop-down menu and select Restart.
    Restart host

    Figure 6.6. Restart host


    The Restart Host(s) dialog displays, click OK to confirm and proceed. The host's status changes to Reboot, then Non-Responsive.
    Non-responsive host

    Figure 6.7. Non-responsive host


    You have now simulated an environment where a host is manually fenced before it was placed into maintenance. Since power management has been configured for this host, it will automatically reboot after a short period.
  3. While the host is being restarted, observe what has happened to the virtual machines which were running on it. On the Tree pane, click VMs to display the Virtual Machines tab. Notice that both the virtual machines running on Atlantic were shut down as soon as the host was restarted.
    Virtual machines starting on another host

    Figure 6.8. Virtual machines starting on another host


    The highly available virtual machine, RHEL6Thames, is automatically restarted. Its status changes from Down to Wait for Launch, and then to Powering Up. It runs on the Pacific host in the interim period while the Atlantic host is still rebooting. In contrast, RHEL6Congo remains turned off, its status displays as Down.
You have just run a demonstration where a host was manually fenced before the virtual machines on it were properly shut down, causing the virtual machines to crash. When virtual machines are not properly stopped, only the highly available ones are restarted on another host in the cluster. In contrast, the non-highly available machines remain powered down until they are manually restarted.

6.7. High Availability: Virtual Machine Interruption

6.7.1. High availability -- Virtual machine interruption

In the previous section, you demonstrated virtual machine high availability when a host becomes non-responsive and then rebooted. This section simulates a virtual machine crash. The expected outcome is for the highly available virtual machines to restart automatically, while the non-highly available ones will remain shut down until they are manually restarted.
In your current environment, the host that you restarted in the previous section (Atlantic) should be running again. The highly available virtual machine (RHEL6Thames) has been restarted on another host (Pacific), while the non-highly available virtual machine (RHEL6Congo) is still powered down.
For this demonstration, restart RHEL6Congo. The Atlantic host is automatically selected to run this virtual machine as its workload is currently lighter than Pacific's. Next, live migrate two more virtual machines to the Atlantic host so the workload is equally balanced. Select RHEL6RioGrande and RHEL6Thames, and click Migrate. On the Migrate Virtual Machine(s) dialog, leave the option as Select Host Automatically and click OK.
To recap, you now have three virtual machines running on each host. Click on the Host label to alphabetically sort the virtual machines according to host.
Sort virtual machines by host

Figure 6.9. Sort virtual machines by host


6.7.2. Demonstrating Virtual Machine High Availability when its Processes are Killed

Procedure 6.1. Demonstrating Virtual Machine High Availability By Killing the Processes Associated with the Virtual Machine

  1. To simulate a virtual machine crash, we will terminate the virtual machine's process from within its host. In this example, we use the Atlantic host, and we provide instructions for remotely accessing both hypervisor hosts and Linux hosts.
      1. If you are using a Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor host, you must first enable remote login. On the hypervisor management console, navigate to the Security tab and select the Enable ssh password authentication check box. Enter your password in the listed fields, and then click Apply.
        Enable SSH on hypervisor

        Figure 6.10. Enable SSH on hypervisor


        SSH login to the hypervisor is not recommended, for security reasons, but we allow it during this lab in order to demonstrate high availability. Disable SSH login to the hypervisor when you complete this lab.
      2. Open a terminal and run:
        # ssh admin@atlantic.demo.redhat.com
        
      3. Accept the authentication key and enter the password for the hypervisor. When you are logged in to the management console, press the F2 key and select Drop to Shell. You can now execute commands as the root user.
        Access hypervisor shell

        Figure 6.11. Access hypervisor shell


      1. If you are using a Red Hat Enterprise Linux host, you are able by default to log in to your host remotely. Open a terminal and run:
      2. Accept the authentication key and enter the password for the host.
  2. When you have established a remote connection to your host, use the vdsClient utility to access the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager daemon running in the host:
    [root@atlantic]# vdsClient -s 0 list table
    
    This command lists the GUID, process ID, name, and status of each virtual machine on the host. For example:
    6aba36aa-d0a9-4d51-bcf3-73544bc95964    2783    RHEL6Congo       Up
    6f8bd3cc-3c54-413a-9a28-0bd2f65eeede    3341    RHEL6RioGrande   Up  
    4e1e0e4f-63e1-4a24-b1a6-76d7ae46e8c4    3015    RHEL6Thames      Up
    
  3. Send the termination signal to two virtual machines - one which is highly available, and one which is not highly available. This example uses RHEL6RioGrande and RHEL6Congo.
    [root@atlantic ~]# kill -9 3341
    [root@atlantic ~]# kill -9 2783
    
    You have now simulated an environment in which a virtual machine has unexpectedly crashed and is inaccessible to users.
  4. On the Virtual Machines tab in the administration portal, you can see that RHEL6RioGrande's status is Powering Up. Because it was marked as highly available, it instantly restarts when it experiences a crash.
    In contrast, the status of RHEL6Congo remains Down because it was not marked as highly available. It remains turned off until it is manually restarted.
This demonstrates that if the virtual machine process is interrupted - whether due to user error, insufficient memory on hosts or other issues - highly available virtual machines will be restarted, while non-highly available ones require manual input. Therefore, if your environment has machines which must be accessible at all times, it is good practice to configure them as highly available, so they will automatically restart if they experience unexpected interruptions.

6.8. High-Availability: Non-Operational Host

6.8.1. High Availability - Non-operational Hosts

Now that you have tested high availability in cases of virtual machine failure, you can examine a scenario in which the failure occurs on the host's side.
When a host's status displays as Non-Operational, it means that the host is accessible from the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager, however it cannot serve as a member of a cluster. This can be due to a fault: for example if a logical network is down, or if storage is inaccessible to the host. It can also be due to configuration mismatch: for example if the host CPU type is incompatible with the cluster, or if the host is missing a logical network.
A non-operational host will not be able to run new virtual machines; and if there are virtual machines running on the host before it becomes non-operational, they will be migrated to other hosts in the cluster.
This section demonstrates high availability when a host is non-operational because it is disconnected from the system's external storage resource. You can examine the outcomes of two different cases - when the host is acting as the Storage Pool Manager (SPM); and when it is not.
Before you begin these demonstrations, ensure that all your virtual machines are running. In addition, check which host has been configured as the SPM by clicking Hosts on the Tree pane. In this example, the Pacific host is the SPM.

6.8.2. Demonstrating Virtual Machine High Availability when Storage Network is Down (Host: SPM)

Procedure 6.2. To demonstrate virtual machine high availability when storage network is down (Host: SPM)

  1. On the Hosts tab, select the Pacific host to display its details pane. Click the Network Interfaces subtab. You should have at least one rhevm network and one storage network, as configured earlier. In this example, the storage network is allocated on p1p1.
    Next, on the Tree pane click ISCSI-share. On the Storage tab, select the ISCSI-share domain and click Edit. On the Edit Domain dialog, click the + symbol to display the iSCSI target. Note that the storage target's submask address is the same as the storage network's, as seen under Address.
  2. Now that you have determined the name and physical interface of your storage network, connect to the Pacific host via SSH. Check your available networks by running the following command:
    [root@pacific ~]# ifconfig
    Once you have determined the name of your storage network, run:
    [root@pacific ~]# ifdown storage
    [root@pacific ~]# ifdown p1p1
    You have now shut down the network between the Pacific host and ISCSI-share storage. On the Hosts tab, the Pacific host changes to Non Operational, then to Reboot.
  3. Because the Pacific host was configured as the SPM, it is automatically rebooted. The highly available virtual machines are restarted on the other available host in the cluster - in this case it is Atlantic - while the non highly available ones are suspended. However, once the Pacific host is up and running again, the virtual machines which were originally running on it are migrated back to it in order to balance the workload between all hosts in the cluster.
You have now demonstrated high availability when the connection is disrupted between the storage and the host which is the SPM. However, storage disconnection can also occur with a host which is not acting as the SPM. In this case, the host moves into non-operational status, and its virtual machines migrate to other hosts in the cluster.

6.8.3. Demonstrating virtual-machine high availability when storage networks are down (Host: non-SPM)

Previously, the Pacific host was running as the SPM. However, the role of SPM can be transferred, because it has to be filled by a running host. After Pacific had been rebooted, the Atlantic host gained the status of SPM. Therefore, in this example the Pacific host is used again, as it can now play the role of the host which is not the SPM. Before running the next procedure, migrate several virtual machines from Atlantic to Pacific.

To demonstrate virtual machine high availability when storage network is down (Host: non-SPM)

  1. As before, connect to the Pacific host via SSH. Check your available network by running the following command:
    [root@pacific ~]# ifconfig
    Once you have determined the name of your storage network, run:
    [root@pacific ~]# ifdown storage
    [root@pacific ~]# ifdown p1p1
    You have now shut down the network between the Pacific host and the ISCSI-share storage. If new data is being written onto the virtual machine's disk, the virtual machine detects that the storage connection has been lost, and pauses itself to prevent loss of data. When this happens, the Hosts tab shows that the status of the Pacific host has changed to Non Operational.
  2. Click the pacific.demo.redhat.com icon on the Tree pane to examine the virtual machines. All the virtual machines which were originally running on the Pacific host are automatically migrated to the Atlantic host. The highly available machines, which were set as high priority, are migrated before the non-highly available ones.
    When virtual machines are live migrated, they do not experience any downtime. In rare cases, they will be paused, and then continued on the host they have been migrated to.
    Virtual machines automatically migrated

    Figure 6.12. Virtual machines automatically migrated


The contrast between these two scenarios is that when the host is the SPM, the host will be fenced, causing termination of its virtual machines, therefore only the highly available machines will be restarted. However when the host is not the SPM, all virtual machines will be migrated in order of their assigned priority, and leave the host in non-operational mode.

6.9. High Availability: Non-responsive host

6.9.1. High availability -- non-responsive host

A host is deemed non-responsive when the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager cannot communicate with the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization agent on the host. This can be either due to a networking issue, or failure on the host side (kernel panic, power failure and such) which stops all communication with the host.
When a host is non-responsive, it will be fenced to ensure that virtual machines are allowed to restart on other hosts in the cluster while avoiding "split brain" -- a situation in which communication with the host is lost while the virtual machines are still partially running. This scenario is simulated in the following section, where you will disconnect the host's management network while the storage connection remains functional.
At this stage, the Pacific host is non-operational as its storage connection was cut in the previous section.
Restart it for the next demonstration. On the Tree pane, select the Pacific host. Click the Power Management button and select Restart. Because you have fenced the host, it automatically brings the storage and p1p1 networks up again, and allows the host to run as normal.
When the host's status changes to Up, migrate several machines onto it. This example uses RHEL6RioGrande, RHEL6Thames (both highly available machines) and RHEL6Erie. As you have disabled cluster policy at the beginning of this lab, these virtual machines will not auto-migrate as soon as the host is back up. Therefore, they need to be manually migrated to the Pacific host.

6.9.2. Demonstrating high-availability when host connections are disrupted

  1. On the Tree pane, click Hosts. On the Hosts tab, select the Pacific host, and click the Network Interfaces subtab on the details pane. Check the physical interface name of the rhevm network — in this example it is the eth0 network.
  2. As before, connect to the Pacific host via SSH. Disable the management network by running:
    # ifdown rhevm
    You have now shut down the network connecting the Pacific host to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. The next time that the Manager attempts to transmit signals to the host, it triggers the automatic fencing operation.
  3. From the Tree pane, click VMs to display the Virtual Machines tab. The highly available virtual machines, RHEL6RioGrande and RHEL6Thames, have restarted on the Atlantic host. Conversely, RHEL6Erie did not restart because it was not configured to be highly available.
  4. Finally, go to the Tree pane and click Hosts to examine the status of the hosts. After a short period, the Pacific host will be rebooted, assuming that power management was successfully configured on this host.
You have just run a demonstration where a non-responsive host was automatically fenced and rebooted. As you had simulated a non-persistent network failure, the host will recover from the fault following its reboot. In the interim period while it is being restarted, the highly available virtual machines originally running on it are restarted on another available host in the cluster. Conversely, non-highly available virtual machines need to be manually restarted.

6.9.3. Demonstrating virtual-machine high availability of incorrectly-fenced hosts

  1. On the Tree pane, select VMs. The available virtual machines display on the Virtual Machines tab.
    Virtual machines running on hosts

    Figure 6.13. Virtual machines running on hosts


    In this example, there are currently two virtual machines running on the Atlantic host; and another four on Pacific. You can check whether a virtual machine is highly available by selecting it looking at the General tab of the details pane. Here, on the Atlantic host RHEL6Thames is set to be highly available, while RHEL6Congo is not.
  2. On the Tree pane, select Hosts. The available hosts display on the Hosts tab. Select the Atlantic host, click the Power Management drop-down menu and select Restart.
    Restart host

    Figure 6.14. Restart host


    The Restart Host(s) dialog displays, click OK to confirm and proceed. The host's status changes to Reboot, then Non-Responsive.
    Non-responsive host

    Figure 6.15. Non-responsive host


    You have now simulated an environment where a host is manually fenced before it was placed into maintenance. Since power management has been configured for this host, it will automatically reboot after a short period.
  3. While the host is being restarted, observe what has happened to the virtual machines which were running on it. On the Tree pane, click VMs to display the Virtual Machines tab. Notice that both the virtual machines running on Atlantic were shut down as soon as the host was restarted.
    Virtual machines starting on another host

    Figure 6.16. Virtual machines starting on another host


    The highly available virtual machine, RHEL6Thames, is automatically restarted. Its status changes from Down to Wait for Launch, and then to Powering Up. It runs on the Pacific host in the interim period while the Atlantic host is still rebooting. In contrast, RHEL6Congo remains turned off, its status displays as Down.

6.10. Lab 6 - Summary

You have now completed the High Availability lab. In this advanced lab, you have successfully enabled power management for your hosts and configured high availability for your virtual machines, and tested their effects in five typical enterprise use cases.
In conclusion, when a host malfunctions, but can still communicate with the Manager, it will try to migrate high priority virtual machines to other hosts in the cluster. If the host cannot connect to the Manager, it will trigger a fencing operation and reboot. In this case, highly available virtual machines will restart in a different host in the same cluster; while non-highly available virtual machines will remain shut down unless manually restarted even when host has finished reboot and is back up.
The next lab in the Advanced Track for Multiple Hosts concerns data centers . It will teach you how to create a new data center with Red Hat Enterprise Linux hosts.

Chapter 7. Lab 7 - Adding Additional Data Centers

7.1. Lab 7 - Objectives

This lab takes you through the tasks necessary to install and set up Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization with multiple hosts and shared storage. In addition, you will learn how to configure networks and add ISOs in order to create virtual machines. This lab should take you about 35 minutes.
This chapter shows you how to install and configure Red Hat Enterprise Linux hosts for use with Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. (10 minutes)
This chapter shows you how to create a new Data Center for the Red Hat Enterprise Linux hosts. (1 minute)
This chapter shows you how to create a new host cluster for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux hosts to it. (1 minute)
This chapter shows you how to manually attach the hosts to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. (4 minutes)
This chapter shows you how to define new networks for the storage devices and add them to the hosts. (5 minutes)
This chapter shows you how to define NFS, iSCSI or FCP storage and attach the domains to the data center. (8 minutes)
This chapter shows you how to create a new ISO domain or attach the existing ISO domain to your new data center. (6 minutes)

7.2. Add Additional Data Center

This lab shows you how to customize your standard Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment by adding an additional data center. This lab uses Red Hat Enterprise Linux hosts, but you can use Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor hosts instead, if you prefer. In this lab, you will learn how to create virtual machines in your new data center.
This lab assumes that you have successfully completed all the sections in the basic setup chapter. You should have correctly installed and configured Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization, and have configured shared storage and logical networks.
Lab 7 - Objectives
This lab takes you through the tasks necessary to install and set up Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization with multiple hosts and shared storage. You will also learn how to configure networks and how to add ISOs in order to create virtual machines. This lab should take you about 35 minutes.
Lab 7 - Requirements
Ensure that you have the following:

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Hosts

  • Minimum - Dual Core server, 2 GB RAM and 10 GB Storage, 1 Gbps network interface
  • Recommended - Dual socket server, 16 GB RAM and 50 GB storage, two 1 Gbps network interfaces.
    The breakdown of the server requirements is:
    • For each host: AMD-V or Intel VT enabled, AMD64 or Intel 64 extensions, minimum 1 GB RAM, 3 GB free storage and 1 Gbps network interface.
    • For virtual machines running on each host: minimum 1 GB RAM per virtual machine.
  • For each host, a valid Red Hat Network subscription to the rhel-x86_64-rhev-mgmt-agent-6 channel.

Storage and Networking

  • One or more of the supported storage types (NFS, iSCSI and FCP).
  • One static IP per host which is resolvable by the DNS server.
  • An NFS mount point for an ISO directory if you choose to configure an ISO share external to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager Server.
Lab 7 - Configuration
The following figure and table list the environment parameters and object names which will be used consistently throughout this lab. It is strongly recommended that you use these entities in your evaluation environment to ensure the names are resolvable. You may alter them if necessary, but make sure you have an equivalent name for each component.

Table 7.1. Lab component names

Component Name IP (if applicable) Fully Qualified Domain Name
Domain Services - - demo.redhat.com
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager - - rhevm.demo.redhat.com
Data Center - - FinanceDataCenter
Cluster - - FinanceCluster
Storage Network storage 10.23.1.0/24 -
Management Network rhevm 10.35.3.0/24 -
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Linux Host 1 Danube - danube.demo.redhat.com
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Linux Host 2 Indus - indus.demo.redhat.com
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor 1 Atlantic - atlantic.demo.redhat.com
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor 2 Pacific - pacific.demo.redhat.com
Administrator User Name admin - -
NFS Storage Domain NFS-share - -
iSCSI Storage Domain iSCSI-share - -
FCP Storage Domain FCP-share - -
ISO Storage Domain local-iso-share - -

7.3. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 hosts

In your current environment, you should have Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager and at least two hosts configured in the default data center. In this section, you will learn how to configure Red Hat Enterprise Linux servers as hosts to run virtual machines. You have to perform the installation on each physical server you wish to use as a host.
However, if you do not wish to use Red Hat Enterprise Linux hosts, you can still create an additional data center and add Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor hosts to it.

Important

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor is a closed appliance, and does not allow the installation of custom RPMs.
If you require custom RPMs, you must use Red Hat Enterprise Linux hosts. Red Hat Enterprise Linux hosts are not closed appliances, and they allow the installation of custom RPMs.

To install a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 host

  1. On the machine designated as your Red Hat Enterprise Linux host, install the latest version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Select only the Base package group during installation. For more comprehensive instructions, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide.
  2. If your server has not been registered with the Red Hat Network, run the rhn_register command as root to register it. To complete registration successfully you will need to supply your Red Hat Network username and password. Follow the onscreen prompts to complete registration of the system.
    # rhn_register
  3. Subscribe the server to the required channels using the Red Hat Network web interface.
    1. Log on to Red Hat Network (http://rhn.redhat.com/).
    2. Click Systems at the top of the page.
    3. Select the system to which you are adding channels from the list presented on the screen, by clicking the name of the system.
    4. Click Alter Channel Subscriptions in the Subscribed Channels section of the screen.
    5. Select the Red Hat Enterprise Virt Management Agent (v 6 x86_64) channel from the list presented on the screen, then click the Change Subscription button to finalize the change.
  4. Make sure the kernel and all the packages are up to date. This may take some time. Run:
    # yum -y update
  5. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization platform uses a number of network ports for management and other virtualization features. Adjust your Red Hat Enterprise Linux host's firewall settings to allow access to the required ports by configuring iptables rules. Modify the /etc/sysconfig/iptables file so it resembles the following example:
    :INPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
    :FORWARD ACCEPT [0:0]
    :OUTPUT ACCEPT [10765:598664]
    -A INPUT -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT 
    -A INPUT -p icmp -j ACCEPT 
    -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
    -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT
    -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 16514 -j ACCEPT
    -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 54321 -j ACCEPT
    -A INPUT -p tcp -m multiport --dports 5634:6166 -j ACCEPT
    -A INPUT -p tcp -m multiport --dports 49152:49216 -j ACCEPT  
    -A INPUT -p tcp -m state --state NEW 
    -A INPUT -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-host-prohibited 
    -A FORWARD -m physdev ! --physdev-is-bridged -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-host-prohibited 
    COMMIT
    
  6. Ensure that the iptables service is configured to start on boot and has been restarted, or started for the first time if it was not already running. Run the following commands:
    # chkconfig iptables on
    # service iptables restart
    
You have now successfully installed your Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Linux hosts. The following sections will provide instructions on how to attach the hosts to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager.

7.4. Create a New Data Center

In the basic labs, you used the Default data center which was automatically created upon installation. However, in this lab you will create a new data center. A data center is a logical entity that defines the set of physical and logical resources used in a managed virtual environment. It is a container for clusters of virtual machines, storage and networks.

Note

While this lab provides the example of creating a new data center consisting only of Red Hat Enterprise Linux hosts, in reality you can actually add both types of hosts (Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor and Red Hat Enterprise Linux) to the same cluster.
From this point onwards, you should be logged in to the administration portal as the admin user.

To add a new Data Center

  1. Navigate to the Tree pane and click Expand All. Click System and select the Data Centers tab.
  2. Click the New button. The New Data Center dialog displays.
    New Data Center

    Figure 7.1. New Data Center


    Fill in the Name and Description fields. Select the data center Type from the drop-down menu. Data center type must be compatible with the storage type of the new data center.
  3. Click OK. The New Data Center - Guide Me dialog displays. This dialog provides a context-sensitive reference for the components which have not been configured for your data center. Leave it open for now.
    New Data Center - Guide Me

    Figure 7.2. New Data Center - Guide Me


7.5. Create a New Cluster

Now that you have created a new data center, you can populate it with a new cluster. A cluster is a set of physical hosts that are treated as a resource pool for a set of virtual machines. A cluster constitutes a domain for virtual machines to migrate from one host to another, therefore all hosts in a cluster must share the same network infrastructure and the same storage. However, the hosts do not need to share the exact same CPU model, as long as the cluster's CPU name is set to the family that is the most common denominator.

To add a new host cluster

  1. You should still be on the New Data Center - Guide Me dialog. If you are not, select your newly created data center and click Guide Me. On the dialog, click Configure Cluster.
  2. The New Cluster dialog displays. Note that there are three tabs on the left side of this dialog box. Click on each tab to access them in turn.
    New Cluster

    Figure 7.3. New Cluster


    Configure the following options:
    • On the General tab, enter a suitable Name and Description.
      On the CPU Name field, select the family that best describes your host CPUs. Note that for the Default cluster, you did not need to perform this step because it had been automatically set according to the first host you added to the cluster.
    • On the Memory Optimization tab, tick the check box for Optimize for Density and select For Desktop Load.
    • On the Resilience Policy tab, select Do Not Migrate Virtual Machines.
  3. Click OK. The New Data Center - Guide Me dialog displays again. Leave it open for now.

7.6. Attach New Red Hat Enterprise Linux Hosts

You have created a new data center and a new cluster within it, now you need to populate the cluster with the Red Hat Enterprise Linux hosts you installed earlier. Before they can be used, they have to be manually attached to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization platform. Perform the following procedure for each host you have installed.
Note that this step is required for Red Hat Enterprise Linux hosts only, if you are using Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisors for this lab you only have to approve the hosts with a click, as you did in the Multiple Host chapter. This time, attach the hosts to your newly created cluster.

To attach Red Hat Enterprise Linux hosts

  1. You should still be on the New Data Center - Guide Me dialog. If you are not, select your newly created data center and click Guide Me. On the dialog, click Configure Host.
  2. The New Host dialog displays.
    Attach a Red Hat Enterprise Linux Host

    Figure 7.4. Attach a Red Hat Enterprise Linux Host


    Configure the following options:
    • The Data Center and Host Cluster are already pre-selected.
    • Enter the Name and the IP Address or resolvable hostname of the host. Enter the Root Password used to log in to the host.
    • If you wish to configure Out of Band (OOB) power management for this host, see the Clustering Power Management section.
  3. Click OK. On the Tree pane, click Expand All and select the Danube host. It displays on the Hosts tab with a status of "Installing". The installation may take a few minutes as the required packages are being downloaded. Once installation is complete, the status will update to Reboot and then Awaiting.
  4. When the host is ready for use, its status changes to Up.

7.7. Configure Logical Networks

Now that you have a data center with hosts grouped in a cluster, you need to define and apply the networking layer. By default, the Management network is already defined for the new data center you created. You can define new logical networks, for example data, storage or display networks.
You have already defined a storage network for the Default data center and added it to the hosts in the Default cluster. Now, you will repeat the same procedure for the FinanceCluster in the FinanceDataCenter.

To define logical networks in a cluster

  1. Navigate to the Tree pane and click the Expand All button. Click FinanceDataCenter. On the results list, the FinanceDataCenter data center displays. Click on it to display the details pane.
  2. On the details pane, select the Logical Networks tab and click New. The New Logical Network dialog displays. Fill in the Name and Description fields, and tick the Assign Networks to Cluster(s) - FinanceCluster check box to automatically add the Storage network to the FinanceCluster.
  3. Click OK to create the new logical network.
Now that you have defined this network as a resource required by the FinanceCluster in the data center, it is time to add this resource to the hosts in the cluster.

To add network to hosts

  1. Back on the Tree pane, click FinanceDataCenterClustersFinanceClusterHosts. The Hosts tab displays a list of available hosts.
  2. For each of your installed hosts, perform the following tasks:
    1. Click on the host. On the details pane, select the Network Interfaces tab.
    2. A list of network interfaces available for this host displays. One of them will already have the management network (rhevm) configured.
    3. Select the interface on which to configure the Storage network and click the Setup Host Networks button. The Setup Host Networks window displays. Configure the following options:
      • Under Network, select storage.
      • Select the Static radio button. Enter the IP and Subnet Mask you have prepared as part of the prerequisites to this lab.
      • Tick the Save network configuration check box.
    4. Click OK.
You have now added a new storage network to your data center, and attached the network to your hosts. On the Logical Networks tab of FinanceDataCenter, you should have at least two networks - rhevm and storage. Now, you can add storage to the system.

7.8. Configuring Storage

7.8.1. Creating an NFS Data Domain

Because you have selected NFS as your default storage type during the Manager installation, you will now create an NFS storage domain. An NFS type storage domain is a mounted NFS share that is attached to a data center and used to provide storage for virtual machine disk images.

Important

If you are using NFS storage, you must first create and export the directories to be used as storage domains from the NFS server. These directories must have their numerical user and group ownership set to 36:36 on the NFS server, to correspond to the vdsm user and kvm group respectively on the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager server. In addition, these directories must be exported with the read write options (rw). For more information see the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Installation Guide.

To add NFS storage

  1. Navigate to the Tree pane and click the Expand All button. Under System, select the Default data center and click on Storage. The available storage domains display on the results list. Click New Domain.
  2. The New Domain window displays.
    Add NFS Storage - New Domain Window

    Figure 7.5. Add NFS Storage - New Domain Window


    Configure the following options:
    1. Name: Enter NFS-share.
    2. Data Center: The Default data center is already pre-selected.
    3. Domain Function / Storage Type: The Data/ NFS option is already pre-selected because during installation you set NFS as your data center's default storage type. The storage domain types which are not compatible with the Data Center will not be available.
    4. Use Host: Select any of the hosts from the drop down menu. Only hosts which belong in this data center will display in this list.
    5. Export Path: Enter the IP address or a resolvable hostname of the chosen host. The export path should be in the format of 192.168.0.10:/Images/NFS-Share or domain.example.com:/Images/NFS-Share.
  3. Click OK. The new NFS-share data domain displays on the Storage tab. It will remain with a Locked status while it is being prepared for use. When ready, it is automatically attached to the data center.
You have created an NFS storage domain. Now, you need to attach an ISO domain to the data center and upload installation images so you can use them to create virtual machines.

7.8.2. Creating an iSCSI Data Domain

Because you have selected iSCSI as your default storage type during the Manager installation, you will now create an iSCSI storage domain. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization platform supports iSCSI storage domains spanning multiple pre-defined Logical Unit Numbers (LUNs).

To add iSCSI storage

  1. Navigate to the Tree pane and click the Expand All button. Under System, select the Default data center and click on Storage. The available storage domains display on the results list. Click New Domain.
  2. The New Domain dialog box displays.
    Add iSCSI Storage

    Figure 7.6. Add iSCSI Storage


    Configure the following options:
    1. Name: Enter ISCSI-share.
    2. Data Center: The Default data center is already pre-selected.
    3. Domain Function / Storage Type: The Data/ iSCSI option is already pre-selected because during installation you set iSCSI as your data center's default storage type. The storage domain types which are not compatible with the Data Center will not be available.
    4. Use Host: Select any of the available hosts from the drop down menu. Only hosts which belong in this data center will display in this list.
  3. To connect to the iSCSI target, enter the required information under the Discover Targets bar.
    Discover iSCSI target

    Figure 7.7. Discover iSCSI target


    1. Address: Enter the address of the iSCSI target.
    2. Port: Select the port to connect to. The default is 3260.
    3. User Authentication: If required, enter the username and password.
    Click the Discover button to find the targets. The iSCSI targets display in the results list with a Login button for each target.
  4. Click Login on the first target to display the list of existing LUNs. Click the + icon under the Target Name to expand the LUN list. Tick the Add LUN check box to use the selected LUN as the iSCSI data domain. LUNs that are part of a storage domain in the current setup are disabled. LUNs used by the host (that is, LUNs that are either part of a volume group or that are used as partitions by other devices) display as being in use. You can choose LUNs that are in use, but you will have to forcefully override their contents.
    Attach LUNs to iSCSI domain

    Figure 7.8. Attach LUNs to iSCSI domain


  5. Click OK. The new iSCSI-share data domain displays on the Storage tab. It will remain with a Locked status while it is being prepared for use. When ready, it is automatically attached to the data center.
You have created an iSCSI storage domain. Now, you need to attach an ISO domain to the data center and upload installation images so you can use them to create virtual machines.

7.8.3. Creating an FCP Data Domain

Because you have selected FCP as your default storage type during the Manager installation, you will now create an FCP storage domain. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization platform supports FCP storage domains spanning multiple pre-defined Logical Unit Numbers (LUNs).

To add FCP storage

  1. Navigate to the Tree pane and click the Expand All button. Under System, select the Default data center and click on Storage. The available storage domains display on the results list. Click New Domain.
  2. The New Domain dialog box displays.
    Add FCP Storage

    Figure 7.9. Add FCP Storage


    Configure the following options:
    1. Name: Enter FCP-share.
    2. Data Center: The Default data center is already pre-selected.
    3. Domain Function / Storage Type: The Data/ Fibre Channel option is already pre-selected because during installation you set FC as your data center's default storage type. The storage domain types which are not compatible with the Data Center will not be available.
    4. Use Host: Select any of the hosts from the drop down menu. Only hosts which belong in this data center will display in this list. Ensure that the LUN you intend to use is available on the host you select. LUNs that are part of a storage domain in the current setup are disabled. LUNs used by the host (that is, LUNs that are either part of a volume group or that are used as partitions by other devices) display as being in use. You can choose LUNs that are in use, but you will have to forcefully override their contents.
    5. The list of existing LUNs display. On the selected LUN, select the Add LUN check box to use it as the FCP data domain.
  3. Click OK. The new FCP-share data domain displays on the Storage tab. It will remain with a Locked status while it is being prepared for use. When ready, it is automatically attached to the data center.
You have created an FCP storage domain. Now, you need to attach an ISO domain to the data center and upload installation images so you can use them to create virtual machines.

7.9. Configure ISO Domain

Now that you have configured your data storage domains, the next step is to define an ISO domain for your new data center. If you have an additional NFS mount point, you can choose to create a new ISO domain and attach it to your new data center. Alternatively, you can also use the local ISO domain created during the Manager installation. An ISO domain can be shared across data centers, even if the data center storage types are different.

Option 1: To create a new ISO domain

  1. On the side pane, select the Tree tab and click Expand All. Under the FinanceDataCenter data center, select Storage. On the results list, click New Domain.
  2. The New Storage dialog box displays.
    New ISO domain

    Figure 7.10. New ISO domain


    Configure the following options:
    1. Name: Enter iso-domain.
    2. Data Center: The FinanceDataCenter data center is already pre-selected.
    3. Domain Function / Storage Type: In the drop down menu, select DataNFS. The storage domain types which are not compatible with the Default data center are grayed out. After you select your domain type, the Export Path field appears.
    4. Use Host: Select any of the hosts from the drop down menu. Only hosts which belong in this data center will display in this list.
    5. Export Path: Enter the IP address or a resolvable hostname of the chosen host. The export path should be in the format of 192.168.0.10:/Images/NFS-Share or domain.example.com:/Images/NFS-Share.
  3. Click OK. The new iso-domain displays on the Storage tab. It displays with a Locked status as the domain is being validated, then transits to Inactive.
  4. Select the ISO domain and click the Activate button. The status changes to Locked and then to Active.
You have now successfully defined an ISO domain for your new data center, and can now upload ISO images to it. Once you have populated your ISO domain, you can create virtual machines.
Alternatively, if you do not have an NFS mount point for a new ISO domain, use the local-iso-share domain which was created on the Manager server.

Option 2: To attach the existing ISO domain to a new data center

  1. On the side pane, select the Tree tab and click Expand All. Click FinanceDataCenter. On the results list, the FinanceDataCenter data center displays. Click on it to display the details pane.
  2. On the details pane, select the Storage tab and click the Attach ISO button. Select the local-iso-share domain and click OK.
  3. The ISO domain appears in the results list of the Storage tab. It displays with the Locked status as the domain is being validated, then transits to Inactive.
  4. Select the ISO domain and click the Activate button. The status changes to Locked and then to Active.
You have now successfully attached the ISO domain from the Manager server to your new data center. All the installation images which were available in the Default data center can now be used for the FinanceDataCenter data center. You can create more virtual machines on your new hosts. Just remember to substitute the default cluster for FinanceCluster and the default data center for FinanceDataCenter.

7.10. Lab 7 - Summary

You have now completed the Adding Additional Data Centers lab.. In this lab, you have successfully installed Red Hat Enterprise Linux hosts, attached them to an additional data center, and configured additional resources for your new data center.

Chapter 8. Lab 8 - Virtual desktops

8.1. Lab 8 - Objectives

This lab takes you through the tasks necessary to create and then connect to a Windows virtual machine or desktop pool with UserRole privileges. This lab should take you about 50 minutes.
This chapter shows you how to add an Active Directory domain to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager in order to use Windows virtual desktop pools. (5 minutes)
This chapter shows you how to create a new Windows virtual machine, configure storage and networking, and install the operating system. (15 minutes)
This chapter shows you how to create a thin provisioned virtual machine from the Windows template and apply the sysprep configuration settings. (5 minutes)
This chapter shows you how to assign UserRole permissions for a virtual machine to a user. (2 minutes)
This chapter shows you how to log in to the User Portal and connect to a virtual machine. (3 minutes)
This chapter shows you how to create a Windows desktop pool, assign UserRole permission for the desktop pool and how to connect to a virtual machine in a pool. (10 minutes)

8.2. Create a Windows Virtual Machine

You already know how to create a Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machine from scratch. The procedure for creating a Windows virtual machine is similar, except that it requires additional virtio drivers. This example uses Windows 7, but you can also use other Windows operating systems. You will perform a normal attended installation using a virtual DVD.

To create a Windows server

  1. Navigate to the Tree pane and click Expand All. Click the VMs icon in the Default cluster under the Default data center. On the Virtual Machines tab, click New Desktop.
    Create new Windows desktop

    Figure 8.1. Create new Windows desktop


    You only need to fill in the Name field and select Windows 7 as your Operating System. You may alter other settings, but this example retains the defaults. Click OK to create the virtual machine.
  2. A New Virtual Machine - Guide Me window opens. This allows you to define networks for the virtual machine. Click Configure Network Interfaces.
    New Network Interface configurations

    Figure 8.2. New Network Interface configurations


    Retain all the default settings and click OK.
  3. You are returned to the Guide Me window. This time, click Configure Virtual Disks to add storage to the virtual machine.
    New Virtual Disk configurations

    Figure 8.3. New Virtual Disk configurations


    In the Size (GB) field, enter 15. Retain all other default settings and click OK.
  4. Close the Guide Me window. Your new Windows 7 virtual machine displays in the Virtual Machines tab.
You have now created your first Windows desktop virtual machine. Before you can use your virtual machine, install an operating system on it.

To install the Windows guest operating system

  1. Right click the virtual machine and select Run Once. Configure the following options:
    • Attach Floppy: virtio-win
    • Attach CD: Your Windows installation media
    • Boot sequence: CD-ROM
    • Display protocol: SPICE
    Retain the default settings for the other options and click OK to start the virtual machine.
  2. Select the virtual machine and click the Console icon. If this is your first time connecting to the virtual machine, allow the installation of SPICE ActiveX and the SPICE client.
  3. After the SPICE plugins have been installed, select the virtual machine and click Console again. This displays a window to the virtual machine, where you will be prompted to begin the installation process.
  4. Accept the default settings and enter the required information as necessary. The only change you must make is to manually install the VirtIO drivers from the virtual floppy disk (vfd) image. To do so, select the Custom (advanced) installation option and click Load Driver. Press Ctrl and select:
    • Red Hat VirtIO Ethernet Adapter
    • Red Hat VirtIO SCSI Controller
  5. The installation process commences, and the system will reboot itself several times.
    When the virtual machine has finished installing, it is time to install RHEV-tools which provide some required features including optimizing SPICE display resolution. Press F12 to release the mouse and click on the SPICE symbol on the upper left hand corner of the SPICE window. In the menu, select Change CDRHEV-toolsSetup to attach the Guest Tools ISO to the virtual machine.
  6. On the virtual machine, locate the CD drive (usually D drive) and install the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Application provisioning tool. This tool checks for RHEV-tools updates on every reboot.
  7. After the installation of the tool, wait for a few minutes. During this time, you will not see any apparent activity because the tool runs as a service. The guest will automatically reboot to apply changes.
You have completed the installation of your Windows virtual machine. You can now log in and start using it. In the next lab you will convert this machine into a template from which you will be able to provision multiple similar machines.

8.3. Creating Windows virtual machines from templates

In the previous section, you created a Windows template complete with pre-configured storage, networking and operating system settings. Now, you will use this template to deploy a pre-installed virtual machine.

To create a Windows virtual machine from a template

  1. Navigate to the Tree pane and click Expand All. Click the VMs icon in the Default cluster under the Default data center. On the Virtual Machines tab, click New Desktop.
    Clone a Windows desktop

    Figure 8.4. Clone a Windows desktop


    1. On the General tab, select your newly created Windows template called FinanWinDesk from the Based on Template list.
    2. Enter a suitable Name and Description, and accept the default values inherited from the template in the rest of the fields. You can change them if needed.
  2. Retain all other default setting and click OK to create the virtual machine. The virtual machine displays in the Virtual Machines list with a status of "Image Locked" until the virtual disk is created. The virtual disk and networking settings are inherited from the template, and do not have to be reconfigured.
  3. Click the Run icon to turn it on. This time, the Run Once steps are not required as the operating system has already been installed onto the virtual machine hard drive. Click the green Console button to connect to the virtual machine.
  4. The Windows virtual machine goes through the unattended setup process to apply the customized settings set by sysprep using the answer file provided. When this process ends, log in to the machine. You can see that the virtual machine has joined the Active Directory domain.
You have now learned how to create Windows virtual machines with and without templates. Next, you will learn how to access these virtual machines from a user portal.

8.4. Create a Windows Template

Now that you have created a Windows virtual machine, you can save its settings into a template. This template will retain the original virtual machine's configurations, including virtual disk and network interface settings, operating systems and applications. You can use this template to rapidly create replicas of the original virtual machine. For this lab, name your template FinanWinDesk.
Before your virtual machine can be used to create a template, it has to be sealed with sysprep. This ensures that machine-specific settings are not propagated through the template.
Note that the procedure below is applicable for creating Windows 7 and Windows 2008 R2 templates. If you wish to seal a Windows XP template, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Administration Guide.

To seal a Windows virtual machine with sysprep

  1. In the Windows virtual machine to be used as a template, open a command line terminal and type regedit.
  2. The Registry Editor window displays. On the left pane, expand HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESYSTEMSETUP.
  3. On the main window, right click to add a new string value using NewString Value. Right click on the string value file and select Modify. When the Edit String dialog box displays, fill in the provided text boxes:
    • Value name: UnattendFile
    • Value data: a:\sysprep.inf
  4. Launch sysprep from C:\Windows\System32\sysprep\sysprep.exe
    • Under System Cleanup Action, select Enter System Out-of-Box-Experience (OOBE).
    • Tick the Generalize check box if you need to change the computer's system identification number (SID).
    • Under Shutdown Options, select Shutdown.
    Click OK. The virtual machine will now go through the sealing process and shut down automatically.

To create a template from an existing Windows machine

  1. In the administration portal, click the Virtual Machines tab. Select the sealed Windows 7 virtual machine. Ensure that it has a status of Down and click Make Template.
  2. The New Virtual Machine Template displays. Enter information into the following fields:
    • Name: Name of the new template.
      Name your new template FinanWinDesk.
    • Description: Description of the new template.
    • Host Cluster: The Host Cluster for the virtual machines using this template.
    • Allow all users to access this template: Check this box to allow all users to access this template.
  3. Click OK. In the Templates tab, the template displays the "Image Locked" status icon while it is being created. During this time, the action buttons for the template remain disabled. Once created, the action buttons are enabled and the template is ready for use.
  4. Now that you have the template, you can further modify its properties. In this example you will set its time zone and enable it to join the Active Directory. These parameters will be passed to the sysprep answers file while creating a virtual machine using this template.
    On the Tree pane navigate to the data center where you have created the template. Double-click the template and click the sysprep tab. Fill in the Active Directory domain that you have added previously, select your time zone, and click OK.
  5. You have to activate the Windows operating system for each virtual machine created using this template. To automate the activation process, configure sysprep with the volume license key you have prepared for this track.
    Log in to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager's server console and run:
    # rhevm-config -s ProductKeyWindow7x64=”enter your key here”
    # service ovirt-engine restart
    
You can now create new Windows machines using this template.

8.5. Assigning UserRole permissions on virtual machines

To access virtual machines from the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization User Portal, users must have the relevant permissions. Permissions are added from the Manager administration portal or the Power User Portal. A basic user has permissions for the assigned virtual machine only, not for all virtual machines in the system.

To assign UserRole permissions on a virtual machine

  1. From the administration portal, click the Virtual Machines tab. Select the virtual machine you created, Win7Huron.
  2. On the Details pane, navigate to the Permissions tab. Click the Add button.
  3. The Add Permission to User dialog displays. Enter desktopuser in the Search textbox, and click Go. Select the check box of the user to be assigned the permissions. Scroll through the Assign role to user list and select UserRole.
  4. Click OK. The user now has permissions to access the virtual desktop.

8.6. Connecting to virtual machines

Now that you have created a user who has basic permissions, log in as desktopuser to the User Portal. Ensure that you have the addomain.demo.redhat.com domain selected. For instructions refer to the section regarding logging in to the User Portal.
The Basic User Portal displays for users who have basic permissions. Note the difference between this portal and the one you accessed in a previous lab as a Power User. The Basic User Portal is designed for end users with little need for performing system administration changes to the virtual machines.

To connect to a virtual machine

  1. Select the virtual machine you wish to connect to and click the Play button.
  2. The virtual machine powers up. When it is turned on, it will no longer be grayed out. The text Machine is Ready displays under the virtual machine logo. Double click the virtual machine to connect to console.
    Add UserRole permission

    Figure 8.5. Add UserRole permission


  3. A SPICE console window of the virtual machine displays.
    A virtual desktop can be used the same way as a physical computer. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization supports the use of USB devices and CD-ROMs on virtual machines. For more information on using virtual machines refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization User Portal Guide.
  4. Once you have finished using the virtual machine, log out according to the instructions specific to the operating system. This returns you to the user portal.

8.7. Use Virtual Desktop Pools

8.7.1. Creating desktop pools

To create a desktop pool

  1. Log in to the administration portal. In the Tree pane, select System and click the Pools tab. Click the New button.
    Create a new desktop pool

    Figure 8.6. Create a new desktop pool


    Enter FinWinPool in Name and 5 in Number of VMs. In the Based On Template field, select FinanWinDesk. You may alter other settings, but this example retains the defaults. Click OK to create the desktop pool.
  2. On the Virtual Machines tab, you can see that five new virtual desktops have been created. You have to run them to allow sysprep to set up the virtual desktops and add them to the domain as specified when you created the template. This will take a few minutes, you can either open consoles to all the virtual desktops to monitor the progress of this setup or wait until you see the virtual machine information (like IP addresses) display on the results list, which indicates the setup is complete.
  3. Power off all the pool desktops. Select them all and click the Stop button. The virtual desktops will move to a Powering Down state, and after a while change to Down.

8.7.2. Assigning UserRole permissions

To access virtual machines from the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization User Portal, users must have the relevant permissions. Assigning UserRole permissions for a pool allows a user to access all of the virtual desktops in the pool, but not other virtual machines in the system.

To assign UserRole permissions

  1. On the Tree pane, select System and click Pools. Select the pool you created, FinanWinPool.
  2. On the Details pane, navigate to the Permissions tab. Click the Add button.
  3. The Add Permission to User window opens.
    Select addomain.demo.redhat.com as the domain to search and enter desktopuser in the Search textbox, then click Go. Select the check box of the desktopuser. Scroll through the Assign role to user list and select UserRole.
  4. Click OK. The user now has permissions to access the desktop pool.

8.7.3. Allocating virtual desktops

Virtual desktops in a pool have the same operating system and installed applications. The pool will allocate identical virtual desktops as needed to each user permitted to access the pool.
Log in to the user portal as desktopuser. Ensure that you have the addomain.demo.redhat.com domain selected.

To allocate a virtual desktop

  1. Select the pool you created. Turn it on by clicking on the Play button which in this case allocates a virtual desktop from the pool.
    Take virtual desktop from pool

    Figure 8.7. Take virtual desktop from pool


  2. The virtual desktop assigned to you powers up. Its name reflects the pool it was taken from.
    Take virtual desktop from pool

    Figure 8.8. Take virtual desktop from pool


  3. When the virtual desktop displays the text Machine is Ready, double-click the virtual desktop logo to access its console window.
    Connect to virtual desktop

    Figure 8.9. Connect to virtual desktop


  4. A virtual desktop in a pool should be stateless, meaning any changes made to it will be deleted upon shutdown. In the next section, you will test whether this virtual desktop is stateless by seeing changes that you make to it get removed when the virtual desktop is returned to the pool. First, make a change to the default virtual desktop. For example, create a file on the Desktop called test.txt or add a new user account.

8.7.4. Deallocating virtual desktops

Now, you will shut down the virtual desktop and return it to the pool. As the virtual desktop you used is part of a shared resource, the changes you have made will not be persistent.

Procedure 8.1. Deallocating virtual desktop

  1. Make a note of the name of the virtual desktop, then shut it down by clicking the button. It is now deallocated and returned to the pool.
  2. Now, select the desktop pool and click to allocate a virtual desktop again.
  3. You might get a different virtual desktop from the pool or the same one; check its name.
    If it is the same desktop, you can check that the desktop has indeed been rebuilt, and thus retains only the settings specified in the template from which it was created. To do so, log in to the virtual desktop and verify that the changes you have made previously are lost, as expected.

8.8. Lab 8 - Summary

In this lab, you have successfully created and used Windows virtual machines and desktop pools.
The next lab in the Advanced Track is Advanced Storage Features. This lab shows you how to create floating disks, associate them with virtual machines, mark virtual disks shared, and associate shared virtual disks with other machines. You will also take snapshots of running virtual machines and use them to create clones of the virtual machine.

Chapter 9. Lab 9 - Installing and configuring minimal setup

9.1. Lab 9 - Objectives

Lab 9 - Objectives
This lab takes you through the tasks necessary to install and set up Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization on a single host and using local storage. In addition, you will learn how to add ISOs in order to create virtual machines. This lab should take you about 60 minutes.
This chapter shows you how to install the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager on a server running Red Hat Enterprise Linux. (12 minutes*)
This chapter shows you how to install and configure a Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor for use with Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. (13 minutes*)
This chapter shows you how to configure a client machine to connect to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager administration portal. (8 minutes)
This chapter shows you how to approve the host for use from the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. (7 minutes)
This chapter shows you how to define NFS, iSCSI or FCP storage and attach the domains to the data center. (10 minutes)
This chapter shows you how to attach the predefined ISO domain to the data center and upload ISO images to the repository. (10 minutes)
* The time required to download packages from the Red Hat Network depends on the bandwidth of your connection to RHN, therefore it has not been included in the estimated time.

9.2. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager

Install Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager

Figure 9.1. Install Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager


The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager is the control center of the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization environment. It allows you to define hosts, configure data centers, add storage, define networks, create virtual machines, manage user permissions, and use templates from one central location.
The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager must be installed on a server running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, with minimum 4 GB RAM, 25 GB free disk space and 1 Gbps network interface.

Procedure 9.1. To install Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager

  1. Install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 on a server. When prompted for the software packages to install, select the default Basic Server option. See the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide for more details.

    Important

    During installation, remember to set the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) and IP for the server.
  2. If your server has not been registered with the Red Hat Network, run:
    # rhn_register
    To complete registration successfully you need to supply your Red Hat Network username and password. Follow the onscreen prompts to complete registration of the system.
    After you have registered your server, update all the packages on it. Run:
    # yum -y update
    Reboot your server for the updates to be applied.
  3. Subscribe the server to the required Red Hat Network channels. See the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager Release Notes for a list of required channels.
  4. You are now ready to install the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. Run the following command:
    # yum -y install rhevm
    This command will download the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager installation software and resolve all dependencies.
  5. When the packages have finished downloading, run the installer:
    # rhevm-setup
  6. The installer will take you through a series of interactive questions as listed in the following example. If you do not enter a value when prompted, the installer uses the default settings which are stated in [ ] brackets.

    Example 9.1. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager installation

    Welcome to RHEV Manager setup utility
    In order to proceed the installer must stop the JBoss service
    Would you like to stop the JBoss service? (yes|no): yes
    Stopping JBoss... RHEV Manager uses httpd to proxy requests to the application server.
    It looks like the httpd installed locally is being actively used.
    The installer can override current configuration.
    Alternatively you can use JBoss directly (on ports higher than 1024)
    Do you wish to override current httpd configuration and restart the service? ['yes'| 'no']  [yes] : 
    Do you wish to override current httpd configuration and restart the service? ['yes'| 'no']  [yes] : yes
    HTTP Port  [80] : 
    HTTPS Port  [443] :
    Host fully qualified domain name. Note: this name should be fully resolvable [FQDN]:
    Password for Administrator (admin@internal) :
    Confirm password :
    Organization Name for the Certificate [Default Organization Name]:
    The default storage type you will be using  ['NFS'| 'FC'| 'ISCSI']  [NFS] : ISCSI
    Enter DB type for installation ['remote'| 'local']  [local] : Local database
    password :
    Confirm password :
    Configure NFS share on this server to be used as an ISO Domain? ['yes'| 'no']  [yes] : 
    Local ISO domain path  [/usr/local/exports/iso] : 
    Firewall ports need to be opened.
    The installer can configure iptables automatically overriding the current configuration. The old configuration will be backed up.
    Alternately you can configure the firewall later using an example iptables file found under /usr/share/ovirt-engine/conf/iptables.example
    Configure iptables ? ['yes'| 'no']: yes
    
    Important points to note:
    • The default ports 80 and 443 must be available to access the manager on HTTP and HTTPS respectively.
    • If you elect to configure an NFS share it will be exported from the machine on which the manager is being installed.
    • The storage type that you select will be used to create a data center and cluster. You will then be able to attach storage to these from the Administration Portal.

  7. You are then presented with a summary of the configurations you have selected. Type yes to accept them.

    Example 9.2. Confirm Manager installation settings

    RHEV Manager will be installed using the following configuration:
    =================================================================
    override-httpd-config:         yes
    http-port:                     80
    https-port:                    443
    host-fqdn:                     rhevm-demo.name.com
    auth-pass:                     ********
    org-name:                      Organization Name
    default-dc-type:               ISCSI
    db-remote-install:             local
    db-local-pass:                 ********
    nfs-mp:                        /usr/local/exports/iso
    config-nfs:                    yes
    override-iptables:             yes
    Proceed with the configuration listed above? (yes|no): yes
    

  8. The installation commences. The following message displays, indicating that the installation was successful.

    Example 9.3. Successful installation

    Installing:
    Configuring RHEV Manager...                              [ DONE ]
    Creating CA...                                           [ DONE ]
    Editing JBoss Configuration...                           [ DONE ]
    Setting Database Configuration...                        [ DONE ]
    Setting Database Security...                             [ DONE ]
    Creating Database...                                     [ DONE ]
    Updating the Default Data Center Storage Type...         [ DONE ]
    Editing RHEV Manager Configuration...                    [ DONE ]
    Editing Postgresql Configuration...                      [ DONE ]
    Configuring the Default ISO Domain...                    [ DONE ]
    Configuring Firewall (iptables)...                       [ DONE ]
    Starting JBoss Service...                                [ DONE ]
    Configuring HTTPD...                                     [ DONE ]
    
     **** Installation completed successfully ******
    

Your Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager is now up and running. You can log in to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager's web administration portal with the username admin (the administrative user configured during installation) in the internal domain. Instructions to do so are provided at the end of this chapter.

Important

The internal domain is automatically created upon installation, however no new users can be added to this domain. To authenticate new users, you need an external directory service. Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization supports Identity Management (IdM), Active Directory, and RHDS, and provides a utility called rhevm-manage-domains for attaching new directories to the system. Use of this tool is covered in the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Installation Guide.

9.3. Installing Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor

9.3.1. Registering the Host on RHN and Acquiring ISO Hypervisor Images

Summary
The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager Red Hat Network channel contains the Hypervisor packages. The Hypervisor itself is contained in the rhev-hypervisor package. Additional tools supporting USB and PXE installations are installed as dependencies. Install the Hypervisor packages on the system you plan to use to create Hypervisor boot media.
Select one of the two options below:

Procedure 9.2. Subscribing to RHN Entitlement Pools and Installing the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor Packages

  1. Subscribing to download the Hypervisor using certificate-based RHN

    1. Identify Available Entitlement Pools
      To subscribe the system to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization channels you need you must locate the identifier for the relevant entitlement pool. Use the list action in the subscription-manager to find these:
      # subscription-manager list --available | grep -A8 "Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization"
    2. Subscribe System to Entitlement Pools
      Using the pool identifiers located in the previous step, subscribe the system to Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server and Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization entitlements. Use the subscribe parameter of the subscription-manager command, and replace POOLID with one of the pool identifiers.
      # subscription-manager subscribe --pool=POOLID
  2. Subscribing to download the Hypervisor using RHN Classic

    1. Log on to Red Hat Network http://rhn.redhat.com.
    2. Move the mouse cursor over the Subscriptions link at the top of the page, and then click Registered Systems in the menu that appears.
    3. Select the system to which you are adding channels from the list on the screen by clicking the name of the system.
    4. Click Alter Channel Subscriptions in the Subscribed Channels section of the screen.
    5. Select the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager channel from the list on the screen, then click the Change Subscription button to finalize the change.
  3. Log in to the system on which the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager is installed. Log in as root.
  4. Use yum to install the rhev-hypervisor.
    # yum install rhev-hypervisor
Result
The Hypervisor ISO image is installed into the /usr/share/rhev-hypervisor/ directory. The livecd-iso-to-disk and livecd-iso-to-pxeboot scripts are installed to the /usr/bin/ directory.

Note

All version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2 and higher allow more than one version of the ISO image to be installed at one time. Because of this, /usr/share/rhev-hypervisor/rhev-hypervisor.iso is now a symbolic link to a uniquely-named version of the Hypervisor ISO image, for instance /usr/share/rhev-hypervisor/rhevh-6.2-20111006.0.el6.iso. Different versions of the image can now be installed alongside each other, allowing administrators to run and maintain a cluster on a previous version of the Hypervisor while upgrading another cluster for testing.
The symbolic links /usr/share/rhev-hypervisor/rhevh-latest6.iso and /usr/share/rhev-hypervisor/rhev-hypervisor6.iso are created. These links target the most-recently installed version of the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization ISO image.

9.3.2. Preparing Optical Hypervisor Installation Media

Summary
Burn the Hypervisor image to a CD-ROM with the wodim command. The wodim command is part of the wodim package.

Procedure 9.3. Preparing Optical Hypervisor Installation Media

  1. Verify that the wodim package is installed on the system.

    Example 9.4. Verify Installation of wodim Package

    # rpm -q wodim
    wodim-1.1.9-11.el6.x86_64
    

    If the package version is in the output the package is available.
    If nothing is listed, install wodim:
    # yum install wodim
    
  2. Insert a blank CD-ROM or DVD into your CD or DVD writer.
  3. Record the ISO file to the disc. The wodim command uses the following:
    wodim dev=device image
    This example uses the first CD-RW (/dev/cdrw) device available and the default hypervisor image location, /usr/share/rhev-hypervisor/rhev-hypervisor.iso.

    Example 9.5. Use of wodim Command

    # wodim dev=/dev/cdrw /usr/share/rhev-hypervisor/rhev-hypervisor.iso
    

Result
If no errors occurred, the Hypervisor is ready to boot. Errors sometimes occur during the recording process due to errors on the media itself. If this occurs insert another writable disk and repeat the command above.
The Hypervisor uses a program (isomd5sum) to verify the integrity of the installation media every time the Hypervisor is booted. If media errors are reported in the boot sequence you have a bad CD-ROM. Follow the procedure above to create a new CD-ROM or DVD.

9.3.3. Install Red Hat Enterprise Virtualizaton Hosts from Optical Installation Media

Now that you have registered the host with RHN, acquired the Hypervisor images, and used the Hypervisor images to create optical installation media, you will boot the system using the optical installation media.
Summary
Booting the Hypervisor from optical installation media requires the system to have a correctly defined BIOS boot configuration.
  1. Ensure that the system's BIOS is configured to boot from the CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive before proceeding.

    Note

    Refer to your manufacturer's manuals for further information on modifying the system's BIOS boot configuration.
  2. Insert the Hypervisor CD-ROM in the CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive.
  3. Reboot the system.
Result
The host's screen will display the Hypervisor boot screen.

9.3.4. Install Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisors

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor Menu navigation keys

  • Use the Up and Down arrow keys to navigate between selections. Your selections are highlighted in white.
  • The Tab key allows you to move between fields.
  • Use the Spacebar to tick check boxes, which are represented by [ ] brackets. A marked check box displays with an asterisk (*).
  • To proceed with the selected configurations, press the Enter key.

Important

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor is a closed appliance, and does not allow the installation of custom RPMs.
If you require custom RPMs, you must use Red Hat Enterprise Linux hosts. Red Hat Enterprise Linux hosts are not closed appliances, and they allow the installation of custom RPMs.

To install Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisors

  1. Insert the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor installation CD into your CD-ROM drive of the machine designated as a host. Reboot the machine. When the boot splash screen displays, press the Tab key and select Boot to boot from the hypervisor installation media. Press Enter.
  2. On the installation confirmation screen, select Install RHEV Hypervisor and press Enter.
  3. The installer automatically detects the drives attached to the system. The disk selected for booting the hypervisor is highlighted in white. Ensure that the local disk is highlighted, otherwise use the arrow keys to select the correct disk. Select Continue and press Enter.
  4. You are prompted to select the drive on which the hypervisor is to be installed. Ensure that the local disk is highlighted, otherwise use the arrow keys to select the correct disk. While multiple installation drives can be used, select only one for this evaluation. Select Continue and press Enter.
  5. Enter a password for local console access and confirm it. Select Install and press Enter. The Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor partitions the local drive, then commences installation.
  6. Once installation is complete, a dialog prompts you to Reboot the hypervisor. Press Enter to confirm. Remove the installation disc.
  7. After the hypervisor has rebooted, you will be taken to a login shell. Log in as the admin user with the password you provided during installation to enter the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor management console.
  8. On the hypervisor management console, there are eight tabs on the left. Press the Up and Down keys to navigate between them and Enter to access them.
    1. Select the Network tab. Fill in the required fields as shown in the following example. Substitute the DNS Server address according to your environment.
      Configure Hypervisor network settings

      Figure 9.2. Configure Hypervisor network settings


      After you have filled in the fields, select Apply and press Enter. This saves your network settings.
    2. For this document, the eth0 device will be used to set up the management network. Select it and press Enter to access the interface configuration menu. Fill in the required fields as shown in the following example.
      Configure management network interface

      Figure 9.3. Configure management network interface


      Under IPv4 Settings, select DHCP or Static IP addressing and press Spacebar to mark the option as enabled. If using static IP addressing you must also provide the IP Address, Netmask, and Gateway. Select Apply and press Enter.
      A dialog prompts you to confirm your network settings, select OK and press Enter.
    3. Select the RHEV-M tab. Configure the following options:
      • In the Management Server field, enter rhevm.demo.redhat.com.
      • In the Management Server Port field, enter 443.
      • Tick the Connect to the RHEV Manager and Validate Certificate check box.
      • The Set RHEV-M Admin Password field allows you to specify the root password for the hypervisor, and enable SSH password authentication from the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. You do not have to fill in this field for this document.
      Select Apply and press Enter. A dialog displays, asking you to connect the hypervisor to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager and validate its certificate. Select Approve and press Enter. A message will display notifying you that the Manager configuration has been successfully updated.
    4. Under the Red Hat Network tab, you can register the host with the Red Hat Network. This enables the host to run Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machines with proper RHN entitlements. However, for the purposes of this document, the evaluation subscriptions will be used for the guests.
    5. Accept all other default settings. For information on security, logging, and kernel dump configuration, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Hypervisor Deployment Guide. The guide also covers non-interactive hypervisor installation.
    6. Finally, select the Status tab. Select Restart and press Enter to reboot the host and apply all changes.
You have now successfully installed a Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor. Repeat the above steps for each hypervisor you wish to use. The following sections will provide instructions on how to approve the hypervisors for use with the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager.

9.4. Connecting to Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Web Administration Portal

Connect to the Manager administration portal

Figure 9.4. Connect to the Manager administration portal


Now that you have installed the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager and hosts, you can log in to the Manager administration portal to start configuring your virtualization environment. Use a client running Firefox to access the web-based administration portal.
  1. Open a browser and navigate to https://domain.example.com. Substitute domain.example.com with the URL provided during installation.
  2. Under the Portals heading, click Web Admin Portal
  3. If this is your first time connecting to the administration portal, Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager will issue security certificates for your browser. Click the link labelled this certificate to trust the ca.cer certificate. A pop-up displays, click Open to launch the Certificate dialog. Click Install Certificate and select to place the certificate in Trusted Root Certification Authorities store.
  4. The portal login screen displays. Enter admin as your User Name, and enter the Password that you provided during installation. Ensure that your domain is set to Internal. Click Login.
You have now successfully logged in to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization web administration portal. Here, you can configure and manage all your virtual resources.

9.5. Web Administration Portal Graphical User Interface

The administration portal graphical interface has two modes: Tree mode and flat mode. Tree mode allows you to browse the object hierarchy of a data center, and is the recommended manner of operation. On the other hand, flat mode is used for objects which are not in the data centers hierarchy, for example the Users tab which does not appear in tree mode.
The functions of the administration portal GUI are described in the following figure and list:
Administration Portal Features

Figure 9.5. Administration Portal Features


  1. Header: This bar contains the name of the logged in user, the sign out button, the option to configure user roles.
  2. Navigation Pane: This pane allows you to navigate between the Tree, Bookmarks and Tags tabs. In the Tree tab, tree mode allows you to see the entire system tree and provides a visual representation your virtualization environment's architecture.
  3. Resources Tabs: These tabs allow you to access the resources of Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization. You should already have a Default Data Center, a Default Cluster, a Host waiting to be approved, and available Storage waiting to be attached to the data center.
  4. Results List: When you select a tab, this list displays the available resources. You can perform a task on an individual item or multiple items by selecting the item(s) and then clicking the relevant action button. If an action is not possible, the button is disabled.
  5. Details Pane: When you select a resource, this pane displays its details in several subtabs. These subtabs also contain action buttons which you can use to make changes to the selected resource.
  6. Tree Pane: When you select a resource, this pane displays the details of that resource as well as the location of the resource in the system hierarchy.
  7. Events Pane: The Events pane displays the most recent events in the environment (user log in, user log out, resource additions, resource removals).
Once you are familiar with the layout of the administration portal, you can start configuring your virtual environment. Begin by approving your Hypervisor hosts for use, as detailed in the next section.

9.6. Approve the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor

At this point you should already have a Default data center and a Default cluster, which have been automatically created during the Manager installation. In addition, the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisors you installed earlier should have been automatically detected by the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager and attached to the Default cluster of the Default data center.
However, before they can be used, they require a click of approval from the administration portal. Perform the following procedure for each hypervisor.

To approve the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor hosts

  1. Navigate to the Tree pane and click the Expand All button. Under the Default cluster, click the Hosts icon. The Hosts tab displays a list of available hypervisors.
  2. Select your hypervisor and click the Approve button. The Edit and Approve Host dialog displays. Accept the defaults or make changes as necessary, then click OK.
    Approve Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor

    Figure 9.6. Approve Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor


  3. A dialog appears, indicating that you have not configured Power Management for this host. For the purpose of this lab, click OK to continue. The host goes through a brief installation cycle. When complete, the host status changes from Non Operational to Up.
Note that both the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisors that you have approved were attached to the same host cluster, which means that they share the same network infrastructure, the same storage and the same type of CPU, therefore they can migrate virtual machines from one to the other. You can learn how to create new host clusters in Advanced Lab 7 - Add Additional Data Center.
Now that you have finished configuring your physical servers for use as the Manager, Hypervisors and administration portal client respectively, you are ready to customize and deploy virtual resources including logical networks, storage domains and virtual machines.

9.7. Creating Local Storage

At this point, you have installed your Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor and approved it for use with the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. Now, you have to set up the host to provide local storage for the virtual machine disk images. Note that setting up local storage is suitable for a small environment, such as this evaluation setup. If you were deploying Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization across a large organization, it is recommended that you use shared storage as described in the section regarding configuring storage. However, for this lab, use the following procedure to add storage to your system.

To create a local storage domain

  1. Navigate to the Tree pane and click the Expand All button. Under the Default cluster, click the Hosts icon. The Hosts tab displays a list of available hypervisors.
  2. Place the host into maintenance mode by clicking the Maintenance button. The Status field of the host changes to Preparing for Maintenance, followed by Maintenance. The icon changes to indicate that the host is in maintenance.
  3. Click Configure Local Storage. The Configure Local Storage window opens. On the General tab, specify the path to your local storage domain. For this lab, enter /data/images/rhev. Retain all the other default settings, and click OK.
  4. Your local storage domain is created, and attached to the automatically created Atlantic-Local data center and Atlantic-Local cluster.
You have created a data storage domain. Now, you need to attach an ISO domain to the data center and upload installation images so you can use them to create virtual machines.

9.8. Creating local storage domains

  1. Navigate to the Tree pane and click the Expand All button. Under the Default cluster, click the Hosts icon. The Hosts tab displays a list of available hypervisors.
  2. Place the host into maintenance mode by clicking the Maintenance button. The Status field of the host changes to Preparing for Maintenance, followed by Maintenance. The icon changes to indicate that the host is in maintenance.
  3. Click Configure Local Storage. The Configure Local Storage window opens. On the General tab, specify the path to your local storage domain. For this lab, enter /data/images/rhev. Retain all the other default settings, and click OK.
  4. Your local storage domain is created, and attached to the automatically created Atlantic-Local data center and Atlantic-Local cluster.

9.9. Attach and Populate ISO Domains

You have defined your first storage domain to store virtual guest data, now it is time to configure your second storage domain, which will be used to store installation images for creating virtual machines. You have already created an ISO domain during the installation of the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager. To use this ISO domain, attach it to the same data center which contains the local storage domain.

To attach the ISO domain

  1. Navigate to the Tree pane and click the Expand All button. Click the Atlantic-Local data center. On the results list, the Atlantic-Local data center displays.
  2. On the details pane, select the Storage tab and click the Attach ISO button.
  3. The Attach ISO Library dialog appears with the available ISO domain. Select the local-iso-share domain and click OK.
    Attach ISO Library

    Figure 9.7. Attach ISO Library


  4. The ISO domain appears in the results list of the Storage tab. It displays with the Locked status as the domain is being validated, then transits to Inactive.
  5. Select the ISO domain and click the Activate button. The status changes to Locked and then to Active.
Media images (CD-ROM or DVD-ROM in the form of ISO images) must be available in the ISO repository for the virtual machines to use. To do so, Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization provides a utility that copies the images and sets the appropriate permissions on the file. For this lab, both the file provided to the utility and the ISO share have to be accessible from the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager.
Log in to the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager server console to upload images to the ISO domain.

To upload ISO images

  1. Create or acquire the appropriate ISO images from boot media. Ensure the path to these images is accessible from the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager server.
  2. The next step is to upload these files. First, determine the available ISO domains by running:
    # rhevm-iso-uploader list
    You will be prompted to provide the admin user password which you are using to connect to the administration portal. The tool lists the name of the ISO domain that you have already attached in the previous lab:
    ISO Storage Domain List:
    local-iso-share
    Now you have all the information required to upload the required files. To copy your installation images to the ISO domain, run:
    # rhevm-iso-uploader upload -i local-iso-share [file1] [file2] .... [fileN]
  3. After the images have been loaded, check that they are available for use in the Manager administration portal.
    1. Navigate to the Tree and click the Expand All button. Click Storage
    2. On the Storage tab, click local-iso-share to display its details pane.
    3. Select the Images subtab. The list of available images should be populated with the files which you have uploaded. In addition, the RHEV-toolsSetup.iso and virtio-win.vfd images should have been automatically uploaded during installation.
Now that you have successfully prepared the ISO domain for use, you have completed Lab 1 and are ready to start creating virtual machines.

9.10. Lab 9 - Summary

Congratulations, you have achieved the first goal of Track B! You now have an infrastructure ready to create and run virtual machines. To recap, you have successfully installed the Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager and Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Hypervisor, attached storage domains to the data center, and prepared ISO images.
The next lab on Track B teaches you how to create Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual machines and templates.
The subsequent labs for this track are also used for Track A: Standard Setup. Therefore, most examples, instructions and screenshots are specific to Track A. When you use the instructions in the following labs, substitute the instances of default data center and default cluster with Atlantic-Local data center and Atlantic-Local cluster respectively.

Chapter 10. Lab 10 - Advanced storage features

10.1. Lab 10 - Objectives

In this lab, you will learn about the advanced storage features supported by Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization.
These include:
  • Floating Disks
  • Shared Disks
  • Creating snapshots of running virtual machines
  • Creating virtual machines from snapshots
  • Associating LUNs with virtual machines
  • Associating Fibre Channel (FC) LUNs with virtual machines

10.2. Advanced Storage Features

Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization has a number of advanced storage features. In this lab, you will explore some of these advanced storage features.
You will create a floating disk, associate it with a virtual machine, mark the virtual disk shared, and associate the shared virtual disk with a second machine.
You will also take a snapshot of a running virtual machine and use it to create a clone of the virtual machine.

10.3. Requirements

This lab assumes that you have successfully completed the basic labs of Section 1, Track A: Standard Setup or Section 2: Track B, Minimal Setup. This lab assumes that you have correctly installed and configured Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization and that you are able to use it to create virtual machines.

10.4. Creating Floating Disks

Summary
The first task you will undertake in the Advanced Storage Lab is the creation of a floating disk.

Procedure 10.1. Creating Floating Disks

  1. Click the Disks tab in the navigation pane.
  2. Click the Add button in the top left of the navigation pane. The Add Virtual Disk window opens.
  3. Enter 10 in the Size(GB) field.
  4. Enter Disk1 in the Alias field.
  5. Enter Description placeholder in the Description field.
  6. Leave all other settings at their defaults.
  7. Click OK at the bottom right of the Add Virtual Disk window.
Result
You have created the floating disk Disk1. Now that you have created the floating disk Disk1, you will associate it with a machine.
Disks on Multiple Storage Domains
Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization allows you to have disks on multiple storage domains. In the Add Virtual Disk window, select the data domain you want your disk to be on. Using this method, you can attach disks from different storage domains to your guest machine.

10.5. Associating a Floating Disk with a Virtual Machine

Summary
You have just created a floating disk. Now you will associate it with a virtual machine.

Procedure 10.2. Associating a Floating Disk with a Virtual Machine

  1. Click the Virtual Machines tab in the navigation pane.
  2. Select RHEL6Thames from the list. The details pane displays the virtual disks associated with the virtual machine RHEL6Thames.
  3. Click Add in the top left of the details pane. The Add Virtual Disk window opens.
  4. Select the Attach Disk check box. A list of disks appears.
  5. Select the check box associated with Disk1.
  6. Click OK at the bottom right of the Add Virtual Disk window.
Result
You have now associated a floating disk with the virtual machine named RHEL6Thames. Next you will mark the disk shared, so that it can be associated with a second virtual machine.

10.6. Marking a Virtual Disk Shared

Summary
You have just associated a floating disk with a virtual machine. Now you will mark the disk shared, so that it can be associated with a second virtual machine.

Procedure 10.3. Marking a disk shared

  1. Click the Virtual Machines tab in the navigation pane.
  2. Click RHEL6Thames in the navigation pane.
  3. Click the Virtual Disks tab in the details pane.
  4. Click Disk1 in the list in the details pane.
  5. Click Edit in the upper left of the details pane. The Edit Virtual Disk window opens.
  6. Check the is shareable check box on the right of the Edit Virtual Disk window.
  7. Click OK in the bottom right of the Edit Virtual Disk window.
Result
You have now marked a virtual disk shared. In the next task in this lab, you will associate the disk you just marked shared with a second virtual machine.

10.7. Associating a Shared Virtual Disk with a Second Virtual Machine

Summary
You have just marked a virtual disk shared. You will now associate the marked disk with a second virtual machine.

Procedure 10.4. Associating a Shared Virtual Disk with a Second Virtual Machine

  1. Click the Virtual Machines tab.
  2. Select RHEL6Ganges. The details pane displays the disks associated with the virtual machine.
  3. Click Add in the top left of the details pane. The Add Virtual Disk window opens.
  4. Select the Attach Disk check box. A list of disks appears in the Add Virtual Disk window.
  5. Select the check box associated with Disk1.
  6. Click OK at the bottom right of the Add Virtual Disk window.
Result
You have now associated a shared virtual disk with a second virtual machine.

10.8. Creating a Snapshot of a Running Virtual Machine

Note

Before you perform the Snapshotting tasks in this lab, you must create a virtual machine named RHEL6Nile.
Summary
In Lab 10, you have created a floating disk, associated it with a virtual machine, flagged it shared, and associated it with a second virtual machine. Now you will create a snapshot of a running virtual machine.

Procedure 10.5. Creating a Snapshot of a Running Virtual Machine

  1. Click the Virtual Machines tab in the navigation pane.
  2. Select RHEL6Nile in the navigation pane.
  3. Ensure that RHEL6Nile is running. If it has a status of Down, click the green Play button at the top of the navigation pane.
  4. Click the Snapshots tab in the details pane.
  5. Click Create in the upper left of the details pane.
  6. After a short time, the snapshot you just created will appear in the details pane.
Result
You have now created a snapshot of a running virtual machine. Next, you will use the snapshot you have just created to create a virtual machine based on this snapshot.

10.9. Creating a Virtual Machine from a Snapshot

Summary
You have created a snapshot from a virtual machine. Now you can use that snapshot to create another virtual machine.

Procedure 10.6. Creating a virtual machine from a snapshot

  1. Use the Virtual Machines resource tab, tree mode, or the search function to find and select the virtual machine in the results list. Ensure the status is Powered Down.
  2. Click the Snapshots tab in the details pane to list the available snapshots for the virtual machines.
  3. Select a snapshot in the list displayed and click Clone to open the Clone VM from Snapshot window.
  4. Enter the Name and Description of the virtual machine to be created.
    Clone a Virtual Machine from a Snapshot

    Figure 10.1. Clone a Virtual Machine from a Snapshot


  5. Click OK to create the virtual machine and close the window.
Result
After a short time, the cloned virtual machine appears in the Virtual Machines tab in the navigation pane. It appears in the navigation pane with a status of Image Locked. The virtual machine will remain in this state until Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization completes the creation of the virtual machine. A virtual machine with a preallocated 20GB hard drive takes about fifteen minutes to create. Sparsely-allocated virtual disks take less time to create than do preallocated virtual disks.
When the virtual machine is ready to use, its status changes from Image Locked to Down in the Virtual Machines tab in the navigation pane.

10.10. Associating LUNs with Virtual Machines

Summary
In this procedure, you associate a iSCSI LUN (logical unit number) with a virtual machine.

Procedure 10.7. Associating iSCSI LUNs with Virtual Machines

  1. Select a virtual machine from the navigation pane.
  2. Select Disks in the details pane.
  3. Click Add.
    Selecting a virtual machine from the navigation pane and opening the Add Virtual Disk window"

    Figure 10.2. Selecting a virtual machine from the navigation pane and opening the Add Virtual Disk window"


  4. Click the External (Direct Lun) radio button.
  5. Unclick the Is bootable check box.
    De-selecting the "is bootable" check box in the Add Virtual Disk window

    Figure 10.3. De-selecting the "is bootable" check box in the Add Virtual Disk window


  6. Give it a description.
  7. In the Targets > LUNs window, under Discover Targets add the address of the iSCSI server.
  8. Click Discover.
    Discovering a LUN

    Figure 10.4. Discovering a LUN


  9. In the LUNs > Targets window, click Login on the target that you are not logged in to.
    Logging in to a Discovered LUN

    Figure 10.5. Logging in to a Discovered LUN


  10. Click the plus to the left of the target you just logged in to. A list of LUN IDs displays.
  11. Click the radio button to the left of the LUN ID of the target.
    Selecting a LUN ID and Associating that LUN with a Virtual Machine

    Figure 10.6. Selecting a LUN ID and Associating that LUN with a Virtual Machine


  12. Click OK in the bottom right hand corner of the Add Virtual Disk Window.
  13. After a short time, the LUN appears in the Disks tab of the details pane.
Result
You have associated a LUN with a virtual machine.

10.11. Associating Fibre Channel (FC) LUNs with Virtual Machine

Associating Fibre Channel (FC) LUNs with virtual machines is the same as assocating iSCSI luns with virtual machines, except that it is unnecessary to discover the Fibre Channel LUNs.

10.12. Lab 10 - Summary

You have completed the Advanced Storage lab.

Revision History

Revision History
Revision 1-64.4002013-10-31Rüdiger Landmann
Rebuild with publican 4.0.0
Revision 1-64Mon 20 May 2013Zac Dover
Changed "rhev-hypervisor-advanced" to "rhev-hypervisor".
Revision 1-63Thu 09 May 2013Zac Dover
Publishing for 3.2
Revision 1-62Wed 17 Apr 2013Zac Dover
Beta 2
Revision 1-61Tue 26 Mar 2013Cheryn Tan
Updated RHN information, IdM rebranding.
Revision 1-60Mon 25 Mar 2013Zac Dover
Staging Beta 1
Revision 1-59Fri 08 Mar 2013Zac Dover
BZ#889107 again
Revision 1-58Wed 06 Mar 2013Zac Dover
Staging to move a number of bugs from MODIFIED to ON_QA
Revision 1-57Tue 05 Mar 2013Zac Dover
Attempting to stage for BETA-1
Revision 1-56Tue 05 Mar 2013Zac Dover
Removing "Configuring Windows clients to access the administration portal"
Revision 1-55Tue 05 Mar 2013Zac Dover
Beta 1 brew - Fixing the Chapter offset
Revision 1-54Mon 04 Mar 2013Zac Dover
Beta 1 brew
Revision 1-53Fri 01 Mar 2013Zac Dover
BZ#888497
Revision 1-51Thu 28 Feb 2013Zac Dover
BZ#915681
BZ#888497
BZ#857546
BZ#756262
Revision 1-50Mon 20 Jan 2013Zac Dover
BZ#885255 - adding "-provider=ActiveDirectory" to the rhevm-manage-domains command in "Adding Active Directory Domains"
Branched from 3.1 docs